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Sample records for prevents aberrant crossing-over

  1. Further evidence that aberrant segregation and crossing over in Sordaria brevicollis may be discrete, though associated, events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theivendirarajah, K; Whitehouse, H L

    1983-01-01

    Crosses were made between buff spore colour mutants in Sordaria brevicollis in the presence of flanking markers. Recombinant asci with one or more wild-type spores were isolated and the spores germinated and scored for buff and flanking marker genotype. The buff genotype was determined by back-crossing to each parent and looking for recombinants. It was found that the majority of the recombinant asci had aberrant segregation at one or other mutant site but not both. It was inferred that in the recombinants hybrid DNA rarely extended to both sites. When the aberrant segregation was associated with crossing-over, the crossovers were situated at either end of the gene rather than between the allelic sites where the hybrid DNA was believed to terminate. Thus, some of the crossovers were separated from the site of the aberrant segregation by a site apparently not involved in hybrid DNA and none was in the position predicted by the Meselson-Radding model, that is, where the hybrid DNA terminates.

  2. Young Women's Ratings of Three Placebo Multipurpose Prevention Technologies for HIV and Pregnancy Prevention in a Randomized, Cross-Over Study in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Roberts, Sarah T; Agot, Kawango; Weinrib, Rachel; Ahmed, Khatija; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Owino, Fredrick; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-03-20

    End-user input is critical to inform development of multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products that prevent HIV and pregnancy. The TRIO Study, conducted in Kenya and South Africa, enrolled 277 HIV-negative women aged 18-30 in a randomized cross-over study to use each placebo MPT (daily oral tablets, monthly injections, and monthly vaginal ring) for one month. At the end of each month, participants rated how much they liked using the product on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = liked very much). We compared mean ratings using paired t-tests and examined sociodemographic-, attribute-, and behavior-related characteristics associated with ratings using multivariable linear regression and data from in-depth interviews. After use, mean ratings were significantly higher for injections [4.3 (SD = 1.0)] compared with tablets [3.0 (SD = 1.3)] and rings [3.3 (SD = 1.4)] (p < 0.001); mean ratings for rings were significantly higher than for tablets (p = 0.013). Mean ratings of a hypothetical active MPT increased for all products after the one-month period of use, with the greatest increase for rings, the least familiar product. In multivariable analysis, acceptability of key product attributes (e.g., product look) were associated with a significant increase of ≥ 1 point in the mean rating across all three products (p ≤ 0.001). Perceived ability to use the product without partner knowledge was associated with a higher mean rating for rings (b = 0.50; p = 0.006). The acceptability of product attributes contributed significantly to the rating of all products, highlighting the value of choice in pregnancy and HIV prevention to accommodate diverse users.

  3. Prevention of head louse infestation: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study of a novel concept product, 1% 1,2-octanediol spray versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; French, Rebecca; Burgess, Nazma A; Lee, Peter N

    2014-05-30

    To determine whether regular use of a spray containing 1,2-octanediol 1%, which has been shown to inhibit survival of head lice, is able to work as a preventive against establishment of new infestations. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over, community study in Cambridgeshire, UK. 63 male and female schoolchildren aged 4-16 years judged to have a high risk of recurrent infestation. Only the youngest member of a household attending school participated. Participants were treated to eliminate lice, randomised between 1% octanediol or placebo sprays for 6 weeks then crossed-over to the other spray for 6 weeks. Parents applied the sprays at least twice weekly or more frequently if the hair was washed. Investigators monitored weekly for infestation and replenished supplies of spray. The primary endpoint was the time taken until the first infestation event occurred. The secondary measure was safety of the product in regular use. Intention-to-treat analysis found a total of 32 confirmed infestations in 20 participants, with 9 of them infested while using both products. In these nine participants the time to first infestation showed a significant advantage to 1% octanediol (p=0.0129). Per-protocol analysis showed only trends because the population included was not large enough to demonstrate significance. There were no serious adverse events and only two adverse events possibly related to treatment, one was a case of transient erythema and another of a rash that resolved after 5 days. Routine use of 1% octanediol spray provided a significant level of protection from infestation. It was concluded that this product is effective if applied regularly and thoroughly. ISRCTN09524995. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Adherence and acceptability in MTN 001: A randomized cross-over trial of daily oral and topical tenofovir for HIV prevention in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Richardson, Barbra A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Chen, Beatrice A.; Salata, Robert; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Gomez, Kailazarid; Hendrix, Craig

    2012-01-01

    We compared adherence to and acceptability of daily topical and oral formulations of tenofovir (TFV) used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among women in South Africa, Uganda and the United States. 144 sexually active, HIV-uninfected women participated in a cross-over study of three regimens: oral tablet, vaginal gel, or both. We tested for differences in adherence and evaluated product acceptability. Self-reported adherence for all regimens was high (94%), but serum TFV concentrations indicated only 64% of participants used tablets consistently. Most women in the U.S. (72%) favored tablets over gel; while preferences varied at the African sites (42% preferred gel and 40% tablets). Findings indicate a role for oral and vaginal PrEP formulations and highlight the importance of integrating pharmacokinetics-based adherence assessment in future trials. Biomedical HIV prevention interventions should consider geographic and cultural experience with product formulations, partner involvement, and sexual health benefits that ultimately influence use. PMID:23065145

  5. Transreplication and crossing over in Sordaria fimicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITANI, Y; OLIVE, L S; EL-ANI, A S

    1961-09-08

    A study of the segregation of markers closely linked to the gray ascospore color locus in Sordaria fimicola reveals that there is a high incidence of crossing over very near the locus when it transreplicates, which is much more pronounced in 5:3 than in 6:2 asci. Also, a single 7:1 and several aberrant 4:4 asci are described. At a different spore color locus, transreplication yields only 6:2 ratios, while other spore color loci fail to transreplicate altogether

  6. Cross-Over Clinical Trials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Gachkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cross-Over Clinical Trials in comparison with Parallel groups clinical trials have some advantages such as control of confounding variables, small sample size, and short time to implement the research project. But this type of research has few essential limitations that discusses in this monogram.

  7. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan

    2013-05-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction with Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli

    KAUST Repository

    Suen, KinMan; Lin, Chichuan; George, Roger R.; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E S D

    2013-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a new mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc directly binds the MAP kinase Erk, thus preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimuli. The Shc-Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex forms through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and the N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc - induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor - releases Erk, allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered a tumor suppressor in human cells. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transdermal granisetron versus palonosetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, and phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young Mi; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Yang Soo; Oh, Sung Yong; Koh, Su Jin; Baek, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Joo, Young Don; Lee, Hyun Gi; Yun, Eun Young; Chung, Joo Seop

    2016-02-01

    Palonosetron is the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) that has shown better efficacy than the first-generation 5-HT3RA for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS), a novel transdermal formulation, was developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to palonosetron for the control of CINV following MEC. A total of 196 patients were randomized to GP or PG group. In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, Phase IV study, GP group was assigned to receive transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days) in the first chemotherapy cycle, palonosetron (iv 0.25 mg/day, 1 days) in the second chemotherapy cycle before receiving MEC, and PG group was assigned to receive palonosetron in the first cycle and GTDS in the second cycle. Primary endpoint was the percentage of chemotherapy cycles achieving complete response (CR; defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) during the acute phase (0-24 h in post-chemotherapy; non-inferiority comparison with palonosetron). Total 333 cycles (165 in GTDS and 168 in palonosetron) were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS cycles showed non-inferiority to palonosetron cycles during the acute phase: CR was achieved by 124 (75.2 %) patients in the GTDS cycles and 134 (79.8 %) patients in the palonosetron cycles (treatment difference, -4.6 %; 95 % confidence interval, -13.6-4.4). There was no significant difference in CR rate during acute phase after the end of the first and second chemotherapy cycle between GP and PG group (p = 0.405, p = 0.074). Patients' satisfaction, assessed using Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLI-E), GTDS cycle were higher than those of palonosetron cycle in GP group (FLI-E score; median 1549.5 in GTDS cycle, median 1670

  10. Targeting Aberrant p70S6K Activation for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Qingling; Brady, Samuel W; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Yu, Dihua

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field, although antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early-stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway was highly activated in ER - premalignant breast lesions and ER - breast cancer. In addition, p70S6K activation induced transformation of ER - human mammary epithelial cells (hMEC). Therefore, we explored the potential of targeting Akt/p70S6K in the p70S6K activated, ER - hMEC models and mouse mammary tumor models for the prevention of ER - breast cancer. We found that a clinically applicable Akt/p70S6K dual inhibitor, LY2780301, drastically decreased proliferation of hMECs with ErbB2-induced p70S6K activation via Cyclin B1 inhibition and cell-cycle blockade at G 0 -G 1 phase, while it did not significantly reverse the abnormal acinar morphology of these hMECs. In addition, a brief treatment of LY2780301 in MMTV- neu mice that developed atypical hyperplasia (ADH) and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions with activated p70S6K was sufficient to suppress S6 phosphorylation and decrease cell proliferation in hyperplasic MECs. In summary, targeting the aberrant Akt/p70S6K activation in ER - hMEC models in vitro and in the MMTV- neu transgenic mouse model in vivo effectively inhibited Akt/S6K signaling and reduced proliferation of hMECs in vitro and ADH/MIN lesions in vivo , indicating its potential in prevention of p70S6K activated ER - breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 641-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Slow-release L-cysteine capsule prevents gastric mucosa exposure to carcinogenic acetaldehyde: results of a randomised single-blinded, cross-over study of Helicobacter-associated atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Per M; Hendolin, Panu; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Millerhovf, Anders; Paloheimo, Lea; Sundelin, Heidi; Syrjänen, Kari; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design. On separate days, patients randomly received 200 mg slow-release L-cysteine or placebo with intragastric instillation of 15% (0.3 g/kg) ethanol. After intake, gastric concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, L-cysteine and MTCA were analysed. Administration of L-cysteine increased MTCA (p L-cysteine level was 7552 ± 2687 μmol/L at 40 min and peak MTCA level 196 ± 98 μmol/L at 80 min after intake. Gastric L-cysteine and MTCA concentrations were maintained for 3 h. The AUC for MTCA was 11-fold higher than acetaldehyde, indicating gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol. With placebo, acetaldehyde remained elevated also at low ethanol concentrations representing 'non-alcoholic' beverages and food items. After gastric ethanol instillation, slow-release L-cysteine eliminates acetaldehyde to form inactive MTCA, which remains in gastric juice for up to 3 h. High acetaldehyde levels indicate a marked gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol resulting in gastric accumulation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Local exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde can be mitigated by slow-release L-cysteine capsules.

  12. Induction and prevention of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to the light of halogen tungsten lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, F; Caimo, A; De Filippi, S; De Flora, S

    1999-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the light emitted by halogen tungsten lamps contains UV radiation in the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C regions, induces mutations and irreparable DNA damage in bacteria, enhances the frequency of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes and is potently carcinogenic to the skin of hairless mice. The present study showed that the light emitted by an uncovered, traditional halogen lamp induces a significant, dose-related and time-related increase not only in micronuclei but also in chromosome-type aberrations, such as breaks, and even more in chromatid-type aberrations, such as isochromatid breaks, exchanges and isochromatid/chromatid interchanges, all including gaps or not, in cultured human lymphocytes. All these genotoxic effects were completely prevented by shielding the same lamp with a silica glass cover, blocking UV radiation. A new model of halogen lamp, having the quartz bulb treated in order to reduce the output of UV radiation, was considerably less genotoxic than the uncovered halogen lamp, yet induction of chromosomal alterations was observed at high illuminance levels.

  13. Preventing E-cadherin aberrant N-glycosylation at Asn-554 improves its critical function in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S; Catarino, TA; Dias, AM; Kato, M; Almeida, A; Hessling, B; Figueiredo, J; Gärtner, F; Sanches, JM; Ruppert, T; Miyoshi, E; Pierce, M; Carneiro, F; Kolarich, D; Seruca, R; Yamaguchi, Y; Taniguchi, N; Reis, CA; Pinho, SS

    2016-01-01

    E-cadherin is a central molecule in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its posttranslational modifications by N-glycosylation have been described to induce a deleterious effect on cell adhesion associated with tumor cell invasion. However, the role that site-specific glycosylation of E-cadherin has in its defective function in gastric cancer cells needs to be determined. Using transgenic mice models and human clinical samples, we demonstrated that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V)-mediated glycosylation causes an abnormal pattern of E-cadherin expression in the gastric mucosa. In vitro models further indicated that, among the four potential N-glycosylation sites of E-cadherin, Asn-554 is the key site that is selectively modified with β1,6 GlcNAc-branched N-glycans catalyzed by GnT-V. This aberrant glycan modification on this specific asparagine site of E-cadherin was demonstrated to affect its critical functions in gastric cancer cells by affecting E-cadherin cellular localization, cis-dimer formation, molecular assembly and stability of the adherens junctions and cell–cell aggregation, which was further observed in human gastric carcinomas. Interestingly, manipulating this site-specific glycosylation, by preventing Asn-554 from receiving the deleterious branched structures, either by a mutation or by silencing GnT-V, resulted in a protective effect on E-cadherin, precluding its functional dysregulation and contributing to tumor suppression. PMID:26189796

  14. Aquaporin 0 plays a pivotal role in refractive index gradient development in mammalian eye lens to prevent spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, S. Sindhu; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Intact AQP0 functions as fiber cell-to-fiber cell adhesion protein. • AQP0 facilitates reduction in extracellular space and lens water content. • AQP0 adhesion function aids in lens refractive index gradient (RING) formation. • AQP0 prevents lens spherical aberration by establishing RING. • AQP0 is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis. - Abstract: Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) is a transmembrane channel that constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane protein of the fiber cells in mammalian lens. It is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis as mutations and knockout cause autosomal dominant lens cataract. AQP0 functions as a water channel and as a cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) molecule in the lens. Our recent in vitro studies showed that the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial to establish lens refractive index gradient (RING). However, there is a lack of in vivo data to corroborate the role of AQP0 as a fiber CTCA molecule which is critical for creating lens RING. The present investigation is undertaken to gather in vivo evidence for the involvement of AQP0 in developing lens RING. Lenses of wild type (WT) mouse, AQP0 knockout (heterozygous, AQP0 +/− ) and AQP0 knockout lens transgenically expressing AQP1 (heterozygous AQP0 +/− /AQP1 +/− ) mouse models were used for the study. Data on AQP0 protein profile of intact and N- and/or C-terminal cleaved AQP0 in the lens by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and SDS–PAGE revealed that outer cortex fiber cells have only intact AQP0 of ∼28 kDa, inner cortical and outer nuclear fiber cells have both intact and cleaved forms, and inner nuclear fiber cells have only cleaved forms (∼26–24 kDa). Knocking out of 50% of AQP0 protein caused light scattering, spherical aberration (SA) and cataract. Restoring the lost fiber cell membrane water permeability (P f ) by transgene AQP1 did not reinstate complete lens transparency and the mouse lenses showed light scattering and SA. Transmission and

  15. Aquaporin 0 plays a pivotal role in refractive index gradient development in mammalian eye lens to prevent spherical aberration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, S. Sindhu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan, E-mail: kulandaiappan.varadaraj@stonybrook.edu [Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); SUNY Eye Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Intact AQP0 functions as fiber cell-to-fiber cell adhesion protein. • AQP0 facilitates reduction in extracellular space and lens water content. • AQP0 adhesion function aids in lens refractive index gradient (RING) formation. • AQP0 prevents lens spherical aberration by establishing RING. • AQP0 is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis. - Abstract: Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) is a transmembrane channel that constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane protein of the fiber cells in mammalian lens. It is critical for lens transparency and homeostasis as mutations and knockout cause autosomal dominant lens cataract. AQP0 functions as a water channel and as a cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) molecule in the lens. Our recent in vitro studies showed that the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial to establish lens refractive index gradient (RING). However, there is a lack of in vivo data to corroborate the role of AQP0 as a fiber CTCA molecule which is critical for creating lens RING. The present investigation is undertaken to gather in vivo evidence for the involvement of AQP0 in developing lens RING. Lenses of wild type (WT) mouse, AQP0 knockout (heterozygous, AQP0{sup +/−}) and AQP0 knockout lens transgenically expressing AQP1 (heterozygous AQP0{sup +/−}/AQP1{sup +/−}) mouse models were used for the study. Data on AQP0 protein profile of intact and N- and/or C-terminal cleaved AQP0 in the lens by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and SDS–PAGE revealed that outer cortex fiber cells have only intact AQP0 of ∼28 kDa, inner cortical and outer nuclear fiber cells have both intact and cleaved forms, and inner nuclear fiber cells have only cleaved forms (∼26–24 kDa). Knocking out of 50% of AQP0 protein caused light scattering, spherical aberration (SA) and cataract. Restoring the lost fiber cell membrane water permeability (P{sub f}) by transgene AQP1 did not reinstate complete lens transparency and the mouse lenses showed light scattering and SA

  16. Cross over of recurrence networks to random graphs and random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... that all recurrence networks can cross over to random geometric graphs by adding sufficient amount of noise to .... municative [19] or social [20], deviate from the random ..... He has shown that the spatial effects become.

  17. Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-02-16

    Feb 16, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora inversions and duplications. Durgadas P Kasbekar. Volume 31 Issue 1 March 2006 pp 3-4 ...

  18. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yutaka

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G 2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G 2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G 2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G 1 phase. (author)

  19. Zero cross over timing with coaxial Ge(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-07-01

    The performance of zero cross over timing systems of the constant fraction or amplitude rise time compensated type using coaxial Ge(Li) detectors is analyzed with special attention to conditions that compromise their energy-independence advantage. The outcome is verified against existing experimental results, and the parameters that lead to minimum disperson, as well as the value of the dispersion to be expected, are given by a series of charts

  20. Prevention of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow of mice by Indian medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Swafiya; Ranuchaudhary; Goyal, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is well established that ionizing radiation can damage biologically important macromolecules such as DNA via both direct and indirect mechanisms. Chromosomal aberrations are a measure of direct effects on the genetic material and serve as useful biological dosimeter. With the realization of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, a need was felt to protect human beings against these harmful effects by using physical and/or chemical means. Numerous chemical compounds have been tested for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation. Despite extensive screening of several synthetic compounds for radio protective activity, no single compound has emerged as a good radio protector so far. The plants have been the companion of man since time immemorial, providing several useful drugs for the treatment of various ailments. Therefore, it is natural that the choices of alternative radio protectors would include plants and plants products. However, some plants have been tested for radio protective action but a detailed study, with all possible end points, is still lacking. Hence, screening of natural products presents a major avenue for the discovery of new radioprotective drugs. Alstonia scholaris, a non toxic herbal preparation, has been reported to be clinically effective in treating syphilis insanity and epilepsy. A. scholaris has also been reported to inhibit liver injuries. These results encourage us to conduct further experiments to prove its radioprotective potential. The present study was performed to verify the radioprotective capacity of Alstonia scholaris on radiation-induced clastogenic change in term of chromosomal aberrations. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the control while the other group received Alstonia scholaris bark extract (100 mg/kg b. wt.) orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation to serve as experimental. Such animals were pretreated with colchicine

  1. p-Benzoquinone initiates non-invasive urothelial cancer through aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, MAP kinase activation and cell cycle deregulation: Prevention by vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjini Ganguly

    Full Text Available According to WHO classification system, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma represents urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS and dysplasia. Dysplastic urothelium often progresses to CIS that further advances to urothelial carcinoma (UC. The strongest risk factor for UC is cigarette smoking. However, the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS-induced UC is poorly understood. Earlier we had shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ, a major toxic quinone derived from p-benzosemiquinone of CS in vivo, is a causative factor for various CS-induced diseases. Here, using a guinea pig model we showed that prolonged treatment with p-BQ led to non-invasive UC, specifically carcinoma in situ (CIS of the renal pelvis and dysplasia in the ureter and bladder. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis were p-BQ-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis that were later suppressed and followed by activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, aberrant phosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues, activation of MAP kinase pathway and persistent growth signaling. This was accompanied by deregulation of cell cycle as shown by marked decrease in the expression of p21waf1/cip1 and cyclin D1 proteins as well as hyperphosphorylation of pRb. UC has been characterised by histopathology and immunohistochemistry showing aberrant CK20, increased Ki-67, and marked p53 nuclear immunopositivity with uniformly negative labelling of CD44. Oral supplementation of vitamin C (30 mg/kg body weight/day prevented CIS of the renal pelvis and dysplasia in the ureter and bladder. Since majority of non-invasive UC progresses to invasive cancer with increased risk of mortality, our preclinical study might help to devise effective strategies for early intervention of the disease. Abbreviations: Bax, Bcl-2, CS, DNPH, GAPDH, IARC, p-BQ, p-BSQ, PAHs, PBS, ROS, SDS PAGE, TUNEL, WHO, UC, CIS, EGFR, MAPK, Keywords: p-Benzoquinone, Carcinoma in situ, Dysplasia, Aberrant EGFR activation, Cell cycle deregulation

  2. Safflower and olive oil dietary treatments rescue aberrant embryonic arachidonic acid and nitric oxide metabolism and prevent diabetic embryopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; White, V; Martínez, N; Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2010-04-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid and nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathways are involved in diabetic embryopathy. Previous works have found diminished concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2) in embryos from diabetic rats, and that PGI(2) is capable of increasing embryonic PGE(2) concentrations through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPARdelta. PPARdelta activators are lipid molecules such as oleic and linoleic acids, present in high concentrations in olive and safflower oils, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyze the capability of dietary supplementation with either 6% olive or 6% safflower oils to regulate PGE(2), PGI(2) and NO concentrations in embryos and deciduas from control and diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) 1 week before mating. Animals were fed with the oil-supplemented diets from Days 0.5 to 10.5 of gestation. PGI(2) and PGE(2) were measured by EIA and NO through the evaluation of its stable metabolites nitrates-nitrites in 10.5 day embryos and deciduas. We found that the olive and safflower oil-supplemented treatments highly reduced resorption and malformation rates in diabetic animals, and that they were able to prevent maternal diabetes-induced alterations in embryonic and decidual PGI(2) and PGE(2) concentrations. Moreover, these dietary treatments prevented NO overproduction in embryos and deciduas from diabetic rats. These data indicate that in maternal diabetes both the embryo and the decidua benefit from the olive and safflower oil supplementation probably through mechanisms that involve the rescue of aberrant prostaglandin and NO generation and that prevent developmental damage during early organogenesis.

  3. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  4. Genetical control of mitotic crossing over in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, I.V.; Marfin, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Lethal effect of 8 methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long-wave ultraviolet radiation (LUR) on diploid and haploid radiosensitive strains of yeast LSaccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. It is shown that wild type diploids and homozygous with respect to locus rad 2 is considerably more stable than corresponding haploids, while diploid homozygous with respect to rad 54 locus is more sensitive than haploid. Use of the method of repeated irradiation permitted to study capability of radiosensitive diploids to remove 8 MOP-induced DNA photodamages-monoadducts. This process proceeds effectively in the wild type strain and rad 54 rad 54 diploid and was absent in rad 2 rad 2 diploid. Very strong recombinogenous effect of 8-MOP and LUR was discovered when studying mitotic segregation and crossing-over. It is also shown that rad 2 mutation increases slightly and rad 54 mutation decreases sharply frequency of recombination events in yeast cells. It is established by means of the repeated irradiation method that the main contribution to the 8 MOP and LUR recombinogenous effect is made with DNA sutures induced with these agents. Possible participation of different repair systems in the recombination processes induced with 8 MOP and LUR in yeast cells is discussed

  5. DMFC performance and methanol cross-over: Experimental analysis and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    A combined experimental and modelling approach is proposed to analyze methanol cross-over and its effect on DMFC performance. The experimental analysis is performed in order to allow an accurate investigation of methanol cross-over influence on DMFC performance, hence measurements were characterized in terms of uncertainty and reproducibility. The findings suggest that methanol cross-over is mainly determined by diffusion transport and affects cell performance partly via methanol electro-oxidation at the cathode. The modelling analysis is carried out to further investigate methanol cross-over phenomenon. A simple model evaluates the effectiveness of two proposed interpretations regarding methanol cross-over and its effects. The model is validated using the experimental data gathered. Both the experimental analysis and the proposed and validated model allow a substantial step forward in the understanding of the main phenomena associated with methanol cross-over. The findings confirm the possibility to reduce methanol cross-over by optimizing anode feeding. (author)

  6. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  7. Antibiotics in periodontal surgeries: A prospective randomised cross over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Oswal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: (1 To evaluate the need of antibiotics in periodontal surgeries in reducing postsurgical infections and explore if antibiotics have any key role in reducing or eliminating inflammatory complications. (2 To establish the incidence of postoperative infections in relation to type of surgery and determine those factors, which may affect infection rates. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized double-blind cross over clinical study was carried out for a period of 1-year with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients included in the study for any periodontal surgery were randomly divided into three categories: Group A (prophylactic, Group B (therapeutic, and Group C (no antibiotics. Patients were followed up for 1-week after surgery on the day of suture removal and were evaluated for pain, swelling, fever, infection, delayed wound healing and any other significant findings. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the objectives and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: No infection was reported in any of 90 sites. Patients reported less pain and postoperative discomfort when prophylactic antibiotics were given. However, there were no statistical significant differences between the three groups. Summary and Conclusion: There was no postoperative infection reported in all the 90 sites operated in this study. The prevalence of postoperative infections following periodontal surgery is <1% and this low risk does not justify the routine use of systemic antimicrobials just to prevent infections. Use of prophylactic antibiotics may have role in prevention of inflammatory complication, but again not infection.

  8. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihan Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN, nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB and nuclear bud (NB in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1. Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1 decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01; (2 decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01; and (3 decreased AMR (p < 0.01 and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001. The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC.

  9. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, Andrea [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.casalegno@polimi.it; Grassini, Paolo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: PGrassini@seal.it; Marchesi, Renzo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: renzo.marchesi@polimi.it

    2007-03-15

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature.

  10. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, Andrea; Grassini, Paolo; Marchesi, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature

  11. Nonhomologous Synapsis and Reduced Crossing over in a Heterozygous Paracentric Inversion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, M. E.; Ewing, D. J.; Harwell, S. N.; Coody, D.; Conrad, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    Homologous chromosome synapsis (``homosynapsis'') and crossing over are well-conserved aspects of meiotic chromosome behavior. The long-standing assumption that these two processes are causally related has been challenged recently by observations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of significant levels of crossing over (1) between small sequences at nonhomologous locations and (2) in mutants where synapsis is abnormal or absent. In order to avoid problems of local sequence effects and of mutation pleiotropy, we have perturbed synapsis by making a set of isogenic strains that are heterozygous and homozygous for a large chromosomal paracentric inversion covering a well marked genetic interval and then measured recombination. We find that reciprocal recombination in the marked interval in heterozygotes is reduced variably across the interval, on average to ~55% of that in the homozygotes, and that positive interference still modulates crossing over. Cytologically, stable synapsis across the interval is apparently heterologous rather than homologous, consistent with the interpretation that stable homosynapsis is required to initiate or consummate a large fraction of the crossing over observed in wild-type strains. When crossing over does occur in heterozygotes, dicentric and acentric chromosomes are formed and can be visualized and quantitated on blots though not demonstrated in viable spores. We find that there is no loss of dicentric chromosomes during the two meiotic divisions and that the acentric chromosome is recovered at only 1/3 to 1/2 of the expected level. PMID:7851761

  12. The optimal injection technique for the osteoarthritic ankle: A randomized, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Angelique G. H.; Kok, Aimee; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2013-01-01

    Background: To optimize the injection technique for the osteoarthritic ankle in order to enhance the effect of intra-articular injections and minimize adverse events. Methods: Randomized cross-over trial. Comparing two injection techniques in patients with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis. Patients

  13. The cross-over points in lattice gauge theories with continuous gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, P.; Greensite, J.; Lautrup, B.

    1981-01-01

    We obtain a closed expression for the weak-to-strong coupling cross-over point in all Wilson type lattice gauge theories with continuous gauge groups. We use a weak-coupling expansion of the mean-field self-consistency equation. In all cases where our results can be compared with Monte Carlo calculations the agreement is excellent. (orig.)

  14. Hematological clozapine monitoring with a point-of-care device: A randomized cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Thode, Dorrit; Stenager, Elsebeth

    for several reasons, perhaps most importantly because of the mandatory hematological monitoring. The Chempaq Express Blood Counter (Chempaq XBC) is a point-of-care device providing counts of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes based on a capillary blood sampling. A randomized cross-over trial design...

  15. Stress analysis of LOFT steam generator blowdown cross-over line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate compliance of the LOFT Steam Generator Blowdown Cross-Over Piping with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NC. Deadweight, thermal expansion, seismic, LOCE, and LOCA loads have been considered. With the addition of two snubbers, as shown in this report, the system conforms to all requirements

  16. A cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this research was to evaluate whether the cross-over from Sport Psychology to the Psychology of Music in terms of the knowledge base, intervention Psychological Skills Training (PST) protocols and psychometric measurements was meaningful. A second aim was to ascertain whether the psychological ...

  17. Feasibility of a Web-Based Cross-Over Paleolithic Diet Intervention in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Bikker, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The primary aim was to investigate feasibility of a web-based cross-over Paleolithic diet intervention in the general population. The secondary aim was to calculate the sample size needed to reach a statistically significant difference in effect of a Paleolithic-like diet on

  18. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (pin the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (pin the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is unclear but may involve

  19. The CRO-1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls mitotic crossing over, chromosomal stability and sporulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.S.; Maleas, D.T.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Holbrook, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of a novel temperature-sensitive recombination-defective mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cro1-1 is described. The cro1-1 mutant is the first instance of a rec mutation that reduces drastically the rates of spontaneous mitotic crossing-over events but not those of gene conversional events. The cro1-1 mutation thus provides evidence that mitotic crossing-over is dependent upon gene products that are not essential for gene conversional events. The cro1-1 mutation also results in enhanced mitotic-chromosomal instability and MATa/MATα cro1-1/cro1-1 mutants are sporulation deficient. These phenotypes indicate that the CRO1 gene modulates mitotic chromosomal integrity and is essential for normal meiosis. The cro1-1 mutant possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity, hence its recombinational defect does not involve failure to execute this putative final recombinational step. 7 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Genetic control of mitotic crossing over in yeast. 2. Influence of UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, I.A.; Marfin, S.V.; Koval'tsova, S.V.; Kasinova, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    UV-induced crossing-over and general mitotic segregation of the following strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were studied: a wild-type diploid, diploids homozygous with respect to the radiosensitivity of rad 2, rad 15, rad 54, xrs 4, rad 2 rad 54, rad 15 rad 54. Wild-type diploids rad 2 and rad 15 have a high frequency of the induced mitotic crossing-over. Diploids rad 15, rad 54 can not cause UV-induced mitotic crossing-over. Reddish-pink and reddish-pink-white colonies ratio (the first appear if the crossing-over occurs during the first after the irradiation division, the second - during the second division) is 4.8:1 for the wild type, 1.6:1 for rad 2, and 1.1:1 for rad 15. Nonreciprocal mitotic segregation of high frequency was observed for the wild type rad 2, rad 15, xrs 4, and diploids rad 54, rad 2 rad 54, rad 15 rad 54 had a lower frequency. We suppose that after UV-irradiation there exist at least three types of repair in yeast diploid cells: excision repair, prereplication recombinating repair after the excision of dimers, and post-replication recombinating repair. Rad 2 and rad 15 mutations blow the first and second types, rad 54 mutation partially block the second and third parths. It seems that xrs 4 mutation does not block the recombinating capability but somehow changes the process of recombination in such a way that much nonreciprocal products recorded as seqregants are produced [ru

  1. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic changes of mutations and chromosomal aberrations are discussed. The consequences of both depend not only on the type of genetic change produced but also on the type of cell that is affected and on the development stage of the organism. (C.F.)

  2. Escitalopram in painful polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in pain modulation via descending pathways in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to test if escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), would relieve pain in polyneuropathy. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled cross-over trial. The daily dose of escitalopram was 20mg once daily. During the two treatment periods of 5 weeks duration, patients rated pain relief (primary outcome variable) on a 6-point ordered nominal scale. Secondary outcome measures comprised total pain and different pain symptoms (touch...

  3. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  4. Optical traps with geometric aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roichman, Yael; Waldron, Alex; Gardel, Emily; Grier, David G.

    2006-01-01

    We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on the in-plane performance of optical traps by studying the dynamics of trapped colloidal spheres in deliberately distorted holographic optical tweezers. The lateral stiffness of the traps turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts of coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. Moreover holographic aberration correction enables us to compensate inherent shortcomings in the optical train, thereby adaptively improving its performance. We also demonstrate the effects of geometric aberrations on the intensity profiles of optical vortices, whose readily measured deformations suggest a method for rapidly estimating and correcting geometric aberrations in holographic trapping systems

  5. Estimation of dose from chromosome aberration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping

    1990-01-01

    The methods and skills of evaluating dose from correctly scored shromsome aberration rate are presented, and supplemented with corresponding BASIC computer code. The possibility and preventive measures of excessive probability of missing score of the aberrations in some of the current routine score methods are discussed. The use of dose-effect relationship with exposure time correction factor G in evaluating doses and their confidence intervals, dose estimation in mixed n-γ exposure, and identification of high by nonuniform acute exposure to low LET radiation and its dose estimation are discussed in more detail. The difference of estimated dose due to whether the interaction between subleisoms produced by n and γ have been taken into account is examined. In fitting the standard dose-aberration rate curve, proper weighing of experiment points and comparison with commonly accepted values are emphasised, and the coefficient of variation σ y √y of the aberration rate y as a function of dose and exposure time is given. In appendix I and II, the dose-aberration rate formula is derived from dual action theory, and the time variation of subleisom is illustrated and in appendix III, the estimation of dose from scores of two different types of aberrations (of other related score) is illustrated. Two computer codes are given in appendix IV, one is a simple code, the other a complete code, including the fitting of standard curve. the skills of using compressed data storage, and the production of simulated 'data ' for testing the curve fitting procedure are also given

  6. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces

  7. Vascular provisions for a local utero-ovarian cross-over pathway in new world camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, M R; Del Campo, C H; Ginther, O J

    1996-10-15

    The right uterine horn of alpacas causes luteolysis in the right ovary, whereas the left horn causes luteolysis in both ovaries. Female reproductive tracts were studied in 32 adult llamas, 12 adult alpacas, and 21 mid-gestation female fetuses to determine if there is a dichotomy in the vascular anatomy between the 2 sides. Adult tracts were studied by either injection of colored latex into the veins and arteries followed by tissue clearing or by injection of colored fluids during transillumination. Fetal uteri were studied by transillumination. The angioarchitecture of the ovarian vascular pedicle was similar to that reported for ewes. There was no vessel comparable to the middle uterine artery, which is the largest uterine artery in the other farm species. A striking difference from the uterine vascular of other farm species was the presence of a major branch of the right uterine artery that crossed the cranial intercornual area to supply much of the left uterine horn. A corresponding major vein originated from the left horn, crossed the mid-line, and terminated as a branch of the right uterine vein. Thus, the vascular anatomy indicated that much venous blood from the left horn drained to the right side. This was confirmed by injection of colored fluid into a small venous branch at the tip of the left horn. The prominent cross-over vessels were observed in the fetal uteri, and the diameter of the left uterine fetal horn (6.7 +/- 0.6 mm) was greater (P blood from the left horn into an artery supplying the right ovary was not defined in this study. However, the results provide an anatomical basis for functional testing of the cross-over hypothesis and defining the area of venoarterial transfer in camelids.

  8. Flexible chain molecules in the marginal and concentrated regimes: universal static scaling laws and cross-over predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Carbajo, Manuel; Karayiannis, Nikos Ch.

    2008-01-01

    We present predictions for the static scaling exponents and for the cross-over polymer volumetric fractions in the marginal and concentrated solution regimes. Corrections for finite chain length are made. Predictions are based on an analysis of correlated fluctuations in density and chain length, in a semigrand ensemble in which mers and solvent sites exchange identities. Cross-over volumetric fractions are found to be chain length independent to first order, although reciprocal-N corrections...

  9. Effects of Subsensory Noise and Fatigue on Knee Landing and Cross-over Cutting Biomechanics in Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Xinyao

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of subsensory noise and fatigue on knee biomechanics during the athletic task of landing followed by cross-over cutting. A total of 32 healthy male athletes participated in the study. They were evenly divided into 2 groups: no fatigue group and fatigue group. Fatigue was induced to the lower extremity by a repetitive squatting exercise in the fatigue group. Subsensory noise was generated by linear miniature vibrators bilaterally placed around the knee joints. During data collection, the participants were instructed to perform landing followed by cross-over cutting in both the subsensory on and off conditions. Dependent variables were selected to assess knee biomechanics in the phases of landing and cross-over cutting, separately. Results showed that fatigue resulted in larger knee flexion during landing and larger knee internal rotation during cross-over cutting. Subsensory noise was found to reduce knee rotation impulse during cross-over cutting. These findings suggest that cross-over cutting is more dangerous than landing in the fatigue condition, and subsensory noise may lead to changes in knee biomechanics consistent with reduced risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, but the changes may be task-specific.

  10. A randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Anitra C; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2013-11-11

    Kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin C and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. The aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. Nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin C) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. Sungold). Fasting blood and urine were collected half hourly to hourly over the eight hours following intervention. The ascorbate content of the plasma and urine was determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Plasma ascorbate levels increased from 0.5 h after the intervention (P = 0.008). No significant differences in the plasma time-concentration curves were observed between the two interventions (P = 0.645). An estimate of the total increase in plasma ascorbate indicated complete uptake of the ingested vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. There was an increase in urinary ascorbate excretion, relative to urinary creatinine, from two hours post intervention (P vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit arms, respectively. Overall, our pharmacokinetic study has shown comparable relative bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C and synthetic vitamin C.

  11. Proceedings of the cross-over symposium 'new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shiro; Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru

    1999-03-01

    This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named 'Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment' with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Crossing Over from Attractive to Repulsive Interactions in a Tunneling Bosonic Josephson Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolli, G; Semeghini, G; Masi, L; Ferioli, G; Trenkwalder, A; Coop, S; Landini, M; Pezzè, L; Modugno, G; Inguscio, M; Smerzi, A; Fattori, M

    2017-06-09

    We explore the interplay between tunneling and interatomic interactions in the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction. We tune the scattering length of an atomic ^{39}K Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well trap to investigate regimes inaccessible to other superconducting or superfluid systems. In the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, we study the transition from Rabi to plasma oscillations by crossing over from attractive to repulsive interatomic interactions. We observe a critical slowing down in the oscillation frequency by increasing the strength of an attractive interaction up to the point of a quantum phase transition. With sufficiently large initial oscillation amplitude and repulsive interactions, the system enters the macroscopic quantum self-trapping regime, where we observe coherent undamped oscillations with a self-sustained average imbalance of the relative well population. The exquisite agreement between theory and experiments enables the observation of a broad range of many body coherent dynamical regimes driven by tunable tunneling energy, interactions and external forces, with applications spanning from atomtronics to quantum metrology.

  13. Proceedings of the cross-over symposium `new approaches for studies on environmental radioactivity`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shiro [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan); Uchida, Shigeo; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Amano, Hikaru [eds.

    1999-03-01

    This conference was organized by the Promotion Committee on Nuclear Cross-Over Research and the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks, and co-organized by Microbial Toxicology Lab., RIKEN and Environmental Chemistry Lab., JAERI. In 1991, a project on transfer models and parameters of radionuclides in terrestrial environment was started in the Specialist Committee on Assessment and Reduction of Radiation Risks. This project was finished successfully to have active cooperation of different organizations which were Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Subsequently, we started a new project named `Development of dynamic models of transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment` with adding a new member, Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) from 1996. The results we obtained so far were presented in this conference. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults. A randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-07-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight subjects (50% females) were given ten 0.5-mL capsules/day of fish oil or soybean oil for 3 weeks separated by 1-week wash-out. In the end of each period, appetite was assessed by 10-cm visual analog scales immediately before and after a standardized breakfast. Results were analyzed in accordance with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21 cm (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09 cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially beneficial for patients with compromised nutritional status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CSR Interaction at the Cross-Over of the Full Compression Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Li

    2005-01-01

    In recent commissioning of the 10 kW FEL at Jefferson Lab, as one varies the energy chirp of the electron bunches at the entrance of the chicane to make the bunch more and more compressed at the exit of the chicane, a sudden increase in the energy spread is observed [1] at the crossover of the full compression point. This phenomenon is accompanied simultaneously with a significant increase of the THz radiation from the electron beam. A similar observation was made earlier in the CTF II CSR experiment at CERN [2]. For example, for 5 nC bunch charge, ''the mean momentum spread increased by a factor of 4 at full compression with respect to the initial spread, and decreased to a factor of 3 larger than the initial spread at overcompression''. There is also a sudden drop of mean momentum at the full compression, along with a sudden increase in the horizontal emittance (see Fig. 5 of [2]). As a first step to understand this phenomenon, in this paper, we analyze the effective longitudinal CSR force using our recent formulation of CSR dynamics [3], and show there is a sudden increase in the magnitude of the effective longitudinal CSR force at the cross-over of the full compression point. A numerical example is given for an LCLS type chicane. The physical picture of this sudden increase is also discussed

  16. Can inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping techniques affect motor neuron excitability? A randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Motealleh, Alireza; Abbasalipur, Shekoofeh; Shahroei, Mahan; Sobhani, Sobhan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of facilitatory and inhibitory kinesiotaping on motor neuron excitability. Randomized cross-over trial. Twenty healthy people received inhibitory and facilitatory kinesiotaping on two testing days. The H- and M-waves of the lateral gasterocnemius were recorded before and immediately after applying the two modes of taping. The Hmax/Mmax ratio (a measure of motor neuron excitability) was determined and analyzed. The mean Hmax/Mmax ratios were -0.013 (95% CI: -0.033 to 0.007) for inhibitory taping and 0.007 (95% CI: -0.013 to 0.027) for facilitatory taping. The mean difference between groups was -0.020 (95% CI: -0.048 to 0.008). The statistical model revealed no significant differences between the two interventions (P = 0.160). Furthermore, there were no within-group differences in Hmax/Mmax ratio for either group. Our findings did not disclose signs of immediate change in motor neuron excitability in the lateral gasterocnemius. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Effect of Plastic Cover on Regulation of Vital Signs in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the susceptibility of preterm infants to disturbances of vital signs, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of using plastic covers on regulation of vital signs in preterm neonates.Methods: This randomized, cross-over, clinical trial was carried out on 80 preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Taleghani Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The study was conducted in two days (on the second and third days of the infants’ life. In group 1, plastic cover was used during the first day followed by the use of blanket on the second day, while the order was reversed in group 2. Digital thermometer was used to measure the infants’ axillary temperature. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured through monitoring. To analyze the data, descriptive (Mean and SE, 95%CI and inferential statistics (repeated measurement and ANCOVA tests were used in SPSS version 13 and MiniTab software.Results: Fourteen infants who were covered with blanket were found to suffer from hypothermia, while no infant with a plastic cover encountered this problem. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation in the group with plastic covers was higher, and as a result, the infants received less oxygen supplements. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in heart rate between the groups.Conclusion: Use of plastic cover during NICU stay prevented hypothermia in premature infants, with the arterial blood oxygen saturation being within the normal limits. Yet, it did not seem to have a significant effect on other vital signs.

  18. Aberration studies and computer algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    The labour of calculating expressions for aberration coefficients is considerably lightened if a computer algebra language is used to perform the various substitutions and expansions involved. After a brief discussion of matrix representations of aberration coefficients, a particular language, which has shown itself to be well adapted to particle optics, is described and applied to the study of high frequency cavity lenses. (orig.)

  19. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  20. 360° Operative Videos: A Randomised Cross-Over Study Evaluating Attentiveness and Information Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Cuan M; Kavanagh, Dara O; Wright Ballester, Gemma; Wright Ballester, Athena; Dicker, Patrick; Traynor, Oscar; Hill, Arnold; Tierney, Sean

    2017-11-06

    Although two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional videos have traditionally provided foundations for reviewing operative procedures, the recent 360º format may provide new dimensions to surgical education. This study sought to describe the production of a high quality 360º video for an index-operation (augmented with educational material), while evaluating for variances in attentiveness, information retention, and appraisal compared to 2D. A 6-camera synchronised array (GoPro Omni, [California, United States]) was suspended inverted and recorded an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 2016. A single-blinded randomised cross-over study was performed to evaluate this video in 360º vs 2D formats. Group A experienced the 360º video using Samsung (Suwon, South-Korea) GearVR virtual-reality headsets, followed by the 2D experience on a 75-inch television. Group B were reversed. Each video was probed at designated time points for engagement levels and task-unrelated images or thoughts. Alternating question banks were administered following each video experience. Feedback was obtained via a short survey at study completion. The New Academic and Education Building (NAEB) in Dublin, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, July 2017. Preclinical undergraduate students from a medical university in Ireland. Forty students participated with a mean age of 23.2 ± 4.5 years and equal sex involvement. The 360º video demonstrated significantly higher engagement (p video as their learning platform of choice. Mean appraisal levels for the 360º platform were positive with mean responses of >8/10 for the platform for learning, immersion, and entertainment. This study describes the successful development and evaluation of a 360º operative video. This new video format demonstrated significant engagement and attentiveness benefits compared to traditional 2D formats. This requires further evaluation in the field of technology enhanced learning. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  1. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Energy Drinks in Familial Long QT Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Belinda; Ingles, Jodie; Medi, Caroline; Driscoll, Timothy; Semsarian, Christopher

    2017-03-15

    Caffeinated energy drinks may trigger serious cardiac effects. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of caffeinated energy drink consumption in patients with familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). From 2014-2016, 24 LQTS patients aged 16-50 years were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of energy drink (ED) versus control (CD) with participants acting as their own controls (one week washout). The primary study outcome was an increase in corrected QT interval (QTc) by >20ms. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In 24 patients with LQTS (no dropout), mean age was 29±9 years, 13/24 (54%) were female, and 8/24 (33%) were probands. Intention to treat analysis revealed no significant change in QTc with ED compared with CD (12±28ms vs 16±27ms, 3% vs 4%, p=0.71). The systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly increased with ED compared to CD (peak change 7±16mmHg vs 1±16mmHg, 6% vs 0.8%, p=0.046 and 8±10 vs 2±9mmHg, 11% vs 3% p=0.01 respectively). These changes correlated with significant increases in serum caffeine (14.6±11.3 vs 0.5±0.1μmol/L, penergy drink consumption. Caffeinated energy drinks have significant haemodynamic effects in patients with LQTS, especifically an acute increase in blood pressure. Since dangerous QTc prolongation was seen in some LQTS patients, we recommend caution in young patients with LQTS consuming energy drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using environmental engineering to increase hand hygiene compliance: a cross-over study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Kelly Ann; Aujla, Navneet; Marshall, Tom; Hussain, Abid; Hodgkinson, Gerard P; Arheart, Kristopher; Marti, Joachim; Birnbach, David J; Vlaev, Ivo

    2017-09-11

    Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations in hospital is typically less than 50%. Such low compliance inevitably contributes to hospital-acquired infections that negatively affect patients' well-being and hospitals' finances. The design of the present study is predicated on the assumption that most people who fail to clean their hands are not doing so intentionally, they just forget. The present study will test whether psychological priming can be used to increase the number of people who clean their hands on entering a ward. Here, we present the protocol for this study. The study will use a randomised cross-over design. During the study, each of four wards will be observed during four conditions: olfactory prime, visual prime, both primes and neither prime. Each condition will be experienced for 42 days followed by a 7-day washout period (total duration of trial=189 days). We will record the number of people who enter each ward and whether they clean their hands during observation sessions, the amount of cleaning material used from the dispensers each week and the number of hospital-acquired infections that occur in each period. The outcomes will be compared using a regression analysis. Following the initial trail, the most effective priming condition will be rolled out for 3 months in all the wards. Research ethics approval was obtained from the South Central-Oxford C Research Ethics Committee (16/SC/0554), the Health Regulatory Authority and the sponsor. ISRCTN (15397624); Edge ID 86357. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Variation and Evolution of the Meiotic Requirement for Crossing Over in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-01-01

    The segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division is dependent on the presence of at least one well-positioned crossover per chromosome. In some mammalian species, however, the genomic distribution of crossovers is consistent with a more stringent baseline requirement of one crossover per chromosome arm. Given that the meiotic requirement for crossing over defines the minimum frequency of recombination necessary for the production of viable gametes, determining the chromosomal scale of this constraint is essential for defining crossover profiles predisposed to aneuploidy and understanding the parameters that shape patterns of recombination rate evolution across species. Here, I use cytogenetic methods for in situ imaging of crossovers in karyotypically diverse house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and voles (genus Microtus) to test how chromosome number and configuration constrain the distribution of crossovers in a genome. I show that the global distribution of crossovers in house mice is thresholded by a minimum of one crossover per chromosome arm, whereas the crossover landscape in voles is defined by a more relaxed requirement of one crossover per chromosome. I extend these findings in an evolutionary metaanalysis of published recombination and karyotype data for 112 mammalian species and demonstrate that the physical scale of the genomic crossover distribution has undergone multiple independent shifts from one crossover per chromosome arm to one per chromosome during mammalian evolution. Together, these results indicate that the chromosomal scale constraint on crossover rates is itself a trait that evolves among species, a finding that casts light on an important source of crossover rate variation in mammals. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Randomized cross-over trial of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and water for colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, Austin; Green, Colin; Phillips, Robin K S

    2004-09-01

    Water for colostomy irrigation is largely absorbed by the colon, which may result in less efficient expulsion of stool. This study compared the outcome of colonic cleansing with water and polyethylene glycol solution. In a cross-over study, 41 colostomy irrigators were randomly assigned to water or polyethylene glycol solution irrigation first and then the other regimen, each for one week. Patients recorded fluid inflow time, total washout time, cramps, leakage episodes, number of stoma pouches used, and satisfaction scores (Visual Analog Scale, 1-10: 1 = poor, and 10 = excellent). The median and interquartile range for each variable was calculated, and the two treatments were compared (Wilcoxon's test). Eight patients failed to complete the study. Thirty-three patients (20 females; mean age, 55 (range, 39-73) years) provided 352 irrigation sessions: water (n = 176), and polyethylene glycol solution (n = 176). Irrigation was performed every 24, 48, and 72 hours by 17, 9, and 7 patients respectively, using 500 ml (n = 1), 750 ml (n = 2), 1,000 ml (n = 16), 1,500 ml (n = 11), 2,000 ml (n = 2), and 3,500 ml (n = 1) of fluid. The median and interquartile range for water vs. polyethylene glycol solution were: fluid inflow time (6 (range, 4.4-10.8) vs. 6.3 (range, 4.1-11) minutes; P = 0.48), total washout time (53 (range, 33-69) vs. 38 (range, 28-55) minutes; P = 0.01), leakage episodes (2.3 (range, 1.7-3.8) vs. 0.7 (range, 0.2-1); P colostomy irrigation.

  6. Diagnostic value of lumbar facet joint injection: a prospective triple cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Schütz

    Full Text Available The diagnosis "lumbar facet syndrome" is common and often indicates severe lumbar spine surgery procedures. It is doubtful whether a painful facet joint (FJ can be identified by a single FJ block. The aim of this study was to clarify the validity of a single and placebo controlled bilateral FJ blocks using local anesthetics. A prospective single blinded triple cross-over study was performed. 60 patients (31 f, 29 m, mean age 53.2 yrs (22-73 with chronic low back pain (mean pain persistance 31 months, 6 months of conservative treatment without success admitted to a local orthopaedic department for surgical or conservative therapy of chronic LBP, were included in the study. Effect on pain reduction (10 point rating scale was measured. The 60 subjects were divided into six groups with three defined sequences of fluoroscopically guided bilateral monosegmental lumbar FJ test injections in "oblique needle" technique: verum-(local anaesthetic-, placebo-(sodium chloride- and sham-injection. Carry-over and periodic effects were evaluated and a descriptive and statistical analysis regarding the effectiveness, difference and equality of the FJ injections and the different responses was performed. The results show a high rate of non-response, which documents the lack of reliable and valid predictors for a positive response towards FJ blocks. There was a high rate of placebo reactions noted, including subjects who previously or later reacted positively to verum injections. Equivalence was shown among verum vs. placebo and partly vs. sham also. With regard to test validity criteria, a single intraarticular FJ block with local anesthetics is not useful to detect the pain-responsible FJ and therefore is no valid and reliable diagostic tool to specify indication of lumbar spine surgery. Comparative FJ blocks with local anesthetics and placebo-controls have to be interpretated carefully also, because they solely give no proper diagnosis on FJ being main pain

  7. Effect of aggregation form on bioavailability of zeaxanthin in humans: a randomised cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Fischer, Anja; Fischer, Monique; Högel, Josef; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-11-01

    Carotenoid bioavailability from plant and animal food is highly variable depending on numerous factors such as the physical deposition form of carotenoids. As the carotenoid zeaxanthin is believed to play an important role in eye and brain health, we sought to compare the human bioavailability of an H-aggregated with that of a J-aggregated deposition form of zeaxanthin encapsulated into identical formulation matrices. A randomised two-way cross-over study with sixteen participants was designed to compare the post-prandial bioavailability of an H-aggregated zeaxanthin and a J-aggregated zeaxanthin dipalmitate formulation, both delivering 10 mg of free zeaxanthin. Carotenoid levels in TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. Bioavailability from the J-aggregated formulation (AUC=55·9 nmol h/l) was 23 % higher than from the H-aggregated one (AUC=45·5 nmol h/l), although being only marginally significant (P=0·064). Furthermore, the same formulations were subjected to an internationally recognised in vitro digestion protocol to reveal potential strengths and weaknesses of simulated digestions. In agreement with our human study, liberation of zeaxanthin from the J-aggregated formulation into the simulated duodenal fluids was superior to that from the H-aggregated form. However, micellization rate (bioaccessibility) of the J-aggregated zeaxanthin dipalmitate was lower than that of the H-aggregated zeaxanthin, being contradictory to our in vivo results. An insufficient ester cleavage during simulated digestion was suggested to be the root cause for these observations. In brief, combining our in vitro and in vivo observations, the effect of the different aggregation forms on human bioavailability was lower than expected.

  8. Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake. Methods Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS) was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK) was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON) acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK) took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint) and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ), and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items. Results The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36) yrs.) performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53) yrs.) and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33) yrs.; p = 0.019). After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous teaching of basic-skills in musculoskeletal ultrasound should be performed by medical experts, but seems to be inferior to the arthroscopic 2D-3D

  9. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  10. Topical Nasal Anesthesia in Flexible Bronchoscopy--A Cross-Over Comparison between Two Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fuehner

    Full Text Available Topical airway anesthesia is known to improve tolerance and patient satisfaction during flexible bronchoscopy (FB. Lidocaine is commonly used, delivered as an atomized spray. The current study assesses safety and patient satisfaction for nasal anesthesia of a new atomization device during outpatient bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients.Using a prospective, non-blinded, cross-over design, patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 24-11-2014 received 2% lidocaine using the standard reusable nasal atomizer (CRNA. Those enrolled between 25-11-2014 and 30-01-2015, received a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD. After each procedure, the treating physician, their assistant and the patient independently rated side-effects and satisfaction, basing their responses on visual analogue scales (VAS. At their next scheduled bronchoscopy during the study period, patients then received the alternative atomizer. Written consent was obtained prior to the first bronchoscopy, and the study approved by the institutional ethics committee.Of the 252 patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 30-01-2015, 80 (32% received both atomizers. Physicians reported better efficacy (p = 0.001 and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001 for DIMAD in patients exposed to both procedures. Among patients with one visit, physicians and their assistants reported improved efficacy (p = 0.018, p = 0.002 and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001, p = 0.029 for the disposable atomizer, whereas patients reported no difference in efficacy or side effects (p = 0.72 and p = 0.20. No severe adverse events were noted. The cost of the reusable device was 4.08€ per procedure, compared to 3.70€ for the disposable device.Topical nasal anesthesia via a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD offers comparable safety and patient comfort, compared to conventional reusable nasal atomizers (CRNA in lung transplant recipients. Procedural costs were reduced by 0.34€ per

  11. Arthroscopy or ultrasound in undergraduate anatomy education: a randomized cross-over controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobe Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exponential growth of image-based diagnostic and minimally invasive interventions requires a detailed three-dimensional anatomical knowledge and increases the demand towards the undergraduate anatomical curriculum. This randomized controlled trial investigates whether musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS or arthroscopic methods can increase the anatomical knowledge uptake. Methods Second-year medical students were randomly allocated to three groups. In addition to the compulsory dissection course, the ultrasound group (MSUS was taught by eight, didactically and professionally trained, experienced student-teachers and the arthroscopy group (ASK was taught by eight experienced physicians. The control group (CON acquired the anatomical knowledge only via the dissection course. Exposure (MSUS and ASK took place in two separate lessons (75 minutes each, shoulder and knee joint and introduced standard scan planes using a 10-MHz ultrasound system as well as arthroscopy tutorials at a simulator combined with video tutorials. The theoretical anatomic learning outcomes were tested using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ, and after cross-over an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. Differences in student’s perceptions were evaluated using Likert scale-based items. Results The ASK-group (n = 70, age 23.4 (20–36 yrs. performed moderately better in the anatomical MC exam in comparison to the MSUS-group (n = 84, age 24.2 (20–53 yrs. and the CON-group (n = 88, 22.8 (20–33 yrs.; p = 0.019. After an additional arthroscopy teaching 1% of students failed the MC exam, in contrast to 10% in the MSUS- or CON-group, respectively. The benefit of the ASK module was limited to the shoulder area (p Conclusions The additional implementation of arthroscopy tutorials to the dissection course during the undergraduate anatomy training is profitable and attractive to students with respect to complex joint anatomy. Simultaneous

  12. 78 FR 58382 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... 5th Street to Somerset Street located in the Town of Ocean City, Worcester County, Maryland. This... on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent Bay in the Town of Ocean City, Worcester County, Maryland AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on...

  13. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  14. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk via cholesterol reduction, anti-inflammation, glucoregulation, and antioxidation. The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was to determine whether the addition of 85 g almonds daily to a National Cholesterol Education Progr...

  15. Randomized cross-over trial of short-term water-only fasting: metabolic and cardiovascular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, B D; Muhlestein, J B; Lappé, D L; May, H T; Carlquist, J F; Galenko, O; Brunisholz, K D; Anderson, J L

    2013-11-01

    Routine, periodic fasting is associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Animal studies show that fasting may increase longevity and alter biological parameters related to longevity. We evaluated whether fasting initiates acute changes in biomarker expression in humans that may impact short- and long-term health. Apparently-healthy volunteers (N = 30) without a recent history of fasting were enrolled in a randomized cross-over trial. A one-day water-only fast was the intervention and changes in biomarkers were the study endpoints. Bonferroni correction required p ≤ 0.00167 for significance (p fasting intervention acutely increased human growth hormone (p = 1.1 × 10⁻⁴), hemoglobin (p = 4.8 × 10⁻⁷), red blood cell count (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁶), hematocrit (p = 3.0 × 10⁻⁶), total cholesterol (p = 5.8 × 10⁻⁵), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0015), and decreased triglycerides (p = 1.3 × 10⁻⁴), bicarbonate (p = 3.9 × 10⁻⁴), and weight (p = 1.0 × 10⁻⁷), compared to a day of usual eating. For those randomized to fast the first day (n = 16), most factors including human growth hormone and cholesterol returned to baseline after the full 48 h, with the exception of weight (p = 2.5 × 10⁻⁴) and (suggestively significant) triglycerides (p = 0.028). Fasting induced acute changes in biomarkers of metabolic, cardiovascular, and general health. The long-term consequences of these short-term changes are unknown but repeated episodes of periodic short-term fasting should be evaluated as a preventive treatment with the potential to reduce metabolic disease risk. Clinical trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov): NCT01059760 (Expression of Longevity Genes in Response to Extended Fasting [The Fasting and Expression of Longevity Genes during Food abstinence {FEELGOOD} Trial]). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does the placebo effect modulate drug bioavailability? Randomized cross-over studies of three drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Yusuf, Ahmed; Shire, Faduma S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al-Swayeh, Reem

    2017-05-23

    Medication effect is the sum of its drug, placebo, and drug*placebo interaction effects. It is conceivable that the interaction effect involves modulating drug bioavailability; it was previously observed that being aware of caffeine ingestion may prolong caffeine plasma half-life. This study was set to evaluate such concept using different drugs. Balanced single-dose, two-period, two-group, cross-over design was used to compare the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalexin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol, each described by its name (overt) or as placebo (covert). Volunteers and study coordinators were deceived as to study aim. Drug concentrations were determined blindly by in-house, high performance liquid chromatography assays. Terminal-elimination half-life (t ½ ) (primary outcome), maximum concentration (C max ), C max first time (T max ), terminal-elimination-rate constant (λ), area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUC T ), extrapolated to infinity (AUC I ), or to T max of overt drug (AUC Overttmax ), and C max /AUC I were calculated blindly using standard non-compartmental method. Covert-vs-overt effect on drug pharmacokinetics was evaluated by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA, primary analysis), 90% confidence interval (CI) using the 80.00-125.00% bioequivalence range, and percentage of individual pharmacokinetic covert/overt ratios that are outside the +25% range. Fifty, 30, and 50 healthy volunteers (18%, 10%, and 6% females, mean (SD) age 30.8 (6.2), 31.4 (6.6), and 31.2 (5.4) years) participated in 3 studies on cephalexin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol, respectively. Withdrawal rate was 4%, 0%, and 4%, respectively. Eighteen blood samples were obtained over 6, 10, and 14 h in each study period of the three drugs, respectively. ANOVA showed no significant difference in any pharmacokinetic parameter for any of the drugs. The 90% CIs for AUC T , AUC I , C max , AUC Overttmax , and C max /AUC I were within the bioequivalence range, except

  17. External chest compressions using a mechanical feedback device : cross-over simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorning, M; Derwall, M; Brokmann, J C; Rörtgen, D; Bergrath, S; Pflipsen, J; Beuerlein, S; Rossaint, R; Beckers, S K

    2011-08-01

    External chest compressions (ECC) are essential components of resuscitation and are usually performed without any adjuncts in professional healthcare. Even for healthcare professionals during in-hospital and out-of-hospital resuscitation poor performance in ECC has been reported in recent years. Although several stand-alone devices have been developed none has been implemented as a standard in patient care. The aim of this study was to examine if the use of a mechanical device providing visual feedback and audible assistance during ECC improves performance of healthcare professionals following minimal and simplified instructions. In a prospective, randomized cross-over study 81 healthcare professionals performed ECC for 3 min (in the assumed setting of a secured airway) twice on a manikin (Skillreporter ResusciAnne®, with PC-Skillreporting System Version 1.3.0, Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) in a mock cardiac arrest scenario. Group 1 (n=40) performed ECC with the device first followed by classic ECC and group 2 (n=41) in the opposite order. Minimal instructions were standardized and provided by video instruction (1 min 38 s). Endpoints were achievement of a mean compression rate between 90 and 110/min and a mean compression depth of 40-50 mm. In addition participants had to answer questionnaires about demographic data, professional experience and recent recommendations for ECC as well as their impression of the device concerning the ease of use and their personal level of confidence. Data were analyzed for group-related and inter-group differences using SAS (Version 9.1.3, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A total of 81 healthcare professionals regularly involved in resuscitation attempts in pre-hospital or in-hospital settings took part in the study with no differences between the groups: females 35.8% (n=52), emergency medical technicians 32.1% (n=26), anesthesia nurses 32.1% (n=26), physicians (anesthesiology) 45% (n=29). In group 1 33 out of 40 (82.5%; 99.7±4

  18. Low-energy foil aberration corrector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aken, R.H. van; Hagen, C.W.; Barth, J.E.; Kruit, P.

    2002-01-01

    A spherical and chromatic aberration corrector for electron microscopes is proposed, consisting of a thin foil sandwiched between two apertures. The electrons are retarded at the foil to almost zero energy, so that they can travel ballistically through the foil. It is shown that such a low-voltage corrector has a negative spherical aberration for not too large distances between aperture and foil, as well as a negative chromatic aberration. For various distances the third- and fifth-order spherical aberration coefficients and the first- and second-order chromatic aberration coefficients are calculated using ray tracing. Provided that the foils have sufficient electron transmission the corrector is able to correct the third-order spherical aberration and the first-order chromatic aberration of a typical low-voltage scanning electron microscope. Preliminary results show that the fifth-order spherical aberration and the second-order chromatic aberration can be kept sufficiently low

  19. Study for every other day administration of vonoprazan in maintenance treatment of erosive GERD: study protocol for a multicentre randomised cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mototsugu; Ito, Noriko; Demura, Mamiko; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Harada, Naohiko

    2018-01-01

    The first drug selected for treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and prevention of the recurrence is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), but recently, a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) was put on the market in Japan. Its onset of effect is faster than PPI, and it takes more than 2 days to recover acid secretion after the withdrawal period. Therefore, unlike PPI, the usefulness of every other day administration or discontinuous administration is expected. This study is a prospective, multicentre, open-label, two-period randomised cross-over study to compare the efficacy and safety of PPI every other day administration and P-CAB every other day administration in 120 patients who receive erosive GERD maintenance therapy with PPI. Patients will be randomly allocated to receive 4 weeks P-CAB or PPI followed by 4 weeks cross over, where those on P-CAB will receive PPI and vice versa. The primary endpoint is proportion of asymptomatic patients. Secondary endpoints are suppressive effect of GERD symptoms, proportion of asymptomatic patients at each time point, safety and cost-saving effect of P-CAB every other day administration, compliance with every other day administration, and proportion of asymptomatic patients at the first month of study drug administration. This study was approved by the National Hospital Organization Central Review Board for Clinical Trials (5 December 2017). If P-CAB every other day administration is established as one of GERD maintenance therapies, there is merit in both medical cost reduction and the safety to alleviate elevation in serum gastrin. UMIN000034701.

  20. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannomiya, Takumi, E-mail: sannomiya@mtl.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio [JEOL Limited, Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. - Highlights: • A generic method to determine the aberration center is established for (S)TEM. • Decentering induced secondary aberrations are utilized to find the center. • The method is tested on Ronchigrams both in simulation and experiment. • Proper weighting of the aberration gives a good convergence. • Larger primary aberration results in a slower convergence.

  1. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Evaluating brief motivational and self-regulatory hand hygiene interventions: a cross-over longitudinal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhakhang, Pempa; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-02-04

    Frequent handwashing can prevent infections, but non-compliance to hand hygiene is pervasive. Few theory- and evidence-based interventions to improve regular handwashing are available. Therefore, two intervention modules, a motivational and a self-regulatory one, were designed and evaluated. In a longitudinal study, 205 young adults, aged 18 to 26 years, were randomized into two intervention groups. The Mot-SelfR group received first a motivational intervention (Mot; risk perception and outcome expectancies) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (SelfR; perceived self-efficacy and planning) 17 days later. The SelfR-Mot group received the same two intervention modules in the opposite order. Follow-up data were assessed 17 and 34 days after the baseline. Both intervention sequences led to an increase in handwashing frequency, intention, self-efficacy, and planning. Also, overall gains were found for the self-regulatory module (increased planning and self-efficacy levels) and the motivational module (intention). Within groups, the self-regulatory module appeared to be more effective than the motivational module, independent of sequence. Self-regulatory interventions can help individuals to exhibit more handwashing. Sequencing may be important as a motivation module (Mot) first helps to set the goal and a self-regulatory module (SelfR) then helps to translate this goal into actual behavior, but further research is needed to evaluate mechanisms.

  3. The Art of Optical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  4. Freeform aberrations in phase space: an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, James

    2017-06-01

    We consider how optical propagation and aberrations of freeform systems can be formulated in phase space. As an example system, a freeform prism is analyzed and discussed. Symmetry considerations and their group theory descriptions are given some importance. Numerical aberrations are also highlighted and put into the context of the underlying aberration theory.

  5. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  6. Synaptonemal complex aberrations in the pseudoautosomal region of X, Y chromosomes in irradiated hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.W.; Collins, B.W. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Poorman-Allen, P. [Wellcome Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, N.C. (United States); Sontag, M.R. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    1994-05-01

    The effects of X-radiation, bleomycin and amsacrine (m-AMSA) on the meiotic chromosomes of male Armenian hamsters were determined by electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complex (SC) damage. Pachytene stage cells were analyzed 5 or 6 days following their treatment at putative preleptotene-leptotene stages of meiosis. Of the multiple types of SC aberrations observed to be significantly increased over control levels, lateral element breakage and synaptic anomalies were most prevalent. The focus of these studies was on the sex chromosomes which, in the Armenian hamster, reveal an unusally well-defined pseudoautosomal region. In the XY pair, radiation and chemical treatments caused certain forms of structural and synaptic anomalies which appeared to be preferentially localized to telomeric and/or crossover regions. The nature of these specific aberrations, involving breakage, bridge formation and asynapsis, is not well understood; however, their distributions are suggestive of possible relationships with sites and processes of crossing over. (author).

  7. Inherited differences in crossing over and gene conversion frequencies between wild strains of Sordaria fimicola from "Evolution Canyon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M; Lamb, B C; Nevo, E

    2001-12-01

    Recombination generates new combinations of existing genetic variation and therefore may be important in adaptation and evolution. We investigated whether there was natural genetic variation for recombination frequencies and whether any such variation was environment related and possibly adaptive. Crossing over and gene conversion frequencies often differed significantly in a consistent direction between wild strains of the fungus Sordaria fimicola isolated from a harsher or a milder microscale environment in "Evolution Canyon," Israel. First- and second-generation descendants from selfing the original strains from the harsher, more variable, south-facing slope had higher frequencies of crossing over in locus-centromere intervals and of gene conversion than those from the lusher north-facing slopes. There were some significant differences between strains within slopes, but these were less marked than between slopes. Such inherited variation could provide a basis for natural selection for optimum recombination frequencies in each environment. There were no significant differences in meiotic hybrid DNA correction frequencies between strains from the different slopes. The conversion analysis was made using only conversions to wild type, because estimations of conversion to mutant were affected by a high frequency of spontaneous mutation. There was no polarized segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I or of chromatids at meiosis II.

  8. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, J; Vissers, M N; Wiseman, S; van Putte, K P; Kafatos, A

    2002-10-01

    To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. The Medical School and University Hospital of the University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Twenty-five healthy males and females completed the study. Each intervention was of three weeks duration and intervention periods were separated by a two week washout. Seventy grams of extra virgin olive oil was supplied to each subject per day in the intervention periods. The olive oils supplied differed in their phenol content by 18.6 mg/day. Two fasting venous blood samples were taken at the end of each intervention period. The markers of antioxidant capacity measured in fasting plasma samples (total plasma resistance to oxidation, concentrations of protein carbonyl as a marker of protein oxidation, malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides as markers of lipid oxidation and the ferric reducing ability of plasma) did not differ significantly between the low and high phenol olive oil diets. No effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidation in smokers was detected. It may be that the natural concentrations of phenols in olive oil are too low to produce an effect in the post-absorptive phase. Possible reasons for period effects and interactions between diet and administration period need attention to aid further cross-over trials of this kind. Unilever Research Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

  9. Different test systems in Aspergillus nidulans for the evaluation of mitotic gene conversion, crossing-over and non-disjunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bertoldi, M.; Griselli, M.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa; Barale, R.

    1980-01-01

    The wide variety of the genetic alterations produced by environmental mutagens has increased the necessity of using experimental microorganisms to reveal the induction of such genetic events with short-term tests. Aspergillus nidulans, because of its well-developed genetic system and the availability of morphological markers seay to score, can be profitably used in mutagen testing. The constitution of particular diploid strains of A. nidulans able to detect the induction of mitotic gene conversion, mitotic crossing-over and mitotic non-disjunction with selective procedures are described and validated with standard mutagens: methyl methanesulphonate and UV radiation (lacking a specific genetic activity), benomyl and p-fluorophenylalanine (with a specific genetic activity). The possibility of using mammalian metabolic activation of promutagens in A. nidulans in vitro was tested with cyclophosphamide, with positive results in all the tested genetic systems. A method that increases the sensitivity of conidia to mutagenic treatments is described; its application appeared to be particularly useful in experiments on crossing-over and non-disjunction. (orig.)

  10. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  11. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  12. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  13. Cross-over

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Christensen, Tina Wilchen

    at skabe blinde pletter, fordi ordet tenderer til at rette vores opmærksomhed på én smal og lineær bevægelse fra kriminalitet og bandetilhør til islamisk ekstremisme. Denne pjece giver et billede af de komplekse bevægelsesmønstre i og på tværs af kriminelle netværk, bander, rockere og ekstreme grupper. Den...... giver en nuanceret forståelse af de veje ind, processer og perspektiver, der er nødvendige at begribe, når man skal udvikle og arbejde med forebyggelse af radikalisering. Pjecen er skrevet af forskere ved DPU, Aarhus Universitet og er finansieret af Udlændinge og Integrationsministeriet....

  14. The anticonvulsant levetiracetam for the treatment of pain in polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Jakob Vormstrup; Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to test the analgesic effect of levetiracetam in painful polyneuropathy. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with diagnosed polyneuropathy and symptoms for more than......-three patients were screened for participation and 39 patients entered the study. Thirty-five patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.29 versus placebo 2.28, p=0.979), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.5 versus placebo 5.3, p=0......Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant which is assumed to act by modulating neurotransmitter release via binding to the vesicle protein SV2A. This could have an impact on signaling in the nociceptive system, and a pilot study indicated relief of neuropathic pain with levetiracetam. OBJECTIVES: The aim...

  15. Cross-over between discrete and continuous protein structure space: insights into automatic classification and networks of protein structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pascual-García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural classifications of proteins assume the existence of the fold, which is an intrinsic equivalence class of protein domains. Here, we test in which conditions such an equivalence class is compatible with objective similarity measures. We base our analysis on the transitive property of the equivalence relationship, requiring that similarity of A with B and B with C implies that A and C are also similar. Divergent gene evolution leads us to expect that the transitive property should approximately hold. However, if protein domains are a combination of recurrent short polypeptide fragments, as proposed by several authors, then similarity of partial fragments may violate the transitive property, favouring the continuous view of the protein structure space. We propose a measure to quantify the violations of the transitive property when a clustering algorithm joins elements into clusters, and we find out that such violations present a well defined and detectable cross-over point, from an approximately transitive regime at high structure similarity to a regime with large transitivity violations and large differences in length at low similarity. We argue that protein structure space is discrete and hierarchic classification is justified up to this cross-over point, whereas at lower similarities the structure space is continuous and it should be represented as a network. We have tested the qualitative behaviour of this measure, varying all the choices involved in the automatic classification procedure, i.e., domain decomposition, alignment algorithm, similarity score, and clustering algorithm, and we have found out that this behaviour is quite robust. The final classification depends on the chosen algorithms. We used the values of the clustering coefficient and the transitivity violations to select the optimal choices among those that we tested. Interestingly, this criterion also favours the agreement between automatic and expert classifications

  16. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    in hematuria (p = 0.54) or discomfort/stinging/pain at first micturition (p = 0.56). During insertion, handling was easier (p = 0.0001) and touching the coating was necessary less often (2.2 vs. 81.3% of catheterizations; p catheter; it was preferred by nurses for 20 of 23......Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice...... with a regular catheter. Results: 28 participants were enrolled. Mean ± SD discomfort (visual analogue scale; primary objective) was 2.25 ± 1.5 and 2.52 ± 1.8 for the compact and regular catheters, respectively (difference -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.73 to 0.19); there was no significant difference...

  17. The occurrence of double strand DNA breaks is not the sole condition for meiotic crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, P; Rantanen, M

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the interchromosomal effects of In(2L + 2R)Cy, In(3L + 3R)LVM and their joint effect on the frequencies of single and double crossovers in the cv-v-f region of the X chromosome as well as interference showed that both inversions, occurring separately, increased the frequency of single as well as double crossovers and the coefficient of coincidence. However, when the inversions occurred together the frequencies of single crossovers no longer increased, but the frequency of double crossovers, as well as the coefficient of coincidence did increase. These results indicate firstly that the interchromosomal effects influence some precondition of exchange, but that this precondition is not an occurrence of double strand DNA breaks. Thus, the occurrence of double strand DNA breaks is not the sole condition for crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster.

  18. Intravesical Capsaicin in Patients with Detrusor Hyper-reflexia. A Placebo-controlled Cross-over Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T; Nielsen, J B; Schrøder, H D

    1999-01-01

    to anticholinergic treatment underwent intravesical administration of 50 ml 2% lignocaine. followed by either 100 ml 1 mmol/l capsaicin or 100 ml physiological saline for 30 min. Cross-over to the alternative treatment took place after 4 weeks. Varying degrees of burning sensation were experienced by all but one...... patient during the capsaicin treatment and precluded the possibility of conducting studies of this type in a blind manner. No preference for capsaicin treatment was found, and micturition and VAS scores were unchanged after treatment with capsaicin. The mean volume of the contents of the bladder at which...... DH first appeared was 175 ml after saline and 195 ml after capsaicin (mean difference 20 ml with a 5% confidence interval from -25 to 65). Bladder biopsies taken 2 weeks after treatment with capsaicin showed more pronounced inflammation, superficial haemorrhage, squamous epithelial metaplasia...

  19. Dialysis-associated hypertension treated with Telmisartan--DiaTel: a pilot, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Huber

    Full Text Available Treatment of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD patients is characterised by lack of evidence for both the blood pressure (BP target goal and the recommended drug class to use. Telmisartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB that is metabolised in the liver and not excreted via HD extracorporeal circuit might be particularly suitable for HD patients. We designed and conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and cross-over trial for treatment of dialysis-associated hypertension with telmisartan 80 mg once daily or placebo on top of standard antihypertensive treatment excluding other Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS blockers. In 29 patients after randomization we analysed BP after a treatment period of 8 weeks, while 13 started with telmisartan and 16 with placebo; after 8 weeks 11 continued with telmisartan and 12 with placebo after cross-over, respectively. Patients exhibited a significant reduction of systolic pre-HD BP from 141.9±21.8 before to 131.3±17.3 mmHg after the first treatment period with telmisartan or placebo. However, no average significant influence of telmisartan was observed compared to placebo. The latter may be due to a large inter-individual variability of BP responses reaching from a 40 mmHg decrease under placebo to 40 mmHg increase under telmisartan. Antihypertensive co-medication was changed for clinical reasons in 7 out of 21 patients with no significant difference between telmisartan and placebo groups. Our starting hypothesis, that telmisartan on top of standard therapy lowers systolic office BP in HD patients could not be confirmed. In conclusion, this small trial indicates that testing antihypertensive drug efficacy in HD patients is challenging due to complicated standardization of concomitant medication and other confounding factors, e.g. volume status, salt load and neurohormonal activation, that influence BP control in HD patients.Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2005-005021-60.

  20. Mobile Application vs Paper Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart to Track Menses in Young Women: A Randomized Cross-over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Vesely, Sara K; Haamid, Fareeda; Christian-Rancy, Myra; O'Brien, Sarah H

    2018-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common symptom reported by approximately 30% of women. The Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart (PBAC) score is often used to quantify severity of menstrual bleeding. However, the traditional PBAC paper diary might be subject to recall bias and compliance issues, especially in adolescents. We developed a mobile application (app) version of the PBAC score and evaluated patient satisfaction and compliance with app reporting vs paper reporting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study was a randomized cross-over study of 25 postmenarchal female adolescents and young women ages 13-21 years. Participants agreed to track bleeding in 2 consecutive menstrual cycles and were randomized to use the PBAC paper diary or mobile app format first. At the end of each cycle, a satisfaction survey and system usability scale (app only) was used to assess the acceptability of the format used. Twenty-five participants had a median age of 15 years. Cross-over analysis showed that satisfaction level was significantly higher for the app (P < .001). Twenty of 25 (80%) participants preferred the app over the paper diary. For the app, 20 of 25 participants (80%) had high compliance for reporting bleeding, with a mean of 2 app entries per day. Participants' PBAC scores did not vary significantly between the paper diary (median, 95) and mobile app (median, 114). All paper diaries met definition for high compliance. There was no significant period or carryover effect. This study showed that a PBAC app compared with the paper diary was the preferred method of recording menstrual bleeding in adolescents and showed feasibility as a research data collection tool. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Homeopathy for mental fatigue: lessons from a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficulty in controlling attention can lead to mental fatigue in the healthy population. We identified one trial reporting a benefit in patients’ attention using a homeopathic formula preparation. One component of the preparation was potassium phosphate, widely available off the shelf as Kali phos 6x for cognitive problems. The aim of this exploratory trial was to assess the effectiveness of Kali phos 6x for attention problems associated with mental fatigue. Methods We recruited student and staff volunteers (University of York with self-reported mental fatigue, excluding any using homeopathy or prescribed stimulants, or with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. In a triple blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 86 volunteers were randomized to receive Kali phos 6x or identical placebo 10 minutes before taking a psychological test of attention (Stroop Colour-Word Test. One week later they were crossed over and took the other preparation before repeating the test. Results We found no evidence of a treatment effect in a comparison of Kali phos 6x with placebo (Kali phos minus placebo = −1.1 (95% CI −3.0 to 0.9, P = 0.3 Stroop score units, Cohen effect size = −0.17 even when allowing for a weak period effect with accuracy scores in the second period being higher than those in the first (P = 0.05. We observed a ceiling effect in the Stroop test which undermined our ability to interpret this result. Conclusions Kali phos 6x was not found to be effective in reducing mental fatigue. A ceiling effect in our primary outcome measure meant that we could not rule out a type II error. Thorough piloting of an adequate outcome measure could have led to an unequivocal result. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16521161

  2. Comparison of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions using WaveScan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. METHODS: A total of 174 eyes of 105 patients were measured using the wavefront sensor (WaveScan® 3.62 under different pupil conditions: cycloplegic 8.58 ± 0.54 mm (6.4 mm - 9.5 mm, scotopic 7.53 ± 0.69 mm (5.7 mm - 9.1 mm and photopic 6.08 ± 1.14 mm (4.1 mm - 8.8 mm. The pupil diameter, standard Zernike coefficients, root mean square of higher-order aberrations and dominant aberrations were compared between cycloplegic and scotopic conditions, and between scotopic and photopic conditions. RESULTS: The pupil diameter was 7.53 ± 0.69 mm under the scotopic condition, which reached the requirement of about 6.5 mm optical zone design in the wavefront-guided surgery and prevented measurement error due to the pupil centroid shift caused by mydriatics. Pharmacological pupil dilation induced increase of standard Zernike coefficients Z3-3, Z4(0 and Z5-5. The higher-order aberrations, third-order aberration, fourth-order aberration, fifth-order aberration, sixth-order aberration, and spherical aberration increased statistically significantly, compared to the scotopic condition (P<0.010. When the scotopic condition shifted to the photopic condition, the standard Zernike coefficients Z4(0, Z4², Z6-4, Z6-2, Z6² decreased and all the higher-order aberrations decreased statistically significantly (P<0.010, demonstrating that accommodative miosis can significantly improve vision under the photopic condition. Under the three conditions, the vertical coma aberration appears the most frequently within the dominant aberrations without significant effect by pupil size variance, and the proportion of spherical aberrations decreased with the decrease of the pupil size. CONCLUSIONS: The wavefront aberrations are significantly different under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. Using the wavefront sensor (VISX WaveScan to measure scotopic

  3. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  4. Possible mechanisms of chromosome aberrations. 2. Formation of aberrations after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, L.I.

    1982-01-01

    One of mechanisms of chromosome aberrations after UV-radiation of animal cells initiated by thymine dimerization from different dna threads (by cross joints) and finished in mitosis metaphase is discussed. The model of aberration formation, taking a count of peculiarities of chromosome ansate structure and predicting the important role of chromosome isolation during mitosis in realization of structural aberrations, is suggested. An attempt to present aberration formation under conditions of exact repair is the distinguishing feature of the model

  5. Using acupressure and Montessori-based activities to decrease agitation for residents with dementia: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Yang, Man-Hua; Kao, Chieh-Chun; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Tang, Sai-Hung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2009-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of acupressure and Montessori-based activities in decreasing the agitated behaviors of residents with dementia. A double-blinded, randomized (two treatments and one control; three time periods) cross-over design was used. Six special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan were the sites for the study. One hundred thirty-three institutionalized residents with dementia. Subjects were randomized into three treatment sequences: acupressure-presence-Montessori methods, Montessori methods-acupressure-presence and presence-Montessori methods-acupressure. All treatments were done once a day, 6 days per week, for a 4-week period. The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Ease-of-Care, and the Apparent Affect Rating Scale. After receiving the intervention, the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups saw a significant decrease in agitated behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and physically nonaggressive behaviors than the presence group. Additionally, the ease-of-care ratings for the acupressure and Montessori-based-activities groups were significantly better than for the presence group. In terms of apparent affect, positive affect in the Montessori-based-activities group was significantly better than in the presence group. This study confirms that a blending of traditional Chinese medicine and a Western activities program would be useful in elderly care and that in-service training for formal caregivers in the use of these interventions would be beneficial for patients

  6. Hemodiafiltration Improves Plasma 25-Hepcidin Levels: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded, Cross-Over Study Comparing Hemodialysis and Hemodiafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergur V. Stefánsson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Data from studies comparing the effect of hemodiafiltration (HDF and conventional hemodialysis (HD on clinically important outcomes are insufficient to support superiority of HDF. None of these studies has been participant-blinded. Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized, and patient-blinded cross-over study. Twenty patients on chronic HD received either HD for 2 months followed by post-dilution HDF for 2 months or in opposite order. A range of clinical parameters, as well as markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and iron metabolism was measured. Results: The two treatments were similar with respect to dialysis-related complications, quality of life, and the biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Compared to HD, 25-hepcidin and β2-microglobulin were 38 and 32%, respectively, lower after 60 days of HDF (p Conclusion: In short term, HDF is not superior to HD regarding dialysis-related complications. The higher ESA consumption observed with HDF can be explained by blood clotting in tubing and dialyzers, as more anticoagulation was needed with post-dilution HDF. In a longer perspective, lowering serum hepcidin levels may improve pathological iron homeostasis.

  7. Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G P; Marchesini, G; Fabbri, A; Rondelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Zoli, M; Pisi, E

    1993-05-01

    In a randomized cross-over comparison, the effects of a mainly vegetable protein diet were compared with an animal protein diet in eight patients with cirrhosis and chronic permanent encephalopathy, under optimum lactulose therapy. After a run-in period, patients were fed two equi-caloric, equi-nitrogenous diets for 7 days (71 g total proteins), containing either 50 g protein of animal origin or 50 g vegetable proteins. In the last 3 days of each period, nitrogen balance was significantly better during the vegetable protein diet (+0.2 (SD 1.4) g vs. -1.7 (2.4); P vegetable proteins, whereas insulin, plasma amino acids and ammonia were lower. The clinical grading of encephalopathy improved slightly on vegetable proteins, and psychometric tests improved significantly, but remained grossly abnormal. Compliance to dietary manipulation was good. The data prove that a mainly vegetable protein diet is worthwhile in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy under optimum lactulose therapy. Improved nitrogen balance may be related to more effective nitrogen use for protein synthesis, probably due to blunted hormonal response, and largely outweighs the effects on encephalopathy.

  8. THERAPEUTIC EQUIVALENCE OF ORIGINAL CLOPIDOGREL (PLAVIX AND ITS GENERIC (EGITROMB. RESULTS OF COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yakusevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study therapeutic equivalence (efficacy, safety and tolerability of original clopidogrel (Plavix and its generic (Egitromb in patients of high cardiovascular risk. Material and methods. Thirty one patients with coronary heart disease and indications for clopidogrel therapy were involved into the randomized cross-over blind study. Half of the patients received original clopidogrel (75 mg daily during the first 2 weeks and then they received generic clopidogrel in the same dose during next 2 weeks. Another half of the patients received the drugs in reverse order. Antiplatelet activity of Plavix and Egitromb was estimated by effects on ADP-induced platelet aggregation initially and after 2 weeks of treatment with each drug. Study blinding was provided by the following approach: doctors of cardiology clinic performed clinical monitoring and drug distribution; coded blood samples for platelet aggregation assessment were studied in independent laboratory of thrombosis; statistical data analysis was performed by biostatistics expert in other research center. Results. 2-week therapy with each drug led to a significant decrease of ADP-induced platelet aggregation which remained low after switching from original drug to generic and vice versa. Aggregation dynamics did not depend on the first administered drug. There were no significant differences between aggregation changes as a result of treatment with original or generic drug. No one adverse event was observed in association with both drugs therapy. Conclusion. Generic drug Egitromb (Egis, Hungary and original clopidogrel Plavix (Sanofi-Aventis, France have equivalent antiplatelet effect.

  9. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups.

  10. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Daughters

    Full Text Available The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups.

  11. Evaluation of Valerians’ effect on sleep quantity and quality of menopausal women: cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Mirmohammadali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause causes poor sleep quality in women, so that great throngs of menopausal women experience menopause-induced sleep disorders. This study was conducted to determine the effects of valerian extract on sleep quantity and quality of postmenopausal women. Methods: This triple-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial was performed on 144 eligible postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly classified into two groups to use either 700 mg valerian extract (group A or a placebo (group B for one month. After a 2-week washout period, the treatment regimens were reversed. Sleep quantity and quality were evaluated using Pittsburgh and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI questionnaires at baseline and after both phases of intervention. Results: Mean score of Pittsburgh scale was 10.93.6 at baseline. Valerian reduced this score to 7.83.4 and 7.43 at the first and the second phase of intervention, respectively (P<0.001. After the first phase of intervention, ISI score was reduced to 2.870.62 in group A (P<0.001. It was reduced to 4.020.5 in group B after the second phase of intervention (P<0.001. Conclusion: Daily consumption of 700 mg valerian improved sleep quantity and quality in postmenopausal women

  12. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  13. Combining walking and relaxation for stress reduction-A randomized cross-over trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzer, Franziska; Nagele, Eva; Lerch, Nikolaus; Vajda, Christian; Fazekas, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Both physical activity and relaxation have stress-relieving potential. This study investigates their combined impact on the relaxation response while considering participants' initial stress level. In a randomized cross-over trial, 81 healthy adults completed 4 types of short-term interventions for stress reduction, each lasting for 1 hr: (1) physical activity (walking) combined with resting, (2) walking combined with balneotherapy, (3) combined resting and balneotherapy, and (4) resting only. Saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and relaxation were measured preintervention and postintervention. Stress levels were determined by validated questionnaires. All interventions were associated with relaxation responses in the variables saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and subjective relaxation. No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of salivary cortisol (F = 1.30; p = .281). The systolic blood pressure was reduced best when walking was combined with balneotherapy or resting (F = 7.34; p stress levels (n = 25) felt more alert after interventions including balneotherapy, whereas they reported an increase of tiredness when walking was combined with resting (F = 3.20; p = .044). Results suggest that combining physical activity and relaxation (resting or balneotherapy) is an advantageous short-term strategy for stress reduction as systolic blood pressure is reduced best while similar levels of relaxation can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  15. Aberration characteristics of immersion lenses for LVSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the on-axis aberration characteristics of various immersion objective lenses for low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). A simple aperture lens model is used to generate smooth axial field distributions. The simulation results show that mixed field electric-magnetic immersion lenses are predicted to have between 1.5 and 2 times smaller aberration limited probe diameters than their pure-field counterparts. At a landing energy of 1 keV, mixed field immersion lenses operating at the vacuum electrical field breakdown limit are predicted to have on-axis aberration coefficients between 50 and 60 μm, yielding an ultimate image resolution of below 1 nm. These aberrations lie in the same range as those for LVSEM systems that employ aberration correctors

  16. Electromyographic Comparison of Barbell Deadlift, Hex Bar Deadlift, and Hip Thrust Exercises: A Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Mo, Dag-Andrè; Iversen, Vegard M; Vederhus, Torbjørn; Rockland Hellebø, Lars R; Nordaune, Kristina I; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2018-03-01

    Andersen, V, Fimland, MS, Mo, D-A, Iversen, VM, Vederhus, T, Rockland Hellebø, LR, Nordaune, KI, and Saeterbakken, AH. Electromyographic comparison of barbell deadlift, hex bar deadlift, and hip thrust exercises: a cross-over study. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 587-593, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the muscle activation level of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and erector spinae in the hip thrust, barbell deadlift, and hex bar deadlift; each of which are compound resisted hip extension exercises. After 2 familiarization sessions, 13 resistance-trained men performed a 1 repetition maximum in all 3 exercises in 1 session, in randomized and counterbalanced order. The whole ascending movement (concentric phase), as well as its lower and upper parts (whole movement divided in 2), were analyzed. The hip thrust induced greater activation of the gluteus maximus compared with the hex bar deadlift in the whole (16%, p = 0.025) and the upper part (26%, p = 0.015) of the movement. For the whole movement, the biceps femoris was more activated during barbell deadlift compared with both the hex bar deadlift (28%, p bar deadlift (p = 0.049) compared with hip thrust. Biceps femoris activation in the upper part of the movement was 39% higher for the barbell deadlift compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.001) and 34% higher for the hip thrust compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.002). No differences were displayed for the erector spinae activation (p = 0.312-0.859). In conclusion, the barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared with the hex bar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activation.

  17. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2017-10-04

    Legumes, such as black beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ( n = 12, 18-65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment ( p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min ( p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial ( p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.

  18. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  19. Acute electromyographic responses of deep thoracic paraspinal muscles to spinal manual therapy interventions. An experimental, randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Gary; Bird, Michael; Robbins, Barry; Johnson, Jane C

    2017-07-01

    This single group, randomized, cross-over study explored whether manual therapy alters motor tone of deep thoracic back muscles by examining resting electromyographic activity (EMG) after 2 types of manual therapy and a sham control intervention. Twenty-two participants with thoracic spinal pain (15 females, 7 males, mean age 28.1 ± 6.4 years) had dual fine-wire, intramuscular electrodes inserted into deep transversospinalis muscles at a thoracic level where tissues appeared abnormal to palpation (AbP) and at 2 sites above and below normal and non-tender to palpation (NT). A surface electrode was on the contralateral paraspinal mass at the level of AbP. EMG signals were recorded for resting prone, two 3-s free neck extension efforts, two 3-s resisted maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), and resting prone before the intervention. Randomized spinal manipulation, counterstrain, or sham manipulation was delivered and EMG re-measured. Participants returned 1 and 2 weeks later for the remaining 2 treatments. Reductions in resting EMG followed counterstrain in AbP (median decrease 3.3%, P = 0.01) and NT sites (median decrease 1.0%, P = 0.05) and for the surface electrode site (median decrease 2.0%, P = 0.009). Reduction in EMG following counterstrain during free neck extension was found for the surface electrode site (median decrease 2.7%, P < 0.01). Spinal manipulation produced no change in EMG, whereas counterstrain technique produced small significant reductions in paraspinal muscle activity during prone resting and free neck extension conditions. The clinical relevance of these changes is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of lipid emulsion particle size on satiety and energy intake: a randomised cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Budgett, Stephanie C; MacGibbon, Alastair K; Quek, Siew-Young; Kindleysides, Sophie; Wiessing, Katy R

    2018-03-01

    Emulsified lipids, with central lipid core surrounded by polar lipid 'protective coat', have been proposed to stimulate the ileal brake, alter appetite, food intake and aid weight control. In addition to lipid composition, emulsion particle size may contribute to efficacy with small droplets providing a larger surface area for gastrointestinal (GI) lipase action and larger droplets prolonging and delaying digestion in the GI tract. Tube feeding studies delivering emulsions directly into the small intestine show clear effects of smaller particle size on appetite and food intake, but evidence from oral feeding studies is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lipid emulsion particle size on appetite response and food intake. In a three-arm randomised cross-over, high-phospholipid (PL) dairy lipid emulsions or matched control were consumed at breakfast within a yoghurt smoothie: (i) large-particle size emulsion, LPE (diameter 0.759 µm, 10 g lipid emulsion, 190 g yoghurt), (ii) small-particle size emulsion, SPE (diameter 0.290 µm, 10 g lipid emulsion, 190 g yoghurt), (iii) control non-emulsion, NE (10 g non-emulsion lipid, 190 g yoghurt). Twenty male participants completed the study, where postprandial appetite response was rated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and ad libitum energy intake at a lunch meal measured 3 h later. There was a trend for LPE to suppress hunger (P = 0.08) and enhance fullness (P = 0.24) relative to both SPE and NE but not statistically significant, and no significant effect of either emulsion on food intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Altering particle size of a high-PL emulsion did not enhance satiety or alter eating behaviour in a group of lean men.

  1. Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: a randomized cross-over study in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Windey

    Full Text Available Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity.After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP, 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles.Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity.This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513.

  2. Randomized cross-over trial of ventilator modes during non-invasive ventilation titration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Vanpee, Goele; Van Damme, Philip; Testelmans, Dries

    2017-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival, quality of life and sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, NIV titration is conducted in different ways. We aim to provide more insight into NIV titration by comparing the effects of a spontaneous (S) and spontaneous-timed (ST) modes on gas exchange, sleep architecture and patient-ventilator asynchronies (PVAs). After an initial night of NIV titration, patients were randomized to S or ST mode in a cross-over design. NIV was titrated using polysomnography, oximetry (oxygen saturation, SpO 2 %) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO 2 ) measurement. PVAs were analysed breath-by-breath. Thirteen patients were analysed after inclusion. ST mode showed better results in gas exchange (minimal SpO 2 %: 83 (80-89)% vs 87 (84-89)%; oxygen desaturation index: 15 (5-28)/h sleep vs 7 (3-9)/h sleep; PtcCO 2 >55 mm Hg: 20 (0-59)% vs 0 (0-27)% total sleep time for S and ST mode, respectively, all P < 0.05) and respiratory events (obstructive: 8.9 (1.2-18.3)/h sleep vs 1.8 (0.3-4.9)/h sleep and central: 2.6 (0.4-14.1)/h sleep vs 0.2 (0.0-1.1)/h sleep for S and ST mode, respectively, both P < 0.01). No differences in sleep architecture were found. Ineffective efforts and respiratory events were more frequently present in S mode. Nevertheless, four patients were discharged on S mode as these patients showed clinically better results for sleep architecture and PVA during the night on S mode. ST mode shows better results in gas exchange, respiratory events and PVA. Nevertheless, accurate NIV titration remains necessary as some patients show equal or better results when using the S mode. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Efficacy of ethanol-based hand foams using clinically relevant amounts: a cross-over controlled study among healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marschall Sigunde

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foams containing 62% ethanol are used for hand decontamination in many countries. A long drying time may reduce the compliance of healthcare workers in applying the recommended amount of foam. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between the applied amount and drying time, and the bactericidal efficacy of ethanol foams. Methods In a first part of tests, four foams (Alcare plus, Avagard Foam, Bode test foam, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer containing 62% ethanol, which is commonly used in U.S. hospitals, were applied to 14 volunteers in a total of seven variations, to measure drying times. In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of foam for a 30 s application time of two foams (Alcare plus, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer and water was compared to the EN 1500 standard of 2 × 3 mL applications of 2-propanol 60% (v/v, on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each application used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 volunteers. Results The mean weight of the applied foam varied between 1.78 and 3.09 g, and the mean duration to dryness was between 37 s and 103 s. The correlation between the amount of foam applied and time until hands felt dry was highly significant (p 10-reduction: 3.05 ± 0.45 and Alcare plus (3.58 ± 0.71 was significantly less effective than the reference disinfection (4.83 ± 0.89 and 4.60 ± 0.59, respectively; p 10-reduction of 2.39 ± 0.57. Conclusions When using 62% ethanol foams, the time required for dryness often exceeds the recommended 30 s. Therefore, only a small volume is likely to be applied in clinical practice. Small amounts, however, failed to meet the efficacy requirements of EN 1500 and were only somewhat more effective than water.

  4. Poor chest compression quality with mechanical compressions in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized, cross-over manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Hans; Gedeborg, Rolf; Berglund, Lars; Karlsten, Rolf; Johansson, Jakob

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical chest compression devices are being implemented as an aid in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), despite lack of evidence of improved outcome. This manikin study evaluates the CPR-performance of ambulance crews, who had a mechanical chest compression device implemented in their routine clinical practice 8 months previously. The objectives were to evaluate time to first defibrillation, no-flow time, and estimate the quality of compressions. The performance of 21 ambulance crews (ambulance nurse and emergency medical technician) with the authorization to perform advanced life support was studied in an experimental, randomized cross-over study in a manikin setup. Each crew performed two identical CPR scenarios, with and without the aid of the mechanical compression device LUCAS. A computerized manikin was used for data sampling. There were no substantial differences in time to first defibrillation or no-flow time until first defibrillation. However, the fraction of adequate compressions in relation to total compressions was remarkably low in LUCAS-CPR (58%) compared to manual CPR (88%) (95% confidence interval for the difference: 13-50%). Only 12 out of the 21 ambulance crews (57%) applied the mandatory stabilization strap on the LUCAS device. The use of a mechanical compression aid was not associated with substantial differences in time to first defibrillation or no-flow time in the early phase of CPR. However, constant but poor chest compressions due to failure in recognizing and correcting a malposition of the device may counteract a potential benefit of mechanical chest compressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  6. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Lauren E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches served either in normal (round, square or shaped (heart, hands, animals form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21. The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack. Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch. Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value  Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits.

  7. Tranexamic acid for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients: a European cross-over controlled trial in a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, S; Dupuis-Girod, S; Boutitie, F; Rivière, S; Morinière, S; Hatron, P-Y; Manfredi, G; Kaminsky, P; Capitaine, A-L; Roy, P; Gueyffier, F; Plauchu, H

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disorder associated with abnormal angiogenesis and disabling epistaxis. Tranexamic acid (TA) has been widely used in the treatment of these severe bleeds but with no properly designed trial. To demonstrate the efficacy of TA in epistaxis in HHT patients and to explore its safety of use. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to receive TA (3 g a day) then placebo or the opposite sequence. The main analysis compared intra-individual mean duration of epistaxis under TA vs. placebo on a log scale. The primary outcome was the mean duration of epistaxis per month, assessed with specific grids to be completed by participants. The number of epistaxis episodes was recorded as a secondary outcome. A total of 118 randomized patients contributed to the statistical analysis. The mean duration of epistaxis per month was significantly shorter with TA than placebo (0.19 on the log scale; SD = 0.07; P = 0.005), corresponding to a decrease of 17.3% (15.7 min) in the duration of epistaxis per month (CI 95%, 5.5-27.6). The median number of epistaxis episodes per month was 22.1 episodes in the placebo arm vs. 23.3 episodes in the TA arm. No thrombophlebitis was observed. In the ATERO study, we demonstrated a significant decrease in the duration of epistaxis in HHT patients taking TA. No safety issues were recorded in our cohort of patients. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Effects of 24 h working on-call on psychoneuroendocrine and oculomotor function: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Florian; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Zoller, Heinz; Griesmacher, Andrea; Hammerer-Lercher, Angelika; Carpenter, Roger; Schuessler, Gerhard; Joannidis, Michael

    2014-09-01

    On-call duty (OCD) is frequently associated with health and safety risks for both physicians and patients. The lack of studies conducted in clinical care environments and the ongoing public dialogue concerning OCD led to a detailed investigation of a working schedule including sleep fragmentation and extended work hours. Within-person randomized cross-over trial. Comparison of a 24h on-call shift (OCD) compared to a routine working-day (non on call, NOC) in hospital. 30 residents and senior physicians of the Department of Internal Medicine, Neurology and Otorhinolaryngology at the University Hospital Innsbruck. Sleep variables, cognitive performance (Concentration-Endurance d2 test), emotional status (Eigenschaftswoerterliste 60S), serum-cortisol, urinary cortisol and noradrenaline, heart-rate variability, and saccadic eye movements were determined before and after OCD and NOC respectively. Concentration-endurance performance was significantly reduced after OCD as compared to NOC by 16.4% (preduced after OCD (p<0.05) compared to NOC. 24 h OCD alters both, the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system as well as the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Moreover, physicians' emotional state, cognitive and oculomotor performance seems to be influenced independently from sleep interruptions. The discrepancy between subjective feeling and objective cognitive impairments pose a risk for performing complex manual and cognitive tasks. Hence, our findings argue against an oversimplified interpretation of alterations in the physicians' psychoneuroendocrine structure in terms of impaired mood and neurocognitive deterioration combined with up-/dysregulated stress axes associated with OCD as a consequence of sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  10. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  11. Flow cytogenetics: progress toward chromosomal aberration detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrano, A.V.; Gray, J.W.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Using clonal derivatives of the Chinese hamster M3-1 cell line, we demonstrate the potential of flow systems to karyotype homogeneous aberrations (aberrations which are identical and present in every cell) and to detect heterogeneous aberrations (aberrations which occur randomly in a population and are not identical in every cell). Flow cytometry (FCM) of ethidium bromide stained isolated chromosomes from clone 650A of the M3-1 cells distinguishes nine chromosome types from the fourteen present in the actual karyotype. X-irradiation of this parent 650A clone produced two sub-clones with an altered flow karyotype, that is, their FCM distributions were characterized by the addition of new peaks and alterations in area under existing peaks. From the relative DNA content and area for each peak, as determined by computer analysis, we predicted that each clone had undergone a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes from two peaks. This prediction was confirmed by Giemsa-banding the metaphase cells. Heterogeneous aberrations are reflected in the flow karyotype as an increase in background, that is, an increase in area underlying the chromosome peaks. This increase is dose dependent but, as yet, the sample variability has been too large for quantitative analysis. Flow sorting of the valleys between chromosome peaks produces enriched fractions of aberrant chromosomes for visual analysis. These approaches are potentially applicable to the analysis of chromsomal aberrations induced by environmental contaminants

  12. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  13. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  14. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S R; Hecht, F [Dept. of Pediatrics, Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Oregon Health Sciences Center, Portland, Oregon (USA); Lubs, H A; Kimberling, W; Brown, J; Gerald, P S; Summitt, R L

    1977-01-15

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, so radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant.

  15. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  16. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  17. Transverse correlation vanishing due to phase aberrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godin, T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available of the effects of each aberration on the ratio Sp ?? / , the following condition are imposed: 0max3max2max1 )()()( ??????? === . (9) It is assumed that the phase aberration is set in the beam-waist plane of radius mmW 5.10 = . Arbitrarily, the value... of max? is fixed to twice the incident beam width, 0max 2W=? , where the intensity is only 0.03% of the on-axis value. In the following we will express the aberration 0? in number of equivalent wavelengths given by the ratio )2/(00 pi...

  18. Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Holbrook, Monika; Duess, Mai-Ann; Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Asztalos, Bela F; Milbury, Paul E; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A

    2015-06-17

    Almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk via cholesterol reduction, anti-inflammation, glucoregulation, and antioxidation. The objective of this randomized, controlled, cross-over trial was to determine whether the addition of 85 g almonds daily to a National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 1 diet (ALM) for 6 weeks would improve vascular function and inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A randomized, controlled, crossover trial was conducted in Boston, MA to test whether as compared to a control NCEP Step 1 diet absent nuts (CON), incorporation of almonds (85 g/day) into the CON diet (ALM) would improve vascular function and inflammation. The study duration was 22 weeks including a 6-weeks run-in period, two 6-weeks intervention phases, and a 4-weeks washout period between the intervention phases. A total of 45 CAD patients (27 F/18 M, 45-77 y, BMI = 20-41 kg/m(2)) completed the study. Drug therapies used by patients were stable throughout the duration of the trial. The addition of almonds to the CON diet increased plasma α-tocopherol status by a mean of 5.8%, reflecting patient compliance (P ≤0.05). However, the ALM diet did not alter vascular function assessed by measures of flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, and pulse wave velocity. Further, the ALM diet did not significantly modify the serum lipid profile, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α or E-selectin. The ALM diet tended to decrease vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by 5.3% (P = 0.064) and increase urinary nitric oxide by 17.5% (P = 0.112). The ALM intervention improved the overall quality of the diet by increasing calcium, magnesium, choline, and fiber intakes above the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Thus, the addition of almonds to a NECP Step 1 diet did not significantly impact vascular function, lipid profile or systematic inflammation in CAD patients receiving

  19. Effect of meal composition on postprandial lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle numbers: A randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Shah

    Full Text Available It is unclear how high-protein (HP and high-monounsaturated fat (HMF meals affect postprandial blood lipids and lipoprotein particle numbers (LPN.To compare a HP versus a HMF meal on postprandial lipid and LPN responses.Twenty-four participants (age: 36.3±15.0 years; body mass index: 23.6±2.0 kg/m2; 45.8% female were fed a HP (31.9% energy from protein and a HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat meal in a randomized cross-over trial design. Energy and carbohydrate content were the same across meals. Blood samples were drawn in the fasting state and 3 hour postprandial state, and assessed for lipids and LPN.Repeated measures analysis showed a significant (p<0.05 treatment by time interaction effect for triglycerides (TG, the primary variable, total high-density lipoprotein particles (T-HDLP and T-HDLP minus large-buoyant high-density lipoprotein 2b (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b. HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG at 120 (geometric mean: 90.1 (95% confidence interval (CI: 76.4-106.3 vs. 146.5 (124.2-172.9 mg/dL and 180 (101.4 (83.1-123.8 vs. 148.7 (121.9-181.4 mg/dL min and higher T-HDLP at 120 (mean difference: 297.3 (95% CI: 48.6-545.9 nmol/L and 180 (291.6 (15.8-567.5 nmol/L min. The difference in T-HDLP by condition was due to the significantly higher small-dense HDLP (T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b during HP versus HMF condition at 120 (mean difference: 452.6 (95% CI: 177.4-727.9 nmol/L and 180 (496.8 (263.1-730.6 nmol/L min. Area under the curve analysis showed that HP versus HMF condition led to significantly lower TG, non-HDLP, and very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDLP responses but significantly less favorable responses in LB-HDL2b particles, T-HDLP-LB-HDL2b, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio.The HP meal led to lower TG, non-HDLP, and VLDLP but less favorable LB-HDL2b, small-dense HDLP, and LB-HDL2b/T-HDLP ratio responses versus a HMF meal. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings over multiple meals.

  20. A randomized cross-over trial of the postprandial effects of three different diets in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fernemark

    Full Text Available In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM. However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets.To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM.A low-fat diet (45-56 energy-% from carbohydrates, and a low-carbohydrate diet (16-24 energy-% from carbohydrates was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32-35 energy-% from carbohydrates in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025-1080 kCal in men and 905-984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision.Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC. The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35 ± 2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12 ± 5.2, p = 0.001 while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003.The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might

  1. Inflammatory response of a new synthetic dialyzer membrane. A randomised cross-over comparison between polysulfone and helixone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefoni, S; Colì, L; Cianciolo, G; Donati, G; Ruggeri, G; Ramazzotti, E; Pohlmeier, R; Lang, D

    2003-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients suffer from chronic inflammation due to intradialytic contact of blood with artificial materials. The FX 60 dialyzer which belongs to the new FX-class series of dialyzers is composed of the new membrane Helixone. This membrane is derived from the original Fresenius Polysulfone membrane. The FX-class design is based on modified geometry of fibres and housing and has resulted in a new dialyzer with improved efficiency, safety and ease of handling compared to the F series (F 60S) dialyzer. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the biocompatibility pattern in terms of inflammatory parameters of the new type of polysulfone dialyzer has changed compared to the standard. A clinical in vivo study was conducted to compare the intradialytic inflammatory response of the two dialyzers, FX 60 and F 60S. Eight chronic dialysis patients were selected for the study: mean age 65.5 +/- 15.5 years, mean time on dialysis 100 +/- 95 months. The randomized cross-over study involved a treatment period of 2 weeks (total 6 sessions), one week with each dialyzer, starting with one or the other according to the randomization scheme. Blood samples were taken at 0 (T0), 15, 60, and 240 minutes to evaluate white blood cell (WBC) count, complement factor C5a, leukocyte elastase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), platelet count, C-reactive protein (CRP). At 15 min, WBC count showed a comparably, low decrease for both dialyzers: -7.6% for FX 60 versus -6.6% for F 60S, p=not significant (ns). At the same time the C5a concentration decreased from 15.0 +/- 7.5 ng/ml to 13.5 +/- 6.7 ng/ml (p=ns) for FX 60, and from 15.1 +/- 12.5 ng/ml to 14.9 +/- 25.0 ng/ml for F 60S (p=ns). The elastase concentration progressively increased over time with no statistical difference between the two dialyzers. The levels of sICAM-1, CRP, and platelet count were similar at each time point for both dialyzers, varying around the baseline values (p=ns). No significant

  2. A Randomized Cross-Over Trial of the Postprandial Effects of Three Different Diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunjaku, Bekim; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Guldbrand, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. Objective To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. Methods A low-fat diet (45–56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16–24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32–35 energy−% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025–1080 kCal in men and 905–984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Results Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (pdiet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35±2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12±5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). Conclusions The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single large Mediterranean style lunch-meal in NIDDM might be advantageous from a metabolic perspective. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  3. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  4. Venlafaxine versus clonidine for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer patients : a double-blind, randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska; Mom, Constantijne H.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Boezen, H. Marike; Maurer, J. Marina; Wymenga, A. N. Machteld; de Jong, Robert S.; Nieboer, Peter; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    Purpose Breast cancer patients with treatment-induced menopause experience frequent and severe hot flashes (HF). We compared venlafaxine and clonidine for the treatment of HF with regard to side effects, efficacy, quality of life and sexual functioning. Methods In a double-blind, cross-over study,

  5. Gabapentin in traumatic nerve injury pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordh, Torsten E; Stubhaug, Audun; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by traumatic or postsurgical peripheral nerve injury, using doses up to 2400mg/day. The study comprised a run...

  6. Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Vogt, Josef Korbinian; Kristensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week d...

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on prolonged running performance: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Freis

    Full Text Available The ability to sustain intense exercise seems to be partially limited by the body's capability to counteract decreases in both intra- and extracellular pH. While the influence of an enhanced buffering capacity via sodium bicarbonate (BICA on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance has been repeatedly investigated, studies on prolonged endurance performances are comparatively rare, especially for running. The aim of the following study was to assess the ergogenic effects of an oral BICA substitution upon exhaustive intensive endurance running performance.In a double-blind randomized cross-over study, 18 trained runners (VO2peak: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1 performed two exhaustive graded exercise tests and two constant load tests (30 main at 95% individual anaerobic threshold (IAT followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion after ingestion of either sodium bicarbonate (BICA (0.3 g/kg or placebo (4 g NaCl diluted in 700 ml of water. Time to exhaustion (TTE in the constant load test was defined as the main outcome measure. Throughout each test respiratory gas exchange measurements were conducted as well as determinations of heart rate, blood gases and blood lactate concentration.TTE in the constant load test did not differ significantly between BICA and placebo conditions (BICA: 39.6 ± 5.6 min, placebo: 39.3 ± 5.6 min; p = 0.78. While pH in the placebo test dropped to a slightly acidotic value two minutes after cessation of exercise (7.34 ± 0.05 the value in the BICA trial remained within the normal range (7.41 ± 0.06 (p < 0.001. In contrast, maximum running speed (Vmax in the exhaustive graded exercise test was significantly higher with BICA (17.4 ± 1.0 km/h compared to placebo (17.1 ± 1.0 km/h (p = 0.009. The numerical difference in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak failed to reach statistical significance (BICA: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1, placebo: 59.8 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1; p = 0.31. Maximum blood lactate was significantly

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on prolonged running performance: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, Tanja; Hecksteden, Anne; Such, Ulf; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sustain intense exercise seems to be partially limited by the body's capability to counteract decreases in both intra- and extracellular pH. While the influence of an enhanced buffering capacity via sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, high-intensity exercise performance has been repeatedly investigated, studies on prolonged endurance performances are comparatively rare, especially for running. The aim of the following study was to assess the ergogenic effects of an oral BICA substitution upon exhaustive intensive endurance running performance. In a double-blind randomized cross-over study, 18 trained runners (VO2peak: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1) performed two exhaustive graded exercise tests and two constant load tests (30 main at 95% individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion) after ingestion of either sodium bicarbonate (BICA) (0.3 g/kg) or placebo (4 g NaCl) diluted in 700 ml of water. Time to exhaustion (TTE) in the constant load test was defined as the main outcome measure. Throughout each test respiratory gas exchange measurements were conducted as well as determinations of heart rate, blood gases and blood lactate concentration. TTE in the constant load test did not differ significantly between BICA and placebo conditions (BICA: 39.6 ± 5.6 min, placebo: 39.3 ± 5.6 min; p = 0.78). While pH in the placebo test dropped to a slightly acidotic value two minutes after cessation of exercise (7.34 ± 0.05) the value in the BICA trial remained within the normal range (7.41 ± 0.06) (p < 0.001). In contrast, maximum running speed (Vmax) in the exhaustive graded exercise test was significantly higher with BICA (17.4 ± 1.0 km/h) compared to placebo (17.1 ± 1.0 km/h) (p = 0.009). The numerical difference in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak) failed to reach statistical significance (BICA: 61.2 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1, placebo: 59.8 ± 6.4 ml•min-1•kg-1; p = 0.31). Maximum blood lactate was significantly

  9. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  10. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  11. In-situ determination of cross-over point for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method is described for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The method is based on measurement of the vertically resolved atomic emission of analyte within the plasma and therefore requires the addition of no reagents to the sample solution or to the plasma. Plasma-related matrix effects enhance analyte emission intensity low in the plasma but depress the same emission signal at higher positions. Such bipolar behavior is true for all emission lines and matrices that induce plasma-related interferences. The transition where the enhancement is balanced by the depression (the so-called cross-over point) results in a spatial region with no apparent matrix effects. Although it would be desirable always to perform determinations at this cross-over point, its location varies between analytes and from matrix to matrix, so it would have to be found separately for every analyte and for every sample. Here, a novel approach is developed for the in-situ determination of the location of this cross-over point. It was found that the location of the cross-over point is practically invariant for a particular analyte emission line when the concentration of the matrix was varied. As a result, it is possible to determine in-situ the location of the cross-over point for all analyte emission lines in a sample by means of a simple one-step sample dilution. When the original sample is diluted by a factor of 2 and the diluted sample is analyzed again, the extent of the matrix effect is identical (zero) between the original sample and the diluted sample at one and only one location - the cross-over point. This novel method was verified with several single-element matrices (0.05 M Na, Ca, Ba and La) and some mixed-element matrices (mixtures of Na-Ca, Ca-Ba, and a plant-sample digest). The inaccuracy in emission intensity due to the matrix effect could be as large as - 30% for conventional measurements in the

  12. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Frequencies of chromosome aberration on radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti Lusiyanti; Zubaidah Alatas

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure of the body can cause damage to the genetic material in cells (cytogenetic) in the form of changes in the structure or chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Chromosomal aberrations can be unstable as dicentric and ring chromosomes, and is stable as translocation. Dicentric chromosome is the gold standard biomarker due to radiation exposure, and chromosome translocation is a biomarker for retrospective biodosimetry. The aim of this studi is to conduct examination of chromosomal aberrations in the radiation worker to determine the potential damage of cell that may arise due to occupational radiation exposure. The examination have been carried out on blood samples from 55 radiation workers in the range of 5-30 year of service. Chromosome aberration frequency measurement starts with blood sampling, culturing, harvesting, slide preparations, and lymphocyte chromosome staining with Giemsa and painting with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique. The results showed that chromosomal translocations are not found in blood samples radiation workers and dicentric chromosomes found only on 2 blood samples of radiation workers with a frequency of 0.001/cell. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells such workers within normal limits and this means that the workers have been implemented a radiation safety aspects very well. (author)

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of intravenous S-adenosyl-L-methionine in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkmann, H; Nørregaard, J; Jacobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial. There was no sign......The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial.......17) and slight improvement only on fatigue, quality of sleep, morning stiffness, and on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for pain. No effect could be observed on isokinetic muscle strength, Zerrsen self-assessment questionnaire, and the face scale. No effect of SAMe in patients with FM was found...

  15. The effect of levetiracetam on focal nocturnal epileptiform activity during sleep--a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Pål Gunnar; Bakke, Kristin A; Bjørnæs, Helge; Heminghyt, Einar; Rytter, Elisif; Brager-Larsen, Line; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie

    2012-05-01

    Electric Status Epilepticus during Sleep (ESES) occurs in children with and without epilepsy. It may be related to disturbances as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and acquired aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment has been reported in small studies without placebo control. This study was designed to assess AED effect in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Levetiracetam (LEV) was chosen based on clinical evidence. Eighteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean spike index at baseline was 56, falling to a mean of 37 at the end of the LEV treatment period. Assessed with a 2-way ANOVA, there is a significant treatment effect (pdouble-blind cross-over study for any AED in patients with ESES. The effect of LEV is comparable with its effect in treatment of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of small solar powered 'Bͻkͻͻ' net fans on mosquito net use: results from a randomized controlled cross-over trial in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Yukich, Joshua O; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Miller, William; Jaeger, Mulako S; Khanna, Nitin; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Ahorlu, Collins K; Keating, Joseph

    2017-01-03

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are ineffective malaria transmission prevention tools if they are unused. Discomfort due to heat is the most commonly reported reason for not using nets, but this problem is largely unaddressed. With increasing rural electrification and the dropping price of solar power, fans could improve comfort inside nets and be affordable to populations in malaria endemic areas. Here, results are presented from a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study testing the effect of fans on LLIN use. Eighty-three households from two rural communities in Greater Accra, Ghana, randomized into three groups, participated in a 10-month cross-over trial. After a screening survey to identify eligible households, all households received new LLINs. Bͻkͻͻ net fan systems (one fan per member) were given to households in Group 1 and water filters were given to households in Group 2. At mid-point, Group 1 and 2 crossed over interventions. Households in Group 1 and 2 participated in fortnightly surveys on households' practices related to nets, fans and water filters, while households in Group 3 were surveyed only at screening, mid-point and study end. Entomological and weather data were collected throughout the study. Analysis took both 'per protocol' (PP) and 'intention to treat' (ITT) approaches. The mid- and end-point survey data from Group 1 and 2 were analysed using Firth logistic regressions. Fortnightly survey data from all groups were analysed using logistic regressions with random effects. Provision of fans to households appeared to increase net use in this study. Although the increase in net use explained by fans was not significant in the primary analyses (ITT odds ratio 3.24, p > 0.01; PP odds ratio = 1.17, p > 0.01), it was significant in secondary PP analysis (odds ratio = 1.95, p Fan use was 90-100% depending on the fortnightly visit. This pilot study could not provide definitive evidence that fans increase net use. A larger

  17. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, J P

    2004-01-01

    Second branchial cysts are the commonest lesions among congenital lateral neck anomalies. Good knowledge of anatomy and embryology are necessary for proper treatment. Surgical treatment involves resection of all branchial remnants, which extend laterally in the neck, medial to the sternocleidomastoid muscle with cranial extension to the pharynx and ipsilateral tonsillar fosa. However, infections and previous surgery can distort anatomy, making the approach to branchial anomalies more difficult. We present a case of a 17-year-old patient who presented with a second branchial tract anomaly with an aberrant extension to the midline and part of the contralateral neck. Previous surgical interventions and chronic infections may have been the primary cause for this aberrant tract. All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas.

  18. An aberrant precision account of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca P Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. A recent and controversial article presented a compelling normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012. In response, we suggested that when Bayesian interference is grounded in its neural instantiation – namely, predictive coding – many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013. Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings – that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms – are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs.

  19. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  20. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  1. Aberration Correction in the Brewer Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.E.; Kerr, J.B.; McElroy, C.T.; Wardle, D.I.

    2000-01-01

    The optical design of the Brewer Spectrophotometer has been optimised for measurements in the 300-320 nm wavelength range. An aberration resolution limit that is much less than the 0.6 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) is achieved by using an Ebert-Fastie spectrometer design, modified by the inclusion tilted lens that optimises performance at 310 nm. The small contribution of the remaining aberration to the measured instrument function is critical to radiometric measurement quality. Ramifications of this design to the development of instrumentation with enhanced scanning abilities are discussed. (author)

  2. Effect of aberrations in human eye on contrast sensitivity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Wang, Feng-lin; Wang, Zhao-qi

    2011-06-01

    The quantitative analysis of the effect of aberrations in human eye on vision has important clinical value in the correction of aberrations. The wave-front aberrations of human eyes were measured with the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and modulation transfer function (MTF) was computed from the wave-front aberrations. Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was obtained from MTF and the retinal aerial image modulation (AIM). It is shown that the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations deteriorate contrast sensitivity function. When the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th Zernike aberrations are corrected high contrast sensitivity function can be obtained.

  3. Effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention on retention of functional fitness in older adults: A randomized-controlled cross-over design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudlaugsson Janus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults have the highest rates of disability, functional dependence and use of healthcare resources. Training interventions for older individuals are of special interest where regular physical activity (PA has many health benefits. The main purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention (MTI on functional fitness in old adults. Methods For this study, 117 participants, 71 to 90 years old, were randomized in immediate intervention group and a control group (delayed intervention group. The intervention consisted of daily endurance and twice-a-week strength training. The method was based on a randomized-controlled cross-over design. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, 8 foot up-and-go test, strength performance, six min walking test (6 MW, physical activity, BMI and quality of life were obtained at baseline, after a 6-month intervention- and control phase, again after 6-month crossover- and delayed intervention phase, and after anadditional 6-month follow-up. Results After 6 months of MTI, the intervention group improved in physical performance compared with the control group via Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score (mean diff = 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.1, 1.0 and 8-foot up-and-go test (mean diff = −1.0 s, 95 % CI: -1.5, -0.6, and in endurance performance via 6-minute walking test (6 MW (mean diff = 44.2 meters, 95 % CI: 17.1, 71.2. In strength performance via knee extension the intervention group improved while control group declined (mean diff = 55.0 Newton, 95 % CI: 28.4, 81.7, and also in PA (mean diff = 125.9 cpm, 95 % CI: 96.0, 155.8. Long-term effects of MTI on the particpants was assesed by estimating the mean difference in the variables measured between time-point 1 and 4: SPPB (1.1 points, 95 % CI: 0.8, 1.4; 8-foot up-and-go (−0.9 s, 95 % CI: -1.2, -0.6; 6 MW (18.7 m, 95 % CI: 6.5, 31.0; knee extension (4.2 Newton

  4. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate) can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Zapotoczny and Sekelsky.

  5. Human Cell Assays for Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing and Crossing over During Double-Strand Break Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zapotoczny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most deleterious types of lesions to the genome. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA is thought to be a major pathway of DSB repair, but direct tests of this model have only been conducted in budding yeast and Drosophila. To better understand this pathway, we developed an SDSA assay for use in human cells. Our results support the hypothesis that SDSA is an important DSB repair mechanism in human cells. We used siRNA knockdown to assess the roles of a number of helicases suggested to promote SDSA. None of the helicase knockdowns reduced SDSA, but knocking down BLM or RTEL1 increased SDSA. Molecular analysis of repair products suggests that these helicases may prevent long-tract repair synthesis. Since the major alternative to SDSA (repair involving a double-Holliday junction intermediate can lead to crossovers, we also developed a fluorescent assay that detects crossovers generated during DSB repair. Together, these assays will be useful in investigating features and mechanisms of SDSA and crossover pathways in human cells.

  6. Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C

    2004-07-01

    Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.

  7. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, P.W., E-mail: peter.hawkes@cemes.fr

    2015-09-15

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies.

  8. Quality factor of aberrated gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available 15 20 25 30 35 M 4 © CSIR 2010 www.csir.co.za Conclusion • Laser beam quality depends on - y-Astigmatism - y-Coma - x-Coma - y-Triangular astigmatism - x-Triangular astigmatism - Spherical aberration...

  9. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies

  10. Non-random intrachromosomal distribution of radiation-induced chromatid aberrations in Vicia faba. [Aberration clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, I; Rieger, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Gatersleben. Zentralinst. fuer Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

    1976-04-01

    A reconstructed karyotype of Vicia faba, with all chromosomes individually distinguishable, was treated with X-rays, fast neutrons, (/sup 3/H) uridine (/sup 3/HU). The distribution within metaphase chromosomes of induced chromatid aberrations was non-random for all agents used. Aberration clustering, in part agent specific, occurred in chromosome segments containing heterochromatin as defined by the presence of G bands. The pattern of aberration clustering found after treatment with /sup 3/HU did not allow the recognition of chromosome regions active in transcription during treatment. Furthermore, it was impossible to obtain unambiguous indications of the presence of AT- and GC-base clusters from the patterns of /sup 3/HT- and /sup 3/HC-induced chromatid aberrations, respectively. Possible reasons underlying these observations are discussed.

  11. Measuring and correcting aberrations of a cathode objective lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss several theoretical and practical aspects related to measuring and correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations of a cathode objective lens as used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy (PEEM) experiments. Special attention is paid to the various components of the cathode objective lens as they contribute to chromatic and spherical aberrations, and affect practical methods for aberration correction. This analysis has enabled us to correct a LEEM instrument for the spherical and chromatic aberrations of the objective lens. -- Research highlights: → Presents a comprehensive theory of the relation between chromatic aberration and lens current in a cathode objective lens. → Presents practical methods for measuring both spherical and chromatic aberrations of a cathode objective lens. → Presents measurements of these aberrations in good agreement with theory. → Presents practical methods for measuring and correcting these aberrations with an electron mirror.

  12. The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1996-07-01

    Many model eyes have been proposed; they differ in optical characteristics and therefore have different aberrations and image quality. In predicting the visual performance of the eye, we are most concerned with the central foveal vision. Spherical aberration is the only on-axis monochromatic aberration and can be used as a criterion to assess the degree of resemblance of eye models to the human eye. We reviewed and compiled experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye, calculated the spherical aberration of several different categories of model eyes and compared the calculated results to the experimental data. Results show an over-estimation of spherical aberration by all models, the finite schematic eyes predicting values of spherical aberration closest to the experimental data. Current model eyes do not predict the average experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye. A new model eye satisfying this assessment criterion is required for investigations of the visual performance of the eye.

  13. [Genetic control of mitotic crossing-over in yeasts. III. Induction by 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave UV irradiation (lambda=365 nm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, I V; Marfin, S V

    1982-02-01

    The lethal effect of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus 365 nm light has been studied in haploid radiosensitive strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The diploid of wild type and the diploid homozygous for the rad2 mutation (this mutation blocks the excision of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers) were more resistant to the lethal effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light than the haploid of wild type and rad2 haploid, respectively. The diploid homozygous for rad54 mutation (the mutation blocks the repair of double-strand breaks in DNA) was more sensitive than haploid rad54. The method of repeated irradiation allowed to study the capacity of radiosensitive diploids to remove monoadducts induced by 8-MOP in DNA. This process was very effective in diploids of wild type and in the rad54 rad54 diploid, while the rad2 rad2 diploid was characterized by nearly complete absence of monoadduct excision. The study of mitotic crossing over and mitotic segregation in yeast diploids, containing a pair of complementing alleles of the ade2 gene (red/pink) has shown a very high recombinogenic effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light. The rad2 mutation slightly increased the frequency of mitotic segregation and mitotic crossing over. The rad54 mutation decreased the frequency of mitotic segregation and entirely suppressed mitotic crossing over. The method of repeated irradiation showed that the cross-links, but not monoadducts, are the main cause of high recombinogenic effect of 8-MOP plus 365 nm light. The possible participation of different repair systems in recombinational processes induced by 8-MOP in yeast cells is discussed.

  14. Theoretical investigation of aberrations upon ametropic human eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Baker, Kevin

    2003-11-01

    The human eye aberrations are important for visual acuity and ophthalmic diagnostics and surgical procedures. Reported monochromatic aberration data of the normal 20/20 human eyes are scarce. There exist even fewer reports of the relation between ametropic conditions and aberrations. We theoretically investigate the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of human eyes for refractive errors of -10 to +10 diopters. Schematic human eye models are employed using optical design software for axial, index, and refractive types of ametropia.

  15. The Effect of Nitrogen Cross-Over on Water Balance Measurements in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Using Constant Temperature Anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain an ad-hoc and real time electrical signal of the PEMFC water balance by employing a constant temperature hot wire anemometry has been developed by our fuel cell research group. In this work, the effect of nitrogen-cross over on this method is experimentally demonstrated...... by introducing 1% of nitrogen concentration to the dry and humidified hydrogen flow simulating the PEMFC anode outlet. The hot wire voltage is measured with and without nitrogen and it was slightly lower with the presence of nitrogen. The effect of the voltage reduction on the measured water balance is small...

  16. A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, S.G.; Priestman, T.J.; Canney, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Forty patients who were suffering from radiation induced emesis were entered into a prospectively randomised double-blind cross-over study comparing nabilone with metoclopramide. Only patients who had at least five treatments remaining of their planned course of irradiation were randomised, in order to allow an adequate time to monitor the degree of symptom control and any adverse effects of the two drugs. Patient characteristics and the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting were similar for the two groups. There was no difference in the efficacy of the two drugs but the incidence and severity of adverse reactions was significantly greater in those patients who received nabilone. (author)

  17. Ocular higher-order aberrations in a school children population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papamastorakis

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Differences in the low levels of ocular spherical aberration in young children possibly reflect differences in lenticular spherical aberration and relate to the gradient refractive index of the lens. The evaluation of spherical aberration at certain stages of eye growth may help to better understand the underlying mechanisms of myopia development.

  18. Coronary artery with aberrant origin malignant right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Saglam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is a major cause of sudden death, especially in young patients. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present a young patient with chest pain who had malignant right coronary artery (RCA) with aberrant origin. Materials and methods: 24-year-old man who applied cardiology clinic for chest pain and palpitations especially after exercise, was referred to our clinic for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate coronary artery anomalies. Results: In CT angiography; we detected aberrant RCA with origin of tubularly part of ascendant aorta with a malignant course between aorta and pulmonary artery. Left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and circumflex artery had normal origin and course. Conclusion: Coronary artery with malignant course may cause sudden death especially after exercise. Coronary CT angiography has an important role in diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomalies, with high resolution multiplanner reformatted images

  19. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of intravenous S-adenosyl-L-methionine in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkmann, H; Nørregaard, J; Jacobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial. There was no sign......The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial....... There was no significant difference in improvement in the primary outcome: tender point change between the two treatment groups. There was a tendency towards statistical significance in favour of SAMe on subjective perception of pain at rest (p = 0.08), pain on movement (p = 0.11), and overall well-being (p = 0.......17) and slight improvement only on fatigue, quality of sleep, morning stiffness, and on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for pain. No effect could be observed on isokinetic muscle strength, Zerrsen self-assessment questionnaire, and the face scale. No effect of SAMe in patients with FM was found...

  1. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (Pfruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (Pfruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.

  2. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and erectile dysfunction following external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, Luca; Koper, Peter C.M.; Hop, Wim C.J.; Slob, A. Koos

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in patients with erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: 406 patients with complaints of erectile dysfunction and who completed radiation at least 6 months before the study were approached by mail. 3D-CRT had been delivered (mean dose 68 Gy). Sixty patients were included and entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study lasting 12 weeks. They received during 2 weeks 50 mg of sildenafil or placebo; at Week 2 the dose was increased to 100 mg in case of unsatisfactory erectile response. At Week 6, patients crossed over to the alternative treatment. Data were collected using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, and side effects were recorded. Results: Mean age was 68 years. All patients completed the study. For most questions of the IIEF questionnaire there was a significant increase in mean scores from baseline with sildenafil, but not with placebo. Ninety percent of the patients needed a dose adjustment to 100 mg sildenafil. Side effects were mild or moderate. Conclusion: Sildenafil is well tolerated and effective in improving erectile function of patients with ED after 3D-CRT for prostate cancer

  3. Impact of olive oil-rich diet on serum omentin and adiponectin levels: a randomized cross-over clinical trial among overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Akram; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil-rich diet on omentin and adiponectin concentrations. This cross-over randomized trial included 17 overweight women. Participants were assigned to consume either a usual (16% saturated fatty acids [SFA] and 8% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA]) or an olive oil-rich diet (16% MUFA and 8% SFA) for 6 weeks crossing over after a 2-week washout period. There was no significant difference in the changes of omentin between two dietary interventions. However, in the adjusted model for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat mass, usual diet tended to decrease omentin levels whilst olive oil-rich diet tended to increase (-56.1 ± 32.0 versus 40.6 ± 32.0 ng/mL; p = .056). Adiponectin levels increased during two periods, but changes were greater during olive oil-rich diet with a trend toward significance (4.8 ± 3.0 versus 13.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL; p = .06). Consumption of olive oil-rich diet tended to increase omentin and adiponectin in comparison with the usual diet.

  4. The effect of using an audience response system on learning, motivation and information retention in the orthodontic teaching of undergraduate dental students: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Harmeet Kaur; Allen, Mark; Kang, Jing; Bates, Claire; Hodge, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    New methods of teaching and learning are constantly being sought in the adult learning environment. Audience Response Systems (ARS) have been used in many different learning environments, especially in the field of medical education. The objective of this investigation was to ascertain the effect of ARS use in undergraduate teaching in a UK dental school. A cross-over clustered randomized educational trial. Leeds Dental Institute. Year 4 undergraduate dental students in orthodontics. Students at Leeds Dental Institute were taught two different topics within the curriculum to test the use of ARS in a cross-over trial. A questionnaire was delivered to the test (ARS) and control (non-ARS) groups. The response rate to the questionnaires was 89·5% (test group) and 82·9% (control group). The ARS enabled students to perform better as shown by knowledge retention (P = 0·013). Students found the seminar more interesting (P = 0·013), easier to concentrate (P = 0·025) and easier to participate in (P = 0·020) when ARS was used. When ARS was used, students were more able to answer questions (P<0·0001), were more likely to prepare for the seminar (P<0·0001) and significantly preferred using ARS (P<0·0001). ARS was found to significantly improve student concentration and participation in small group seminar teaching and significantly improved knowledge retention. ARS may be useful in facilitating orthodontic teaching in the future.

  5. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  6. Aberrant PO2 values in proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, C E; Clausen, J L; Mahoney, J

    1993-03-01

    We prospectively determined the frequency of aberrant vials of fluorocarbon/buffer used for proficiency testing of measurements of pH, PCO2, and PO2, using 20 duplicate vials from 12 lots of fluorocarbon/buffer and two arterial blood gas analyzers in eight reference laboratories. We defined aberrant vials as vials for which both duplicate measurements differed from the mean value of repeated measurements for the specific instrument (for each lot of testing materials) by > 0.04 for pH, > 10% of the mean or 3.0 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PCO2; or > 10% of the mean or 6 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PO2. Four of 1620 vials (0.25%) were aberrant, all based on PO2 measurements (range of mean values: pH, 7.181-7.631; PCO2, 12.7-65.9; PO2, 32.5-150.1) were 0.0055 for pH, 0.67 mm Hg for PCO2, and 1.65 mm Hg for PO2. Deliberate contamination of the fluorocarbon emulsion with room air, as might occur during sampling from the vial, indicated that only minor increases in PO2 (e.g., 1.0 mm Hg at PO2 of 56 mm Hg) occur when samples are aspirated. Larger increases in PO2 (mean 7.1 mm Hg at a PO2 of 66 mm Hg) occurred when the syringe samples were contaminated with room air. We conclude that isolated aberrant measurements of PO2 in blood gas proficiency testing attributable to vial contents can occur, but the frequency is very low.

  7. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.

    2004-06-01

    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  8. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  10. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  11. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  12. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  13. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p p p p = 0.05, and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05, were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.

  14. The MLH1 ATPase domain is needed for suppressing aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pingping; Chai, Weihang

    2018-05-01

    Genome instability gives rise to cancer. MLH1, commonly known for its important role in mismatch repair (MMR), DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair, safeguards genome stability. Recently we have reported a novel role of MLH1 in preventing aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) at intra-chromosomal regions. Deficiency in MLH1, in particular its N-terminus, leads to an increase of ITSs. Here, we identify that the ATPase activity in the MLH1 N-terminal domain is important for suppressing the formation of ITSs. The ATPase activity is also needed for recruiting MLH1 to DSBs. Moreover, defective ATPase activity of MLH1 causes an increase in micronuclei formation. Our results highlight the crucial role of MLH1's ATPase domain in preventing the aberrant formation of telomeric sequences at the intra-chromosomal regions and preserving genome stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Vogt, Josef Korbinian; Kristensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. Design 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week...... dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory...... of whole grain consumed, in particular with intake of rye. Conclusion Compared with refined grain diet, whole grain diet did not alter insulin sensitivity and gut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation....

  16. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Enhanced bioavailability of lycopene when consumed as cis-isomers from tangerine compared to red tomato juice, a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperstone, Jessica L; Ralston, Robin A; Riedl, Ken M; Haufe, Thomas C; Schweiggert, Ralf M; King, Samantha A; Timmers, Cynthia D; Francis, David M; Lesinski, Gregory B; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Tangerine tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are rich in tetra-cis-lycopene resulting from natural variation in carotenoid isomerase. Our objective was to compare the bioavailability of lycopene from tangerine to red tomato juice, and elucidate physical deposition forms of these isomers in tomatoes by light and electron microscopy. Following a randomized cross-over design, subjects (n = 11, 6 M/5 F) consumed two meals delivering 10 mg lycopene from tangerine (94% cis) or red tomato juice (10% cis). Blood was sampled over 12 h and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions of plasma were isolated and analyzed using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Lycopene was crystalline in red tomato chromoplasts and globular in tangerine tomatoes. With tangerine tomato juice we observed a marked 8.5-fold increase in lycopene bioavailability compared to red tomato juice (p rich foods. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Two randomized cross-over trials assessing the impact of dietary gluten or wholegrain on the gut microbiome and host metabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    as baseline characteristics of two human intervention studies, within the Gut, Grain and Greens (3G) Center, investigating the effects of a gluten-poor and wholegrain-rich diet on microbiota composition and metabolic health. Design: The gluten and wholegrain studies had a randomized, controlled, cross......-over design each comprising two eight-week dietary intervention periods, separated by a six-week wash-out period. Each trial included 60 men and women exhibiting an increased metabolic risk. In the gluten study a gluten-poor diet was compared with a gluten-rich dietary fiber-controlled diet......, and in the wholegrain study a wholegrain-rich diet was compared with a refined grain diet. The control diet was identical in both studies, being concomitantly high in gluten and refined. Participants substituted all cereal products with provided intervention products which they consumed ad libitum. Before and after...

  19. The effect of physical training on patients with rheumatoid arthritis: changes in disease activity, muscle strength and aerobic capacity. A clinically controlled minimized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngberg, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Halskov, O

    1988-01-01

    cross-over study the effect of graduated progressive training has been evaluated in 18 RA-patients with moderately active disease. The training was performed twice weekly with aerobic conditioning and strength exercises progressing to strenuous exercises over an 8-week period. The design was a crossover......For decades, physical training of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients has been controversial, especially for patients with active disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RA-patients could receive graduated training without increasing the activity of the disease. In a controlled...... project with two groups obtained by minimisation. After training the patients had significantly fewer swollen joints than before. Training of the muscles acting over the swollen joints resulted in more than a 35% decrease in the number of swollen joints. The hemoglobin level increased significantly after...

  20. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...... minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized.Main outcome measures: Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments...

  1. Effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force: A preliminary cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Mostafa, Aisha Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    This cross over study aimed to evaluate the effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with complete maxillary edentulism and partially edentulous mandibles with anterior teeth only remaining were selected for this cross over study. All patients received complete maxillary dentures and mandibular partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP, control). After 3 months of adaptation, PRDP was replaced with conventional telescopic partial dentures (TPD) or telescopic partial dentures with cantilevered extensions (TCPD) in a quasi-random method. Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using OHIP-14 questionnaire and Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses; PRDP, TPD, and TCPD. TCPD showed the OHIP-14 lowest scores (i.e., the highest patient satisfaction with their OHRQoL), followed by TPD, and PRDP showed the highest OHIP-14 scores (i.e., the lowest patient satisfaction with OHRQoL). TCPD showed the highest MBF (70.7 ± 3.71), followed by TPD (57.4 ± 3.43) and the lowest MBF (40.2 ± 2.20) was noted with PRDP. WITHIN The Limitations of This Study, Mandibular Telescopic Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures with Cantilevered Extensions Were Associated with Improved Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Maximum Bite Force Compared to Telescopic or Conventional PRDP. Telescopic distal extension removable prostheses is an esthetic restoration in partially edentulous patients with free end saddle. This article describes the addition of cantilevered extensions of this prosthesis. The results showed that telescopic distal extension removable prostheses with cantilevered extensions were associated with improved oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force compared to telescopic or conventional RPDs

  2. The Effects of Consumption of Bread Fortified With Soy Bean Flour on Metabolic Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.

  3. The effects of consumption of bread fortified with soy bean flour on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women: A cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Salari Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Results: Mean (±standard deviation age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: -3.7, P = 0.82, serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: -11.2, P = 0.50, insulin (change difference: -3.6, P = 0.7, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: -0.57, P = 0.45 after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Conclusions: Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile.

  4. Efficacy of topical Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) oil for migraine headache: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Maria; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Heydari, Mojtaba; Shariat, Abdolhamid

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of topical formulation of Rosa damascena Mill. (R. damascena) oil on migraine headache, applying syndrome diffrentiation model. Forty patients with migraine headache were randomly assigned to 2 groups of this double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The patients were treated for the first 2 consecutive migraine headache attacks by topical R. damascena oil or placebo. Then, after one week of washout period, cross-over was done. Pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache was recorded at the beginnig and ten-sequence time schadule of attacks up to 24h. In addition, photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea and/or vomitting (N/V) of the patients were recorded as secondary outcomes. Finally, gathered data were analysed in a syndrome differentiation manner to assess the effect of R. damascena oil on Hot- and Cold-type migraine headache. Mean pain intensity of the patients' migraine headache in the different time-points after R. damascena oil or placebo use, was not significantly different. Additionally, regarding mean scores of N/V, photophobia, and phonophobia severity of the patients, no significant differences between the two groups were observed. Finally, applying syndrome differentiation model, the mean score of migraine headache pain intensity turned out to be significantly lower in patients with "hot" type migraine syndrome at in 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min after R. damascena oil application compared to "cold" types (P values: 0.001, 0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and 0.02; respectively). It seems that syndrome differentiation can help in selection of patients who may benefit from the topical R. damascena oil in short-term relief of pain intensity in migraine headache. Further studies of longer follow-up and larger study population, however, are necessitated for more scientifically rigorous judgment on efficacy of R. damascena oil for patients with migraine headache. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mlh1 is required for female fertility in Drosophila melanogaster: An outcome of effects on meiotic crossing over, ovarian follicles and egg activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Divya; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Ashutosh; Sharma, Divya; Saini, Sanjay; Gupta, Snigdha; Ravi Ram, Kristipati; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2018-03-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) system, a conserved DNA repair pathway, plays crucial role in DNA recombination and is involved in gametogenesis. The impact of alterations in MMR family of proteins (bacterial MutS and MutL homologues) on mammalian fertility is well documented. However, an insight to the role of MMR in reproduction of non-mammalian organisms is limited. Hence, in the present study, we analysed the impact of mlh1 (a MutL homologue) on meiotic crossing over/recombination and fertility in a genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster. Using mlh1 e00130 hypomorphic allele, we report female specific adverse reproductive outcome for reduced mlh1 in Drosophila: mlh1 e00130 homozygous females had severely reduced fertility while males were fertile. Further, mlh1 e00130 females contained small ovaries with large number of early stages as well as significantly reduced mature oocytes, and laid fewer eggs, indicating discrepancies in egg production and ovulation. These observations contrast the sex independent and/or male specific sterility and normal follicular development as well as ovulation reported so far for MMR family proteins in mammals. However, analogous to the role(s) of mlh1 in meiotic crossing over and DNA repair processes underlying mammalian fertility, ovarian follicles from mlh1 e00130 females contained significantly increased DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and reduced synaptonemal complex foci. In addition, large proportion of fertilized eggs display discrepancies in egg activation and fail to proceed beyond stage 5 of embryogenesis. Hence, reduction of the Mlh1 protein level leads to defective oocytes that fail to complete embryogenesis after fertilization thereby reducing female fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  7. Effects of breaking up sitting on adolescents' postprandial glucose after consuming meals varying in energy: a cross-over randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elly A; Salmon, Jo; McNaughton, Sarah A; Orellana, Liliana; Wadley, Glenn D; Bruce, Clinton; Dempsey, Paddy C; Lacy, Kathleen E; Dunstan, David W

    2018-03-01

    To explore the impact of uninterrupted sitting versus sitting with resistance-type activity breaks on adolescents' postprandial glucose responses while consuming a diet varying in energy. Cross-over randomised trial. Thirteen healthy participants (16.4±1.3years) completed a four-treatment cross-over trial: (1) uninterrupted sitting+high-energy diet; (2) sitting with breaks+high-energy diet; (3) uninterrupted sitting+standard-energy diet; and (4) sitting with breaks+standard-energy diet. For all four conditions, two identical meals were consumed; at 0h and 3h. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) recorded interstitial glucose concentrations every five minutes. Linear mixed models examined differences in glucose positive incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and total AUC between the sitting and diet conditions for the first meal, second meal and entire trial period. Compared to the uninterrupted sitting conditions, the breaks condition elicited a 36.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) and 35.9mmol/L/h (95%CI 6.6-65.5) lower iAUC response after the first and second meal, respectively, but not for the entire trial period or for total AUC. Compared to the standard-energy diet, the high-energy diet elicited a 55.0mmol/L/h (95%CI 25.8-84.2) and 75.7mmol/L/h (95%CI 8.6-142.7) higher iAUC response after the first meal and entire trial, respectively. Similar response to the high-energy diet were observed for total AUC. According to iAUC, interrupting sitting had a significant effect on lowering postprandial glucose for both dietary conditions, however, it was not significant when examining total AUC. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. ACTRN12615001145594. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival and transmission of symmetrical chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction between the lesions to produce chromosomal structural changes may be either asymmetrical (A) or symmetrical (S). In A, one or more acentric fragments are always produced, and there may also be the mechanical separation problems resulting from bridges at anaphase, while S-changes never produce fragment, and pose no mechanical problem in cell division. If A and S events occur with equal frequency, it might be an indication that they are truly the alternative modes of lesion interaction. Unstimulated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.68 Gy 250 kV X-ray, and metaphases were sampled at 50 h after the stimulation. Preparations were complete diploid cells, and any obvious second division cells were rejected. So far as dermal repair and fibroblast functions are concerned, aberration burden seems to have little consequence from the view-point of the long-term survival in vivo. Large numbers of aberrations (mainly S translocation and terminal deletion) were found in the samples taken up to 60 years after therapy. Skin biopsies were removed 1 day and 6 months after irradiation and cultured. In irradiated cells, reciprocal translocations dominated, followed by terminal deletions, then inversions, while no chromosome-type aberration was seen in the control cells. a) The relative occurrence of A : S changes, b) long-term survival in vivo, c) the possibility of in vivo repair, and d) some unusual features of translocation found in Syrian hamsters are reviewed. The relevance or importance of major S events is clearly dependent upon the cells, the tissues or the organisms in which they occur. (Yamashita, S.)

  9. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  10. Aberrant Myokine Signaling in Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nakamori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1 and 2 (DM2 are dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by a toxic gain of function of expanded CUG and CCUG repeats, respectively. Although both disorders are clinically similar, congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM, a severe DM form, is found only in DM1. CDM is also characterized by muscle fiber immaturity not observed in adult DM, suggesting specific pathological mechanisms. Here, we revealed upregulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6 myokine signaling pathway in CDM muscles. We also found a correlation between muscle immaturity and not only IL-6 expression but also expanded CTG repeat length and CpG methylation status upstream of the repeats. Aberrant CpG methylation was associated with transcriptional dysregulation at the repeat locus, increasing the toxic RNA burden that upregulates IL-6. Because the IL-6 pathway is involved in myocyte maturation and muscle atrophy, our results indicate that enhanced RNA toxicity contributes to severe CDM phenotypes through aberrant IL-6 signaling. : Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM manifests characteristic genetic (very large CTG repeat expansions, epigenetic (CpG hypermethylation upstream of the repeat, and phenotypic (muscle immaturity features not seen in adult DM. Nakamori et al. find phenotype-genotype and epigenotype correlation in CDM muscle and reveal involvement of the IL-6 myokine signaling pathway in the disease process. Keywords: CTCF, ER stress, IL-6, muscular dystrophy, NF-κB, trinucleotide, cytokine, splicing

  11. Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Oberholzer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye. Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenson, I.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Lemperg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Among children who have received high x-ray doses congenital dislocation of the hip joint is the predominating diagnosis. In a series of 9 children who had received high x-ray doses (8 with luxation of the hip joint and one with achondroplasia) a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations was found. The increase concerned mainly chromosome type aberrations. The shorter the time since the last x-ray investigation the higher was the frequency of chromosome type aberrations. (author)

  13. Third-rank chromatic aberrations of electron lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients of round electron lenses are analytically derived and numerically calculated by Mathematica. Furthermore, the numerical results are cross-checked by the differential algebraic (DA) method, which verifies that all the formulas for the third-rank chromatic aberration coefficients are completely correct. It is hoped that this work would be helpful for further chromatic aberration correction in electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eye

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan

    2005-01-01

    The monochromatic optical aberrations of the eye degrade retinal image quality. Any significant aberrations during postnatal development could contribute to infants’ immature visual performance and provide signals for the control of eye growth. Aberrations of human infant eyes from 5 to 7 weeks old were compared with those of adult subjects using a model of an adultlike infant eye that accounted for differences in both eye and pupil size. Data were collected using the COAS Shack-Hartmann wave...

  15. Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.

  16. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in the rat peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemba-Zoltowska, B.; Bocian, E.; Radwan, I.; Rosiek, O.; Sablinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in rat lymphocytes of peripheral blood after X (in vitro and in vivo) and 3 H tritiated water (in vivo) irradiations were studied. The yield of chromosome aberrations after in vivo and in vitro exposure to X-rays was similar. The frequency of chromosome aberrations three weeks after exposure to X-rays and soon after irradiation was practically on the same level. The yield of chromosome aberrations determined three weeks after injection with tritiated water or X-rays exposure was similar. (author)

  17. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  18. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  19. Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples.

  20. Chromosome aberrations: plants to human and Feulgen to FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and their impact on human health have been recognized for a long time. In the 1950s, in India, studies on induced chromosome aberrations in plants were initiated by Swaminathan and his students. I trace here the impact of these initial studies on further developments in this field. The studies which were started in plants have been extended to mammals (including human) and the simple squash and solid staining have been improved by molecular cytogenetic techniques, thus enabling accurate identification and quantification of different types of chromosome aberrations. These studies have also thrown light on the mechanisms of chromosome aberration formation, especially following exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  1. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial of DONepezil In Posterior cortical atrophy due to underlying Alzheimer's Disease: DONIPAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridha, Basil H; Crutch, Sebastian; Cutler, Dawn; Frost, Christopher; Knight, William; Barker, Suzie; Epie, Norah; Warrington, Elizabeth K; Kukkastenvehmas, Riitta; Douglas, Jane; Rossor, Martin N

    2018-05-01

    The study investigated whether donepezil exerts symptomatic benefit in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease. A single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was performed to assess the efficacy of donepezil in patients with PCA. Each patient received either donepezil (5 mg once daily in the first 6 weeks and 10 mg once daily in the second 6 weeks) or placebo for 12 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, each patient received the other treatment arm during the following 12 weeks followed by another 2-week washout period. The primary outcome was the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were five neuropsychological tests reflecting parieto-occipital function. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. For each outcome measure, carry-over effects were first assessed. If present, then analysis was restricted to the first 12-week period. Otherwise, the standard approach to the analysis of a 2 × 2 cross-over trial was used. Eighteen patients (13 females) were recruited (mean age 61.6 years). There was a protocol violation in one patient, who subsequently withdrew from the study due to gastrointestinal side effects. There was statistically significant (p effect on MMSE. Therefore, the analysis of treatment effect on MMSE was restricted to the first 12-week period. Treatment effect at 6 weeks was statistically significant (difference = 2.5 in favour of donepezil, 95% CI 0.1 to 5.0, p effect at 12 weeks was close, but not statistically significant (difference = 2.0 in favour of donepezil, 95% CI -0.1 to 4.5, p > 0.05). There were no statistically significant treatment effects on any of the five neuropsychological tests, except for digit span at 12 weeks (higher by 0.5 digits in favour of placebo, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9). Gastrointestinal side effects occurred most frequently, affecting 13/18 subjects (72%), and were the cause of study discontinuation in one

  2. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.P.S.; Word, R.C.; Koenenkamp, R.

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z 0 , and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C s and C c , of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties. -- Highlights: → Electrostatic aberration correction for chromatic and spherical aberration in electron optics. → Simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations over a wide, adjustable range. → Analytic and quantitative description of correction parameters.

  3. The effect of recommending a CPP-ACPF product on salivary and plaque pH levels in orthodontic patients: a randomized cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Haleh; Banava, Sepideh; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mojtahedzadeh, Faramarz

    2014-11-01

    Along with their re-mineralizing capacity, calcium phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products combined with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) could also be beneficial by neutralizing acidic salivary and plaque pH. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACPF on salivary and plaque pH in orthodontic patients. As a triple-blind, cross-over randomized trial, 30 orthodontic patients with fixed appliances (age range = 15.70 ± 4.08 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. A CPP-ACPF paste (MI Paste Plus, GC America, Alsip, IL) was used by group 1 (n = 15) and a placebo by group 2 (n = 15) for 1 month. After a 1 month washout period, patients used the alternative paste for another month. Plaque and salivary pH levels were measured at all before and after periods. By applying MI Paste Plus, the plaque pH increased from 5.81 ± 0.45 to 6.60 ± 0.38 (p salivary pH recordings, which were 6.72 ± 0.43 and 6.71 ± 0.38, respectively, remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05). MI Paste Plus can be clinically beneficial in increasing plaque pH levels, but has no effect on the salivary pH.

  4. The effect of chronic progressive-dose sodium bicarbonate ingestion on CrossFit-like performance: A double-blind, randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia E; Podgórski, Tomasz; Łoniewski, Igor; Zawieja, Bogna E; Warzybok, Marta; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (SB) has been proposed as an ergogenic aid, as it improves high-intensity and resistance exercise performance. However, no studies have yet investigated SB application in CrossFit. This study examined the effects of chronic, progressive-dose SB ingestion on CrossFit-like performance and aerobic capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial, 21 CrossFit-trained participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups and underwent 2 trials separated by a 14-day washout period. Participants ingested either up to 150 mg∙kg-1 of SB in a progressive-dose regimen or placebo for 10 days. Before and after each trial, Fight Gone Bad (FGB) and incremental cycling (ICT) tests were performed. In order to examine biochemical responses, blood samples were obtained prior to and 3 min after completing each exercise test. No gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were reported during the entire protocol. The overall FGB performance improved under SB by ~6.1% (pCrossFit-like performance, as well as delayed ventilatory threshold occurrence.

  5. Influence of neural mobilization of lower limbs on the functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals: a cross-over randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Guilherme S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To verify the influence of neural mobilization (NM applied to the lower limbs on functional performance and dynamic balance in asymptomatic individuals. Methods. The total of 30 asymptomatic participants (15 women and 15 men; age, 30.1 ± 6.7 years; height, 1.70 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 73.1 ± 13.4 kg were enrolled in this cross-over randomized controlled trial. The participants received NM of the femoral, sciatic, and tibial nerves, as well as static stretching (SS of the following muscles: hamstring, lumbar, piriformis, hip adductors, hip flexors, quadriceps, and triceps surae. The order of applying NM and SS was randomly decided and the interventions were performed at least 48 hours apart. Functional performance was measured by performance in vertical jump (VJ and dynamic balance was measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Results. There were no differences between NM and SS for height (cm in VJ (p = 0.16 or in the distance reached (% in the SEBT, normalized by lower limb length (dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.35; posterolateral, p = 0.69; posteromedial, p = 0.50 / non-dominant limb: anterior, p = 0.68; posterolateral, p = 1.00; posteromedial, p = 0.77. Conclusions. NM did not exert any influence on functional performance or dynamic balance. Thereby, having no positive or negative impact on performance, NM can be used at any time of treatment.

  6. The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men—A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Aaslyng, Margit D.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility. PMID:28846600

  7. Effects of whole-grain rye porridge with added inulin and wheat gluten on appetite, gut fermentation and postprandial glucose metabolism: a randomised, cross-over, breakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Isabella; Shi, Lin; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Risérus, Ulf; Landberg, Rikard

    2016-12-01

    Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts. A standardised lunch and an ad libitum dinner were served 4 and 8 h later, respectively. Appetite, breath hydrogen and methane, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) responses were measured over 8 h. Twenty-one healthy men and women, aged 23-60 years, with BMI of 21-33 kg/m2 participated in this study. Before lunch, the 55-g rye porridges lowered hunger by 20 % and desire to eat by 22 % and increased fullness by 29 % compared with wheat bread (Pinulin and gluten compared with plain rye porridges.

  8. A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel W; Eppingstall, Barbara; Taffe, John; van der Ploeg, Eva S

    2013-11-13

    Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively. 64 nursing home residents with frequent physically agitated behaviours were entered into a randomized, single-blind cross-over trial of dermally-applied, neurophysiologically active, high purity 30% lavender oil versus an inactive control oil. A blinded observer counted the presence or absence of target behaviours and rated participants' predominant affect during each minute for 30 minutes prior to exposure and for 60 minutes afterwards. Lavender oil did not prove superior to the control oil in reducing the frequency of physically agitated behaviours or in improving participants' affect. Studies of essential oils are constrained by their variable formulations and uncertain pharmacokinetics and so optimal dosing and delivery regimens remain speculative. Notwithstanding this, topically delivered, high strength, pure lavender oil had no discernible effect on affect and behaviour in a well-defined clinical sample. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000569202).

  9. Heart rate variability during acute psychosocial stress: A randomized cross-over trial of verbal and non-verbal laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Agostino; Zarbo, Cristina; Tarvainen, Mika P; Marchettini, Paolo; Adorni, Roberta; Compare, Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Acute psychosocial stress is typically investigated in laboratory settings using protocols with distinctive characteristics. For example, some tasks involve the action of speaking, which seems to alter Heart Rate Variability (HRV) through acute changes in respiration patterns. However, it is still unknown which task induces the strongest subjective and autonomic stress response. The present cross-over randomized trial sought to investigate the differences in perceived stress and in linear and non-linear analyses of HRV between three different verbal (Speech and Stroop) and non-verbal (Montreal Imaging Stress Task; MIST) stress tasks, in a sample of 60 healthy adults (51.7% females; mean age = 25.6 ± 3.83 years). Analyses were run controlling for respiration rates. Participants reported similar levels of perceived stress across the three tasks. However, MIST induced a stronger cardiovascular response than Speech and Stroop tasks, even after controlling for respiration rates. Finally, women reported higher levels of perceived stress and lower HRV both at rest and in response to acute psychosocial stressors, compared to men. Taken together, our results suggest the presence of gender-related differences during psychophysiological experiments on stress. They also suggest that verbal activity masked the vagal withdrawal through altered respiration patterns imposed by speaking. Therefore, our findings support the use of highly-standardized math task, such as MIST, as a valid and reliable alternative to verbal protocols during laboratory studies on stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Murphy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women.

  11. Influence of erythropoietin on cognitive performance during experimental hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lommer Kristensen

    Full Text Available The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes has not decreased over the past decades. New treatment modalities minimizing the risk of hypoglycemic episodes and attenuating hypoglycemic cognitive dysfunction are needed. We studied if treatment with the neuroprotective hormone erythropoietin (EPO enhances cognitive function during hypoglycemia.Eleven patients with type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness and recurrent severe hypoglycemia completed the study. In a double-blind, randomized, balanced, cross-over study using clamped hypoglycemia they were treated with 40,000 IU of EPO or placebo administered intravenously six days before the two experiments. Cognitive function (primary endpoint, hypoglycemic symptoms, and counter-regulatory hormonal response were recorded.Compared with placebo, EPO treatment was associated with a significant reduction in errors in the most complex reaction time task (-4.7 (-8.1 to -1.3, p = 0.01 and a less reaction time prolongation (-66 (-117 to -16 msec, p = 0.02. EPO treatment did not change performance in other measures of cognition. Hypoglycemic symptoms, EEG-changes, and counter-regulatory hormone concentrations did not differ between EPO and placebo treatment.In patients with type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness, treatment with EPO is associated with a beneficial effect on cognitive function in a complex reaction time task assessing sustained attention/working memory. Hypoglycemic symptoms and hormonal responses were not changed by EPO treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00615368.

  12. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women. PMID:24534884

  13. The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men-A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Raben, Anne; Aaslyng, Margit D

    2017-08-26

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility.

  14. Whole grain-rich diet reduces body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation without inducing major changes of the gut microbiome: a randomised cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Vogt, Josef K; Kristensen, Mette; Hansen, Lea Benedicte S; Ibrügger, Sabine; Mærkedahl, Rasmus B; Bahl, Martin Iain; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Nielsen, Rikke L; Frøkiær, Hanne; Gøbel, Rikke Juul; Landberg, Rikard; Ross, Alastair B; Brix, Susanne; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S; Sparholt, Morten H; Christensen, Anders F; Carvalho, Vera; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul; Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Linneberg, Allan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Blennow, Andreas; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Villas-Bôas, Silas; Kristiansen, Karsten; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Ekstrøm, Claus T; Ritz, Christian; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye; Gupta, Ramneek; Lauritzen, Lotte; Licht, Tine Rask

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed. 50 participants completed both periods with a whole grain intake of 179±50 g/day and 13±10 g/day in the whole grain and refined grain period, respectively. Compliance was confirmed by a difference in plasma alkylresorcinols (pgut microbiome but reduced body weight and systemic low-grade inflammation. NCT01731366; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effectiveness of low-dose doxycycline (LDD on clinical symptoms of Sjögren's Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuotila Tuija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are proteolytic enzymes that may contribute to tissue destruction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS. Low-dose doxycycline (LDD inhibits MMPs. We evaluated the efficacy of LDD for the subjective symptoms in primary SS patients. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. 22 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg LDD or matching placebo twice a day for 10 weeks. The first medication period was followed by 10-week washout period, after which the patient received either LDD or placebo, depending on the first drug received, followed by the second washout period. Stimulated saliva flow rates and pH were measured before and after one and ten weeks of each medication and after washout periods. VAS scale was used to assess the effect of LDD and placebo on following six subjective symptoms: xerostomia; xerophtalmia; difficulty of swallowing; myalgia; arthralgia; and fatigue. The effect was evaluated for each medication and washout period separately. Results Overall, the effects of medications on subjective symptoms were minor. Wilcoxon test demonstrated increased fatigue with LDD during medication (p Conclusion LDD may not be useful in reducing the primary SS symptoms.

  16. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dien Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P=0.04 and P=0.001 than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS.

  17. The Effect of Body Position on Pain Due to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP in Premature Neonates: A Cross-Over Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common cause of admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICU is respiratory distress syndrome. One of the respiratory assistance methods is using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Regarding the importance of pain control which is one of the major priorities in neonatal nursing care, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of body position on pain due to nasal CPAP in premature neonates. Materials and Methods In this cross-over clinical trial, 50 premature neonates who were receiving nasal CPAP admitted to the NICU of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, were included. The neonates were randomly placed at three body positions (fetal, supine, and prone positions. Pain was measured by Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital Pain Scale Neonates (ALPS-Neo pain assessment scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (Version 22.0. Results Significant difference existed regarding pain of nasal CPAP among body positions (p< 0.001. Mean (SD pain was 5.15 (0.822 in fetal position, 6.260 (0.747 in prone position and 7.326 (0.792 in supine position. Conclusion Body positioning in premature neonates under nasal CPAP in NICU can be effective as a non-pharmacologic method in alleviating pain due to nasal CPAP. Among the studied positions, the lowest pain score was seen in fetal position.

  18. Consumption of organic diets does not affect intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men-evidence from two cross-over trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Alicja Budek; Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    diets on intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men. Two double-blinded, cross-over, intervention trials (3 dietary periods of 12 days with 2-week-long wash-out) were performed in 2008 (n = 17) and 2009 (n = 16) in young men. The diets were based on 9 crops grown in rigidly controlled organic......Agricultural methods may affect the nutritional composition of plants and cause complex changes in the food matrix. Whether this affects the dietary absorption of minerals that are important for maintaining health thorough life remains unclear. We compared the effects of organic and conventional......; 12.35 ± 0.47 mg per 10 MJ and 44.6% ± 12.1, respectively) and copper (overall mean ± SD; 2.12 ± 0.28 mg per 10 MJ and 41.2% ± 13.2, respectively) were not different between the organic and conventional diets. The growing season had no effect on zinc intake and absorption, but the copper intake...

  19. Treatment of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid - a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over phase IIIB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisthoff, Urban W; Seyfert, Ulrich T; Kübler, Marcus; Bieg, Birgitt; Plinkert, Peter K; König, Jochem

    2014-09-01

    Epistaxis is the most frequent manifestation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, in which no optimal treatment exists. It can lead to severe anemia and reduced quality of life. Positive effects of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic drug, have been reported on epistaxis related to this disorder. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of treating nosebleeds in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over phase IIIB study, 1 gram of tranexamic acid or placebo was given orally 3 times daily for 3 months for a total of 6 months. 22 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels, the primary outcome measure, did not change significantly (p=0.33). The secondary outcome measure was epistaxis score and patients reported a statistically significant reduction in nosebleeds, equaling a clinically relevant 54% diminution (p=0.0031), as compared to the placebo period. No severe side effects were observed. Tranexamic acid reduces epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (Clinical trial registration numbers: BfArM 141 CHC 9008-001 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01031992). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of chocolate-based products intake on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels and on satiety in young people: a cross-over experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Long, Wei-Qing; Ye, Yan-Bin; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Xu, Ming; Huang, Jing; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2018-02-19

    This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same. Chocolate consumption for three weeks had no adverse effects on blood glucose, insulin or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, compared to eating the tested biscuit, 21-day consumption of the tested chocolate-based products had no adverse effects on the blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels. This trial is registered with chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IOR-16009525.

  1. The satiating properties of pork are not affected by cooking methods, sousvide holding time or mincing in healthy men - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast......) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad...... libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly...

  2. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  3. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesor, Eric J; Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Silva, R A Gangani D; Suchankova, Gabriela; Kallend, David; Gylling, Helena; Asztalos, Bela; Damonte, Elisabetta; Rossomanno, Simona; Abt, Markus; Davidson, W Sean; Benghozi, Renee

    2013-12-01

    Fenofibrate and extended-release (ER) niacin similarly raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma lipoproteins and pre-β1-HDL levels, have not been investigated. We studied these parameters in 66 dyslipidemic patients treated for 6 week with fenofibrate (160 mg/day) or ER-niacin (0.5 g/day for 3 week, then 1 g/day) in a cross-over study. Both treatments increased HDL-C (16 %) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (7 %) but only fenofibrate increased apoA-II (28 %). Lutein and zeaxanthin levels were unaffected by fenofibrate but inversely correlated with percentage change in apoB and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively correlated with end of treatment apoA-II. ApoA-II in isolated HDL in vitro bound more lutein than apoA-I. Xanthophylls were increased by ER-niacin (each ~30 %) without any correlation to lipoprotein or apo levels. Only fenofibrate markedly decreased plasma markers of cholesterol absorption; pre-β1-HDL was significantly decreased by fenofibrate (-19 %, p xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL differed markedly, suggesting differences in intestinal lipidation of HDL. In addition, the in vitro investigations suggest an important role of plasma apoA-II in xanthophyll metabolism.

  4. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  5. Comparison between self-formulation and compounded-formulation dexamethasone mouth rinse for oral lichen planus: a pilot, randomized, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Jessica L; Haywood, Alison; Hattingh, Laetitia; Nair, Raj G

    2017-08-01

    There is a lack of appropriate, commercially-available topical corticosteroid formulations for use in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction. Current therapy includes crushing a dexamethasone tablet and mixing it with water for use as a mouth rinse. This formulation is unpleasant esthetically and to use in the mouth, as it is a bitter and gritty suspension, resulting in poor compliance. Thus, the present study was designed to formulate and pilot an effective, esthetically-pleasing formulation. A single-blinded, cross-over trial was designed with two treatment arms. Patients were monitored for 7 weeks. Quantitative and qualitative data was assessed using VAS, numeric pain scales, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9, and thematic analysis to determine primary patient-reported outcomes, including satisfaction, compliance, quality of life, and symptom relief. Nine patients completed the pilot trial. Data analysis revealed the new compounded formulation to be superior to existing therapy due to its convenience, positive contribution to compliance, patient-perceived faster onset of action, and improved symptom relief. Topical dexamethasone is useful in the treatment of OLP. When carefully formulated into a compounded mouth rinse, it improves patient outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. An approach to combining parallel and cross-over trials with and without run-in periods using individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvete, Ingunn F; Olsen, Inge C; Fagerland, Morten W; Meland, Nils; Aldrin, Magne; Smerud, Knut T; Holden, Lars

    2012-04-01

    In active run-in trials, where patients may be excluded after a run-in period based on their response to the treatment, it is implicitly assumed that patients have individual treatment effects. If individual patient data are available, active run-in trials can be modelled using patient-specific random effects. With more than one trial on the same medication available, one can obtain a more precise overall treatment effect estimate. We present a model for joint analysis of a two-sequence, four-period cross-over trial (AABB/BBAA) and a three-sequence, two-period active run-in trial (AB/AA/A), where the aim is to investigate the effect of a new treatment for patients with pain due to osteoarthritis. Our approach enables us to separately estimate the direct treatment effect for all patients, for the patients excluded after the active run-in trial prior to randomisation, and for the patients who completed the active run-in trial. A similar model approach can be used to analyse other types of run-in trials, but this depends on the data and type of other trials available. We assume equality of the various carry-over effects over time. The proposed approach is flexible and can be modified to handle other designs. Our results should be encouraging for those responsible for planning cost-efficient clinical development programmes.

  7. Chromosome aberrations induced by radiation. With special reference to possible relation between chromosome aberrations and carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, N [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-02-01

    Chromosome aberration seems to be one of the most conspicuous residual abnormalities recognizable in radiation-exposed persons for many years after exposure. Knowledge of the biological significance of these abnormalities seems to be necessary for understanding of the effect of radiation on humans, especially in relation to possible leukemic development. Cytogenetic studies were performed on the bone marrow cells, T and B lymphocytes, and fibroblasts in atomic bomb-survivors who were in apparent good health (105 cases), atomic bomb exposed patients who had prolonged periods of blood disorders which terminated in acute leukemia (8 cases), and who had no such abnormalities (6 cases). All patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and a history of atomic bomb exposure showed Philadelphia chromosome, a characteristic chromosome abnormality for CML. The persistent chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells, T and B lymphocytes found among the atomic bomb survivors with or without blood disorders may give some clue to solve the problems of carcinogenesis.

  8. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. An aberrant uterus: Case report | Ondieki | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an aberrant uterus is presented and literature reviewed. The patient presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, left iliac fossa pain and was managed by excising the aberrant uterus. This case was an enigma as it didn't present in the classical way one with anomalies of the uterus would present. Despite ...

  10. Accuracy of modal wavefront estimation from eye transverse aberration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of random errors in measurement of eye transverse aberrations on the accuracy of reconstructing wave aberration as well as ametropia and astigmatism parameters is investigated. The dependence of mentioned errors on a ratio between the number of measurement points and the number of polynomial coefficients is found for different pupil location of measurement points. Recommendations are proposed for setting these ratios.

  11. Statistical estimation of ultrasonic propagation path parameters for aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Robert C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Parameters in a linear filter model for ultrasonic propagation are found using statistical estimation. The model uses an inhomogeneous-medium Green's function that is decomposed into a homogeneous-transmission term and a path-dependent aberration term. Power and cross-power spectra of random-medium scattering are estimated over the frequency band of the transmit-receive system by using closely situated scattering volumes. The frequency-domain magnitude of the aberration is obtained from a normalization of the power spectrum. The corresponding phase is reconstructed from cross-power spectra of subaperture signals at adjacent receive positions by a recursion. The subapertures constrain the receive sensitivity pattern to eliminate measurement system phase contributions. The recursion uses a Laplacian-based algorithm to obtain phase from phase differences. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired from a point reflector and a tissue-like scattering phantom through a tissue-mimicking aberration path from neighboring volumes having essentially the same aberration path. Propagation path aberration parameters calculated from the measurements of random scattering through the aberration phantom agree with corresponding parameters calculated for the same aberrator and array position by using echoes from the point reflector. The results indicate the approach describes, in addition to time shifts, waveform amplitude and shape changes produced by propagation through distributed aberration under realistic conditions.

  12. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.

    1997-09-01

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented

  13. Chromatic aberrations of two-electrode transaxial mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejzina, L.G.; Karetskaya, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Second order chromatic aberrations of electrostatic two-electrode transaxial mirrors in case the beam axial trajectory of charged particles is curvilinear are considered. Interrelations between coefficients of linear and angular chromatic aberrations are determined. Values of these coefficients for concave and convex transaxial mirrors with plane electrodes in dependence on potential ratio on electrodes by different onnular clearance radii are presented

  14. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  15. Third-order monochromatic aberrations via Fermat's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasco, A.; Romano, A.

    2006-01-01

    By Fermat's principle and particular optical paths, which are not rays, a new aberration function is introduced. This function allows to derive, without resorting to the whole Hamiltonian formalism, the third-order geometrical aberrations of an optical system with a symmetry of revolution

  16. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Prentice, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow of continuously irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebosky, O; Praslicka, M; Chlebovska, K [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1975-01-01

    Research on chromosomal aberrations of the bone marrow in continuously irradiated rats showed that chromosomal aberrations are a highly sensitive indicator of radiation injury. An increase in the chromosomal aberration frequency was already found on the 5th day at daily doses of 0.5 R, i.e. a 12% increase at a total dose of 25 R. In the steady-state stage at daily doses of 0.5; 1; 2.5 R, the number of chromosomal aberrations stabilized at values of about 20%; at daily doses of 5 and 10 R at values of 30.=., at daily doses of 53 R at 45%, at a daily dose of 82.5 R, the number of chromosomal aberrations increased to 55%.

  18. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  19. Cell survival and radiation induced chromosome aberrations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Braselmann, H.

    1986-01-01

    Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated in whole blood with 0.5-4.0 Gy of 220 kVp X-rays and the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in 1st or 2nd division metaphases discriminated by fluorescence plus giemsa staining. Using the empirical distributions of aberrations among cells, cell survival and transmission of aberrations were investigated. Considering both daughter cells, we found that 20% of fragments and 55% of dicentrics or ring chromosomes are lost during the 1st cell division; i.e. cell survival rate from 1st to 2nd generation is mainly influenced by anaphase bridging of these two-hit aberrations. Cell survival to 2nd mitosis was calculated considering this situation and compared with the survival derived from the fraction of M1 cells without unstable aberrations. The resulting shouldered survival curves showed significantly different slopes, indicating that cell reproductive death is overestimated in the latter approach. (orig.)

  20. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen

    1991-01-01

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  1. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen

    1992-01-01

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  2. Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-15

    Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20–30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. - Highlights: • Thin membranes can be used as aberration correctors in electron columns. • We demonstrate tilt, twofold-, threefold-astigmatism, and spherical aberrations. • Experimental and physical-optics simulation results are in good agreement. • Advantages in cost, size, nonmagnetism, and nearly-arbitrary correction.

  3. Aberration-corrected STEM: current performance and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellist, P D [Department of Physics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Chisholm, M F [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States); Lupini, A R [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States); Borisevich, A [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States); Jr, W H Sides [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States); Pennycook, S J [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6030 (United States); Dellby, N [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Keyse, R [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Krivanek, O L [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Murfitt, M F [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Szilagyi, Z S [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)

    2006-02-22

    Through the correction of spherical aberration in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the resolving of a 78 pm atomic column spacing has been demonstrated along with information transfer to 61 pm. The achievement of this resolution required careful control of microscope instabilities, parasitic aberrations and the compensation of uncorrected, higher order aberrations. Many of these issues are improved in a next generation STEM fitted with a new design of aberration corrector, and an initial result demonstrating aberration correction to a convergence semi-angle of 40 mrad is shown. The improved spatial resolution and beam convergence allowed for by such correction has implications for the way in which experiments are performed and how STEM data should be interpreted.

  4. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  5. Aberration-free intraocular lenses - What does this really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, Achim; Schröder, Simon; Cayless, Alan; Eppig, Timo

    2017-09-01

    So-called aberration-free intraocular lenses (IOLs) are well established in modern cataract surgery. Usually, they are designed to perfectly refract a collimated light beam onto the focal point. We show how much aberration can be expected with such an IOL in a convergent light beam such as that found anterior to the human cornea. Additionally, the aberration in a collimated beam is estimated for an IOL that has no aberrations in the convergent beam. The convergent beam is modelled as the pencil of rays corresponding to the spherical wavefront resulting from a typical corneal power of 43m -1 . The IOLs are modelled as infinitely thin phase plates with 20m -1 optical power placed 5mm behind the cornea. Their aberrations are reported in terms of optical path length difference and longitudinal spherical aberration (LSA) of the marginal rays, as well as nominal spherical aberration (SA) calculated based on a Zernike representation of the wavefront-error at the corneal plane within a 6mm aperture. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam has an optical path length difference of -1.8μm, and LSA of 0.15m -1 in the convergent beam of a typical eye. The corresponding nominal SA is 0.065μm. The IOL designed to have no aberrations in a convergent light beam has an optical path length difference of 1.8μm, and LSA of -0.15m -1 in the collimated beam. An IOL designed to have no aberrations in a collimated light beam will increase the SA of a patient's eye after implantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Katsuyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field.

  7. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Takayuki; Tsokos, George C.; Moulton, Vaishali R.

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field. PMID:29868033

  8. Effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic status of diabetic patients: a double-blind randomized cross-over controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Khorrami-Rad, Ashraf; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Shakeri, Hossein; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    We are aware of no study indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic profiles, inflammation and oxidative stress among diabetic patients. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of synbiotic food consumption on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP and biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetic patients. This randomized double-blinded cross-over controlled clinical trial was performed among 62 diabetic patients aged 35-70 y. After a 2-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 62) or control food (n = 62) for 6 weeks. A 3-week washout period was applied following which subjects were crossed over to the alternate treatment arm for an additional 6 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(7) CFU), 0.04 g inulin (HPX) as prebiotic with 0.38 g isomalt, 0.36 g sorbitol and 0.05 g stevia as sweetener per 1 g. Control food (the same substance without probiotic bacteria and prebiotic inulin) was packed in identical 9-gram packages. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods three times a day. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 6-wk intervention to measure metabolic profiles, hs-CRP and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Consumption of a synbiotic food, compared to the control, resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (changes from baseline: -1.75 ± 0.60 vs. +0.95 ± 1.09 μIU/mL, P = 0.03). Although we failed to find a significant effect of synbiotic food consumption on total- and LDL-cholesterol levels and HOMA-IR, the effects on FPG (22.3 vs. 4.2 mg/dL, P = 0.09), serum triglycerides (45.9 vs. 20.6 mg/dL, P = 0.08) and HDL-cholesterol levels (3.1 vs. -2 mg/dL, P = 0.06) tended to be significant. A significant reduction in serum hs-CRP levels (-1057.86 ± 283.74 vs. 95.40 ± 385.38 ng/mL, P = 0.01) was found following the consumption of synbiotic food compared with the

  9. [Deficient lactose digestion and intolerance in a group of patients with chronic nonspecific ulcerative colitis: a controlled, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Acosta, G A; Milke-García, M P; Ramírez-Iglesias, M T; Uscanga, L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the frequency of hypolactasia and lactose intolerance is similar in both chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis patients and the general population, the elimination of dairy products from the patient's diet is a habitual recommendation. Hypolactasia is common in Mexico, but its relation to chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis has not been established. To evaluate lactose digestion and lactose intolerance in persons with chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis. Thirty-nine patients with confirmed chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis diagnosis were included in the study (mean: 31 years, range: 15 to 38). Twenty-two patients presented with rectosigmoid involvement and the remaining patients with pancolitis. No patient showed inflammatory activity according to the Truelove-Witts criteria and all consumed dairy products before diagnosis. A prospective, controlled, double-blind, cross-over study was designed. Patients randomly received 12.5 g of lactose or maltose in 250 cc water- each test 72 hours apart - and ydrogen was measured in exhaled air before disaccharide ingestion and then every 30 minutes for 3 hours. Digestion was considered deficient when there was an increase in hydrogen of at least 20 ppm. Symptom intensities were evaluated by Visual Analog Scales before, during, and after the hydrogen test. Differences between the groups were contrasted with the Mann-Whitney U and the Wilcoxon tests. Eighteen patients (46%) presented with deficient lactose digestion. No significant differences were found in the symptoms, extension, or progression of chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis between patients that could digest and those that could not digest lactose. No patient had symptom exacerbation with the disaccharides used. Lactose digestion deficiency frequency is similar in subjects with chronic idiopathic ulcerative colitis and in healthy individuals in Mexico. We do not know whether higher doses could have some effect, but symptoms in patients

  10. A randomized, prospective cross-over trial comparing methylene blue-directed biopsy and conventional random biopsy for detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragunath, K; Krasner, N; Raman, V S; Haqqani, M T; Cheung, W Y

    2003-12-01

    The value of methylene blue-directed biopsies (MBDB) in detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of MBDB with random biopsy in detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial was undertaken to compare MBDB with random biopsy in patients with Barrett's esophagus segments 3 cm or more in length without macroscopic evidence of dysplasia or cancer. Dysplasia was graded as: indefinite for dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, or carcinoma, and was reported in a blinded fashion. Fifty-seven patients were recruited, 44 of whom were male. A total of 1,269 biopsies were taken (MBDB-651, random biopsie-618). Analysis of the results by per-biopsy protocol showed that the MBDB technique diagnosed significantly more specialized intestinal metaplasia (75 %) compared to the random biopsy technique (68 %; P = 0.032). The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing specialized intestinal metaplasia were 91 % (95 % CI, 88 - 93 %) and 43 % (95 % CI, 36 - 51 %), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity rates of MBDB for diagnosing dysplasia or carcinoma were 49 % (95 % CI, 38 - 61 %) and 85 % (95 % CI, 82 - 88 %), respectively. There were no significant differences in the diagnosis of dysplasia and carcinoma - MBDB 12 %, random biopsy 10 %. The methylene blue staining pattern appeared to have an influence on the detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia/carcinoma. Dark blue staining was associated with increased detection of specialized intestinal metaplasia (P biopsies. Although MBDB prolongs the endoscopy procedure slightly, it is a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Further clinical studies on the MBDB technique exclusively in endoscopically normal dysplastic Barrett's esophagus are needed.

  11. Use of the learning conversation improves instructor confidence in life support training: An open randomised controlled cross-over trial comparing teaching feedback mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Lydia J L; Jones, Christopher M; Hulme, Jonathan; Owen, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Feedback is vital for the effective delivery of skills-based education. We sought to compare the sandwich technique and learning conversation structured methods of feedback delivery in competency-based basic life support (BLS) training. Open randomised crossover study undertaken between October 2014 and March 2015 at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. Six-hundred and forty healthcare students undertaking a European Resuscitation Council (ERC) BLS course were enrolled, each of whom was randomised to receive teaching using either the sandwich technique or the learning conversation. Fifty-eight instructors were randomised to initially teach using either the learning conversation or sandwich technique, prior to crossing-over and teaching with the alternative technique after a pre-defined time period. Outcome measures included skill acquisition as measured by an end-of-course competency assessment, instructors' perception of teaching with each feedback technique and candidates' perception of the feedback they were provided with. Scores assigned to use of the learning conversation by instructors were significantly more favourable than for the sandwich technique across all but two assessed domains relating to instructor perception of the feedback technique, including all skills-based domains. No difference was seen in either assessment pass rates (80.9% sandwich technique vs. 77.2% learning conversation; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.85-1.84; p=0.29) or any domain relating to candidates' perception of their teaching technique. This is the first direct comparison of two feedback techniques in clinical medical education using both quantitative and qualitative methodology. The learning conversation is preferred by instructors providing competency-based life support training and is perceived to favour skills acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. C2 Nerve Field Stimulation for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Prospective, Double-blind, Randomized, Controlled Cross-over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazier, Mark; Ost, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by widespread chronic pain. Due to the high prevalence and high costs, it has a substantial burden on society. Treatment results are diverse and only help a small subset of patients. C2 nerve field stimulation, aka occipital nerve stimulation, is helpful and a minimally invasive treatment for primary headache syndromes. Small C2 pilot studies seem to be beneficial in fibromyalgia. Forty patients were implanted with a subcutaneous electrode in the C2 dermatoma as part of a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study followed by an open label follow up period of 6 months. The patients underwent 2 week periods of different doses of stimulation consisting of minimal (.1 mA), subthreshold, and suprathreshold (for paresthesias) in a randomized order. Twenty seven patients received a permanent implant and 25 completed the 6 month open label follow up period. During the 6 week trial phase of the study, patients had an overall decrease of 36% on the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), a decrease of 33% fibromyalgia pain and improvement of 42% on the impact on daily life activities and quality. These results imply an overall improvement in the disease burden, maintained at 6 months follow up, as well as an improvement in life quality of 50%. Seventy six percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their treatment. There seems to be a dose-response curve, with increasing amplitudes leading to better clinical outcomes. Subcutaneous C2 nerve field stimulation seems to offer a safe and effective treatment option for selected medically intractable patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A single-dose, randomized, cross-over, two-way, open-label study for comparing the absorption of boswellic acids and its lecithin formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Artaria, Christian; Allegrini, Pietro; Meins, Jürgen; Savio, Daniele; Appendino, Giovanni; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-11-15

    The oral administration of the gum resin extracts of Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr) results in very low plasma concentrations of boswellic acids (BAs), being far below the pharmacologically active concentrations required in vitro for anti-inflammatory activity. For that reason the use of Indian frankincense in clinical practice and pharmaceutical development has substantially lagged behind. Recently the application of new formulation technologies resulted in a formulation of frankincense extract with lecithin, which revealed improved absorption and tissue penetration of BAs in a rodent study, leading for the first time to plasma concentrations of BAs in the range of their anti-inflammatory activity. In order to verify these encouraging results in humans, the absorption of a standardized Boswellia serrata extract (BE) and its lecithin formulation (CSP) was comparatively investigated in healthy volunteers. According to a randomized cross-over design with two treatments, two sequences and two periods, 12 volunteers alternatively received the lecithin-formulated Boswellia extract (CSP) or the non-formulated Boswellia extract (BE) at a dosage of 2×250mg capsules. The plasma concentrations of the six major BAs (KBA, AKBA, βBA, αBA, AβBA, AαBA) were determined using LC/MS. With the exception of KBA, a significantly higher (both in terms of weight-to-weight and molar comparison) and quicker absorption of BAs from the lecithin formulation was observed, leading to C max in the range required for the interaction with their molecular targets. These findings pave the way to further studies evaluating the clinical potential of BAs, and verify the beneficial effect of lecithin formulation to improve the absorption of poorly soluble phytochemicals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (Vestparoxy) of the treatment of vestibular paroxysmia with oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Brémová, Tatiana; Strupp, Michael; Hüfner, Katharina

    2018-02-01

    Vestibular paroxysmia (VP) is characterized by short, often oligosymptomatic attacks of vertigo which occur spontaneously or are sometimes provoked by turning the head. Despite the description of the disease almost 40 years ago (first termed "disabling positional vertigo"), no controlled treatment trial has been published to date. The Vestparoxy trial was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial to examine the therapeutic effect of oxcarbazepine (OXA) in patients with definite or probable VP. Patients were recruited from August 2005 to December 2011 in the outpatient Dizziness Unit of the Department of Neurology of the Munich University Hospital, and randomized to receive OXA (first week: 300 mg once per day, second week: 300 mg b.i.d., third week: 300 mg t.i.d. until the end of the third month), followed by placebo or vice versa with a 1-month wash-out period in between. The primary endpoint was the number of days with one or more attacks. Secondary endpoints were the number of attacks during the observed days, and the median (for each day) duration of attacks. All these endpoints were assessed using standardized diaries collected at the end of each treatment phase. Forty-three patients were randomized, 18 patients provided usable data (2525 patient days) for at least one treatment phase and were included in the main (intention-to-treat) analysis. The most common reasons for discontinuation documented were adverse events. The risk of experiencing a day with at least one attack was 0.41 under OXA, and 0.62 under placebo treatment, yielding a relative risk of 0.67 (95% CI 0.47-0.95, p = 0.025). The number of attacks during the observed days ratio was 0.53 (95% CI 0.42-0.68, p effects.

  15. Combining gender, work, and family identities: The cross-over and spill-over of gender norms into young adults’ work and family aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Meeussen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (incompatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N=445 perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  16. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults’ Work and Family Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416

  17. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults' Work and Family Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults ( N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  18. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.

  19. Co-ingestion of carbohydrate and whey protein isolates enhance PGC-1α mRNA expression: a randomised, single blind, cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Karen M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whey protein isolates (WPI supplementation is known to improve resistance training adaptations. However, limited information is available on the effects of WPI plus carbohydrate (CHO supplementation on endurance training adaptations. Method Six endurance trained male cyclists and triathletes (age 29 ± 4 years, weight 74 ± 2 kg, VO2 max 63 ± 3 ml oxygen. kg-1. Min-1, height 183 ± 5 cm; mean ± SEM were randomly assigned to one of two dietary interventions in a single blind cross over design; CHO or CHO + WPI. Each dietary intervention was followed for 16 days which included the last 2 days having increased CHO content, representing a CHO loading phase. The dietary interventions were iso-caloric and carbohydrate content matched. On completion of the dietary intervention, participants performed an exercise bout, consisting of cycling for 60 min at 70% VO2 max, followed by time trial to exhaustion at 90% VO2 max and recovered in the laboratory for 6 hours. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were taken at various time points at rest and through the exercise trial and recovery. Results Compared to CHO, CHO + WPI increased plasma insulin during recovery at 180 mins (P Conclusion This study showed co-ingestion of CHO + WPI may have beneficial effects on recovery and adaptations to endurance exercise via, increased insulin response and up regulation of PGC-1α mRNA expression.

  20. Single-implant overdentures retained by the Novaloc attachment system: study protocol for a mixed-methods randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Raphael F; Bedos, Christophe; Esfandiari, Shahrokh; Makhoul, Nicholas M; Dagdeviren, Didem; Abi Nader, Samer; Jabbar, Areej A; Feine, Jocelyne S

    2018-04-23

    Overdentures retained by a single implant in the midline have arisen as a minimal implant treatment for edentulous mandibles. The success of this treatment depends on the performance of a single stud attachment that is susceptible to wear-related retention loss. Recently developed biomaterials used in attachments may result in better performance of the overdentures, offering minimal retention loss and greater patient satisfaction. These biomaterials include resistant polymeric matrixes and amorphous diamond-like carbon applied on metallic components. The objective of this explanatory mixed-methods study is to compare Novaloc, a novel attachment system with such characteristics, to a traditional alternative for single implants in the mandible of edentate elderly patients. We will carry out a randomized cross-over clinical trial comparing Novaloc attachments to Locators for single-implant mandibular overdentures in edentate elderly individuals. Participants will be followed for three months with each attachment type; patient-based, clinical, and economic outcomes will be gathered. A sample of 26 participants is estimated to be required to detect clinically relevant differences in terms of the primary outcome (patient ratings of general satisfaction). Participants will choose which attachment they wish to keep, then be interviewed about their experiences and preferences with a single implant prosthesis and with the two attachments. Data from the quantitative and qualitative assessments will be integrated through a mixed-methods explanatory strategy. A last quantitative assessment will take place after 12 months with the preferred attachment; this latter assessment will enable measurement of the attachments' long-term wear and maintenance requirements. Our results will lead to evidence-based recommendations regarding these systems, guiding providers and patients when making decisions on which attachment systems and implant numbers will be most appropriate for

  1. Development of a cross-over randomized trial method to determine the acceptability and safety of novel ready-to-use therapeutic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Filippo; Bahwere, Paluku; Huerga, Helena; Irena, Abel Hailu; Owino, Victor; Collins, Steve; Seal, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To develop a method for determining the acceptability and safety of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) before clinical trialing. Acceptability was defined using a combination of three consumption, nine safety, and six preference criteria. These were used to compare a soy/maize/sorghum RUTF (SMS-RUTFh), designed for the rehabilitation of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis (HIV/TB) wasted adults, with a peanut-butter/milk-powder paste (P-RUTF; brand: Plumpy'nut) designed for pediatric treatment. A cross-over, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Kenya. Ten days of repeated measures of product intake by 41 HIV/TB patients, >18 y old, body mass index (BMI) 18-24 kg · m(-2), 250 g were offered daily under direct observation as a replacement lunch meal. Consumption, comorbidity, and preferences were recorded. The study arms had similar age, sex, marital status, initial BMI, and middle upper-arm circumference. No carryover effect or serious adverse events were found. SMS-RUTFh energy intake was not statistically different from the control, when adjusted for BMI on day 1, and the presence of throat sores. General preference, taste, and sweetness scores were higher for SMS-RUTFh compared to the control (P preference criteria for SMS-RUTFh were satisfied except for the average number of days of nausea (0.16 versus 0.09 d) and vomiting (0.04 versus 0.02 d), which occurred with a higher frequency (P < 0.05). SMS-RUTFh appears to be acceptable and can be safely clinically trialed, if close monitoring of vomiting and nausea is included. The method reported here is a useful and feasible approach for testing the acceptability of ready-to-use foods in low income countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Area-specific modulation of neural activation comparing escitalopram and citalopram revealed by pharmaco-fMRI: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Holik, Alexander; Spindelegger, Christoph; Stein, Patrycja; Moser, Ulrike; Gerstl, Florian; Fink, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Kasper, Siegfried

    2010-01-15

    Area-specific and stimulation-dependent changes of human brain activation by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are an important issue for improved understanding of treatment mechanisms, given the frequent prescription of these drugs in depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to investigate differences in BOLD-signal caused by administration of the SSRIs escitalopram and citalopram using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (pharmaco-fMRI). Eighteen healthy subjects participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study in cross-over repeated measures design. Each volunteer performed facial emotional discrimination and a sensorimotor control paradigm during three scanning sessions. Citalopram (20 mg/d), escitalopram (10 mg/d) and placebo were administered for 10 days each with a drug-free period of at least 21 days. Significant pharmacological effects on BOLD-signal were found in the amygdala, medial frontal gyrus, parahippocampal, fusiform and middle temporal gyri. Post-hoc t-tests revealed decreased BOLD-signal in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus in both pharmacological conditions, compared to placebo. Escitalopram, compared to citalopram, induced a decrease of BOLD-signal in the medial frontal gyrus and an increase in the right fusiform and left parahippocampal gyri. Drug effects were concentrated in brain regions with dense serotonergic projections. Both escitalopram and citalopram attenuated BOLD-signal in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex to emotionally significant stimuli compared to control stimuli. We believe that reduced reactivity in the medial frontal gyrus found for escitalopram compared to citalopram administration might explain the response differences between study drugs as demonstrated in previous clinical trials.

  3. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

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    Taku Miyagawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02. L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN UMIN000003760.

  4. Computer classes and games in virtual reality environment to reduce loneliness among students of an elderly reference center: Study protocol for a randomised cross-over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Thaiany Pedrozo Campos; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle de; Crocetta, Tania Brusque; Antão, Jennifer Yohanna Ferreira de Lima; Barbosa, Renata Thais de Almeida; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2017-03-01

    Physical and mental changes associated with aging commonly lead to a decrease in communication capacity, reducing social interactions and increasing loneliness. Computer classes for older adults make significant contributions to social and cognitive aspects of aging. Games in a virtual reality (VR) environment stimulate the practice of communicative and cognitive skills and might also bring benefits to older adults. Furthermore, it might help to initiate their contact to the modern technology. The purpose of this study protocol is to evaluate the effects of practicing VR games during computer classes on the level of loneliness of students of an elderly reference center. This study will be a prospective longitudinal study with a randomised cross-over design, with subjects aged 50 years and older, of both genders, spontaneously enrolled in computer classes for beginners. Data collection will be done in 3 moments: moment 0 (T0) - at baseline; moment 1 (T1) - after 8 typical computer classes; and moment 2 (T2) - after 8 computer classes which include 15 minutes for practicing games in VR environment. A characterization questionnaire, the short version of the Short Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S) and 3 games with VR (Random, MoviLetrando, and Reaction Time) will be used. For the intervention phase 4 other games will be used: Coincident Timing, Motor Skill Analyser, Labyrinth, and Fitts. The statistical analysis will compare the evolution in loneliness perception, performance, and reaction time during the practice of the games between the 3 moments of data collection. Performance and reaction time during the practice of the games will also be correlated to the loneliness perception. The protocol is approved by the host institution's ethics committee under the number 52305215.3.0000.0082. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  5. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

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    Sophie C Killer

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C or water (W. Total body water (TBW was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM. Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively. No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively, USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02. No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05. Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water.

  6. A dose-finding, cross-over study to evaluate the effect of a Nestorone®/Estradiol transdermal gel delivery on ovulation suppression in normal ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brache, Vivian; Merkatz, Ruth; Kumar, Narender; Jesam, Cristian; Sussman, Heather; Hoskin, Elena; Roberts, Kevin; Alami, Mohcine; Taylor, Deshawn; Jorge, Aidelis; Croxatto, Horacio; Lorange, Ellen; Mishell, Daniel R; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to determine the lowest effective of three Nestorone (NES)/estradiol (E2) transdermal gel doses to ensure ovulation suppression in 90-95% of cycles. This was a randomized, open-label, three-treatment-period cross-over study to evaluate the effects of NES/E2 transdermal gel on ovulation inhibition, suppression of follicular growth and pharmacokinetic parameters. The doses were low (1.5 mg NES/0.5 mg E2), medium (3.0 mg NES/1.0 mg E2) and high (4.5 mg NES/1.5 mg E2). Participants applied gel daily to a fixed area on the abdomen for 21 consecutive days. They were interviewed regarding their experiences using the gel. Eighteen participants were randomized; 16 completed the study. Median NES C(max) values for low, medium and high dose groups at day 21 were 318.6 pmol/L, 783.0 pmol/L and 1063.8 pmol/L, respectively. Median maximum follicular diameter was higher with the lowest dose with 16.2 mm versus 10.0 and 10.4 mm with the medium and high doses, respectively. Among adherent participants, ovulation was inhibited in all dose groups, except for one participant in the medium dose (6.7%) that had luteal activity and an ultrasound image suggestive of a luteinized unruptured follicle. There were few reports of unscheduled bleeding, with more episodes reported for the lower dose. Adverse events were mild, and no skin irritation was reported from gel application. While all three doses blocked ovulation effectively and were evaluated as safe and acceptable, the medium dose was considered the lowest effective dose based on a more adequate suppression of follicular development. Further development of this novel contraceptive delivering NES and E2 is warranted and has potential for improved safety compared to ethinyl-estradiol-based methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri supplements do not affect salivary IgA or cytokine levels in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Keller, Mette Kirstine; Kragelund, Camilla; Hamberg, Kristina; Ericson, Dan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Twetman, Svante

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of daily ingestion of probiotic lactobacilli on the levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) and selected cytokines in whole saliva of healthy young adults. The study group consisted of 47 healthy adults (18-32 years) who volunteered for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial after informed consent. During intervention, the subjects ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, immediately after each intervention period and 3 weeks post-intervention. ELISA was used to measure sIgA and luminex technology was used to measure the interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. For statistical analyses a mixed ANOVA model was employed to calculate changes in the salivary outcome variables. Forty-one subjects completed the study and reported a good compliance. No significant differences in the concentrations of salivary sIgA or cytokines were recorded between the L. reuteri and placebo interventions or between baseline and 3 weeks post-intervention levels. No side- or adverse effects were reported. Supplementation with two strains of the probiotic L. reuteri did not affect sIgA or cytokine levels in whole saliva in healthy young adults. The results thereby indicate that daily oral supplementation with L. reuteri do not seem to modulate the salivary oral immune response in healthy young subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017886).

  8. Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Perti, Tara; Magaret, Amalia S; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Stevens, Claire E; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Johnston, Christine; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Wald, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Whether tenofovir has utility in established HSV-2 disease is unclear. We randomized immunocompetent women with symptomatic HSV-2 infection to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/placebo vaginal gel, oral placebo/tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel, or double placebo (ratio 2:2:1) in a one-way cross-over trial. Women collected genital swabs twice daily for HSV PCR during 4-week lead-in and 5-week treatment phases. The primary intent-to-treat end point was within-person comparison of genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. 64 women completed the lead-in phase and were randomized. Neither TDF nor TFV gel decreased overall shedding or lesion rate in the primary analysis; TFV gel decreased quantity of HSV DNA by -0.50 (-0.86-0.13) log10 copies/mL. In the per-protocol analysis, TDF reduced shedding (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, P = .006) and lesion rates (RR = 0.75, P = .032); quantity of virus shed decreased by 0.41 log10 copies/mL. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. NCT01448616. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, Kathrin; Ewald, Ann C; Johannes, Bernd W; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn; Frings-Meuthen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal ( p AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey ( p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin ( p AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

  10. Effects of formulation on the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, comparative, single-dose study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Beck, Mareike; Elliott, James; Etheve, Stephane; Roberts, Richard; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments with a protective function in the retina. These xanthophylls must be obtained from the diet or added to foods or supplements via easy-to-use, stable formulations. The technique employed to produce these formulations may affect the bioavailability of the xanthophylls. Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomized into this double-blind, cross-over study investigating the plasma kinetics of lutein provided as two different beadlet formulations. Subjects (n = 48) received a single dose of 20 mg of lutein as either a starch-matrix ("SMB", FloraGLO® Lutein 5 %) or as a cross-linked alginate-matrix beadlet ("AMB", Lyc-O-Lutein 20 %) formulation. Plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 24, 26, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 168, and 672 h. The mean plasma AUC(0-72h), AUC(0-672h), and C(max) for total lutein and zeaxanthin and their all-E-isomers were significantly increased (p < 0.001) from pre-dose concentrations in response to SMB and AMB. There was no difference in lutein T max between the two test articles. However, by 14 h post-dose, total plasma lutein increased by 7 % with AMB and by 126 % with SMB. Total lutein AUC(0-72h) and AUC(0-672h) were 1.8-fold and 1.3-fold higher, respectively, for SMB compared to AMB. Both formulations were well tolerated by subjects in this study. These findings confirm that the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin critically depends on the formulation used and document a superiority of the starch-based over the alginate-based product in this study.

  11. MTN-001: randomized pharmacokinetic cross-over study comparing tenofovir vaginal gel and oral tablets in vaginal tissue and other compartments.

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    Craig W Hendrix

    Full Text Available Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development.MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design.We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both. Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ≥90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ≥130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001. Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03.Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir

  12. LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of a new dietary supplement: an open label, controlled, randomized, cross-over clinical trial in patients with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, S; Ceccarini, G; Pelosini, C; Jaccheri, R; Vitti, J; Fierabracci, P; Salvetti, G; Airoldi, G; Minale, M; Saponati, G; Santini, F

    2018-05-24

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and requires specific intervention through an adequate lifestyle (diet and physical exercise) and, if necessary, an appropriate drug treatment. Lipid-lowering drugs, although generally efficacious, may sometimes cause adverse events. A growing attention has been devoted to the correction of dyslipidemias through the use of dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to assess the lipid-lowering activity and safety of a dietary supplement containing monacolin K, L-arginine, coenzyme Q10 and ascorbic acid, named Argicolina (A), compared to a commercially available product containing monacolin K and coenzyme Q10, Normolip 5 (N). This was a single center, controlled, randomized, open-label, cross-over clinical study enrolling 20 Caucasian outpatients aged 18-75 years with serum LDL-C between 130 and 180 mg/dL. Patients assumed two different dietary supplements (A and N) both containing monacolin K 10 mg for 8 weeks each, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Evaluated parameters were: Total cholesterol (Tot-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, brachial arterial pressure and heart rate, measured at the start and at the end of each treatment period. Safety was monitored through the study. LDL-C decreased by 23.3% during treatment with N (p ascorbic acid also produces a significant reduction of triglycerides without significant effects on HDL. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03425630 .

  13. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enseleit, Frank; Sudano, Isabella; Périat, Daniel; Winnik, Stephan; Wolfrum, Mathias; Flammer, Andreas J; Fröhlich, Georg M; Kaiser, Priska; Hirt, Astrid; Haile, Sarah R; Krasniqi, Nazmi; Matter, Christian M; Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra; Neidhart, Michel; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Noll, Georg

    2012-07-01

    Extracts from pine tree bark containing a variety of flavonoids have been used in traditional medicine. Pycnogenol is a proprietary bark extract of the French maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica) that exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-platelet effects. However, the effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, remain still elusive. Twenty-three patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Patients received Pycnogenol (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks followed by placebo or vice versa on top of standard cardiovascular therapy. Between the two treatment periods, a 2-week washout period was scheduled. At baseline and after each treatment period, endothelial function, non-invasively assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, platelet adhesion, and 24 h blood pressure monitoring were evaluated. In CAD patients, Pycnogenol treatment was associated with an improvement of FMD from 5.3 ± 2.6 to 7.0 ± 3.1 (P effect 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75, 3.75, P < 0.0001]. 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane, an index of oxidative stress, significantly decreased from 0.71 ± 0.09 to 0.66 ± 0.13 after Pycnogenol treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group (mean difference 0.06 pg/mL with an associated 95% CI (0.01, 0.11), P = 0.012]. Inflammation markers, platelet adhesion, and blood pressure did not change after treatment with Pycnogenol or placebo. This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress.

  14. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  15. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

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    Florian Egger

    Full Text Available While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling.This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg-1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo, respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test.Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05 under BICA (49.5±11.5 min compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min. No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes.The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006198.

  16. Higher-Order Wavefront Aberrations for Populations of Young Emmetropes and Myopes

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    Jinhua Bao

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Human eyes have systematical higher order aberrations in population, and factors that cause bilateral symmetry of wavefront aberrations between the right and left eyes made important contribution to the systematical aberrations.

  17. Protective effect of budesonide/formoterol compared with formoterol, salbutamol and placebo on repeated provocations with inhaled AMP in patients with asthma: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Woude Hanneke J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budesonide/formoterol combination is successfully used for fast relief of asthma symptoms in addition to its use as maintenance therapy. The temporarily increased corticosteroid dose during increasing inhaler use for symptom relief is likely to suppress any temporary increase in airway inflammation and may mitigate or prevent asthma exacerbations. The relative contribution of the budesonide and formoterol components to the improved asthma control is unclear. Methods The acute protective effect of inhaled budesonide was tested in a model of temporarily increased airway inflammation with repeated indirect airway challenges, mimicking an acute asthma exacerbation. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study design was used. Asthmatic patients (n = 17, mean FEV1 95% of predicted who previously demonstrated a ≥30% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after inhaling adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP, were challenged on four consecutive test days, with the same dose of AMP (at 09:00, 12:00 and 16:00 hours. Within 1 minute of the maximal AMP-induced bronchoconstriction at 09:00 hours, the patients inhaled one dose of either budesonide/formoterol (160/4.5 μg, formoterol (4.5 μg, salbutamol (2 × 100 μg or placebo. The protective effects of the randomised treatments were assessed by serial lung function measurements over the test day. Results In the AMP provocations at 3 and 7 hours after inhalation, the budesonide/formoterol combination provided a greater protective effect against AMP-induced bronchoconstriction compared with formoterol alone, salbutamol and placebo. In addition all three active treatments significantly increased FEV1 within 3 minutes of administration, at a time when inhaled AMP had induced the 30% fall in FEV1. Conclusions A single dose of budesonide/formoterol provided a greater protective effect against inhaled AMP-induced bronchoconstriction than formoterol alone, both at 3 and at 7 hours

  18. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  19. Cellular origin of prognostic chromosomal aberrations in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, H.; Jendholm, J.; Rapin, N.

    2015-01-01

    chromosomal structural rearrangements and single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Conventional AML diagnostics and recent seminal next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies have identified more than 200 recurrent genetic aberrations presenting in various combinations in individual patients. Significantly, many...... of these aberrations occur in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) before definitive leukemic transformation through additional acquisition of a few (that is, mostly 1 or 2) leukemia-promoting driver aberrations. NGS studies on sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of AML patients with a normal...

  20. Chromosome aberrations analysis of Serbia population from 1985 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Markovic, B.; Milacic, S.; Joksic, G.

    1996-01-01

    After the accident of NE Chernobyl in May 1986, Chernobyl's fallout with unhomogeneous dispersion of radioactive material in atmosphere caused the difference in contamination of the Serbia territory. The highest contamination was found to be in region Uzice, and the lowest in the region Nis. Two groups of population from these regions were undergone chromosome aberration analysis during 1987, 1988 and 1989. year. The results of our examination show increased frequency of structural chromosome aberrations/dicentrics, rings, peri centric inversions and acentric/ in the Uzice population, especially in the 1987. year. In 1985 and 1995 year have not been found chromosome aberrations. 2 refs.; 1 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  2. Neurophysiological effects of modafinil on cue-exposure in cocaine dependence: a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study using pharmacological fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, Anna E; Veltman, Dick J; van den Brink, Wim; Dom, Geert; Schmaal, Lianne

    2013-02-01

    Enhanced reactivity to substance related cues is a central characteristic of addiction and has been associated with increased activity in motivation, attention, and memory related brain circuits and with a higher probability of relapse. Modafinil was promising in the first clinical trials in cocaine dependence, and was able to reduce craving in addictive disorders. However, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study therefore, cue reactivity in cocaine dependent patients was compared to cue reactivity in healthy controls (HCs) under modafinil and placebo conditions. An fMRI cue reactivity study, with a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over challenge with a single dose of modafinil (200mg) was employed in 13 treatment seeking cocaine dependent patients and 16 HCs. In the placebo condition, watching cocaine-related pictures (versus neutral pictures) resulted in higher brain activation in the medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, angular gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the cocaine dependent group compared to HCs. However, in the modafinil condition, no differences in brain activation patterns were found between cocaine dependent patients and HCs. Group interactions revealed decreased activity in the VTA and increased activity in the right ACC and putamen in the modafinil condition relative to the placebo condition in cocaine dependent patients, whereas such changes were not present in healthy controls. Decreases in self-reported craving when watching cocaine-related cues after modafinil administration compared to the placebo condition were associated with modafinil-induced increases in ACC and putamen activation. Enhanced cue reactivity in the cocaine dependent group compared to healthy controls was found in brain circuitries related to reward, motivation, and autobiographical memory processes. In cocaine dependent patients, these enhanced brain

  3. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. Discussion If our results show

  4. A randomized cross-over study of the acute effects of running 5 km on glucose, insulin, metabolic rate, cortisol and Troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Boris; Vergara, Marta; Nyberg, Sofia; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the impact by running 5 km, at maximal speed, on the normal variations of metabolic variables related to glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, cortisol, glucagon, Troponin T and metabolic rate. Five women and 12 men 25.7±5.2 years of age with a body-mass-index of 22.5±2.3 kg/m2 where recruited to run 5 km at individual maximal speed in the morning, and to a corresponding day of rest, followed by standardized breakfast and lunch meals. Blood sampling and measurement of indirect calorimetry were done before and after meals. The participants were randomized regarding the order of the two trial-days in this cross-over study. Insulin and cortisol levels were higher, and insulin sensitivity was lower, on the race-day compared with the day of rest (linear mixed model: pdays (p = 0.29 and p = 0.53, respectively). When analyzing specific time-points we found that glucose increased from 5.01±0.37 mmol/l to 6.36 ± 1.3 mmol/l, pindex of serum sensitivity, 1/(log10insulin+log10glucose), was lowered post-race, p<0.0001. Serum cortisol levels increased from 408±137 nmol/l to 644±171 nmol/l, p<0.0001, post-race while serum glucagon levels were unaffected. Troponin T was detectable in serum post-race in 12 out of the 17 participants and reached or surpassed the clinical reference level of 15 ng/l in three subjects. Post-race electrocardiograms displayed no pathologies. Relatively short running-races can apparently induce a reduction in insulin sensitivity that is not fully compensated by concomitantly increased insulin secretion intended to ensure euglycemia. Since also Troponin T was detected in plasma in a majority of the participants, our data suggest that it is possible to induce considerable metabolic stress by running merely 5 km, when striving for maximal speed.

  5. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Daniel W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms

  7. Effects of visual illusion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A randomised controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Çağla; Kılınç, Muhammed; Yıldırım, Sibel Aksu; Topçuoğlu, Elif Yalçın; Akyüz, Müfit

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). No therapeutic drugs or drug groups are proven to be superior for neuropathic pain and treatments only aim to convert pain from dull to tolerable levels and not to remove it. This study was planned to compare the effect of visual illusion (VI) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain intensity, pain quality and functional capacity in SCI patients with neuropathic pain. Twenty-four patients were included and randomly categorized into two groups. In the first group (n= 12), visual illusion was applied for first two weeks, 1 week wash out period and then TENS was applied for 2 weeks. In second group (n= 12), TENS was applied firstly, 1 week wash out and then %visual illusion VI were applied. Pain severity, pain quality, and functional capacity were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS), the neuropathic pain scale (NPS), and the brief pain inventory (BPI), respectively. A pre-post-treatment and cross over design was used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group analyses. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses that compared different groups. It was observed that pain intensity decrease immediately after both applications (VI: p= 0.07, TENS: p= 0.08). After TENS application for 2 weeks, it was observed that significant decrease in most (p= 0.04) and less (p= 0.02) pain intensity; while there was no significant decrease in pain intensity after 2 weeks for VI (p> 0.05). When findings of NPS were analyzed, hot (p= 0.047), sharp (p= 0.02), unpleasant (p= 0.03) and deep items (p= 0.047) decreased after VI application. When the results of BPI were detected, they were observed that the negative effect of pain on moving ability (p= 0.04) after visual illusion application and the negative effect of pain on mood (p= 0.03), relationships with others (p= 0.04) and sleep (p= 0.04) after TENS application decreased significantly. TENS and VI therapies can be successfully

  8. Effect of breathing oxygen-enriched air on exercise performance in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension: randomized, sham-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hasler, Elisabeth D; Saxer, Stéphanie; Furian, Michael; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Keusch, Stephan; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of the current trial was to test the hypothesis that breathing oxygen-enriched air increases exercise performance of patients with pulmonary arterial or chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (PAH/CTEPH) and to investigate involved mechanisms. Twenty-two patients with PAH/CTEPH, eight women, means ± SD 61 ± 14 years, resting mPAP 35 ± 9mmHg, PaO2 ambient air >7.3 kPa, underwent four bicycle ergospirometries to exhaustion on different days, while breathing oxygen-enriched (FiO2 0.50, hyperoxia) or ambient air (FiO2 0.21, normoxia) using progressively increased or constant load protocols (with 75% maximal work rate under FiO2 0.21), according to a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, cross-over design. ECG, pulmonary gas-exchange, arterial blood gases, cerebral and quadriceps muscle tissue oxygenation (CTO and QMTO) by near-infrared spectroscopy were measured. In ramp exercise, maximal work rate increased from 113 ± 38 W with normoxia to 132 ± 48 W with hyperoxia, mean difference 19.7 (95% CI 10.5-28.9) W, P endurance increased from 571 ± 443 to 1242 ± 514 s, mean difference 671 (95% CI 392-951) s, P < 0.001. At end-exercise with hyperoxia PaO2, CTO, QMTO, and PaCO2 were increased, and ventilatory equivalents for CO2 were reduced while the physiological dead space/tidal volume ratio remained unchanged. In patients with PAH/CTEPH, breathing oxygen-enriched air provides major increases in exercise performance. This is related to an improved arterial oxygenation that promotes oxygen availability in muscles and brain and to a reduction of the excessive ventilatory response to exercise thereby enhancing ventilatory efficiency. Patients with PAH/CTEPH may therefore benefit from oxygen therapy during daily physical activities and training. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01748474. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions

  9. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  10. Implementation of knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes and pre-post post evaluation by cross-over design: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Gerd; Nilsen, Per; Benzein, Eva; Behm, Lina; Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Persson, Magnus; Sandgren, Anna

    2018-03-22

    The demography of the world is changing as the population is ageing. Because of this change to a higher proportion of older people, the WHO has called for improved palliative care for older persons. A large number of all deaths in the industrialised world occur while older people are living in nursing homes and therefore a key question becomes how the principles of palliative care can be implemented in that context. The aims of this study are: a) to describe a model of an educational intervention with the goal of implementing knowledge-based palliative care in nursing homes, and b) to describe the design of the evaluation of the effectiveness regarding the implementation of knowledge-based palliative care. A complex intervention is evaluated by means of a cross-over design. An educational intervention concerning palliative care consisting of five seminars during 6 months for staff and managers has been developed and conducted in 20 nursing homes in two counties. Before the intervention started, the feasibility was tested in a pilot study conducted in nursing homes not included in the main study. The intervention is evaluated through a non-randomized experimental design with intervention and control groups and pre- and post-assessments. The evaluation includes older persons living in nursing homes, next-of-kin, staff and managers. Data collection consists of quantitative methods such as questionnaires and register data and qualitative methods in the form of individual interviews, focus-group interviews and participant observations. The research will contribute to new knowledge about how to implement knowledge-based palliative care in a nursing home setting. A strength of this project is that the Medical Research Council framework of complex intervention is applied. The four recommended stages, Development, Feasibility and piloting, Evaluation and Implementation, are combined for the educational intervention, which functions as a strategy to achieve knowledge

  11. Comparison of preservative-free latanoprost and preservative-free bimatoprost in a multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked cross-over clinical trial, the SPORT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Oddone, Francesco; Cordeiro, Maria Francesca; Hommer, Anton; Montesano, Giovanni; Ribeiro, Luisa; Sunaric-Mégevand, Gordana; Rossetti, Luca

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of Bimatoprost Unit Dose Preservative Free (BUDPF) and Latanoprost Unit Dose Preservative Free (LUDPF). A prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, cross-over comparison was used. Inclusion criteria were ocular hypertension (OHT) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with a maximum intraocular pressure (IOP) of 21 mmHg on a preserved prostaglandin monotherapy. After 6 weeks washout, patients were randomized to BUDPF or LUDPF for 3 months and then switched to the other treatment for 3 months. IOP curves were performed at baseline and after each treatment period. Statistical analysis was performed in a R programming environment. Linear mixed modeling was used to account for repeated measures on the same subject and clustering of observations from the same center. Safety outcomes included visual acuity, adverse events, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ocular tolerability, and optic nerve assessment. Analysis at 6 months (primary outcome) showed a 1.6 ± 0.5-mmHg difference in IOP values between LUDPF and BUDPF (p < 0.01). A mean intra-subject IOP difference of 0.9 ± 0.2 mmHg (LUDPF - BUDPF) was observed (p < 0.01).. Significant differences in IOP were observed for both drugs at 3 and at 6 months compared to baseline: -4,0 ± 0.5 mmHg for both BUDPF and LUDPF at 3 months (p < 0.01 for both drugs; p = 0.32 between the two drugs); -5.2 ± 0.5 and -3.4 ± 0.5 mmHg for BUDPF and LUDPF, respectively (both p < 0.01), at 6 months. Both drugs were tolerated well, the only statistically significant difference being lower hyperemia scores for LUDPF (albeit low for both drugs). This study demonstrates a superior efficacy of BUDPF over LUDPF in lowering IOP. The results are consistent both in the parallel comparison between the two treatment groups at 6 months as well as in the intra-subject pressure comparison.

  12. Explicit feedback to enhance the effect of an interim assessment: a cross-over study on learning effect and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Bekkink, Marleen; Donders, Rogier; van Muijen, Goos N P; de Waal, Rob M W; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2012-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated by a prospective controlled design that an interim assessment during an ongoing small group work (SGW) session resulted in a higher score in the course examination. As this reflects the so-called testing effect, which is supposed to be enhanced by feedback, we investigated whether feedback following an interim assessment would have an effect on the score of the course exam, and whether the effect is influenced by the gender of the student. During a General Pathology bachelor course all 386 (bio) medical students took an interim assessment on the topics cell damage (first week) and tumour pathology (fourth week). The intervention consisted of immediate detailed oral feedback on the content of the questions of the interim assessment by the tutor, including the rationale of the correct and incorrect answers. It concerned a prospective randomized study using a cross-over design. Outcome measures were: (1) the difference in the normalized scores (1-10) of the course examination multiple choice questions related to the two topics, (2) effect of gender, and (3) gender-specific scores on formal examination. The effect of feedback was estimated as half the difference in the outcome between the two conditions. Mixed-model analysis was used whereby the SGW group was taken as the study target. The scores of the questions on cell damage amounted to 7.70 (SD 1.59) in the group without and 7.78 (SD 1.39) in the group with feedback, and 6.73 (SD 1.51) and 6.77 (SD 1.60), respectively, for those on tumour pathology. No statistically significant effect of feedback was found: 0.02 on a scale of 1-10 (95 % CI: -0.20; 0.25). There were no significant interactions of feedback with gender. Female students scored 0.43 points higher on the formal examination in comparison with their male colleagues. No additional effect of immediate explicit feedback following an interim assessment during an SGW session in an ongoing bachelor course could be

  13. Spinal Orthoses: The Crucial Role of Comfort on Compliance of Wearing - Monocentric Prospective Pilot Study of Randomized Cross-Over Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, G W; Patermann, S; Strohm, P C; Zwingmann, J; Eichelberger, P; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Various spine disorders are regularly treated by orthoses, and success of treatment depends on wearing these devices. In this study we examined the compliance, wear comfort, subjective stabilization and side effects associated with spinal orthoses using an individualized questionnaire and the Compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). MATERIAL AND METHODS In this prospective pilot study of randomized cross-over design, twelve healthy volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 years wore three different types of orthoses, each for one week: A hyperextension brace (HB), a custom-made semirigid orthosis (SO) and a custom-made rigid orthosis (RO). The daily duration of wearing the orthosis was defined as primary endpoint; contentment was measured using an individualized questionnaire and the standardized SF-12. RESULTS In the study population calculated probability of wearing the HB and RO was between 0.2 und 38.5% (95% confidence interval). No volunteer wore the SO orthosis for the predefined time. The SO and RO each displayed high subjective stabilization, while the RO was more often associated with side effects like skin pressure marks than the SO. The need for rework due to discomfort was mainly necessary with the RO. We observed no substantial differences in feeling compression and sweating. Noteworthy, eight of 12 subjects complained of uncomfortable sternal pressure due to the upper pad of the HB. The SF-12: scores ranged from 52.1 to 48.6 on the physical (PCS), and from 53.7 to 50.8 on the mental component score (MCS), demonstrating an influence on QoL. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The design as well as the orthosis itself influence the compliance of wearing and exert a moderate negative, but acceptable impact on QoL. The SO appeared to correlate with the best overall compromise between comfort and subjective stabilization. Further investigations are necessary in patients with spinal diseases, for whom the effect of orthosis wearing may surpass the

  14. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Anita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age' diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects. Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03, weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01, BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02, and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03. The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI

  15. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) affects the initial response to intravenous glucose: a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, B B; Vila, G; Resl, M; Riedl, M; Dieplinger, B; Mueller, T; Luger, A; Pacini, G; Clodi, M

    2012-05-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone released from cardiomyocytes in response to cell stretching and elevated in heart failure. Recent observations indicate a distinct connection between chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the role of BNP on glucose metabolism. Ten healthy volunteers (25 ± 1 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); fasting glucose 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l) were recruited to a participant-blinded investigator-open placebo-controlled cross-over study, performed at a university medical centre. They were randomly assigned (sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes) to receive either placebo or 3 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) BNP-32 intravenously during 4 h on study day 1 or 2. One hour after beginning the BNP/placebo infusion, a 3 h intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.33 g/kg glucose + 0.03 U/kg insulin at 20 min) was performed. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were frequently measured. Ten volunteers per group were analysed. BNP increased the initial glucose distribution volume (13 ± 1% body weight vs 11 ± 1%, p < 0.002), leading to an overall reduction in glucose concentration (p < 0.001), particularly during the initial 20 min of the test (p = 0.001), accompanied by a reduction in the initial C-peptide levels (1.42 ± 0.13 vs 1.62 ± 0.10 nmol/l, p = 0.015). BNP had no impact on beta cell function, insulin clearance or insulin sensitivity and induced no adverse effects. Intravenous administration of BNP increases glucose initial distribution volume and lowers plasma glucose concentrations following a glucose load, without affecting beta cell function or insulin sensitivity. These data support the theory that BNP has no diabetogenic properties, but improves metabolic status in men, and suggest new questions regarding BNP-induced differences in glucose availability and signalling in various organs/tissues. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01324739 The study was funded by Jubilée Fonds of the Austrian National Bank (OeNB-Fonds).

  16. Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Dong Jun; Chang, Kyung-Ah Judy; Oh, Yunhye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Baseplates of Orthodontic Appliances with in situ generated Silver Nanoparticles on Cariogenic Bacteria: A Randomized, Double-blind Cross-over Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Pourakbari, Babak; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used primarily for baseplates of orthodontic appliances (BOA). The activities of cariogenic bacteria in biofilm on these surfaces may contribute to dental caries, gingival inflammation and periodontal disease. The PMMA incorporated with nanoparticles of silver (NanoAg-I-PMMA) and NanoAg in situ in PMMA (NanoAg-IS-PMMA) have been shown to control the growth of cariogenic bacteria, but clinical trial of anti-cariogenic application of these novel materials in orthodontics has not been evaluated. The main aim of the study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of using NanoAg-IS-PMMA and NanoAg-I-PMMA for construction of new BOA in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of the cariogenic bacteria. Twenty four patients with a median age of 12.6 years (7-15) harboring Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus acidophilus as well as Lactobacillus casei participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental BOA, NanoAg-IS-BOA and NanoAg-I-BOA, contained 0.5% w/w NanoAg while the control BOA was standard PMMA. Antibacterial effect of NanoAg-IS-BOA and NanoAg-I-BOA was assessed against test cariogenic bacteria by planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells growth inhibition. The average levels of test cariogenic bacteria in saliva decreased about 2 to 70 fold (30.9-98.4%) compared to baseline depending on the microorganism type and test BOA. Biofilm inhibition analysis demonstrated that NanoAg-I-BOA and NanoAg-IS-BOA inhibited the biofilm of all test bacteria by 20.1 to 79.9% compared to BOA. NanoAg-IS-BOA had a strong anti-biofilm effect against S. mutans, S. sobrinus and L. casei. However, NanoAg-I-BOA showed only slight anti-biofilm effects on test bacteria. Most notably, at all period of the clinical trial, NanoAg-IS-BOA showed a higher antibacterial activity than NanoAg-I-BOA. Based on the novel data that presented here, the NanoAg-IS-BOA had strong antimicrobial

  18. HOIP Deficiency Causes Embryonic Lethality by Aberrant TNFR1-Mediated Endothelial Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Linear ubiquitination is crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, consisting of HOIL-1, HOIP, and SHARPIN, is the only known ubiquitin ligase that generates linear ubiquitin linkages. HOIP is the catalytically active LUBAC component. Here, we show that both constitutive and Tie2-Cre-driven HOIP deletion lead to aberrant endothelial cell death, resulting in defective vascularization and embryonic lethality at midgestation. Ablation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1 prevents cell death, vascularization defects, and death at midgestation. HOIP-deficient cells are more sensitive to death induction by both tumor necrosis factor (TNF and lymphotoxin-α (LT-α, and aberrant complex-II formation is responsible for sensitization to TNFR1-mediated cell death in the absence of HOIP. Finally, we show that HOIP’s catalytic activity is necessary for preventing TNF-induced cell death. Hence, LUBAC and its linear-ubiquitin-forming activity are required for maintaining vascular integrity during embryogenesis by preventing TNFR1-mediated endothelial cell death. : HOIP is the main catalytic subunit of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, a crucial regulator of TNF and other immune signaling pathways. Peltzer et al. find that HOIP deficiency results in embryonic lethality at midgestation due to endothelial cell death mediated by TNFR1. Aberrant formation of a TNF-mediated cell-death-inducing complex in HOIP-deficient (but not -proficient cells underlies the phenotype, with the catalytic activity of HOIP required for the control of cell death in response to TNF.

  19. Chromosome aberration studies and microdosimetry with radiations of varying quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillmaier, R.E.; Bihy, L.; Menzel, H.G.; Schuhmacher, H.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate the biological effectivity of complex irradiation fields encountered in radiation protection and high LET radiation therapy and to find meaningful specification of radiation quality closely related to the biological effectivity, correlated chromosome aberration studies and microdosimetric investigations have been carried out using cyclotron produced collimated fast neutrons. Human lymphocytes have been irradiated at different dose levels in the direct beam and in different positions in the penumbra and the rates of acentric fragments and dicentrics have been determined. In identical positions microdosimetric measurements have been performed. The dose relationship of aberration rates after irradiation in the direct beam, the aberration rates observed in the penumbra and the microdosimetric quantities ysub(D), ysub(F) and y* are presented and their relations are discussed. Furthermore the dose relationship of chromosome aberrations induced by 60 Co-γ-rays has been investigated and used to establish the RBE dose relationship of cyclotron neutrons

  20. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  1. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  2. Aberrant Chromatin Modification as a Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hongwu

    2004-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that aberrant chromatin modification plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression...

  3. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  4. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  5. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien

    2015-01-01

    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  6. Low level dose induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable structural aberrations in chromosomes of human blood lymphocytes cannot be used as biological dosemeters in the low dose range, when extrapolating from high doses using a linear dose response, as required by the original formula of the dual radiation action theory. A survey is given of experimental dose-response curves of chromosome aberrations, obtained in investigations not only by this institute, in cooperation with many other laboratories, but also by various authors in different areas of the world. The results are not compatible with the predicted linear dose relationships at in vivo dose ranges up to 30 mGy.y -1 . The aberration frequencies rise sharply with dose within the normal environmental exposure up to about twice that level. At higher doses, aberration frequencies increase less rapidly and reach a plateau. Some in vitro experiments of various authors with higher doses of low LET radiations, up to about 400 mGy have found dose responses with steps. (author)

  7. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  8. Preliminary report: prescription of prism-glasses by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase or by conventional orthoptic examination: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsz, H. J.; van Els, J.; Ruijter, J. M.; Bakker, D.; Spekreijse, H.

    2001-01-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in the Netherlands, the effectiveness of (prism-)glasses prescribed by the Measurement and Correction Method of H.-J. Haase (MKH) was compared to that of glasses prescribed by conventional orthoptic examination. Nine pairs of

  9. Zernike phase spatial filter for measuring the aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana N. Khonina; Victor V. Kotlyar; Dmitriy V. Kirsh

    2015-01-01

    To measure directly the wavefront aberration coefficients, we propose to use the multi8order diffractive element fitted with the set of Zernike polynomials. Polynomials of lowest degree describe defocusing (ametropy) and astigmatism. Coefficients of highest degree correspond to the spherical aberration of oblique rays that occurs as a consequence of misalignment of the crystalline lens and foveola, as well as deflection at the periphery of the crystalline lens. Mul^order elements allow severa...

  10. Aberrant alternative splicing is another hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  11. Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks.

  12. Aberrant Recapitulation of Developmental Program: Novel Target in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0472 TITLE: “Aberrant Recapitulation of Developmental Program: Novel Target in Scleroderma ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Aberrant Recapitulation of Developmental Program: Novel Target in Scleroderma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0472 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fibrosis in scleroderma is associated

  13. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher-Wellman Kelsey H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that the dietary supplement Meltdown® increases plasma norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (EPI, glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA, and metabolic rate in men. However, in that investigation measurements ceased at 90 minutes post ingestion, with values for blood borne variables peaking at this time. It was the purpose of the present investigation to extend the time course of measurement to 6 hours, and to include women within the design to determine if sex differences to treatment exist. Methods Ten men (24 ± 4 yrs and 10 women (22 ± 2 yrs ingested Meltdown® or a placebo, using a randomized, cross-over design with one week separating conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before supplementation and at one hour intervals through 6 hours post ingestion. A standard meal was provided after the hour 3 collection. Samples were assayed for EPI, NE, glycerol, and FFA. Five minute breath samples were collected at each time for measurement of metabolic rate and substrate utilization. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data were also analyzed using a 2 (sex × 2 (condition × 7 (time repeated measures analysis of variance, with Tukey post hoc testing. Results No sex × condition interactions were noted for AUC for any variable (p > 0.05. Hence, AUC data are collapsed across men and women. AUC was greater for Meltdown® compared to placebo for EPI (367 ± 58 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 183 ± 27 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.01, NE (2345 ± 205 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1659 ± 184 pg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.02, glycerol (79 ± 8 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1 vs. 59 ± 6 μg·mL-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.03, FFA (2.46 ± 0.64 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1 vs. 1.57 ± 0.42 mmol·L-1·6 hr-1; p = 0.05, and kilocalorie expenditure (439 ± 26 kcal·6 hrs-1 vs. 380 ± 14 kcal·6 hrs-1; p = 0.02. No effect was noted for substrate utilization (p = 0.39. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  15. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  16. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes by fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcia Augusta da; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation (low-LET) are well known and cytogenetic analyses of irradiated human lymphocytes have been widely applied to biological dosimetry. However, much less is known about chromosome aberrations induced by densely ionizing radiation (high LET), such as that of alpha particles or neutrons. Such particles induce DNA strand breaks, as well as chromosome breakage and rearrangements of high complexity. This damage is more localized and less efficiently repaired than after X- or γ-ray irradiation. This preferential production of complex aberrations by densely ionizing radiation is related to the unique energy deposition patterns, which produces highly localized multiple DNA damage at the chromosomal level. A better knowledge of the interactions between different types of radiation and cellular DNA is of importance, not only from the radiobiological viewpoint but also for dosimetric and therapeutic purposes. The objective of the present study was to analyse the cytogenetic effects of fission neutrons on peripheral blood lymphocytes in order to evaluate structural and numerical aberrations and number of cells in the different mitotic cycles. So, blood samples from five healthy donors, 22-25 years old, of both sexes, were irradiated in the Research Reactor IEA-R1 of our Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) with thermal and fast neutrons at doses of 0.2; 0.3; 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. The γ contribution to the total absorbed dose was about 30%. These doses were monitored by thermoluminescent dosemeters: LiF-600 (for neutrons) and LiF-700 (for γ-rays). The data concerning structural aberrations were evaluated with regard to three parameters: percentage of cells with aberrations, number of aberrations/cell and number of dicentric/cell. The cytogenetic results showed an increase in the three parameters after irradiation with neutrons, as a function of radiation dose. Apparently, there was no influence of neutrons on the kinetics of cellular

  17. Ionizing radiation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, Vera; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood were investigated among the observed groups of subjects who were exposed to low radiation doses (external exposure) in comparison with the control group. The first group of subjects is involved in the production of radioisotope technetium, whose accumulated work exposure time ranges between 3 and 30 years. The second group works on inspection of the medical X-ray equipment, whose accumulated work exposure time is between 2 and 34 years. The third group worked on decontamination of the terrain from depleted uranium radioactive ammunition. These workers were involved in mechanical removal of the surface soil layer to a depth of 50 cm. They were selected out of a group of professionals otherwise exposed to radiation from confined sources in their daily work. The accumulated work exposure of this group ranged from 2 to 34 years. The control group consisted of individuals not working in the ionizing radiation zone. The average yearly absorbed dose measured by TL dosimeters for all three observed groups did not exceed 2 mSv. The chromosomal aberrations were analyzed by a modified Moorhead method. The objective of the study was to establish the existence of differences in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations change with respect to the source type, i.e. type of radioactive emission. Comparisons of the chromosomal changes in the observed groups revealed that the group working on technetium production had an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations with respect to control. The aberrations found were of the acentric fragment and chromosomal break types. A comparison of the exposed groups between each other, no statistically significant differences in the numbers of chromosomal aberrations were found. Soil decontamination from depleted uranium did not contribute to the relative radiation risk, since it lasted only a few months, and was done by the professionals fully clothed

  18. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  19. Radiation-induced cellular reproductive death and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.S.; Mitchell, J.B.; Griggs, H.G.; Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    If a major mode of cell killing by ionizing radiation is the death of cells containing visible chromosomal aberrations, as for example from anaphase-bridge formation at mitosis, then cells bearing such aberrations should be selectively eliminated from the population, resulting in an increased survival potential for the population remaining at each succeeding cell generation. Using synchronized V79B Chinese hamster cells, we measured the aberration frequency and the colony-forming ability of mitotic cells at each of the first three generations following irradiation in G1. Cells were resynchronized by mechanial harvest at each succeeding mitosis after irradiation in order to avoid mixing of generations in the cell population at later sampling times. As anticipated, the chromosome aberration frequencies decreased markedly from the first to the second and from the second to the third mitosis. The surviving fraction, however, was virtually the same for plating assays carried out immediately after irradiation, at the first, or at the second mitosis. The surviving fraction was significantly higher for cells reaching the third postirradiation mitosis. Survival and aberration frequencies were assayed again at approximately the fourteenth postirradiation division, by which time the irradiated and control populations were not significantly different

  20. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  1. Chromosomal aberrations in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacic, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure is particularly delicate because of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and its cumulative effect, where it is important to consider the biological response of body to given conditions of exposure. The objective of this study was the observation of the recovery of the DNA damages in subjects working in the radiation area in two different intervals.Group I, consisting of 30 subjects, was exposed to ionizing radiation and unstable chromosomal aberrations were identified. Group II included the same, re-examined subjects (30) 9 months later. It was verified that 5 (16.67%) subjects still had unstable chromosomal aberrations, although they had been excluded from radiation area Controls groups (C) consisted of 64 subjects that were not exposed to mutagenic agents.The comparison of the control group with the two studied groups revealed the reduction of the unstable aberrations (p<0.05). The total effective doses, which increased with the years spent in radiation area, reflected the yield of chromosomal aberrations. The presence of chromosomal aberrations in some subjects, after the exclusion from the ionising radiation exposure, suggests that the time needed for the recovery of the DNA damages is different, which indicates the individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as different of the reparatory cellular response. (author)

  2. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng

    2017-12-25

    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  3. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot

  4. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti, E-mail: kitazawa.siniti@jaea.go.jp [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Ogawa, Hiroaki [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke [Core Technology Center, Nikon Corporation, Yokohama 244-8533 (Japan); Ohmori, Keisuke [Customized Products Business Unit, Nikon Corporation, Mito 310-0843 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  5. Estimation and Compensation of aberrations in Spatial Light Modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Augusto; Castaneda, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The spatial light modulator (SLM) Holoeye LC-R720 is based on LCoS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon) technology. Due to the induced curvatures on the silicon plate by the production process, there are static aberrations in the wave-fronts modified by the SLM. In order to calculate the aberrated wave-front we used phase-shifting interferometry, an optimization algorithm for far field propagation, and the geometric characterization of the focal spot along the caustic. Zernike polynomials were used for expanding and comparing the wave-fronts. The aberration compensation was carried out by displaying the conjugated transmittance on the SLM. The complexity of the experimental setup and the requirements of the digital processing of each estimation method were comparatively analyzed.

  6. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described

  7. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  8. [Frequency of chromosome aberrations in residents of the Semipalatinsk Oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitskaia, E G; Akhmatullina, N B; Vsevolodov, E B; Bishnevskaia, S S; Sharipov, I K; Cherednichenko, O G

    1999-06-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of the population of the Beskaragai district of the Semipalatinsk oblast adjacent to the territory of the nuclear test site was conducted by means of an ecological genetic questionnaire and cytogenetic examination of metaphase chromosomes. An increase in the total mutation level in the region was observed. The frequency of chromosome aberrations among the population of the Beskaragai district (3.2%) was statistically significantly (about 1.5 times) higher than the background levels in the clear regions (from 1 to 2%). Furthermore, the frequency of aberrations in adolescents was comparable with that in the adults. The spectrum of chromosome aberrations pointed to a significant contribution of radiation component to the mutagenesis.

  9. Low chromatic aberration hexapole for molecular state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    In molecular beam state-selection experiments, the electrostatic hexapole acts as an optical lens, imaging molecules from the source to the focus. The molecular longitudinal velocity spread induces the phenomenon of chromatic aberration, which will reduce the state-selection purity. We propose a scheme which can effectively reduce the chromatic aberration by changing the hexapole voltage operating manner. The hexapole is already charged before molecules arrive at the entrance of the hexapole. When molecules are completely inside the hexapole, the voltage is switched off rapidly at an appropriate time. In this manner, faster molecules travel a longer hexapole focusing region than slower molecules. Therefore the focusing positions of molecules with different velocities become close. Numerical trajectory simulations of molecular state selection are carried out, and the results show that this low chromatic aberration hexapole can significantly improve the state purity from 46.2% to 87.0%. (paper)

  10. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  11. Circumflex coronary artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Celik, T.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Circumflex (Cx) coronary artery congenital anomaly is reported to be less than 1% incidence. Coronary arteries with aberrant origin are more likely to have atherosclerosis according to some published literatures. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present computed tomography (CT) angiography findings of a patient, who has Cx artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerotic. Materials and methods: 57-year-old woman without any symptoms who has risk factors to atherosclerosis was referred to our clinic for coronary CT angiography. Results: In CT angiography; we detected Cx coronary artery with aberrant origin (right sinus of valsalva) and retroaortic course. Also we saw intimal irregularities and calcified plaque causing severe narrowing in the proximal segment of artery. Right coronary and left anterior descendant arteries had mild atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Coroner CT angiography, which allows multiplanar imaging with high resolution, is an effective diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease, like not only congenital anomalies but also acquired atherosclerotic disease

  12. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, O.L. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)], E-mail: krivanek.ondrej@gmail.com; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  13. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown

  14. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Ohmori, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  15. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Elin; Ekström, Linda; Björck, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product) were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids) and breath hydrogen (H2) excretion. An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, prisk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown beans may provide a preventive tool in relation to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01706042.

  16. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  17. In vivo chromatic aberration in eyes implanted with intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Llorente, Lourdes; Durán, Sonia; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2013-04-12

    To measure in vivo and objectively the monochromatic aberrations at different wavelengths, and the chromatic difference of focus between green and infrared wavelengths in eyes implanted with two models of intraocular lenses (IOL). EIGHTEEN EYES PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY: nine implanted with Tecnis ZB99 1-Piece acrylic IOL and nine implanted with AcrySof SN60WF IOL. A custom-developed laser ray tracing (LRT) aberrometer was used to measure the optical aberrations, at 532 nm and 785 nm wavelengths. The monochromatic wave aberrations were described using a fifth-order Zernike polynomial expansion. The chromatic difference of focus was estimated as the difference between the equivalent spherical errors corresponding to each wavelength. Wave aberration measurements were highly reproducible. Except for the defocus term, no significant differences in high order aberrations (HOA) were found between wavelengths. The average chromatic difference of focus was 0.46 ± 0.15 diopters (D) in the Tecnis group, and 0.75 ± 0.12 D in the AcrySof group, and the difference was statistically significant (P Chromatic difference of focus in the AcrySof group was not statistically significantly different from the Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) previously reported in a phakic population (0.78 ± 0.16 D). The impact of LCA on retinal image quality (measured in terms of Strehl ratio) was drastically reduced when considering HOA and astigmatism in comparison with a diffraction-limited eye, yielding the differences in retinal image quality between Tecnis and AcrySof IOLs not significant. LRT aberrometry at different wavelengths is a reproducible technique to evaluate the chromatic difference of focus objectively in eyes implanted with IOLs. Replacement of the crystalline lens by the IOL did not increase chromatic difference of focus above that of phakic eyes in any of the groups. The AcrySof group showed chromatic difference of focus values very similar to physiological values in

  18. In vivo longitudinal chromatic aberration of pseudophakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Damian; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Zając, Marek; Hill-Bator, Aneta; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of longitudinal chromatic aberration measurements on two groups of pseudophakic eyes in comparison to healthy eyes. The longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye, defined as chromatic difference of refraction with disabled accommodation, was measured with the use of a visual refractometer with a custom-designed target illuminator consisting of a narrow-band RGB diode (blue λb = 470 ± 15 nm; green λg = 525 ± 18 nm; red λr = 660 ± 10 nm). The measurements were performed on nine eyes implanted with AcrySof IQ SN60WF, 14 eyes implanted with AcrySof SA60AT, and 10 phakic eyes under cycloplegia. The mean values of the longitudinal chromatic aberration between 470 and 660 nm for the control group was 1.12 ± 0.14 D. For SA60AT group, it was 1.45 ± 0.42 D whereas for SN60WF it was 1.17 ± 0.52 D. The statistical test showed significant difference between SA60AT and the control group (p chromatic aberration in vivo can be easily and reliably estimated with an adapted visual refractometer. The two groups of pseudophakic eyes measured in this study showed different values of chromatic aberration. Its magnitude for SA60AT group was significantly larger than for the control group whereas for SN60WF the difference was not significant. The optical material used for intraocular lens design may have significant influence on the magnitude of the chromatic aberration of the pseudophakic eye, and therefore on its optical and visual performance in polychromatic light.

  19. Scaling laws for aberrations in magnetic quadrupole lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.W.; Heighway, E.A.; Christian, R.S.; Dragt, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the third-order (spherical) abberrations in magnetic quadrupole lenses for use in conventional charged particle beam transport systems. An analytical description of the abberrations is presented and this is compared with the results of high order numerical integration. The dependence of the aberration strength on the system geometry and f number is given and a comparison of doublet and triplet systems made. The reduction of the aberrations in both doublet and triplet systems using embedded magnetic octupole lenses is also discussed and analytical predictions are given

  20. Aberration compensation using a spatial light modulator LCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezquita, R; Rincon, O; Torres, Y M

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic correction of aberrations introduced in optical systems have been a widely discussed topic in the past 10 years. Adaptive optics is the most important developed field where the Shack-Hartmann sensors and deformable mirrors are used for the measurement and correction of wavefronts. In this paper, an interferometric set-up which uses a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) as an active element is proposed. Using this SLM a procedure for the compensation of all phase aberrations present in the experimental setup is shown.

  1. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-01-01

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  2. Selective corneal optical aberration (SCOA) for customized ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas

    2001-06-01

    Wavefront analysis still have some technical problems which may be solved within the next years. There are some limitations to use wavefront as a diagnostic tool for customized ablation alone. An ideal combination would be wavefront and topography. Meanwhile Selective Corneal Aberration is a method to visualize the optical quality of a measured corneal surface. It is based on a true measured 3D elevation information of a video topometer. Thus values can be interpreted either using Zernike polynomials or visualized as a so called color coded surface quality map. This map gives a quality factor (corneal aberration) for each measured point of the cornea.

  3. Static telescope aberration measurement using lucky imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marrero, Marcos; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Marichal-Hernández, José Gil; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    A procedure has been developed to compute static aberrations once the telescope PSF has been measured with the lucky imaging technique, using a nearby star close to the object of interest as the point source to probe the optical system. This PSF is iteratively turned into a phase map at the pupil using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and then converted to the appropriate actuation information for a deformable mirror having low actuator number but large stroke capability. The main advantage of this procedure is related with the capability of correcting static aberration at the specific pointing direction and without the need of a wavefront sensor.

  4. Propagation of highly aberrated laser beams in nonquadratic plasma waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Fleck, J.A. Jr.; Morris, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of a laser beam in a plasma column several meters long with a realistic electron density distribution is examined. The electron density distribution is based on laser-beam heating at z=0, but is otherwise uncoupled to the laser beam. The aberrated nature of the resulting lenslike medium leads to essentially aperiodic beam properties, which contrast with the completely periodic properties of Gaussian beams propagating in quadratic lenslike media. The beam is nonetheless stably trapped. These aberrated-beam properties also help to stabilize the beam against axial variations in refractive index

  5. Elimination of aberrations in wide-aperture magnetoelectrostatic plasma lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butenko, V.I.; Ivanov, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    A computer model is devised for a Morozov plasma lens, in which the magnetic surfaces are equipotential surfaces of the electric field. Results are presented from numerical modeling of the focusing of ions with allowance for their longitudinal, radial, and azimuthal motions. The strengths and spatial distributions of the magnetic and electric fields are optimized. The methods for removing moment, geometric, and chromatic aberrations are analyzed. The effect of a discrete distribution of the potentials on ion focusing is modeled, and the related aberrations are examined. A computer model of an achromatic two-lens system is considered

  6. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  7. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs. The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5% was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p and DuraNet® (69.8%, p . The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6. LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3 and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5 were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  8. Salvia Miltiorrhiza Root Water-Extract (Danshen Has No Beneficial Effect on Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A Randomized Double-Blind Cross-Over Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleun C M van Poppel

    Full Text Available Danshen is the dried root extract of the plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza and it is used as traditional Chinese medicinal herbal product to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, its efficacy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluates the effect of Danshen on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two well known risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis.This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study performed at a tertiary referral center. Participants were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomized to treatment with Danshen (water-extract of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza root or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. There was a wash out period of 4 weeks. Of the 20 analysed participants, 11 received placebo first. Inclusion criteria were: age 40-70 years, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. At the end of each treatment period, plasma lipids were determined (primary outcome, 24 hours ambulant blood pressure measurement (ABPM was performed, and vasodilator endothelial function was assessed in the forearm.LDL cholesterol levels were 3.82±0.14 mmol/l after Danshen and 3.52±0.16 mmol/l after placebo treatment (mean±SE; p<0.05 for treatment effect corrected for baseline. Danshen treatment had no effect on blood pressure (ABPM 138/84 after Danshen and 136/87 after placebo treatment. These results were further substantiated by the observation that Danshen had neither an effect on endothelial function nor on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, hemostasis and blood viscosity.Four weeks of treatment with Danshen (water-extract slightly increased LDL-cholesterol without affecting a wide variety of other risk markers. These observations do not support the use of Danshen to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563770.

  9. Aberrant gene promoter methylation associated with sporadic multiple colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2, RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008 and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047 as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006. Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06, HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06 and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24. Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple and solitary CRC showed no relevant

  10. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Wada, S; Hatayama, A

    2010-02-01

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  11. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Wada, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  12. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Wada, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  13. Differential algebraic method for arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Min; Tang Tiantong; Lu Yilong; Yao Zhenhua

    2003-01-01

    The principle of differential algebra is applied to analyse and calculate arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of electron optical systems. Expressions of differential algebraic form of high order combined aberrations are obtained and arbitrary order combined aberrations can be calculated numerically. As an example, a typical wide electron beam focusing system with curved optical axes named magnetic immersion lens has been studied. All the second-order and third-order combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of the lens have been calculated, and the patterns of the corresponding geometric aberrations and combined aberrations have been given as well

  14. Novel plumage aberrations in Paraguayan non-Passerine Birds, and the definition of a new plumage aberration unique to Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous plumage colourations are reported for three species of non-passerine birds from Paraguay, Limpkin (Aramaus guarauna; Aramidae, Nanday Parakeet (Nandayus nenday; Psittacidae, and the Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus; Picidae. A leucistic Limpkin is the first published report of a colour anomaly for the family Aramidae. The colour aberration in N. nenday is hypothesised to be a result of an excess of red psittacofulvin pigments, which are unique to the Psittacidae. Although the mechanisms causing this colour aberration remain unknown, we suggest the term psittacofulvism for the phenotypic effect observed.

  15. Increased frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from neonates and the influence of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsdon, J.; Rijn, J. van; Berger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have examined lymphocytes from human preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT) babies for an effect of gestational age (GA) on chromosomal aberrations either occurring spontaneously or indiced by treatment with X-rays alone; or with caffeine supplementation in comparison to the lymphocytes of healthy adults. (AD). Per cent of abnormal cells (% Abn) was used as an indicator of chromosome sensitivy to the different treatments. PT babies had significantly higher spontaneous and X-ray-induced % Abn values than AD, but were comparable to FT. After X-iradiation + caffeine the yield of aberrations in any 2 groups was not significantly different. Chromosomal sensitivity may resuult from factors other than GA. This in vitro model may permit study of the mechanisms of chromosomal damage repair and prevention of free radical damage of DNA during the perinatal period. (author). 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  16. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nilsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids and breath hydrogen (H2 excretion. RESULTS: An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, p<0.01- and insulin (-16%, p<0.05 responses, increased satiety hormones (PYY 51%, p<0.001, suppressed hunger hormones (ghrelin -14%, p<0.05, and hunger sensations (-15%, p = 0.05, increased GLP-2 concentrations (8.4%, p<0.05 and suppressed inflammatory markers (IL-6 -35%, and IL-18 -8.3%, p<0.05 at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Breath H2 (141%, p<0.01, propionate (16%, p<0.05, and isobutyrate (18%, P<0.001 were significantly increased after brown beans compared to after WWB, indicating a higher colonic fermentative activity after brown beans. CONCLUSIONS: An evening meal with brown beans beneficially affected important measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown

  17. New trends and techniques in chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: automation of chromosome analysis; storage of fixed cells from cultures of lymphocytes obtained routinely during periodic employee medical examinations; analysis of banded chromosomes; identification of first division metaphases; sister chromatid exchange; and patterns of aberration induction

  18. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  19. Effects of ocular aberrations on contrast detection in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Liu, Rong; Dai, Yun; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-08-06

    We use adaptive optics (AO) techniques to manipulate the ocular aberrations and elucidate the effects of these ocular aberrations on contrast detection in a noisy background. The detectability of sine wave gratings at frequencies of 4, 8, and 16 circles per degree (cpd) was measured in a standard two-interval force-choice staircase procedure against backgrounds of various levels of white noise. The observer's ocular aberrations were either corrected with AO or left uncorrected. In low levels of external noise, contrast detection thresholds are always lowered by AO correction, whereas in high levels of external noise, they are generally elevated by AO correction. Higher levels of external noise are required to make this threshold elevation observable when signal spatial frequencies increase from 4 to 16 cpd. The linear-amplifier-model fit shows that mostly sampling efficiency and equivalent noise both decrease with AO correction. Our findings indicate that ocular aberrations could be beneficial for contrast detection in high-level noises. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Telomere Length in Circulating Lymphocytes: Association with Chromosomal Aberrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemminki, K.; Rachakonda, S.; Musak, L.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Halasová, E.; Forsti,, A.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchancová, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 194-196 ISSN 1045-2257 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : structural chromosome aberrations * healthy subjects * relative telomere length * genotoxicity * telomere biology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.960, year: 2015

  1. Joint denoising, demosaicing, and chromatic aberration correction for UHD video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Philips, Wilfried; Damstra, Klaas Jan; Ellenbroek, Frank

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution video capture is crucial for numerous applications such as surveillance, security, industrial inspection, medical imaging and digital entertainment. In the last two decades, we are witnessing a dramatic increase of the spatial resolution and the maximal frame rate of video capturing devices. In order to achieve further resolution increase, numerous challenges will be facing us. Due to the reduced size of the pixel, the amount of light also reduces, leading to the increased noise level. Moreover, the reduced pixel size makes the lens imprecisions more pronounced, which especially applies to chromatic aberrations. Even in the case when high quality lenses are used some chromatic aberration artefacts will remain. Next, noise level additionally increases due to the higher frame rates. To reduce the complexity and the price of the camera, one sensor captures all three colors, by relying on Color Filter Arrays. In order to obtain full resolution color image, missing color components have to be interpolated, i.e. demosaicked, which is more challenging than in the case of lower resolution, due to the increased noise and aberrations. In this paper, we propose a new method, which jointly performs chromatic aberration correction, denoising and demosaicking. By jointly performing the reduction of all artefacts, we are reducing the overall complexity of the system and the introduction of new artefacts. In order to reduce possible flicker we also perform temporal video enhancement. We evaluate the proposed method on a number of publicly available UHD sequences and on sequences recorded in our studio.

  2. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  3. Chromosome aberrations and cell survival in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremp, J.

    1981-01-01

    A possible correlation between chromosome aberrations and reduced proliferation capacity or cell death was investigated. Synchronized Chinese hamster fibroblast cells were irradiated with 300 rad of x rays in early G 1 . Despite synchronization the cells reached the subsequent mitosis at different times. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in the postirradiation division at 2-h intervals. The highest frequency occurred in cells with a first cell cycle of medium length. The colony-forming ability of mitotic cells was measured in parallel samples by following the progress of individual mitoses. The proportion of cells forming macrocolonies decreased with increasing cell cycle length, and the number of non-colony-forming cells increased. Irrespective of various first cell cycle lengths and different frequencies of chromosome aberrations, the number of cells forming microcolonies remained constant. A correlation was found between the absence of chromosome aberrations and the ability of cells to form macrocolonies. However, cells with a long first cell cycle formed fewer macrocolonies than expected

  4. Refractive and diffractive neutron optics with reduced chromatic aberration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Bentley, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    by the use of optics for focusing and imaging. Refractive and diffractive optical elements, e.g. compound refractive lenses and Fresnel zone plates, are attractive due to their low cost, and simple alignment. These optical elements, however, suffer from chromatic aberration, which limit their effectiveness...

  5. Frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration and the different options available for management. Subjects and Methods: All patients with primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations were included in study. Patient's detailed history, general physical examination, presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics, abdominal and pelvic examination finding were noted. Targeted investigations, including ultrasound, hormonal assay, buccal smear and karyotyping results were recorded. The management options were individually tailored with focus n psychological management. Results: Eighteen patients out of 30,000 patients were diagnosed as having primary amenorrhea. Six had primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations with the frequency of 0.02%. The age at presentation was 20 years and above in 50%. The most common cause was Turner's syndrome seen in 4 out of 6. The presenting symptoms were delay in onset of menstruation in 05 patients and primary infertility in 01 patient. Conclusion: Primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration is an uncommon condition requiring an early and accurate diagnosis. Turner's syndrome is a relatively common cause of this condition. Management should be multi-disciplinary and individualized according to the patient's age and symptom at presentation. Psychological management is very important and counselling throughout treatment is recommended. (author)

  6. Thermal lensing measurement from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the thermally induced lens from the coefficient of defocus aberration using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). As a calibration technique, we infer the focal length of standard lenses probed by a collimated Gaussian beam...

  7. Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...

  8. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  9. Iatrogenic injury of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Figs 1 and 2). A week later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (ERCP) examination was performed. This showed no filling of the right posterior sectoral ducts but normal opacification of the other ducts. (Figs 3a and b). These findings led to the diagnosis of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct that ...

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in tire plant workers and interaction with

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musak, L.; Souček, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Halasová, E.; Poláková, Veronika; Slyšková, Jana; Susová, S.; Buchancová, J.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Sediková, J.; Klimentová, G.; Osina, O.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 641, 1-2 (2008), s. 36-42 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * Genetic polymorphisms * DNA repair genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  11. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  12. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  13. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  14. Holographic gratings for spectrographic applications: Study of aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    The design and fabrication of holographic gratings requires an understanding of Fermat's principle. This principle states that the path of a light ray from one point to another is that which requires the least time. The aberrant, optical path of an object point to an image was studied using Fermat principles.

  15. Lethality of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human tumour cell lines with different radiosensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco-Martin, J M; Ottenheim, C P; Bartelink, H; Begg, A C

    1996-03-01

    In order to find an explanation for the eventual disappearance of all chromosome aberrations in two radiosensitive human tumour cell lines, the type and stability of different aberration types was investigated in more detail. To classify the aberrations into unstable and stable types, three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, including a whole-chromosome probe, a pancentromere probe, and a stain for total DNA. This technique enables the appropriate classification of the aberrations principally by the presence (stable) or not (unstable) of a single centromere per chromosome. Unstable-type aberrations were found to disappear within 7 days (several divisions) in the two radiosensitive and the two radioresistant tumour lines investigated. Stable-type aberrations were found to remain at an approximately constant level over the duration of the experiment (14 days; 8-10 divisions) in the two radioresistant lines. In contrast, the majority of these stable-type aberrations had disappeared by 14 days in the two radiosensitive lines. The previous findings of disappearance of total aberrations in radiosensitive cells was therefore not due to a reduced induction of stable-type aberrations, but the complete disappearance of cells with this aberration type. These results could not be explained by differences in apoptosis or G1 blocks. Two possible explanations for these unexpected findings involve non-random induction of unstable-type aberrations, or lethality of stable-type aberrations. The results suggest caution in the use of stable-type aberration numbers as a predictor for radiosensitivity.

  16. Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Alun L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. Methods Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Results Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. Conclusion The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.

  17. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10 5 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G 0 , the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  18. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  19. Space charge effects and aberrations on electron pulse compression in a spherical electrostatic capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Li, Haibo; Wan, Weishi; Wei, Zheng; Grzelakowski, Krzysztof P; Tromp, Rudolf M; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2017-12-01

    The effects of space charge, aberrations and relativity on temporal compression are investigated for a compact spherical electrostatic capacitor (α-SDA). By employing the three-dimensional (3D) field simulation and the 3D space charge model based on numerical General Particle Tracer and SIMION, we map the compression efficiency for a wide range of initial beam size and single-pulse electron number and determine the optimum conditions of electron pulses for the most effective compression. The results demonstrate that both space charge effects and aberrations prevent the compression of electron pulses into the sub-ps region if the electron number and the beam size are not properly optimized. Our results suggest that α-SDA is an effective compression approach for electron pulses under the optimum conditions. It may serve as a potential key component in designing future time-resolved electron sources for electron diffraction and spectroscopy experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptomic landscape of acute promyelocytic leukemia reveals aberrant surface expression of the platelet aggregation agonist Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Vincent-Philippe; Chagraoui, Jalila; MacRae, Tara; Marquis, Miriam; Bonnefoy, Arnaud; Krosl, Jana; Lemieux, Sébastien; Marinier, Anne; Pabst, Caroline; Rivard, Georges-Étienne; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy

    2018-02-23

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor. Most intriguingly, the Podoplanin (PDPN) gene, involved in platelet aggregation, is aberrantly expressed in APL promyelocytes and is the most distinctive transcript for this disease. Using an antibody panel optimized for AML diagnosis by flow cytometry, we also found that PDPN was the most specific surface marker for APL, and that all-trans retinoic acid therapy rapidly decreases its expression. Functional studies showed that engineered overexpression of this gene in human leukemic cells causes aberrant platelet binding, activation and aggregation. PDPN-expressing primary APL cells, but not PDPN-negative primary leukemias, specifically induce platelet binding, activation and aggregation. Finally, PDPN expression on leukemia cells in a xenograft model was associated with thrombocytopenia and prolonged bleeding time in vivo. Together our results suggest that PDPN may contribute to the hemostatic perturbations found in APL.

  1. Inner Leaf Gel of Aloe striata Induces Adhesion-Reducing Morphological Hyphal Aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Wada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi, particularly molds that are cosmopolitan in soils, are frequent etiologic agents of opportunistic mycoses. Members of the Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum species complexes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents of opportunistic fusarial infections in mammals, while Paecilomyces variotii is one of the most frequently encountered Paecilomyces species in human infections. Prevention and treatment of these mycoses are problematic because available antimycotics are limited and often have toxic side effects. Popular folk medicines, such as the inner leaf gel from Aloe spp., offer potential sources for novel antimycotic compounds. To screen for antifungal properties of Aloe striata, we treated conidia of three strains each of F. solani, F. oxysporum, and P. variotii with homogenized and filtered inner leaf gel. Exposure to gel homogenates caused minimal inhibition of conidial germination in tested strains. However, it significantly increased the frequency of hyphal aberrations characterized by increased hyphal diameters that resulted in intervals of non-parallel cell walls. Non-parallel cell walls ostensibly reduce total hyphal surface area available for adhesion. We found a significant decrease in the ability of aberrated P. variotii hyphae to remain adhered to microscope slides after repeated washing with reverse osmosis water. Our results suggest that treatment with A. striata contributes to a decrease in the adhesion frequency of tested P. variotii strains.

  2. A Rare Entity: Traumatic Thoracic Aortic Injury in a Patient with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiten Mohanbhai; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Bulsara, Shahzad; Sahu, Tapish; Sheorain, Virender K; Grover, Tarun; Parakh, Rajiv

    2017-05-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery is an uncommon entity incidence ranging from 0.5 to 2.5%. Management of thoracic aortic injury in the presence of such anomalies can be a challenge. We present here a case of traumatic aortic injury, which was incidentally found to have an asymptomatic aberrant right subclavian artery. The patient was managed by an endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury with an endograft and a right carotid to subclavian artery bypass as a hybrid procedure. A 40-year male patient was brought to the emergency in shock with an alleged history of road traffic accident an hour back. After initial resuscitation as per advance trauma life support protocol, imaging revealed thoracic aortic injury with aberrant right subclavian artery with multiple rib and bilateral humerus fracture. After primary stabilization of arm fractures, the patient was shifted to a hybrid operation room. As the aortic injury was within 10 mm of the origin of both subclavian arteries, it was decided to cover the origin of both subclavian arteries and land the endograft distal to the left carotid artery origin. Since there was a right dominant vertebral artery on imaging, right carotid to right subclavian artery bypass was done with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft to prevent posterior circulatory stroke along with thoracic endovascular aortic repair to seal the thoracic aortic injury. After endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury, left subclavian artery perfusion was maintained through left vertebral artery; and hence, revascularization of left subclavian artery was deferred. After management of all fractures, the patient was discharged 3 weeks after the date of admission without any complications. At 6 months follow-up, patient was stable and images showed patent bypass graft and sealed aortic injury. In a trauma setting with multiple injuries, hybrid procedure with a thoracic endograft is associated with low mortality and morbidity; hence, it is the treatment

  3. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  4. Effects of a mixed berry beverage on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers; A randomized cross-over study in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nilsson

    Full Text Available Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF, may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans.Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design. The control beverage (water based was matched with respect to monosaccharides, pH, and volume. Cognitive tests included tests of working memory capacity, selective attention, and psychomotor reaction time. Cardiometabolic test variables investigated were blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, and markers of oxidative stress.The daily amounts of total polyphenols and DF from the berry beverage were 795 mg and 11g, respectively. There were no polyphenols or DF in the control beverage. The berry intervention reduced total- and LDL cholesterol compared to baseline (both P<0.05, and in comparison to the control beverage (P<0.005 and P<0.01, respectively. The control beverage increased glucose concentrations (P<0.01 and tended to increase insulin concentrations (P = 0.064 from base line, and increased insulin concentrations in comparison to the berry beverage (P<0.05. Subjects performed better in the working memory test after the berry beverage compared to after the control beverage (P<0.05. No significant effects on the other test variables were observed.The improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance after the berry beverage suggest preventive potential of berries with respect to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease

  5. Inter-homolog crossing-over and synapsis in Arabidopsis meiosis are dependent on the chromosome axis protein AtASY3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen Ferdous

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analysed AtASY3, a coiled-coil domain protein that is required for normal meiosis in Arabidopsis. Analysis of an Atasy3-1 mutant reveals that loss of the protein compromises chromosome axis formation and results in reduced numbers of meiotic crossovers (COs. Although the frequency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs appears moderately reduced in Atasy3-1, the main recombination defect is a reduction in the formation of COs. Immunolocalization studies in wild-type meiocytes indicate that the HORMA protein AtASY1, which is related to Hop1 in budding yeast, forms hyper-abundant domains along the chromosomes that are spatially associated with DSBs and early recombination pathway proteins. Loss of AtASY3 disrupts the axial organization of AtASY1. Furthermore we show that the AtASY3 and AtASY1 homologs BoASY3 and BoASY1, from the closely related species Brassica oleracea, are co-immunoprecipitated from meiocyte extracts and that AtASY3 interacts with AtASY1 via residues in its predicted coiled-coil domain. Together our results suggest that AtASY3 is a functional homolog of Red1. Since studies in budding yeast indicate that Red1 and Hop1 play a key role in establishing a bias to favor inter-homolog recombination (IHR, we propose that AtASY3 and AtASY1 may have a similar role in Arabidopsis. Loss of AtASY3 also disrupts synaptonemal complex (SC formation. In Atasy3-1 the transverse filament protein AtZYP1 forms small patches rather than a continuous SC. The few AtMLH1 foci that remain in Atasy3-1 are found in association with the AtZYP1 patches. This is sufficient to prevent the ectopic recombination observed in the absence of AtZYP1, thus emphasizing that in addition to its structural role the protein is important for CO formation.

  6. Study of chromosome aberrations on the workers occupationally exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Lv Huiming; Zhang Cuilan; Hao Shuxia; Su Xu; Jia Kejun; Liu Yufei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of thorium and rare earth mixed dust on chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of occupational exposed workers. Methods: Analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations on 53 occupational exposed workers and 58 control workers were carried out by the conventional Giemsa staining method. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method was performed to analyze the chromosome stable aberrations on 10 occupational exposed workers and l0 control workers. Results: The frequencies of chromosomal aberration cells, dicentrics plus rings, total aberrations in exposed workers were significantly higher than those in controls. No significant difference was found in the frequency of acentric aberrations between exposed and non-exposed workers. No significant difference was found in the frequency of translocations between exposed and non-exposed workers. Conclusions: Chronically occupational exposure to thorium and rare earth mixed dust can increase the induction of unstable chromosome aberration, but the increase of stable chromosome aberrations (translocation) can not be observed. (authors)

  7. An accurate optical design method for synchrotron radiation beamlines with wave-front aberration theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaojiang, E-mail: slsyxj@nus.edu.sg; Diao, Caozheng; Breese, Mark B. H. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117603 (Singapore)

    2016-07-27

    An aberration calculation method which was developed by Lu [1] can treat individual aberration term precisely. Spectral aberration is the linear sum of these aberration terms, and the aberrations of multi-element systems also can be calculated correctly when the stretching ratio, defined herein, is unity. Evaluation of focusing mirror-grating systems which are optimized according to Lu’s method, along with the Light Path Function (LPF) and the Spot Diagram method (SD) are discussed to confirm the advantage of Lu’s methodology. Lu’s aberration terms are derived from a precise wave-front treatment, whereas the terms of the power series expansion of the light path function do not yield an accurate sum of the aberrations. Moreover, Lu’s aberration terms can be individually optimized. This is not possible with the analytical spot diagram formulae.

  8. The effect of aberrated recording beams on reflecting Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    SeGall, Marc; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Glebov, Leonid B.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of aberrations present in the recording beams of a holographic setup is discussed regarding the period and spectral response of a reflecting volume Bragg grating. Imperfect recording beams result in spatially varying resonant wavelengths and the side lobes of the spectrum are washed out. Asymmetrical spectra, spectral broadening, and a reduction in peak diffraction efficiency may also be present, though these effects are less significant for gratings with wider spectral widths. Reflecting Bragg gratings (RBGs) are used as elements in a variety of applications including spectral beam combining1,2, mode locking3,4, longitudinal and transverse mode selection in lasers5,6, and sensing7,8. For applications requiring narrow spectral selectivity9, or large apertures10, these gratings must have a uniform period throughout the length of the recording medium, which may be on the order of millimeters. However, when using typical recording techniques such as two-beam interference for large aperture gratings and phase-mask recording of fiber gratings, aberrations from the optical elements in the system result in an imperfect grating structure11-13. In this paper we consider the effects of aberrations on large aperture gratings recorded in thick media using the two-beam interference technique. Previous works in analyzing the effects of aberrations have considered the effects of aberrations in a single recording plane where the beams perfectly overlap. Such an approach is valid for thin media (on the order of tens of microns), but for thick recording media (on the order of several millimeters) there will be a significant shift in the positions of the beams relative to each other as they traverse the recording medium. Therefore, the fringe pattern produced will not be constant throughout the grating if one or both beams have a non-uniform wavefront. Such non-uniform gratings may have a wider spectral width, a shifted resonant wavelength, or other problems. It is

  9. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  10. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  11. Detecting Aberrant Response Patterns in the Rasch Model. Rapport 87-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Jan

    In this paper, the detection of response patterns aberrant from the Rasch model is considered. For this purpose, a new person fit index, recently developed by I. W. Molenaar (1987) and an iterative estimation procedure are used in a simulation study of Rasch model data mixed with aberrant data. Three kinds of aberrant response behavior are…

  12. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Fumio, E-mail: hosokawa@bio-net.co.jp [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sawada, Hidetaka [JEOL (UK) Ltd., JEOL House, Silver Court, Watchmead, Welwyn Garden City, Herts AL7 1LT (United Kingdom); Shinkawa, Takao [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Sannomiya, Takumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  13. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  14. Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated with Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the present experiment was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics, centric rings, and excess acentrics. Radiation is one of the more dangerous clastogens in the environment. Ionizing radiation causes chromosome breakages and various cytogenetic aberrations in exposed cells. In an investigation into radiation emergencies, it is important to estimate the dose to exposed persons for several reasons. Physical dosimeters (e. g., film badges) may misrepresent the actual radiation dose and may not be available in a radiological accident or terrorism incident. Biological dosimetry is suitable for estimating the radiation dose during such accidents. The dicentric chromosome assay is very sensitive and a reliable bio-indicator in cases of accidental overexposure.

  15. Retrospective chromosome aberration analysis of former uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, G.; Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present our data collected in the period of 1981-1985 on 165 persons exposed by different radon concentrations expressed in working level month (WLM) units from 100 up to 600. Following the decommissioning of the uranium mine in Hungary in 1997 cytogenetic status of 131 persons were within a follow-up-study of their health conditions initiated by the Hungarian Academy of Science. The persons have terminated their underground activities 5 to 20 years before testing. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in large percentages of persons investigated. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of uranium miners was found increased in function of their exposure to radon. The comparison of the miner's categories 20 years ago and in the recent years demonstrated the long-term existence of aberrations for many years after completion of underground mining activities. (authors)

  16. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D; Roschuk, Tyler R; Maier, Stefan A; Oulton, Rupert F

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a method to measure chromatic aberrations of microscope objectives with metallic nanoparticles using white light. Extinction spectra are recorded while scanning a single nanoparticle through a lens's focal plane. We show a direct correlation between the focal wavelength and the longitudinal chromatic focal shift through our analysis of the variations between the scanned extinction spectra at each scan position and the peak extinction over the entire scan. The method has been tested on achromat and apochromat objectives using aluminum disks varying in size from 260-520 nm. Our method is straightforward, robust, low cost, and broadband with a sensitivity suitable for assessing longitudinal chromatic aberrations in high-numerical-aperture apochromatic corrected lenses.

  17. Chromosome aberration induction in human diploid fibroblast and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1986-01-01

    The relative sensitivity of cultured human fibroblasts and epithelial cells to radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Lung fibroblast and kidney epithelial cells from the same fetus were compared, as were skin fibroblasts and epithelial keratinocytes from the same foreskin sample. After exposure of proliferating fetal cells to 1.5 Gy X-rays there was a very similar aberration yield in the fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Observations of either little or no difference in chromosomal sensitivity between human fibroblasts and epithelial cells give added confidence that quantitative cytogenetic data obtained from cultured fibroblasts are relevant to the question of sensitivity of epithelial cells which are the predominant cell type in human cancers. (author)

  18. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal

  19. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in Bulgarian control population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, I.; Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to represent the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Bulgarian control population. Material and methods: The investigated group includes persons belonging to both sexes and different ages. Each of them is interviewed of their social and health status. Sixteen persons are examined using the chromosomal aberrations analysis and forty-five with micronucleus test. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations varied between 0 - 2.4 % and the mean value is 1.00 %. The frequency of cells with micronuclei varied between 4.5 - 24.5 % and the mean value 12,9 %. Further work on the investigation of spontaneous frequency of chromosomal damages is in progress. (authors)

  20. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  1. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  2. Aberrant right subclavian artery causing megaoesophagus in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, F; Della Santa, D; Borgonovo, S; Bussadori, R; Troiano, D; Pisani, G

    2018-05-07

    Three entire, domestic, shorthair male cats (age range: 3 months to 5 years) were referred because of regurgitation. Megaoesophagus attributable to aberrant right subclavian artery, originating from the aorta at the level of the fourth intercostal space, was diagnosed in all cats using thoracic radiography and CT angiography. One cat had concurrent patent ductus arteriosus with a normal aortic arch. Three-dimensional volume-rendered CT images were used to assess the malformations and to plan surgery for the treatment of the vascular anomalies. Different surgical approaches were used in the two kittens. The third cat was not operated. CT angiography is well suited for preoperative planning in cats with aberrant right subclavian artery alone or in combination with other vascular anomalies. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  4. Fixational eye movement: a negligible source of dynamic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecê, Pedro; Jarosz, Jessica; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Grieve, Kate; Paques, Michel; Meimon, Serge

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration, 50 healthy eyes were examined with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, running at a temporal frequency of 236Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 5mm pupil, synchronized with a 236Hz pupil tracker. A comparison of the dynamic behavior of the first 21 Zernike modes (starting from defocus) with and without digital pupil stabilization, on a 3.4s sequence between blinks, showed that the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration is negligible. Therefore we highlighted the fact that a pupil tracker coupled to an Adaptive Optics Ophthalmoscope is not essential to achieve diffraction-limited resolution.

  5. Deep Tissue Wavefront Estimation for Sensorless Aberration Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimovic Emina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple light scattering in biological tissues limits the measurement depth for traditional wavefront sensor. The attenuated ballistic light and the background noise caused by the diffuse light give low signal to noise ratio for wavefront measurement. To overcome this issue, we introduced a wavefront estimation method based on a ray tracing algorithm to overcome this issue. With the knowledge of the refractive index of the medium, the wavefront is estimated by calculating optical path length of rays from the target inside of the samples. This method can provide not only the information of spherical aberration from the refractive-index mismatch between the medium and biological sample but also other aberrations caused by the irregular interface between them. Simulations based on different configurations are demonstrated in this paper.

  6. Right cervical aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjang, Yanto S; Aramendi, José I; Crespo, Alejandro; Hamzeh, Gadah; Voces, Roberto; Rodríguez, Miguel A

    2008-08-01

    The combination of right cervical aortic arch, aberrant retroesophageal left subclavian artery originating from a Kommerell's diverticulum, and a ligamentum arteriosum, constitutes a rare form of vascular ring. Two patients aged 21 days and 54 years, who were diagnosed by multislice 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, underwent surgical division of a vascular ring. The adult required resection of a Kommerell's aneurysm and subclavian artery reimplantation.

  7. Carrier and aberrations removal in interferometric fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, P.; Michel, F.; Renotte, Y.; Habraken, S.

    2012-04-01

    A profilometer which takes advantage of polarization states splitting technique and monochromatic light projection method as a way to overcome ambient lighting for in-situ measurement is under development [1, 2]. Because of the Savart plate which refracts two out of axis beams, the device suffers from aberrations (mostly coma and astigmatism). These aberrations affect the quality of the sinusoidal fringe pattern. In fringe projection profilometry, the unwrapped phase distribution map contains the sum of the object's shape-related phase and carrier-fringe-related phase. In order to extract the 3D shape of the object, the carrier phase has to be removed [3, 4]. An easy way to remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations of the optical system is to measure the phases of the test object and to measure the phase of a reference plane with the same set up and to subtract both phase maps. This time consuming technique is suitable for laboratory but not for industry. We propose a method to numerically remove both the fringe carrier and the aberrations. A first reference phase of a calibration plane is evaluated knowing the position of the different elements in the set up and the orientation of the fringes. Then a fitting of the phase map by Zernike polynomials is computed [5]. As the triangulation parameters are known during the calibration, the computation of Zernike coefficients has only to be made once. The wavefront error can be adjusted by a scale factor which depends on the position of the test object.

  8. Studies on chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyung; Oh, Hyeon Joo; Shim, Sun Bo; Roh, Hye Won; Lee, Hai Yong [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Ja [Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Cytogenetic assays for unstable chromosomes were performed on 54 medical radiation workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation and 42 controls. A total of 15,577 metaphase cells were scored. The frequencies of dicentrics and acentric chromosomes on controls were 0.52*10{sup -3} and 0.82*10{sup -2}, respectively. On radiation workers those were 2.28*10{sup -3} and 1.34*10{sup -2}, respectively. Though the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the workers were higher than those in the controls, the only significant difference was found in the case of dicentrics (P < 0.01). When we considered exposure dose of recent one year, duration of employment and smoking habit in radiation worker, a slight increase was shown in frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations on these workers, but no statistical differences were observed (P > 0.05) except exposure dose of recent one year (P < 0.05). These results could indicate that low level exposure to ionizing radiation can induce unstable chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes.

  9. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  10. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrawati, Iwiq; Kumazawa, Shigeru

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  11. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  12. Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Norberto; Rucker, Frances J; Stark, Lawrence R; Badar, Mustanser; Borgovan, Theodore; Burke, Sean; Kruger, Philip B

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the potential for the third-order aberrations coma and trefoil to provide a signed cue to accommodation. It is first demonstrated theoretically (with some assumptions) that the point spread function is insensitive to the sign of spherical defocus in the presence of odd-order aberrations. In an experimental investigation, the accommodation response to a sinusoidal change in vergence (1-3D, 0.2Hz) of a monochromatic stimulus was obtained with a dynamic infrared optometer. Measurements were obtained in 10 young visually normal individuals with and without custom contact lenses that induced low and high values of r.m.s. trefoil (0.25, 1.03 microm) and coma (0.34, 0.94 microm). Despite variation between subjects, we did not find any statistically significant increase or decrease in the accommodative gain for low levels of trefoil and coma, although effects approached or reached significance for the high levels of trefoil and coma. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the presence of Zernike third-order aberrations on the eye does not seem to play a crucial role in the dynamics of the accommodation response.

  13. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  14. Molecular mechanisms involved in the production of chromosomal aberrations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Obe, G.

    1978-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were X-irradiated in G2 stage of the cell cycle and immediately treated, in the presence of inactivated Sendai virus, with Neurospora endonuclease (E.C. 3.1.4.), an enzyme which is specific for cleaving single-stranded DNA. With this treatment, the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations increased when compared to X-irradiated controls. These results are interpreted as due to the conversion of some of the X-ray induced single-stranded DNA breaks into double-strand breaks by this enzyme. Similar enhancement due to this enzyme was found following treatment with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and bleomycin, but not following UV and mitomycin C. Addition of Micrococcus endonuclease and Neurospora endonuclease to the cells did not alter the frequencies of aberrations induced by UV. The introduction of enzymes with specific DNA-repair function offers possibilities to probe into the molecular events involved in the formation of structural chromosome aberrations induced by different classes of physical and chemical mutagens. (Auth.)

  15. Spherical aberration correction with threefold symmetric line currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji; Takaoka, Akio; Munro, Eric

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that N-fold symmetric line current (henceforth denoted as N-SYLC) produces 2N-pole magnetic fields. In this paper, a threefold symmetric line current (N3-SYLC in short) is proposed for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration of round lenses. N3-SYLC can be realized without using magnetic materials, which makes it free of the problems of hysteresis, inhomogeneity and saturation. We investigate theoretically the basic properties of an N3-SYLC configuration which can in principle be realized by simple wires. By optimizing the parameters of a system with beam energy of 5.5keV, the required excitation current for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration coefficient of 400 mm is less than 1AT, and the residual higher order aberrations can be kept sufficiently small to obtain beam size of less than 1 nm for initial slopes up to 5 mrad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of chromosomal aberrations by neutron capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1993-01-01

    Boron neutron capture reaction (B-NCR) has been practiced in the treatment of malignancies of the central nervous system and melanoma using a thermal neutron beam from the KUR. Because of the very large neutron absorption cross-section and high kinetic energy released, gadolinium (Gd-157) has been expected to be an another promising element for neutron capture therapy. The dose-response relationship was determined for the induction of chromosomal aberrations by neutron capture reactions by B-10 and Gd-157 in cultured mammalian cells. The cells were exposed to thermal neutron beam with and without B-10 enriched (97 atom %) boric acid or Gd-DTPA, and chromosome-type aberrations were analysed in the first metaphases following irradiation. The frequency of dicentrics and rings increased linearly with neutron fluence either in the presence or absence of B-10 boric acid, while the yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by Gd-NCR increased in a linear quadratic fashion as a function of dose as in γ-rayed cells. Survival curves for the cells exposed to thermal neutrons showed no shoulder irrespective of the loading of B-10, but Gd-NCR produced the survival curve with a small shoulder. The differential chromosomal response to B-NCR and Gd-NCR might reflect the difference in radiation quality generated from the two types of thermal neutron capture reaction. (J.P.N.)

  17. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biomar......We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  18. Origin of specific chromosome aberration in radiation-induced leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki; Masuno, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    The theme in the title is discussed from the four aspects of specific chromosome aberration (sAb) patterns in radiation-induced leukemia (RIL), possibility for radiation to induce the sAb in RIL, any evidence for participation of delayed aberration to form sAb and the proportion of such healthy humans as having the specifically rearranged genome. Data of sAb observed in leukemia of 25 A-bomb survivors and of 38 patients post radiotherapy of cancers give a rather common pattern. However, many inconsistent results are obtained for sAb in patients post radiotherapy, A-bomb survivors, residents living in radio-contaminated houses in Taipei, in vitro exposure, and Chernobyl residents. At present, any clear evidence is available neither for sAb derived from the delayed aberration nor for estimating the proportion with the specifically rearranged gene. As above, it is unlikely that radiation induces such a translocation abnormality as BCR-ABL specifically seen in leukemia, and this aspect will be important for studies on the genesis of RIL and its risk assessment. (S.I.)

  19. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, S G; Raghunath, S; Williams, C; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Cullen, J M; Liu, T; Albertson, D; Ruvolo, M; Bergstrom Lucas, A; Jin, J; Knapp, D W; Schiffman, J D; Breen, M

    2015-06-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97 % and 84 % of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77 % of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes

  20. Crossing over...Markov meets Mendel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Saad

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal crossover is a biological mechanism to combine parental traits. It is perhaps the first mechanism ever taught in any introductory biology class. The formulation of crossover, and resulting recombination, came about 100 years after Mendel's famous experiments. To a great extent, this formulation is consistent with the basic genetic findings of Mendel. More importantly, it provides a mathematical insight for his two laws (and corrects them). From a mathematical perspective, and while it retains similarities, genetic recombination guarantees diversity so that we do not rapidly converge to the same being. It is this diversity that made the study of biology possible. In particular, the problem of genetic mapping and linkage-one of the first efforts towards a computational approach to biology-relies heavily on the mathematical foundation of crossover and recombination. Nevertheless, as students we often overlook the mathematics of these phenomena. Emphasizing the mathematical aspect of Mendel's laws through crossover and recombination will prepare the students to make an early realization that biology, in addition to being experimental, IS a computational science. This can serve as a first step towards a broader curricular transformation in teaching biological sciences. I will show that a simple and modern treatment of Mendel's laws using a Markov chain will make this step possible, and it will only require basic college-level probability and calculus. My personal teaching experience confirms that students WANT to know Markov chains because they hear about them from bioinformaticists all the time. This entire exposition is based on three homework problems that I designed for a course in computational biology. A typical reader is, therefore, an instructional staff member or a student in a computational field (e.g., computer science, mathematics, statistics, computational biology, bioinformatics). However, other students may easily follow by omitting the mathematically more elaborate parts. I kept those as separate sections in the exposition.

  1. Crossing over...Markov meets Mendel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Mneimneh

    Full Text Available Chromosomal crossover is a biological mechanism to combine parental traits. It is perhaps the first mechanism ever taught in any introductory biology class. The formulation of crossover, and resulting recombination, came about 100 years after Mendel's famous experiments. To a great extent, this formulation is consistent with the basic genetic findings of Mendel. More importantly, it provides a mathematical insight for his two laws (and corrects them. From a mathematical perspective, and while it retains similarities, genetic recombination guarantees diversity so that we do not rapidly converge to the same being. It is this diversity that made the study of biology possible. In particular, the problem of genetic mapping and linkage-one of the first efforts towards a computational approach to biology-relies heavily on the mathematical foundation of crossover and recombination. Nevertheless, as students we often overlook the mathematics of these phenomena. Emphasizing the mathematical aspect of Mendel's laws through crossover and recombination will prepare the students to make an early realization that biology, in addition to being experimental, IS a computational science. This can serve as a first step towards a broader curricular transformation in teaching biological sciences. I will show that a simple and modern treatment of Mendel's laws using a Markov chain will make this step possible, and it will only require basic college-level probability and calculus. My personal teaching experience confirms that students WANT to know Markov chains because they hear about them from bioinformaticists all the time. This entire exposition is based on three homework problems that I designed for a course in computational biology. A typical reader is, therefore, an instructional staff member or a student in a computational field (e.g., computer science, mathematics, statistics, computational biology, bioinformatics. However, other students may easily follow by omitting the mathematically more elaborate parts. I kept those as separate sections in the exposition.

  2. The impact of a multidisciplinary self-care management program on quality of life, self-care, adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy, glycemic control, and renal function in diabetic kidney disease: A Cross-over Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Nancy; Talhouedec, Dominique; Shaha, Maya; Zanchi, Anne

    2016-07-19

    Diabetic kidney disease, a global health issue, remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous research has shown that multidisciplinary management of chronic disease can improve patient outcomes. The effect of multidisciplinary self-care management on quality of life and renal function of patients with diabetic kidney disease has not yet been well established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary self-care management program on quality of life, self-care behavior, adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment, glycemic control, and renal function of adults with diabetic kidney disease. A uniform balanced cross-over design is used, with the objective to recruit 40 adult participants with diabetic kidney disease, from public and private out-patient settings in French speaking Switzerland. Participants are randomized in equal number into four study arms. Each participant receives usual care alternating with the multidisciplinary self- care management program. Each treatment period lasts three months and is repeated twice at different time intervals over 12 months depending on the cross-over arm. The multidisciplinary self-care management program is led by an advanced practice nurse and adds nursing and dietary consultations and follow-ups, to the habitual management provided by the general practitioner, the nephrologist and the diabetologist. Data is collected every three months for 12 months. Quality of life is measured using the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale, patient self-care behavior is assessed using the Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy is evaluated using the Medication Events Monitoring System. Blood glucose control is measured by the glycated hemoglobin levels and renal function by serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Data will be analyzed using STATA version 14. The cross-over

  3. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  4. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2015-01-01

    . The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794......It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention...

  5. A randomized cross-over trial to detect differences in arm volume after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS....../DESIGN: This is a randomized cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS: Women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer who have undergone axillary lymph node dissection will be recruited from rehabilitation centers in the Copenhagen area. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomly assigned to engage in a low- (two sets of 15...... was calculated based on changes in L-Dex scores between baseline and 72-hours post exercise sessions. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study are relevant for exercise prescription guidelines, as well as recommendations regarding participating in activities of daily living for women following surgery for breast...

  6. Distinct difference in relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons for the induction of mitotic crossing over and intragenic reversion of the white-ivory allele in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Mituo

    1996-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252 Cf neutrons was determined for two different types of somatic mutations, i.e., loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color, in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is due to an intragenic structural change in the white locus on the X-chromosome. For a quantitative comparison of RBE values for these events, we have constructed a combined mutation assay system so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clones can be detected simultaneously in the same individuals. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 80±4 h post-oviposition with 252 Cf neutrons or 137 Cs γ-rays, and male adult flies were examined under the microscope for the presence of the two types of clonal mosaic spots appearing. The induction of wing-hair spots per dose unit was much greater for 252 Cf neutrons than for 137 Cs γ -rays, whereas the frequencies of eye-color reversion were similar for neutrons and γ-rays. The estimated RBE values of neutrons were 8.5 and 1.2 for the induction of mutant wing-hair spots and revertant eye-color spots, respectively. These results indicate that the RBE of neutrons is much greater for mitotic crossing over in comparison to the intragenic white-ivory reversion events. Possible causes for the difference in RBE are discussed

  7. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA(®)) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®). Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted.

  8. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  9. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaoling; Deng, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence

  10. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Xiaoling, E-mail: jiXL100@163.com; Deng, Jinping

    2014-07-18

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence.

  11. Retrospective Dose Reconstruction for Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in China using Stable Chromosome Aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Liu, P.; Li, J.; Wang, Q.; Tang, S.; Sun, M.; Wang, L.; Aoyama, T.; Sugahara, T.

    1998-01-01

    The chromosome rearrangements in medical diagnostic X ray workers were analysed using the G-banding technique and evaluated collectively in accumulated doses. A total of 9102 metaphase spreads from 84 medical diagnostic X ray workers and 17 controls were scored. The results showed that: (1) the frequencies of translocation, stable chromosome aberration and total aberration in X ray workers were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.05 γ 0.005), unstable chromosome aberrations (including dicentric and acentric aberration) tended upwards; (2) the main aberration in stable aberrations was reciprocal translocation; (3) the stable aberration predominated strikingly in total aberrations. The medical diagnostic X ray workers were divided into three groups according to calendar year of entry. The data showed that the frequencies of translocation, stable aberration and total aberration increased with earlier year of entry, especially in two groups who started working before 1970. According to the equation recommended by Straume et al, linear coefficient (α) in the linear quadratic model provided by Fernandez's experiment, their collective accumulation doses calculated were 0.53, 0.26 and 0.06 Gy for calendar year of entry before 1960, 1960-1969, and after 1970, in X ray workers, respectively. (author)

  12. Theory of aberration fields for general optical systems with freeform surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2014-11-03

    This paper utilizes the framework of nodal aberration theory to describe the aberration field behavior that emerges in optical systems with freeform optical surfaces, particularly φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, that lie anywhere in the optical system. If the freeform surface is located at the stop or pupil, the net aberration contribution of the freeform surface is field constant. As the freeform optical surface is displaced longitudinally away from the stop or pupil of the optical system, the net aberration contribution becomes field dependent. It is demonstrated that there are no new aberration types when describing the aberration fields that arise with the introduction of freeform optical surfaces. Significantly it is shown that the aberration fields that emerge with the inclusion of freeform surfaces in an optical system are exactly those that have been described by nodal aberration theory for tilted and decentered optical systems. The key contribution here lies in establishing the field dependence and nodal behavior of each freeform term that is essential knowledge for effective application to optical system design. With this development, the nodes that are distributed throughout the field of view for each aberration type can be anticipated and targeted during optimization for the correction or control of the aberrations in an optical system with freeform surfaces. This work does not place any symmetry constraints on the optical system, which could be packaged in a fully three dimensional geometry, without fold mirrors.

  13. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao-Xin, Zhao; Bing, Xu; Li-Xia, Xue; Yun, Dai; Qian, Liu; Xue-Jun, Rao

    2008-01-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory

  14. Aberrant learning in Parkinson's disease: A neurocomputational study on bradykinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Baston, Chiara

    2018-05-22

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA-induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology. The aim of this work was to investigate DA-driven aberrant learning as a concurrent cause of bradykinesia, using a comprehensive, biologically inspired neurocomputational model of action selection in the BG. The model includes the three main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways, and use a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based on previous history of rewards and punishments. Levodopa pharmacodynamics is also incorporated. Through model simulations of the Alternate Finger Tapping motor task, we assessed the role of aberrant learning on bradykinesia. The results show that training under drug medication (levodopa) provides not only immediate but also delayed benefit lasting in time. Conversely, if performed in conditions of vanishing levodopa efficacy, training may result in dysfunctional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, further worsening motor performances in PD subjects. This suggests that bradykinesia may result from the concurrent effects of low DA levels and dysfunctional plasticity and that training can be exploited in medicated subjects to improve levodopa treatment. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A study of chromosomal aberrations in amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, J; Crocker, M; Jonasson, J

    1988-06-01

    This paper represents the analysis of 1916 routine amniotic fluid specimens harvested by an in situ fixation technique in a prospective study with regard to cultural chromosome anomalies. Excluding constitutional abnormalities, 2.9 per cent of 19,432 cells analysed showed some form of chromosome anomaly, terminal deletions (57 per cent) and chromatid/chromosome breaks and gaps (18 per cent) being the most frequent, followed by interchange aberrations (13 per cent) and trisomy (5 per cent). No case was found of more than one colony from the same culture showing the same anomaly without it being present in other cultures from the same fluid. The wholly abnormal colonies had a surplus of trisomies and from the mathematical considerations presented one may infer that these are likely to reflect the presence of abnormal cells in the amniotic fluid. Partly abnormal colonies appeared at a frequency that would correspond to virtual absence of selection against chromosomally abnormal cells when cultured in vitro. The aberrations found were similar to those seen as single cell anomalies, except for chromatid breaks and exchanges. The data suggest a basic preferential induction of trisomy for chromosomes 2, 18, 21, and the Y-chromosome. Structural aberrations showed a marked clustering of breakpoints around the centromeres. The frequency of mutant cells was low (1.4 X 10(-3)) before culture was initiated. At harvest, the frequency of abnormal cells was much higher (3 X 10(-2)) corresponding to 3 X 10(-3) mutations per cell per generation accumulating over approximately ten generations in vitro.

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in Sigmodon hispidus from a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; McBee, K.; Lochmiller, R.; Burks, S.; Qualls, C.

    1995-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from an EPA Superfund site located on an abandoned oil refinery. Three trapping grids were located on the refinery and three similar grids were located at uncontaminated localities which served as reference sites. Bone marrow metaphase chromosome preparations were examined for chromosomal damage. For each individual, 50 cells were scored for six classes of chromosomal lesions. For the fall 1991 trapping period, mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.33, 0.85, and 1.50 for the three Superfund grids., Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.55, 2.55, and 2.12 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 2.77, 0.86, and 1.9 from the Superfund grids, and 3.55, 2.77, and 2.50 from the reference grids. For the spring 1992 trapping period, more damage was observed in animals from both Superfund and reference sites; however, animals from Superfund grids had more damage than animals from reference grids. Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 3.50, 3.25, and 3.70 from the Superfund grids, and 2.40, 2.11, and 1.40 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 4.80, 4.25, and 5.50 from the Superfund grids, and 2.60, 2.33, and 1.50 from the reference grids. These data suggest animals may be more susceptible to chromosomal damage during winter months, and animals from the Superfund grids appear to be more severely affected than animals from reference grids

  17. Breast tumor copy number aberration phenotypes and genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlyand, Jane; Jain, Ajay N; McLennan, Jane; Ziegler, John; Chin, Koei; Devries, Sandy; Feiler, Heidi; Gray, Joe W; Waldman, Frederic; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G; Snijders, Antoine M; Ylstra, Bauke; Li, Hua; Olshen, Adam; Segraves, Richard; Dairkee, Shanaz; Tokuyasu, Taku; Ljung, Britt Marie

    2006-01-01

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to the analysis of breast tumors. The variation in the levels of genomic instability amongst tumors prompted us to investigate whether alterations in processes/genes involved in maintenance and/or manipulation of the genome were associated with particular types of genomic instability. We discriminated three breast tumor subtypes based on genomic DNA copy number alterations. The subtypes varied with respect to level of genomic instability. We find that shorter telomeres and altered telomere related gene expression are associated with amplification, implicating telomere attrition as a promoter of this type of aberration in breast cancer. On the other hand, the numbers of chromosomal alterations, particularly low level changes, are associated with altered expression of genes in other functional classes (mitosis, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair). Further, although loss of function instability phenotypes have been demonstrated for many of the genes in model systems, we observed enhanced expression of most genes in tumors, indicating that over expression, rather than deficiency underlies instability. Many of the genes associated with higher frequency of copy number aberrations are direct targets of E2F, supporting the hypothesis that deregulation of the Rb pathway is a major contributor to chromosomal instability in breast tumors. These observations are consistent with failure to find mutations in sporadic tumors in genes that have roles in maintenance or manipulation of the genome

  18. ∆DNMT3B4-del Contributes to Aberrant DNA Methylation Patterns in Lung Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Z. Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer but mechanisms contributing to the abnormality remain elusive. We have previously shown that ∆DNMT3B is the predominantly expressed form of DNMT3B. In this study, we found that most of the lung cancer cell lines tested predominantly expressed DNMT3B isoforms without exons 21, 22 or both 21 and 22 (a region corresponding to the enzymatic domain of DNMT3B termed DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del. In normal bronchial epithelial cells, DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B and DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del displayed equal levels of expression. In contrast, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC, 111 (93% of the 119 tumors predominantly expressed DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B-del, including 47 (39% tumors with no detectable DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B. Using a transgenic mouse model, we further demonstrated the biological impact of ∆DNMT3B4-del, the ∆DNMT3B-del isoform most abundantly expressed in NSCLC, in global DNA methylation patterns and lung tumorigenesis. Expression of ∆DNMT3B4-del in the mouse lungs resulted in an increased global DNA hypomethylation, focal DNA hypermethylation, epithelial hyperplastia and tumor formation when challenged with a tobacco carcinogen. Our results demonstrate ∆DNMT3B4-del as a critical factor in developing aberrant DNA methylation patterns during lung tumorigenesis and suggest that ∆DNMT3B4-del may be a target for lung cancer prevention.

  19. The relation between working conditions, aberrant driving behaviour and crash propensity among taxi drivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Linchao; Prato, Carlo G

    2018-04-03

    Although the taxi industry is playing an important role in Chinese everyday life, little attention has been posed towards occupational health issues concerning the taxi drivers' working conditions, driving behaviour and road safety. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1021 taxi drivers from 21 companies in four Chinese cities and collected information about (i) sociodemographic characteristics, (ii) working conditions, (iii) frequency of daily aberrant driving behaviour, and (iv) involvement in property-damage-only (PDO) and personal injury (PI) crashes over the past two years. A hybrid bivariate model of crash involvement was specified: (i) the hybrid part concerned a latent variable model capturing unobserved traits of the taxi drivers; (ii) the bivariate part modelled jointly both types of crashes while capturing unobserved correlation between error terms. The survey answers paint a gloomy picture in terms of workload, as taxi drivers reported averages of 9.4 working hours per day and 6.7 working days per week that amount on average to about 63.0 working hours per week. Moreover, the estimates of the hybrid bivariate model reveal that increasing levels of fatigue, reckless behaviour and aggressive behaviour are positively related to a higher propensity of crash involvement. Lastly, the heavy workload is also positively correlated with the higher propensity of crashing, not only directly as a predictor of crash involvement, but also indirectly as a covariate of fatigue and aberrant driving behaviour. The findings from this study provide insights into potential strategies for preventive education and taxi industry management to improve the working conditions and hence reduce fatigue and road risk for the taxi drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of chromosome aberrations in tumors lineage after irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Maria Silva; Campos, Tarcisio

    2002-01-01

    When radioresistant cancerous cells are irradiated at level of few Gys, the interactions may not generate visible observations in the morphology of the cells or effects so intense such as death after few hours. The changes that will be observed depend on the combination of many factors that define the probability of cell surviving in response to the physical dose applied. Genetic factors may affect the cell response such as the cell sensitivity to irradiation, cancerous cell is studied when irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays. Besides the evaluation of the radiosensitivity of this cells when exposed to gamma irradiation, possible chromosomic aberrations and apoptosis were detected. (author)

  1. Aberrant internal carotid artery presenting as a retrotympanic vascular mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Simon; De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an aberrant right internal carotid artery (ICA) presenting as a retrotympanic reddish mass. This variant of the ICA represents the collateral pathway that is formed as a result of an embryological agenesis of the cervical segment of the ICA. The embryonic inferior tympanic artery is recruited to bypass the absent carotid segment. This hypertrophied vessel may be seen otoscopically and wrongfully considered to be a vascular middle ear tumor. Informing the otorhinolaryngologist of this important vascular variant not only obviates biopsy but also helps in careful preoperative planning of eventual middle ear procedures

  2. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiguo; Yu, Guoqiang; Hou, Xuchu; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Zhang, Junying; Hoffman, Eric P; Wang, Roger R; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yue

    2012-07-27

    Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC), a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1) exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2) performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3) iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs) and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS) on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma). When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC) or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B). Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes. Open-source and platform-independent SAIC software is

  3. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  4. US of the hips in skeletal dysplasias and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, R.; Langer, M.F.J.; Zwicker, C.

    1987-01-01

    Since January 1984 all newborns and infants with skeletal dysplasias and chromosomal aberrations were investigated by hip US, in addition to plain x-ray surveys. The authors observed one chondroectodermal dysplasia, one congenital spondyloepiphysial dysplasia, one cleidocranial dysplasia, one fibrochondrogenesis, two diastrophic dysplasias, and eight trisomies. The abnormalities of the hip joints could be demonstrated, and were compared with the findings on plain films. Especially skeletal dysplasias with abundant presence of cartilage were well visible. The newborn with trisomies showed normal hip joints. In the authors' opinion, all newborns with skeletal dysplasias should be investigated by hip sonography, in addition to skeletal radiography

  5. Chromatic aberrations of electrostatic axisymmetric lenses produced by circular cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, L.A.; Ul'yanova, N.S.; Yavor, S.Ya.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beams both to test material and for technological processes have being used lately in science and technology more and more. Electrostatic lenses are used, as a rule, for such beam production. Coefficients of chromatic aberrration for a wide range of changes in lense parameters are calculated on the basis of analytical expressions to determine the potential in immerse and isolated lenses. The chromatic aberration coefficient is presented as a polynomial according to the degrees of reverse increase, that permits to calculate a circle of blurring of subject arbitrary position

  6. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available with a quadratic refractive index profile, a change in the beam quality factor can be used to infer the pre- sence of aberrations and thereby study the media of interest. For these reasons, among others, research into the beam qual- ity factor... very much like a normal lens (without the rotational symmetry associated with defocus) since the beam quality factor is calculated in the principal axes. With y-astigmatism, the lenslike behavior does not take place in the principal axes where...

  7. The protective effects of fermented kefir milk on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Aline Freitas de Paula; Mendonça, Monique Culturato Padilha; Rosa-Castro, Raquel de Mendonça

    2018-06-01

    Kefir is a probiotic fermented milk product produced from grains with a complex composition of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. Anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic effects are some of the health beneficial properties of kefir grains. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether regular consumption of kefir milk would be capable of preventing the development of pre-neoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Aberrant crypt foci were induced in BALB-c mice via 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) and kefir was administered by daily gavage for 8 weeks (5 ml/kg). Additionally, bacterial growth was monitored in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk to compare different fermentation conditions. Our results showed that UHT milk presented better growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus colonies. The aberrant crypt foci were attenuated by approximately 43% (height) and 20% (width) in the kefir group compared to AOM group, suggesting that kefir treatment may contribute to prevent and control the growth of intestinal neoplastic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening of clonal chromosome aberrations present in A-bomb survivors by FISH method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Mimako; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Ito, Masahiro; Otaki, Kazuo; Nakamura, Nori

    1997-01-01

    Significance of FISH method for detection of clonal chromosome aberration was reviewed. A clonal chromosome aberration is derived from one abnormal cell clone and gives the influence on the frequency of the aberration. As well, the size and frequency of the aberration give an important information concerning lymphocyte kinetics. FISH method is meaningful for detection of the clonal aberration. Fifteen kinds of clonal aberrations were detected in A-bomb survivors, of which 10 were specifically detected by the method, indicating that its detection rate was 2-3 time as high as the ordinary method. The results were those on the DNA probe on no.1, no.2 and no.3 chromosomes, which consisting of about 23% of the genome. (K.H.)

  9. Fifth-order canonical geometric aberration analysis of electrostatic round lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Zhi Xiong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the fifth-order canonical geometric aberration patterns are analyzed and a numerical example is given on the basis of the analytical expressions of fifth-order aberration coefficients derived in the present work. The fifth-order spherical aberration, astigmatism and field curvature, and distortion are similar to the third-order ones and the fifth-order coma is slightly different. Besides, there are two more aberrations which do not exist in the third-order aberration: they are peanut aberration and elliptical coma in accordance with their shapes. In the numerical example, by using a cross-check of the calculated coefficients with those computed through the differential algebraic method, it has been verified that all the expressions are correct and the computational results are reliable with high precision.

  10. Studies on the chromosome aberrations and isozyme patterns in cancer patients treated with therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.

    1979-09-01

    The chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from cancer patients who had been locally irradiated with therapeutic radiation seems to be largely influenced by total dose, loss of cell with aberration, irradiation interval and dose per day. When treatment period from 7 to 21 days and total dose range from 1000 to 3000 rad, the aberration yield is considered to change according to total dose and accumulated effect by continued existence of damaged chromosomes. However, loss of cell with aberration might play important role in chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from those who had received radiation above 3000 rad. In case that other conditions make little difference, dose per day and irradiation interval are looked upon as important factors in aberration yield of lymphocyte chromosomes

  11. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yumin; Fu Baohua; Han Lin; Wang Xi'ai; Zhao Fengling

    2012-01-01

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in Cynomolgus peripheral lymphocytes during and after fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Malarbet, J.L.; Doloy, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed to fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation at high and low dose rates for 4 or 5 weeks. The time-dependence of chromosomal aberrations was studied in relation to the number of lymphocytes during irradiation and after exposure for periods of up to about 600 days for chromosomal aberrations and 200 days for lymphocyte counts. Additivity of the daily effects on the number of chromosomal aberrations was observed during the exposures. Immediately after the end of the exposures the number of chromosomal aberrations decreased to reach low values. The disappearance of chromosomal aberrations seemed to be related to recovery of the lymphocyte counts. The data presented here emphasize the different kinetic patterns of chromosomal aberrations after fractionated and acute irradiation. (author)

  13. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  14. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet eSangar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell.

  15. Correction for polychromatic aberration in computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naparstek, A.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting a computed tomography image for polychromatic aberration caused by the non-linear interaction (i.e. the energy dependent attenuation characteristics) of different body constituents, such as bone and soft tissue, with a polychromatic X-ray beam are described in detail. An initial image is conventionally computed from path measurements made as source and detector assembly scan a body section. In the improvement, each image element of the initial computed image representing attenuation is recorded in a store and is compared with two thresholds, one representing bone and the other soft tissue. Depending on the element value relative to the thresholds, a proportion of the respective constituent is allocated to that element location and corresponding bone and soft tissue projections are determined and stored. An error projection generator calculates projections of polychromatic aberration errors in the raw image data from recalled bone and tissue projections using a multidimensional polynomial function which approximates the non-linear interaction involved. After filtering, these are supplied to an image reconstruction computer to compute image element correction values which are subtracted from raw image element values to provide a corrected reconstructed image for display. (author)

  16. Radioactivity and chromosome aberrations of residents of Misasa Spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morinaga, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Furuno, Katsushi

    1985-01-01

    Misasa Spa is one of the most highly radioactive hot springs in Japan, the waters of which contain mainly 222 Rn (437 ± 132 Bq/liter). Radon contents of indoor air of private houses and health resort hotels (built of wood) at Misasa Spa range from 18.5 to 55.5 mBq/liter and 22.2 to 129.5 mBq/liter, respectively. Radon contents in the air of facilities using spring waters at Misasa Branch Hospital of Okayama University were measured to be; bathroom 807 ± 78 mBq/liter; Hubbardtank bathroom 5306 ± 2568 mBq/liter; the drinking hall 1491 ± 178 mBq/liter. The environmental and dose rate inside private house's has been measured to be 14.0 ± 1.8 μR/h. Chromosome aberrations (dicentrics) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of residents of Misasa Spa were investigated in 14 persons; the mean value of aberration frequencies were 0.21 %. (Kubozono, M.)

  17. X-ray induction of mitotic and meiotic chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.T.S.

    1980-01-01

    In 1964 six pairs of rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) were obtained from Australia. The tissues of these animals were used to initiate cell lines. Since this species has a low chromosome number of six pairs, each pair with its own distinctive morphology, it is particularly favorable for cytogenetic research. In cell cultures derived from the corneal endothelial tissues of one animal there emerged a number of haploid cells. The number of haploid cells in the cultures reached as high as 20% of the total mitotic configurations. The in vitro diploid and haploid mixture cell cultures could be a resemblance or a coincidence to the mixture existence of the diploid primary spermatocytes and the haploid secondary spermatocytes (gametes) in the in vivo testicular tissues of the male animals. It would be interesting to compare reactions of the haploid and diploid cell mixture, either in the cultures or in the testes, to x-ray exposure. Two other studies involving x-ray effects on Chinese hamster oocyte maturation and meiotic chromosomes and the x-ray induction of Chinese hamster spermatocyte meiotic chromosome aberrations have been done in this laboratory. A review of these three studies involving diploid and haploid chromosomes may lead to further research in the x-ray induction of chromosome aberrations

  18. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  19. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; Dolphin, G.W.; Tipper, P.A.; Reeder, E.J.; White, C.M.; Cooper, S.J.; Stephenson, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

  20. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars M; Guldberg, Per; Sölétormos, György

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients into subgroups based on DNA biomarkers may improve prognosis. Serial monitoring of DNA-methylation markers in blood during treatment may be useful, particularly when the cancer burden is below the detection level for standard imaging techniques. Overall, aberrant DNA methylation has a great potential as a versatile biomarker tool for screening, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Standardization of methods and biomarker panels will be required to fully exploit this clinical potential.

  1. Chromosome aberrations in workers of beach sand mineral industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, C.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2013-01-01

    Beach Sand Mining (BSM) is a profitable industry earning a sizable income for the country by way of foreign exchange. The Indian coast is rich in rare earths such as ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, garnet and sillimanite, and is invariably associated with radioactive monazite. Due to the nature of the separation processes involved and the manual handling, workers in these factories are continuously being exposed to suspended particles containing naturally occurring radioactive materials. An attempt was made to estimate DNA damage using a chromosome aberration assay to monitor radiation effects in workers of BSM industries in India. The study group comprised 27 BSM workers and 20 controls. Percentage yields of dicentrics, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the control group were 0.058 ± 0.017, 0.073 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.112, respectively. Percentage yields of dicentrics + centric rings, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the BSM group were 0.029 ± 0.01 (P value 0.19), 0.24 ± 0.06 (P value 0.006) and 0.455 ± 0.06 (P value 0.0004), respectively. Elevated levels of fragments and chromatid aberrations are suggestive of low-dose radiation effects and also chemically-induced DNA damage. (authors)

  2. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  3. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations and interphase DNA geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Di Giorgio, M.; Otero, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and their interaction and illegitimate recombination produces chromosome aberrations. Stable chromosome aberrations comprise inter-chromosomal events (translocations) and intra-chromosomal events (inversions). Assuming DSBs induction and interaction is completely random and neglecting proximity effects, the expected ratio of translocations to inversions is F=86, based on chromosome arm lengths. We analyzed the number of translocations and inversions using G-banding, in 16 lymphocyte cultures from blood samples acutely irradiated with γ-rays (dose range: 0.5Gy-3Gy). Our results give F=13.5, significantly smaller than F=86. Literature data show similar small F values but strongly spread. The excess of inversions could be explained by a 'proximity effect', it means that more proximate DSBs have an extra probability of interaction. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a special chromosome arrangement during irradiation and the subsequent interval. We propose a model where individual chromosomes show spherical confinement with some degree of overlapping and DSBs induction proportional to cross section. We assume a DSBs interaction probability function with cut-off length = 1 μ. We propose that large spread in F data could be due to temporal variation in overlapping and spatial chromosome confinement. (author). 14 refs

  4. Mirror-based broadband scanner with minimized aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann; Tzeng, Yu-Yi; Huang, Chen-Han; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2009-02-01

    To obtain specific biochemical information in optical scanning microscopy, labeling technique is routinely required. Instead of the complex and invasive sample preparation procedures, incorporating spectral acquisition, which commonly requires a broadband light source, provides another mechanism to enhance molecular contrast. But most current optical scanning system is lens-based and thus the spectral bandwidth is limited to several hundred nanometers due to anti-reflection coating and chromatic aberration. The spectral range of interest in biological research covers ultraviolet to infrared. For example, the absorption peak of water falls around 3 μm, while most proteins exhibit absorption in the UV-visible regime. For imaging purpose, the transmission window of skin and cerebral tissues fall around 1300 and 1800 nm, respectively. Therefore, to extend the spectral bandwidth of an optical scanning system from visible to mid-infrared, we propose a system composed of metallic coated mirrors. A common issue in such a mirror-based system is aberrations induced by oblique incidence. We propose to compensate astigmatism by exchanging the sagittal and tangential planes of the converging spherical mirrors in the scanning system. With the aid of an optical design software, we build a diffraction-limited broadband scanning system with wavefront flatness better than λ/4 at focal plane. Combined with a mirror-based objective this microscopic system will exhibit full spectral capability and will be useful in microscopic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  5. The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells Predicted by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and prediction of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the formation of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.

  6. Relationship of DNA lesions and their repair to chromosomal aberration production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent work on the roles of specific kinds of DNA lesions and their enzymatic repair systems in the production of chromosomal aberrations seems consistent with a simple molecular model of chromosomal aberrations formation. Evidence from experiments with the human repair-deficient genetic diseases xeroderma pigmentosom, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fanconi's anemia is reviewed in the light of the contributions to aberration production of single and double polynucleotide strand breaks, base damage, polynucleotide strand crosslinks, and pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers

  7. Relationship of DNA lesions and their repair to chromosomal aberration production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent work on the roles of specific kinds of DNA lesions and their enzymatic repair systems in the production of chromosomal aberrations seems consistent with a simple molecular model of chromosomal aberrations formation. Evidence from experiments with the human repair-deficient genetic diseases xeroderma pigmentosom, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fanconi's anemia is reviewed in the light of the contributions to aberration production of single and double polynucleotide strand breaks, base damage, polynucleotide strand crosslinks, and pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers.

  8. Chromosome aberrations in workers of ignalina nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griciene, B.; Januskeviciute, I.; Mierauskiene, J.; Slapsyte, G. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (I.N.P.P.) workers and outside workers including visitors constitute the largest occupational group exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. In 2004, the annual collective dose to these workers (4392 persons) was 6,83 man Sv. The maximum annual individual dose of I.N.P.P. workers was 19,16 mSv, and of outside workers was 29,41 mSv. However, according to calculations performed by the Lithuanian Radiation Protection Centre, the decommissioning of I.N.P.P. (the I.N.P.P. is to be shut down by 2009) will result in collective dose of 35 man Sv. Therefore, a special attention should be given to implementation of radiation protection programme. The importance of cytogenetic studies in the medical surveillance of radiation-exposed persons is generally acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to analyse chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of I.N.P.P. workers. The blood sampling of 27 male workers was performed in October 2004, after planned outage of I.N.P.P.. It was estimated that outages of I.N.P.P. Units contributed 84% to all annual occupational collective dose. Average cumulative dose of 18 workers was 290,7 mSv (group A), and of 9 workers - 71,7 mSv (group B). The mean annual doses averaged over the three-year-period were 15,2 mSv and 0,76 mSv, respectively. None of the exposed workers had ever exceeded the permissible dose limit. The average age of group A workers was 45,2 years, and group B 48,2 years. A questionnaire form with details on age, occupational history, smoking habit and alcohol intake, medication, history of recent illness was completed for each person at the time of blood collection. 64 non-exposed male donors approximately matched by age were used as controls (group C). Heparinized venous blood samples were taken and cultures were initiated within 24 h according to the standard procedures. At least 500 first cycle metaphases were analysed from each

  9. Chromosome aberrations in workers of ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griciene, B.; Januskeviciute, I.; Mierauskiene, J.; Slapsyte, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (I.N.P.P.) workers and outside workers including visitors constitute the largest occupational group exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. In 2004, the annual collective dose to these workers (4392 persons) was 6,83 man Sv. The maximum annual individual dose of I.N.P.P. workers was 19,16 mSv, and of outside workers was 29,41 mSv. However, according to calculations performed by the Lithuanian Radiation Protection Centre, the decommissioning of I.N.P.P. (the I.N.P.P. is to be shut down by 2009) will result in collective dose of 35 man Sv. Therefore, a special attention should be given to implementation of radiation protection programme. The importance of cytogenetic studies in the medical surveillance of radiation-exposed persons is generally acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to analyse chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of I.N.P.P. workers. The blood sampling of 27 male workers was performed in October 2004, after planned outage of I.N.P.P.. It was estimated that outages of I.N.P.P. Units contributed 84% to all annual occupational collective dose. Average cumulative dose of 18 workers was 290,7 mSv (group A), and of 9 workers - 71,7 mSv (group B). The mean annual doses averaged over the three-year-period were 15,2 mSv and 0,76 mSv, respectively. None of the exposed workers had ever exceeded the permissible dose limit. The average age of group A workers was 45,2 years, and group B 48,2 years. A questionnaire form with details on age, occupational history, smoking habit and alcohol intake, medication, history of recent illness was completed for each person at the time of blood collection. 64 non-exposed male donors approximately matched by age were used as controls (group C). Heparinized venous blood samples were taken and cultures were initiated within 24 h according to the standard procedures. At least 500 first cycle metaphases were analysed from each

  10. Study of wavefront aberration in DR patients with different degree of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ran Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the changes of wavefront aberrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRand with different degrees of dry eye and to explore the reasons of visual quality decline in them. METHODS: We randomly selected 40 eyes in our hospital for treatment with DR and varying degrees of dry eye, and 40 eyes of normal control group. Topcon KR-1W visual quality analyzer was used to record the mean square the total high order corneal aberration, spherical aberration, comatic aberration and trefoil aberration of cornea with pupil diameters of 4mm and 6mm. Analysis of variance were used to compare the wavefront aberrations and the aberration values in the control group and in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with different degrees of dry eye. RESULTS: For 4mm and 6mm pupil diameters, nondiabetic retinopathy(NDRwith dry eye group, the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRwith dry eye group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRdry eye group had significantly increased tHOA, coma and trefoil compared with the contrast group(PPCONCLUSION: Dry eye of diabetic retinopathy with different degrees is closely related to the increase of wavefront aberration. Increased wavefront aberration may be one of the reasons to reduced visual quality in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with dry eye, and provide the basis for the decline of visual function of diabetic patients with dry eye.

  11. The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors from Fermat's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, Sylvia H; Tjiang, Paulus C

    2011-01-01

    The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors are analyzed using the optical path length (OPL) and Fermat's principle. The geometrical figures generated by the rotation of conic sections about their symmetry axes are considered for the shapes of the mirrors. By comparing the results in static and relativistic cases, it is shown that the focal lengths and the spherical aberration relations of the relativistic mirrors obey the Lorentz contraction. Further analysis of the spherical aberrations for both static and relativistic cases have resulted in information about the limits for the paraxial approximation, as well as for the minimum speed of the systems to reduce the spherical aberrations

  12. Analysis of the 'dilemma effect' in fifth-order deflection aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaobing; Yin Hanchun; Lei Wei; Xue Kunxing; Tong Linsu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the coma of the fifth-order aberration at a large deflection angle has been analyzed by using multipole field theory. The dilemma effect exists in the comas of fifth-order aberration. The dilemma effect, whose value D r is constant and independent of the 10-pole field, is the linear combination of coma aberrations. The coma of the fifth-order aberration is corrected by adjusting the 10-pole field distribution when D r is zero or small. The factors that influence the dilemma effect have been calculated and analyzed

  13. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray--induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosomes aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells

  14. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in Down lymphocytes: an explanation of their increased sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from individuals with Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) are more sensitive to the induction of dicentric and ring aberrations by X rays than normal lymphocytes. Several explanations involving the more rapid rejoining of X-ray-induced lesions in Down cells have been offered. It is shown here that the repair of the DNA damage converted into chromosome aberrations is more rapid in Down cells than normal cells. This more rapid repair results in a higher probability of producing chromosome aberrations, and hence higher aberration frequencies in Down than normal cells

  15. Aberration analysis for freeform surface terms overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2018-03-19

    Aberration theory helps designers to better understand the nature of imaging systems. However, the existing aberration theory of freeform surfaces has many limitations. For example, it only works in the special case when the central area of the freeform surface is used. In addition, the light footprint is limited to a circle, which does not match the case of an elliptical footprint for general systems. In this paper, aberrations generated by freeform surface term overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces are analyzed. For the case when the off-axis section of a freeform surface is used, the aberration equation for using stop and nonstop surfaces is discussed, and the aberrations generated by Zernike terms up to Z 17/18 are analyzed in detail. To solve the problem of the elliptical light footprint for tilted freeform surfaces, the scaled pupil vector is used in the aberration analysis. The mechanism of aberration transformation is discovered, and the aberrations generated by different Zernike terms in this case are calculated. Finally we proposed aberration equations for freeform terms on general decentered and tilted freeform surfaces. The research result given in this paper offers an important reference for optical designers and engineers, and it is of great importance in developing analytical methods for general freeform system design, tolerance analysis, and system assembly.

  16. Possible mechanisms of chromosomal aberrations: VII. Comparative dynamics of sister chromatid disjunction and realization of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations during mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, L.I.; Akhmamet'eva, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations during c-metaphase sister chromatid disjunction was demonstrated in murine bone marrow cells exposed to a total γ-irradiation at 0.5 Gy. Caffeine (Cf) treatment during mitosis partially suppressed the chromatid disjunction rate and increased the number of radiation-induced aberrations in this mitosis. Nalidixic acid (NA) treatment of c-metaphase cells completely suppressed chromatid disjunction and the realization of induced aberrations. Topoisomerase 2 was assumed to be involved during mitosis in both processes

  17. Transfer of unstable chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes at cell division and their significance for the aberration frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.; Chang Tsangpi.

    1986-04-01

    In 48 h cultures, the fraction of human lymphocytes in 2nd mitosis was found to be between 0 and 42.5% (mean value 8.7%). The X-ray exposure from irradiating with 2 Gy resulted in a cell cycle delay which varied from donor to donor. A loss of nearly 50% of dicentric chromosomes and acentric fragments from unstable chromosomes occurred at cell division, while centric rings were not impeded. When dicentric chromosomes, or acentric fragments are found in 2nd mitosis, they show a characteristic differential staining, which means that chromatides at cell division fall free and are replicated in daughter cells. When plotting dose effect curves of dicentric chromosomes, up to 20% of 2nd mitosis fractions have