WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive measures targeting

  1. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  4. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  5. Targeting Epigenetics to Prevent Obesity Promoted Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathan A; Scacheri, Peter C

    2018-03-01

    Epigenetic changes in DNA and associated chromatin proteins are increasingly being considered as important mediators of the linkage between obesity and cancer. Although multiple agents, targeted at epigenetic changes, are being tested for therapy of established cancers, this issue of Cancer Prevention Research carries two articles demonstrating that the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET-762 can attenuate adipose tissue-promoted cancers. Although I-BET-762 significantly delayed, rather than completely prevented, the onset of adiposity-promoted transformation and malignancy, these experiments provide important proof of principle for the strategies of targeting epigenetic changes to disrupt the obesity-cancer linkage. Because bromodomain proteins represent only one of multiple epigenetic mediators, it is probable that targeting other epigenetic processes, alone or in combination, may serve to even more effectively disrupt the obesity promotion of cancer. Given the magnitude of the current obesity pandemic and its impact on cancer, preventive measures to disrupt this linkage are critically important. Cancer Prev Res; 11(3); 125-8. ©2018 AACR See related article by Chakraborty et al., p. 129 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  7. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  8. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  9. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  10. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  11. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  12. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  13. Diet, a new target to prevent depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Villegas Almudena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the role of diet in the prevention of depression is scarce. Some evidence suggests that depression shares common mechanisms with cardiovascular disease. Discussion Before considering the role of diet in the prevention of depression, several points need to be considered. First, in general, evidence has been found for the effects of isolated nutrients or foods, and not for dietary patterns. Second, most previous studies have a cross-sectional design. Third, information is generally collected though questionnaires, increasing the risk of misclassification bias. Fourth, adequate control of confounding factors in observational studies is mandatory. Summary Only a few cohort studies have analyzed the relationship between overall dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, and primary prevention of depression. They have found similar results to those obtained for the role of this dietary pattern in cardiovascular disease. To confirm the findings obtained in these initial cohort studies, we need further observational longitudinal studies with improved methodology, as well as large randomized primary prevention trials, with interventions based on changes in the overall food pattern, that include participants at high risk of mental disorders.

  14. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  15. Preventing Allograft Rejection by Targeting Immune Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Fang Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon antigen recognition and co-stimulation, T lymphocytes upregulate the metabolic machinery necessary to proliferate and sustain effector function. This metabolic reprogramming in T cells regulates T cell activation and differentiation but is not just a consequence of antigen recognition. Although such metabolic reprogramming promotes the differentiation and function of T effector cells, the differentiation of regulatory T cells employs different metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of glycolysis and glutamine metabolism might prevent graft rejection by inhibiting effector generation and function and promoting regulatory T cell generation. We devised an anti-rejection regimen involving the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, the anti-type II diabetes drug metformin, and the inhibitor of glutamine metabolism 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON. Using this triple-drug regimen, we were able to prevent or delay graft rejection in fully mismatched skin and heart allograft transplantation models.

  16. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  17. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  18. New Targets for Prevention of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidman, Larry J; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    A number of influences have converged that make this Special Theme Issue timely: "A New Direction: Considering Developmentally Sensitive Targets for Very Early Intervention in Schizophrenia". These factors include: 1. the substantial knowledge about premorbid developmental vulnerabilities...... to psychosis, especially regarding schizophrenia; 2. the promising results emerging from interventions during the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis and; 3. the recognition that the CHR period is a relatively late phase of developmental derailment. These factors have together led to a perspective...

  19. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  20. Polarization measurement for internal polarized gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhenyu; Ye Yunxiu; Lv Haijiang; Mao Yajun

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an introduction to internal polarized gaseous targets, polarization method, polarization measurement method and procedure. To get the total nuclear polarization of hydrogen atoms (including the polarization of the recombined hydrogen molecules) in the target cell, authors have measured the parameters relating to atomic polarization and polarized hydrogen atoms and molecules. The total polarization of the target during our measurement is P T =0.853 ± 0.036. (authors)

  1. Fixed target hadron production measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Panman, J

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of light hadron production cross-sections in proton-nucleus interactions is an important prerequisite to the analysis of a wide variety of experiments. One of the important limiting factors for the precision of accelerator based and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Cosmic-ray experiments detecting extensive air-showers can greatly improve their ability to interpret the data when precise hadron production spectra are available over a large range of energies. Dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data recently and are now publishing their results. Other experiments have just started their data-taking and plan to supply measurements which can significantly extend the kinematic range in which data will be available. Early measurements at the LHC can extend this range to much higher energies than available up to now. Recent results will be shown and compared with hadronic production models. An outl...

  2. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  3. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Automatic measurement of target crossing speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Mark; Lougheed, James H.

    1992-11-01

    The motion of ground vehicle targets after a ballistic round is launched can be a major source of inaccuracy for small (handheld) anti-armour weapon systems. A method of automatically measuring the crossing component to compensate the fire control solution has been devised and tested against various targets in a range of environments. A photodetector array aligned with the sight's horizontal reticle obtains scene features, which are digitized and processed to separate target from sight motion. Relative motion of the target against the background is briefly monitored to deduce angular crossing rate and a compensating lead angle is introduced into the aim point. Research to gather quantitative data and optimize algorithm performance is described, and some results from field testing are presented.

  5. Some neutron measurements with simulated ING targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.

    1966-01-01

    Thermal neutron fluxes in the vicinity of a simulated Intense Neutron Generator target have been measured using Mn and Au foils, and a small BF 3 detector. The target was a Pb cylinder either 4-inch or 8-inch in diameter with a 1.2 g Ra-Be neutron source at its centre. This was centrally mounted in a 5' diam. x 5' high tank which was filled with either H 2 O or D 2 O moderator. Various gaps and absorbing annuli were placed around the target, and air-filled aluminum 'beam tubes' were mounted radially or tangentially from the target to simulate typical ING conditions. The measured thermal neutron fluxes were less than calculated at all radii. The single-age computation clearly gives large errors at large radii, but the multi-energy approach seems to give a useful indication of the thermal flux distribution in spite of the extreme simplicity of the model. The fall in measured fluxes at small radii in both D 2 O and H 2 O is most likely caused by absorption in the target material which is not allowed for in the computational model. (author)

  6. Some neutron measurements with simulated ING targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J

    1966-07-01

    Thermal neutron fluxes in the vicinity of a simulated Intense Neutron Generator target have been measured using Mn and Au foils, and a small BF{sub 3} detector. The target was a Pb cylinder either 4-inch or 8-inch in diameter with a 1.2 g Ra-Be neutron source at its centre. This was centrally mounted in a 5' diam. x 5' high tank which was filled with either H{sub 2}O or D{sub 2}O moderator. Various gaps and absorbing annuli were placed around the target, and air-filled aluminum 'beam tubes' were mounted radially or tangentially from the target to simulate typical ING conditions. The measured thermal neutron fluxes were less than calculated at all radii. The single-age computation clearly gives large errors at large radii, but the multi-energy approach seems to give a useful indication of the thermal flux distribution in spite of the extreme simplicity of the model. The fall in measured fluxes at small radii in both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O is most likely caused by absorption in the target material which is not allowed for in the computational model. (author)

  7. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  8. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  9. Pneumoconiosis in mines and preventive measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bouffant, L; Froger, C

    1978-01-01

    In the medical rules for the prevention of pneumoconiosis, workings are classified in six categories of risk, and personnel are classified into five groups for assignment to different categories of workings. Technical measures for preventing pneumoconiosis include suppression of dust by water infusion or spraying, and by appropriate adaptation of the conditions under which equipment is used. Dust can be removed from the air by collecting and dedusting systems and by the use of brattices.

  10. Familial breast cancer - targeted therapy in secondary and tertiary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of an increasing number of individualized molecular targeted therapies into clinical routine mirrors their importance in modern cancer prevention and treatment. Well-known examples for targeted agents are the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. The identification of an unaltered gene in tumor tissue in colon cancer (KRAS) is a predictor for the patient's response to targeted therapy with a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab). Targeted therapy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has become a reality with the approval of olaparib for platin-sensitive late relapsed BRCA-associated ovarian cancer in December 2014. This manuscript reviews the status quo of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in the therapy of breast and ovarian cancer as well as the struggle for carboplatin as a potential standard of care for triple-negative and, in particular, BRCA-associated breast cancer. Details of the mechanism of action with information on tumor development are provided, and an outlook for further relevant research is given. The efficacy of agents against molecular targets together with the identification of an increasing number of cancer-associated genes will open the floodgates to a new era of treatment decision-making based on molecular tumor profiles. Current clinical trials involving patients with BRCA-associated cancer explore the efficacy of the molecular targeted therapeutics platinum and PARPi.

  11. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  12. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    ) prevention and countering of threats to national security, by the Danish Security and Intelligence Service (PET). The last two elements are in line with measures adopted by the international community. The element (a) is well known in some countries; however, the Danish programme and in particular the so...

  14. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  15. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources.

  16. TERMINATION OF RIGHT TO PREVENTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU MARIUS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive measures were binding, without, however, being procedural criminal sanctions or penalties and not run counter to the freedom of the individual and does not attack the principle of presumption of innocence. They ensure the good running of the criminal process, which has led to the inclusion of modern legislation in all imprisonment by way of judicial review, as a procesuala of the most severe.Termination of right to preventive measures shall designate by virtue of which the legal situation, whether in judicial activities involved some "incident" which recognizes ope legis effect subject to extinctive interpretation towards preventive measures, judicial bodies are required to cease such action.The judicial authority is obliged, therefore, to release the detained or arrested when there is one of the situations referred to in article 140 from the code of penal procedure.This study has proceeded from the need to standardise and judicial practice and the consistent application of the law in the matter of the termination of the preventive measures — as a guarantee of the respect for rights indispensable accused/defendant in criminal proceedings.Even if at first glance the law is clear and concise, however, judicial practice has passed different solutions, often giving the misinterpretation, and precisely why during the study I will present some of the most relevant solutions jurisprudenţiale, both published and unpublished, as well as the jurisprudence of the European Court of human rights, also commenting on his own option likely controversy.In view of these considerations in the present research wish to realize a complete documentation and jurisprudenţiala and doctrinara, trying to force through the comments made on the text of regulations and solutions given by courts to make a judgment necessary and useful to practitioners of law cases of cessation of the right to preventive measures.

  17. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  18. Targeting burn prevention in Ukraine: evaluation of base knowledge in burn prevention and first aid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy

    2015-01-01

    Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.

  19. Spectroscopic Measurements of Target Preheating on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, R.C.; Griem, H.R.; Iglesias, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The preheating of laser-heated microballoon targets has been measured by time-resolved x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (euv) spectroscopy on the 30 kJ, 351 nm, 60-beam laser-fusion system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Thin coatings of aluminum overcoated with magnesium served as indicators. both the sequence of the x-ray line emission and the intensity of euv radiation were used to determine a preheating peaking at ∼ 10 ns prior to onset of the main laser pulse, with a power density ≅1% of the main pulse. The measurements are supported by numerical modeling. Further information is provided by absorption spectra from the aluminum coating, backlighted by continuum from the heated surface. The exact source of the preheating energy remains unknown at present, but most likely arrives from early laser leakage through the system. The present target diagnostic is particularly useful when all beams cannot be monitored directly at all laser wavelengths

  20. Manual for target thickness measurement by alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.F.; Martins, M.N.

    1990-04-01

    A system is described for thin-target thickness measurement through the alpha particle energy loss when them traverse the target. It is also described the program used in the analysis of the target thickness. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Targeted versus universal prevention. a resource allocation model to prioritize cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogenveen Rudolf T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus brings an increased risk for cardiovascular complications and patients profit from prevention. This prevention also suits the general population. The question arises what is a better strategy: target the general population or diabetes patients. Methods A mathematical programming model was developed to calculate optimal allocations for the Dutch population of the following interventions: smoking cessation support, diet and exercise to reduce overweight, statins, and medication to reduce blood pressure. Outcomes were total lifetime health care costs and QALYs. Budget sizes were varied and the division of resources between the general population and diabetes patients was assessed. Results Full implementation of all interventions resulted in a gain of 560,000 QALY at a cost of €640 per capita, about €12,900 per QALY on average. The large majority of these QALY gains could be obtained at incremental costs below €20,000 per QALY. Low or high budgets (below €9 or above €100 per capita were predominantly spent in the general population. Moderate budgets were mostly spent in diabetes patients. Conclusions Major health gains can be realized efficiently by offering prevention to both the general and the diabetic population. However, a priori setting a specific distribution of resources is suboptimal. Resource allocation models allow accounting for capacity constraints and program size in addition to efficiency.

  2. Targeting of Rac1 prevents bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André-Grégoire, Gwennan; Dilasser, Florian; Chesné, Julie; Braza, Faouzi; Magnan, Antoine; Loirand, Gervaise; Sauzeau, Vincent

    2017-11-16

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for airway smooth muscle cells' (aSMCs) contraction and proliferation in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) associated with asthma are still largely unknown. The small GTPases of the Rho family (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) play a central role in SMC functions including migration, proliferation, and contraction. The objective of this study was to identify the role of Rac1 in aSMC contraction and to investigate its involvement in AHR associated with allergic asthma. To define the role of Rac1 in aSMC, ex and in vitro analyses of bronchial reactivity were performed on bronchi from smooth muscle (SM)-specific Rac1 knockout mice and human individuals. In addition, this murine model was exposed to allergens (ovalbumin or house dust mite extract) to decipher in vivo the implication of Rac1 in AHR. The specific SMC deletion or pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 in mice prevented the bronchoconstrictor response to methacholine. In human bronchi, a similar role of Rac1 was observed during bronchoconstriction. We further demonstrated that Rac1 activation is responsible for bronchoconstrictor-induced increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and contraction both in murine and in human bronchial aSMCs, through its association with phospholipase C β2 and the stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. In vivo, Rac1 deletion in SMCs or pharmacological Rac1 inhibition by nebulization of NSC23766 prevented AHR in murine models of allergic asthma. Moreover, nebulization of NSC23766 decreased eosinophil and neutrophil populations in bronchoalveolar lavages from mice with asthma. Our data reveal an unexpected and essential role of Rac1 in the regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ and contraction of aSMCs, and the development of AHR. Rac1 thus appears as an attractive therapeutic target in asthma, with a combined beneficial action on both bronchoconstriction and pulmonary inflammation. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  3. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  4. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  5. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  6. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  8. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Datte, P; Krauter, K; Bond, E; Michel, P A; Glenzer, S H; Divol, L; Niemann, C; Suter, L; Meezan, N; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, R; London, R; Kilkenny, J; Wallace, R; Kline, J L; Knittel, K; Frieders, G; Golick, B; Ross, G; Widmann, K; Jackson, J; Vernon, S; Clancy, T

    2010-10-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  9. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2010-10-15

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of {approx}15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  10. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  11. Camouflage target detection via hyperspectral imaging plus information divergence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Target detection is one of most important applications in remote sensing. Nowadays accurate camouflage target distinction is often resorted to spectral imaging technique due to its high-resolution spectral/spatial information acquisition ability as well as plenty of data processing methods. In this paper, hyper-spectral imaging technique together with spectral information divergence measure method is used to solve camouflage target detection problem. A self-developed visual-band hyper-spectral imaging device is adopted to collect data cubes of certain experimental scene before spectral information divergences are worked out so as to discriminate target camouflage and anomaly. Full-band information divergences are measured to evaluate target detection effect visually and quantitatively. Information divergence measurement is proved to be a low-cost and effective tool for target detection task and can be further developed to other target detection applications beyond spectral imaging technique.

  12. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  13. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton C; Doran, Christopher M; Tsey, Komla

    2013-05-13

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand experience disproportionately high rates of suicide. As such, the methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting these Indigenous populations should be rigorously examined, in order to determine the extent to which they are effective for reducing rates of Indigenous suicide and suicidal behaviours. This systematic review aims to: 1) identify published evaluations of suicide prevention interventions targeting Indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, United States and New Zealand; 2) critique their methodological quality; and 3) describe their main characteristics. A systematic search of 17 electronic databases and 13 websites for the period 1981-2012 (inclusive) was undertaken. The reference lists of reviews of suicide prevention interventions were hand-searched for additional relevant studies not identified by the electronic and web search. The methodological quality of evaluations of suicide prevention interventions was assessed using a standardised assessment tool. Nine evaluations of suicide prevention interventions were identified: five targeting Native Americans; three targeting Aboriginal Australians; and one First Nation Canadians. The main intervention strategies employed included: Community Prevention, Gatekeeper Training, and Education. Only three of the nine evaluations measured changes in rates of suicide or suicidal behaviour, all of which reported significant improvements. The methodological quality of evaluations was variable. Particular problems included weak study designs, reliance on self-report measures, highly variable consent and follow-up rates, and the absence of economic or cost analyses. There is an urgent need for an increase in the number of evaluations of preventive interventions targeting reductions in Indigenous suicide using methodologically rigorous study designs across geographically and culturally diverse Indigenous

  14. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  15. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

  16. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L.; Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L.; Thompson, R.; Ward, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter ≤20 cm. (author)

  17. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  18. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  19. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  20. A preparation of thin flat target for RD lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, A M; Abdel Samie, Sh; Ahmed, A A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Kuroyanagi, T; Morinobu, S [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kyushu University, (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    An extreme flatness for a target surface is the most necessary in recoil distance method (RDM). A suitable technique was used for preparing a La target. The {sup 139} La target of thickness 0.22 mg/cm{sup 2} was evaporated onto a very flat soft Au foil of thickness 2 mg/cm{sup 2}. This target was successively used for lifetime measurements of the excited nuclear states in {sup 145} Sm nucleus through the nuclear reaction {sup 139} La ({sup 10} B, 4 n) {sup 145} Sm. Background {gamma} rays produced by the {sup 10} B irradiation for the Au backing and the Pb stopper without the La target were measured. Besides that, the {gamma} rays from residual activities were also measured. 3 figs.

  1. [Geriatric health promotion and prevention for independently living senior citizens: programmes and target groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were

  2. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  3. Translating genetic research into preventive intervention: The baseline target moderated mediator design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Howe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  4. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  5. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for RDM lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Rohilla, Aman; Chamoli, S.K.; Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P.; Mehta, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the activity was to make a thin target of isotopically enriched 94 Zr for lifetime measurement experiment to be done with the plunger setup at the Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC) Delhi

  6. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  7. Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Jing; Cho, Jaehyung; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell--polymorphonuclear neutrophils--to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks `outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

  8. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  9. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R.M.; Buchanan, Emma; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Livingston, Kenneth; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J.D.; MacRae, Roderick; Reiter, Andreas J.H.; Rosner, Guenther; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Adler, Jan-Olof; Fissum, Kevin; Schroeder, Bent [University of Lund, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Akkurt, Iskender [Sueleyman Demirel University, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Brudvik, Jason; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Lundin, Magnus [MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Middleton, Duncan G. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Sjoegren, Johan [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm{sup 3} at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N{sub 2} to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in {sup 4}He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response. (orig.)

  10. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  11. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  12. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  13. System of measurement of proton polarization in a polarized target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukov, I.M.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer with high sensitivity. The signal of NMR absorption is recorded by a Q-meter with a series circuit and a circuit for compensation of the resonance characteristic of the measuring circuit. In order to ensure uniform sensitivity of the system to the state of polarization throughout the volume of the target and to enhance the S/N ration the measuring coil is made of a flat conductor. The polarization-measuring system works on-line with an M-6000 computer. The total error of measurement of the polarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of free protons in a target with allowance for the error due to local depolarization of the working substance under irradiation with an intense photon beam is less than or equal to 6%.

  14. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.; Belian, A.P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets.

  15. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  16. Isotopic characterization of targets for nuclear measurements at CBNM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear measurements for which ''nuclear'' targets are prepared are almost always isotope-specific i.e. they are normally related to a particular nuclide in the target. The amount of this nuclide must be accurately assessed. There are essentially two ways to determine the number of atoms of this particular nuclide. (1) By determination of the amount of element, to which the nuclide belongs, on the target via classsical means; weighing substraction of impurities, calculation of element amount using known of the chemical compound in which the element is incorporated and, finally, measurement of the isotopic composition in order to determine the fraction of the nuclide concerned in the element. An alternative way may be to perform an elemental assay on the target followed by determination of the isotopic composition. (2) Another approach is isotope dilution mass spectrometry where a change in the isotopic composition of the ''target'' is induced by adding a known number of atoms (called ''spike'') of the element with a quite different composition. Measurement of the resulting change in isotopic composition yields directly the number of atoms of the nuclide under investigation. The method is highly selective, accurate and isotope-specific. (orig.)

  17. The importance of reaching lipid targets: statins and the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, P

    2003-06-01

    To help prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), the European and NCEP guidelines have recommended target cholesterol levels for all individuals. Lifestyle changes are advocated for individuals not achieving these targets. Intervention with lipid-modifying agents may be required for patients at high risk of a cardiovascular event and statins are generally recognised as first-line therapy. Unfortunately, large numbers of patients at risk of cardiovascular events are not being treated to the guideline targets. Primary care physicians are in a good position to improve lipid management by assessing risk factors, implementing lipid management strategies, monitoring whether targets are being reached and amending treatment appropriately. Furthermore, by educating and motivating patients,primary care physicians may improve compliance with lifestyle changes and medication. These approaches may help more patients to achieve recommended lipid levels and prevent the development of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    by fourteen measurement units, tapping into the dimensions of staff resources and community assets. Staff resources are, in turn, operationalized in terms of staff size, staff certification status, staff turnover rate, and the accreditation status of a provider agency. Community assets are operationalized by the number of community centers accessible to the funded agency, number of formalized teams or antidrug coalitions active in the catchment area, and other social/human services providers with whom the prevention agency has formalized networks. The totality of process output from all sources of program activities is reduced to eighteen classes of measures. These are operationalized by thirty-three summary measures. Some of these include: total count of events facilitated; total number of clients served; average number of clients served per event; clients served by single and multiple program sessions; classification of target population in terms of the severity of risk as defined by the Institute of Medicine; age groups and race/ethnicity of clients served; number of program participants retained by recurring programs; number of clients who have completed the program; penetration rates to the target population; client attrition rates; average referral rates per provider per time interval; referral success rates; and so on. All process output measures specified in the Platform are derived from two broad classes of events classified as either products or services. The collectivity of these measures is expected to present a cost-effective, parsimonious, yet comprehensive picture of the entire spectrum of the process output, i.e., "what came out of the program as program activities". For the measurement of performance outcomes, two types of data are incorporated into the Platform: outcome data from individuals and the behavior (or performance) of social indicators from aggregated data bases. Individual data are used to evaluate the outcome of substance abuse programs

  19. The influence of target properties on nuclear spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisio, J.S.; Vieu, C.; Lagrange, J.M.; Pautrat, M.; Vanhorenbeeck, J.; Passoja, A.

    1988-01-01

    A broad review of different kinds of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy measurements particularly influenced by the target properties is outlined. To illustrate such an influence a few typical examples of in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, performed at the Orsay MP Tandem accelerator, are reported. In particular several applications of the recoil ion catcher method in the study of short-lived nuclear isomers (with half-lives between ten and few hundred nanoseconds) are briefly described. This method is operated mostly with a pulsed heavy ion beam, bombarding a thin self-supported target but avoiding hitting the catcher foil. Moreover, the time of flight filtering properties of this experimental device is improved by a fast detection of compound nucleus deexcitation (performed with an array of several BaF 2 crystals). This kind of measurement shows clearly the importance of the target qualities as well as the need of good focusing properties and time structure for the accelerated particle beam. Finally, the required characteristics of the targets and recoil stopper foils needed for these measurements (and similar ones performed with the recoil ion shadow method) are analyzed in detail for a few typical experimental arrangements. (author). Abstract only

  20. Targeted Assessment for Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections: A New Prioritization Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Minn M; Gould, Carolyn V; Pollock, Daniel; Edwards, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    To develop a method for calculating the number of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that must be prevented to reach a HAI reduction goal and identifying and prioritizing healthcare facilities where the largest reductions can be achieved. Acute care hospitals that report HAI data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. METHODS :The cumulative attributable difference (CAD) is calculated by subtracting a numerical prevention target from an observed number of HAIs. The prevention target is the product of the predicted number of HAIs and a standardized infection ratio goal, which represents a HAI reduction goal. The CAD is a numeric value that if positive is the number of infections to prevent to reach the HAI reduction goal. We calculated the CAD for catheter-associated urinary tract infections for each of the 3,639 hospitals that reported such data to National Healthcare Safety Network in 2013 and ranked the hospitals by their CAD values in descending order. Of 1,578 hospitals with positive CAD values, preventing 10,040 catheter-associated urinary tract infections at 293 hospitals (19%) with the highest CAD would enable achievement of the national 25% catheter-associated urinary tract infection reduction goal. The CAD is a new metric that facilitates ranking of facilities, and locations within facilities, to prioritize HAI prevention efforts where the greatest impact can be achieved toward a HAI reduction goal.

  1. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Julie; Mwangi, Lucy; Fowke, Keith R

    2017-09-12

    For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Here, we review the link between immune activation and susceptibility to HIV infection. We also describe a new concept in prevention where, instead of targeting the virus, we modulate the host immune system to resist HIV infection. Mimicking the immune quiescence phenotype might become a new strategy in the toolbox of biomedical methods to prevent HIV infection. Clinical trial registration on clinicaltrial.gov: #NCT02079077.

  3. Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

    1993-09-01

    The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

  4. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.

  5. Thermal transport measurements of uv laser irradiated spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Delettrez, J.; Henke, B.L.; Richardson, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    New measurements are presented of thermal transport in spherical geometry using time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy. We determine the time dependence of the mass ablation rate m(dot) by following the progress of the ablation surface through thin layers of material embedded at various depths below the surface of the target. These measurements made with 6 and 12 uv (351 nm) beams from OMEGA are compared to previous thermal transport data and are in qualitative agreement with detailed LILAC hydrodynamic code simulations which predict a sharp decrease in m(dot) after the peak of the laser pulse. Non-uniform laser irradiation of the target results in the anomalously high values of m(dot) measured in these experiments

  6. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: potential targets, experimental models, and clinical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Yujin; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic fibrotic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis eventually develop liver cirrhosis, which causes occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given the limited therapeutic efficacy in advanced HCC, prevention of HCC development could be an effective strategy for improving patient prognosis. However, there is still no established therapy to meet the goal. Studies have elucidated a wide variety of molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in HCC development. Genetically-engineered or chemically-treated experimental models of cirrhosis and HCC have been developed and shown their potential value in investigating molecular therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers for HCC prevention. In this review, we overview potential targets of prevention and currently available experimental models, and discuss strategies to translate the findings into clinical practice. PMID:22873223

  7. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  8. Information and preventive measures can reduce absenteeism during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Working during pregnancy may expose women to several risk factors. According to recent findings of the National Survey on Working Conditions, information at an early stage on the consequences of the pregnancy for the working capacity of pregnant women, as well as implementing preventive measures,

  9. Dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands, an evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to half the level of early school leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their effect at both the individual

  10. Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…

  11. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  12. Fixed target measurements at LHCb for cosmic rays physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069608

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target. The energy scale achievable at the LHC, combined with the LHCb forward geometry and detector capabilities, allow to explore particle production in a wide Bjorken-$x$ range at the $\\sqrt {s_{NN}} ~$ ~ 100 GeV energy scale, providing novel inputs to nuclear and cosmic ray physics. The first measurement of antiproton production in collisions of LHC protons on helium nuclei at rest is presented. The knowledge of this cross-section is of great importance for the study of the cosmic antiproton flux, and the LHCb results are expected to improve the interpretation of the recent high-precision measurements of cosmic antiprotons performed by the space-borne PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments.

  13. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  14. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  15. COST MEASUREMENT AND COST MANAGEMENT IN TARGET COSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisello Anna Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firms are coping with a competitive scenario characterized by quick changes produced by internationalization, concentration, restructuring, technological innovation processes and financial market crisis. On the one hand market enlargement have increased the number and the segmentation of customers and have raised the number of competitors, on the other hand technological innovation has reduced product life cycle. So firms have to adjust their management models to this scenario, pursuing customer satisfaction and respecting cost constraints. In a context where price is a variable fixed by the market, firms have to switch from the cost measurement logic to the cost management one, adopting target costing methodology. The target costing process is a price driven, customer oriented profit planning and cost management system. It works, in a cross functional way, from the design stage throughout all the product life cycle and it involves the entire value chain. The process implementation needs a costing methodology consistent with the cost management logic. The aim of the paper is to focus on Activity Based Costing (ABC application to target costing process. So: -it analyzes target costing logic and phases, basing on a literary review, in order to highlight the costing needs related to this process; -it shows, through a numerical example, how to structure a flexible ABC model – characterized by the separation between variable, fixed in the short and fixed costs - that effectively supports target costing process in the cost measurement phase (drifting cost determination and in the target cost alignment; -it points out the effectiveness of the Activity Based Costing as a model of cost measurement applicable to the supplier choice and as a support for supply cost management which have an important role in target costing process. The activity based information allows a firm to optimize the supplier choice by following the method of minimizing the

  16. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  17. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  18. Economic evaluation of occupational safety preventive measures in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Delfina G; Arezes, Pedro M; Afonso, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    When an organization performs an integrated analysis of risks through its Occupational Health and Safety Management System, several steps are suggested to address the implications of the identified risks. Namely, the organization should make a detailed analysis of the monetary impact for the organization of each of the preventive measures considered. However, it is also important to perform an analysis of the impact of each measure on society (externalities). The aim of this paper is to present a case study related to the application of the proposed economic evaluation methodology. An analysis of the work accidents in a hospital has been made. Three of the major types of accidents have been selected: needle stings, falls and excessive strain. Following the risk assessment, some preventive measures have been designed. Subsequently, the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C) of these measures has been calculated, both in financial terms (from the organization's perspective) and in economic terms (including the benefits for the worker and for the Society). While the financial ratio is only advantageous in some cases, when the externalities are taken into account, the B/C ratio increases significantly. It is important to consider external benefits to make decisions concerning the implementation of preventive measures in Occupational Health and Safety projects.

  19. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  20. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  1. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of participation in targeted preventive health checks: the TOF pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars

    the identification and management of people at high risk in the population. Reach is a corner stone in the evaluation of preventive health checks. Even if the intervention is effective in itself, effect can only be expected if the intervention reaches persons who will benefit from the intervention. Objectives...... To examine the reach of a preventive healthcare intervention that systematically identifies patients at high risk of developing lifestyle-related disease, and provides targeted and coherent preventive services to these individuals. Material/Methods The study population comprises 8814 persons born between...... national registers concerning demographic information, prescriptions, and health care usage of the study population will be obtained from Statistics Denmark and analysed using logistic regression. Results Preliminary results show that 41 % consented to the project and 75 % here of participated in the joint...

  3. Netherlands Government decides on additional measures to achieve target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkus, H.; Dijk, D. van

    1996-01-01

    The Government of the Netherlands recently informed Parliament about a set of additional measured aimed at achieving the Netherlands' climate targets, set in the Second National Environmental Policy Plan of December 1993. These additional measures should be a further guarantee that 3% reduction in CO 2 emissions will be achieved in 2000 compared to 1990 levels. Energy saving in offices and small companies will be further encouraged. Furthermore, two coal-fired power stations will switch fuels to 10% wood. At present the Netherlands has an installed capacity of about 14,000 MW, about one third of which is coal fired. The Netherlands emission inventory will now be created according to the IPCC methodology, except for temperature correction. 3 tabs

  4. Using Social Media to Target Cancer Prevention in Young Adults: Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Le, Gem M; Lyles, Courtney R; Ramo, Danielle; Linos, Eleni; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2018-06-05

    Focusing on primary cancer prevention can reduce its incidence. Changing health behaviors is critical to cancer prevention. Modifiable cancer risk factors include lifestyle behaviors related to vaccination, physical activity, weight control and maintenance, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. These health habits are often formed in young adulthood, a life stage which currently intersects with the growing population of digital natives whose childhood occurred in the internet era. Social media is a critical communication medium to reach this population of digital natives. Using a life course perspective, the purpose of this viewpoint paper is to describe the current landscape of nascent research using social media to target cancer prevention efforts in young adults and propose future directions to strengthen the scientific knowledge supporting social media strategies to promote cancer prevention behaviors. Leveraging social media as a health promotion tool is a promising strategy to impact modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer and warrants further research on developing effective communication strategies in young adults to prevent cancer in the future generations. ©Urmimala Sarkar, Gem M Le, Courtney R Lyles, Danielle Ramo, Eleni Linos, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.06.2018.

  5. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (> 100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed...

  6. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  7. Host-Targeting Agents to Prevent and Cure Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Mirjam B; Crouchet, Emilie; Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine

    2015-11-02

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which are leading indications of liver transplantation (LT). To date, there is no vaccine to prevent HCV infection and LT is invariably followed by infection of the liver graft. Within the past years, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on the management of chronic hepatitis C, which has become a curable disease in the majority of DAA-treated patients. In contrast to DAAs that target viral proteins, host-targeting agents (HTAs) interfere with cellular factors involved in the viral life cycle. By acting through a complementary mechanism of action and by exhibiting a generally higher barrier to resistance, HTAs offer a prospective option to prevent and treat viral resistance. Indeed, given their complementary mechanism of action, HTAs and DAAs can act in a synergistic manner to reduce viral loads. This review summarizes the different classes of HTAs against HCV infection that are in preclinical or clinical development and highlights their potential to prevent HCV infection, e.g., following LT, and to tailor combination treatments to cure chronic HCV infection.

  8. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  9. Predictive Role of Preventive Measures in Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Ejub; Gojak, Refet; Novakovic, Ana; Gazibera, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disease of modern life. Diabetic foot (DF) is the term for a foot of a patient suffering from DM with the potential risk of a number of pathological sequels, including infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue. Goal: To determine the importance of preventive measures to prevent the development of diabetic foot. Results: The gender structure of respondents categorized by the complication of DF (yes/no) was uniform. The average age was 60.15±12.2 years. Respondents without DF, 63% had 2 visits to the doctor a month, while in the group of those with DF, 39% of them had 3 visits to a doctor and 33% four or more times. Wearing comfortable shoes and foot hygiene in relation to the development of the DF are interdependent: c2=4,409; c2 = 12.47 (p <0.0005). Also, recurrent foot injury, and slow healing of sores in comparison to the development of the DF are mutually dependent; c2=13,195; c2=14 (p <0.0005). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant statistical relationship between preventive measures and development of the DF. PMID:26543412

  10. Intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα prevents radiation-induced fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawroth, Isabel; Alsner, Jan; Behlke, Mark A.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Overgaard, Jens; Howard, Kenneth A.; Kjems, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: One of the most common and dose-limiting long-term adverse effects of radiation therapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), which is characterized by restricted tissue flexibility, reduced compliance or strictures, pain and in severe cases, ulceration and necrosis. Several strategies have been proposed to ameliorate RIF but presently no effective one is available. Recent studies have reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a role in fibrogenesis. Material and methods: Male CDF1 mice were radiated with a single dose of 45 Gy. Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα were intraperitoneal injected and late radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) was assessed using a modification of the leg contracture model. Additionally, the effect of these nanoparticles on tumor growth and tumor control probability in the absence of radiation was examined in a C3H mammary carcinoma model. Results: We show in this work, that targeting TNFα in macrophages by intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles completely prevented radiation-induced fibrosis in CDF1 mice without revealing any cytotoxic side-effects after a long-term administration. Furthermore, such TNFα targeting was selective without any significant influence on tumor growth or irradiation-related tumor control probability. Conclusion: This nanoparticle-based RNAi approach represents a novel approach to prevent RIF with potential application to improve clinical radiation therapeutic strategies.

  11. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  12. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  13. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. [School shootings in Germany: current trends in the prevention of severe, targeted violence in German schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.

  15. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  16. CGRP, a target for preventive therapy in migraine and cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Olesen, Astrid; Ashina, Messoud

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Migraine and cluster headache are challenging to manage, with no tailored preventive medications available. Targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to treat these headaches may be the first focused therapeutic option to date, with the potential for promising...... efficacy. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials investigating the preventive potential of monoclonal antibodies against the CGRP pathway in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Results The literature search returned a total of 136...... of cluster headache. Conclusion Efficacy of anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies spells a promising future for the many patients suffering from migraine, and possibly also for the smaller but severely-affected population with cluster headache....

  17. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Sethi, Gautam; Reddanna, Pallu; Kalle, Arunasree M; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Dowluru, Kaladhar S V G K; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Duddukuri, Govinda Rao

    2016-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA 2 s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [A population-targeted approach to connect prevention, care and welfare: visualising the trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, L C; Drewes, H W; Lette, M; Baan, C A

    2017-01-01

    To map initiatives in the Netherlands using a population-targeted approach to link prevention, care and welfare. Descriptive investigation, based on conversations and structured interviews. We searched for initiatives in which providers in the areas of prevention, care and welfare together with health insurers and/or local authorities attempted to provide the 'triple aim': improving the health of the population and the quality of care, and managing costs. We found potential initiatives on the basis of interviews with key figures, project databases and congress programmes. We looked for additional information on websites and via contact persons to gather additional information to determine whether the initiative met the inclusion criteria. An initiative should link prevention, care and welfare with a minimum of three players actively pursuing a population-targeted goal through multiple interventions for a non-disease specific and district-transcending population. We described the goal, organisational structure, parties involved, activities and funding on the basis of interviews conducted in the period August-December 2015 with the managers of the initiatives included. We found 19 initiatives which met the criteria where there was experimentation with organisational forms, levels of participation, interventions and funding. It was noticeable that the interventions mostly concerned medical care. There was a lack of insight into the 'triple aim', mostly because data exchange between parties is generally difficult. There is an increasing number of initiatives that follow a population-targeted approach. Although the different parties strive to connect the three domains, they are still searching for an optimal collaboration, organisational form, data exchange and financing.

  19. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  20. Directed energy deflection laboratory measurements of common space based targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Travis; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Meinhold, Peter; Batliner, Payton; Motta, Caio; Madajian, Jonathan; Mercer, Whitaker; Knowles, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid's orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so

  1. Identification of treatment response predictors and potential molecular targets for chemo preventive and antiangiogenic therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, U.; Albini, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the project were: To evaluate the cellular responses to anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic natural or synthetic compounds (chemo preventives, inhibitors of cell survival and inflammation related signal transduction). To identify bio markers for treatment response through the selection of targets that are common to or specific for anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. To analyze the regulation of the key tumor-promotion pathways Akt, HIF1α, NFκB. We focused our studies on the antiapoptotic role of the AKT survival pathway, which is involved in prostate tumor progression to an androgen-independent phenotype

  2. cGMP signaling as a target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Perrin F; Tinsley, Heather N

    2015-04-01

    One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. Advances in therapeutic strategies, diagnosis, and improved awareness have resulted in a significant reduction in breast cancer related mortality. However, there is a continued need for more effective and less toxic drugs for both the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer in order to see a continued decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Recent studies suggest that the cGMP signaling pathway may be aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. As such, this pathway may serve as a source of novel targets for future breast cancer drug discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of cGMP signaling in normal physiology and in breast cancer as well as current strategies being investigated for targeting this pathway in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting Aberrant p70S6K Activation for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yao, Jun; Wang, Jinyang; Zhang, Qingling; Brady, Samuel W; Arun, Banu; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Yu, Dihua

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancer remains a major challenge in the cancer prevention field, although antiestrogen and aromatase inhibitors have shown adequate efficacy in preventing estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer. Lack of commonly expressed, druggable targets is a major obstacle for meeting this challenge. Previously, we detected the activation of Akt signaling pathway in atypical hyperplasic early-stage lesions of patients. In the current study, we found that Akt and the downstream 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling pathway was highly activated in ER - premalignant breast lesions and ER - breast cancer. In addition, p70S6K activation induced transformation of ER - human mammary epithelial cells (hMEC). Therefore, we explored the potential of targeting Akt/p70S6K in the p70S6K activated, ER - hMEC models and mouse mammary tumor models for the prevention of ER - breast cancer. We found that a clinically applicable Akt/p70S6K dual inhibitor, LY2780301, drastically decreased proliferation of hMECs with ErbB2-induced p70S6K activation via Cyclin B1 inhibition and cell-cycle blockade at G 0 -G 1 phase, while it did not significantly reverse the abnormal acinar morphology of these hMECs. In addition, a brief treatment of LY2780301 in MMTV- neu mice that developed atypical hyperplasia (ADH) and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) lesions with activated p70S6K was sufficient to suppress S6 phosphorylation and decrease cell proliferation in hyperplasic MECs. In summary, targeting the aberrant Akt/p70S6K activation in ER - hMEC models in vitro and in the MMTV- neu transgenic mouse model in vivo effectively inhibited Akt/S6K signaling and reduced proliferation of hMECs in vitro and ADH/MIN lesions in vivo , indicating its potential in prevention of p70S6K activated ER - breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 10(11); 641-50. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  5. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  6. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-10-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper we review recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  7. Charm and beauty measurements at Fermilab fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen months after a successful run of the Fermilab fixed target program, interesting results from several experiments are available. This is the first time that more than one Fermilab fixed target experiment has reported the observation of beauty mesons. In this paper the author reviews recent results from charm and beauty fixed target experiments at Fermilab

  8. Targeting brain-health from "cradle to grave": Can we prevent or delay dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P. Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia or the "silver tsunami" is a public health challenge of epidemic proportions of the 21 st century. It imposes enormous burden in terms of economic and social impact on the health care systems and the quality of life of people with dementia, their families and caregivers. For a number of decades, clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical companies have laid emphasis on the development of a drug armamentarium for fighting dementia. However, the neurotherapy of dementia targeting the "pathogenesis model" still remains disappointing with no breakthrough in-sight. The cure for dementia is worthy, but an elusive and frustrating goal. On the contrary, epidemiological research does spell optimism and provides a substantial amount of evidence of modifiable risk and protective factors to delay, prevent or shorten dementia. Thus time has come for a "strategic vision for the future" to move away from the current paradigm of curative therapies to a strategy of "preemptive medicine" that identifies disease processes at the earliest stages and prevents rather than attempting to reverse disability. Such a strategy is not only a safer, more dignified option, but also a step forward for a sustainable society in an aging world in order to preserve the mental capital and brain well-being of nations. This would reiterate the concept of "anthroposophical medicine," neurocentric health and preventive neurology strategies to promote healthy brain aging and brain protection. The need to rethink and redefine dementia from a "salutogenesis" perspective as a "lifestyle disorder" and implement multiple preventative life-course approaches through well-designed randomized controlled trials is quintessential to delay, prevent or keep dementia at bay.

  9. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Classification tree analyses reveal limited potential for early targeted prevention against childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Kusian, Dennis; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Schaffrath-Rosario, Angelika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-02-01

    Whether specific combinations of risk factors in very early life might allow identification of high-risk target groups for overweight prevention programs was examined. Data of n = 8981 children from the German KiGGS study were analyzed. Using a classification tree approach, predictive risk factor combinations were assessed for overweight in 3-6, 7-10, and 11-17-year-old children. In preschool children, the subgroup with the highest overweight risk were migrant children with at least one obese parent, with a prevalence of 36.6 (95% confidence interval or CI: 22.9, 50.4)%, compared to an overall prevalence of 10.0 (8.9, 11.2)%. The prevalence of overweight increased from 18.3 (16.8, 19.8)% to 57.9 (46.6, 69.3)% in 7-10-year-old children, if at least one parent was obese and the child had been born large-for-gestational-age. In 11-17-year-olds, the overweight risk increased from 20.1 (18.9, 21.3)% to 63.0 (46.4, 79.7)% in the highest risk group. However, high prevalence ratios were found only in small subgroups, containing <10% of all overweight cases in the respective age group. Our results indicate only a limited potential for early targeted preventions against overweight in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. Targeting the NFκB signaling pathways for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nag, Subhasree A; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB), a proinflammatory transcription factor, is a commonly observed phenomenon in breast cancer. It facilitates the development of a hormone-independent, invasive, high-grade, and late-stage tumor phenotype. Moreover, the commonly used cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches activate NFκB, leading to the development of invasive breast cancers that show resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy. Inhibition of NFκB results in an increase in the sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation and restoring hormone sensitivity, which is correlated with increased disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In this review article, we focus on the role of the NFκB signaling pathways in the development and progression of breast cancer and the validity of NFκB as a potential target for breast cancer prevention and therapy. We also discuss the recent findings that NFκB may have tumor suppressing activity in certain cancer types. Finally, this review also covers the state-of-the-art development of NFκB inhibitors for cancer therapy and prevention, the challenges in targeting validation, and pharmacology and toxicology evaluations of these agents from the bench to the bedside.

  12. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  13. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventive effect of dietary quercetin on disuse muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria in denervated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Rie; Matsui, Naoko; Fujikura, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Norifumi; Hou, De-Xing; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Manabu; Iwasa, Keiko; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Nikawa, Takeshi; Terao, Junji

    2016-05-01

    Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to clarify the preventive effect of dietary quercetin on disuse muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms. We established a mouse denervation model by cutting the sciatic nerve in the right leg (SNX surgery) to lack of mobilization in hind-limb. Preintake of a quercetin-mixed diet for 14days before SNX surgery prevented loss of muscle mass and atrophy of muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). Phosphorylation of Akt, a key phosphorylation pathway of suppression of protein degradation, was activated in the quercetin-mixed diet group with and without SNX surgery. Intake of a quercetin-mixed diet suppressed the generation of hydrogen peroxide originating from mitochondria and elevated mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA expression as well as NADH dehydrogenase 4 expression in the GM with SNX surgery. Quercetin and its conjugated metabolites reduced hydrogen peroxide production in the mitochondrial fraction obtained from atrophied muscle. In C2C12 myotubes, quercetin reached the mitochondrial fraction. These findings suggest that dietary quercetin can prevent disuse muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria in skeletal muscle tissue through protecting mitochondria from decreased biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide release, which can be related to decreased hydrogen peroxide production and/or improvements on antioxidant capacity of mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W; Taylor, Catherine A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA incidence was assessed in only three studies and decreased significantly in two. Studies also found significant reductions in relevant outcomes such as dysfunctional parenting, child problem behaviors and parental anger as well as increases in parental self-efficacy and knowledge of concepts and actions relevant to preventing child abuse. The following risk factors were most frequently targeted in campaigns: lack of knowledge regarding positive parenting techniques, parental impulsivity, the stigma of asking for help, inadequate social support and inappropriate expectations for a child's developmental stage. The evidence base for universal campaigns designed to prevent CPA remains inconclusive due to the limited availability of rigorous evaluations; however, Triple-P is a notable exception. Given the potential for such interventions to shift population norms relevant to CPA and reduce rates of CPA, there is a need to further develop and rigorously evaluate such campaigns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  17. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  18. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcription Factor STAT3 as a Novel Molecular Target for Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Ailian; Yang, Zhengduo; Shen, Yicheng; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, immune and inflammatory responses, and angiogenesis. Cumulative evidence has established that STAT3 has a critical role in the development of multiple cancer types. Because it is constitutively activated during disease progression and metastasis in a variety of cancers, STAT3 has promise as a drug target for cancer therapeutics. Recently, STAT3 was found to have an important role in maintaining cancer stem cells in vitro and in mouse tumor models, suggesting STAT3 is integrally involved in tumor initiation, progression and maintenance. STAT3 has been traditionally considered as nontargetable or undruggable, and the lag in developing effective STAT3 inhibitors contributes to the current lack of FDA-approved STAT3 inhibitors. Recent advances in cancer biology and drug discovery efforts have shed light on targeting STAT3 globally and/or specifically for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the potential importance of STAT3 as a novel target for cancer prevention and of STAT3 inhibitors as effective chemopreventive agents

  20. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  1. Inhibition of oxygen scavengers realized by peritoneal macrophages: an adhesion prevention target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mynbaev OA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ospan A Mynbaev,1–4 Marina Yu Eliseeva,1,2 Oktay T Kadayifci,1,5 Tahar Benhidjeb,1,6 Michael Stark1,41The International Translational Medicine and Biomodeling Research team, MIPT center for human physiology studies, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Technologies, The Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University, Moscow Region, Russia; 2The Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 3Laboratory of Pilot Projects, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Moscow, Russia; 4The New European Surgical Academy, Berlin, Germany; 5Onkim Stem Cell Technologies Inc., Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Surgery, Burjeel Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab EmiratesOur team, general surgeons and gynecologists look constantly for ways to prevent postsurgical adhesions, and hence, we appreciate the platform you have established through multiple publications.1–3 This is especially because postsurgical adhesions may result in several complications such as the small bowel obstruction, secondary infertility, dyspareunia, chronic abdominal/pelvic pain and many others.Prevention of postsurgical adhesions is still an unsolved problem in spite of the suggested modifications of current surgical methods and application of various barriers, sprays, and use of other antiadhesive medications. We have already pointed out that a design of ideal nanoparticles should become a target of personalized adhesion prevention strategy in the future4,5 and therefore, we read with great interest the article by Shin et al that was recently published in your journal.6 This article explores the potential of postoperative adhesion prevention by nanofibers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG, which is the most bioactive polyphenolic compound extracted from green tea.Read the original article by Shin and

  2. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A. [Drug Discovery Research Center, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 1660 Springhill Ave, Suite 3029, Mobile, AL 36604 (United States); Tinsley, Heather N., E-mail: htinsley@montevallo.edu [Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL 35115 (United States)

    2014-02-26

    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers.

  3. Parents' Attitudes and Adherence to Unintentional Injury Prevention Measures in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Tolga; Yalçın, Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2017-08-04

    Childhood unintentional injuries are perceived as a leading public health issue since they are one of the preventable causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity. Whether and how parental factors are related to childhood injury has been researched insufficiently. To investigate parents' attitudes to preventive measures of unintentional childhood injury, and the parental adherence to these measures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The data were collected from the parents of children younger than ten years of age admitted to university hospital outpatient clinics for any reason and who agreed to be involved in the study. The first part of the questionnaire included sociodemographic profiles of participating children. Serious injuries were considered to be any injury that requires hospital admission. The second part of the questionnaire was prepared to evaluate parents' adherence to injury prevention rules. A total score calculation about the adherence of the parents to the injury prevention rules was worked out the addition of the scores of each answer given in each age group. Answers for each item given by the parents were scored as wrong (0), sometimes (1) or correct (2). The score for each item was added and the result normalized to 100 points. Only complete questionnaires were used for analysis. A total of 1126 children and parent pairs agreed to participate in the survey. It was found that 13.8% of the participating children had experienced at least one serious injury. Although three-quarters of the parents had received information about injury prevention, the overall injury prevention scores were found to be low. As children's age increased, the total injury prevention scores of parents decreased significantly. Injury prevention scores were shown to increase significantly with high education and maternal occupation. However, scores were shown to decrease significantly with increased child age and family size. Our study shows that parental adherence to the

  4. Vascular wall proteoglycan synthesis and structure as a target for the prevention of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Little

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Little1, 2, 3, Mandy L. Ballinger1, Narin Osman1,31Cell Biology of Diabetes Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Monash University, Departments of 2Medicine and 3Immunology, Central and Eastern Clinical School, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular disease and it represents the major cause of premature death in modern societies. Current therapies target risk factors being hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia when diabetes is present however the maximum efficacy of these strategies is often 30% or less. Areas of vascular biology that may lead to the development of a complementary vascular wall directed therapy are: inflammation, oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes-specific factors —hyperglycemia and advanced glycation endproducts and lipid retention by vascular matrix specifically proteoglycans. The major structural features of proteoglycans that determine low-density lipoprotein (LDL binding are the length and sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains. Emerging data discussed in this review indicates that these structural properties are subject to considerable regulation by vasoactive substances possibly using novel signaling pathways. For example, GAG elongation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor is not blocked by the receptor tyrosine kinase antagonist, genistein suggesting that there may be a previously unknown signaling pathway involved in this response. Thus, modifying proteoglycan synthesis and structure may represent a prime target to prevent LDL binding and entrapment in the vessel wall and thus prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.Keywords: proteoglycans, signaling, lipoproteins, atherosclerosis

  5. RANK ligand as a potential target for breast cancer prevention in BRCA1-mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Emma; Vaillant, François; Branstetter, Daniel; Pal, Bhupinder; Giner, Göknur; Whitehead, Lachlan; Lok, Sheau W; Mann, Gregory B; Rohrbach, Kathy; Huang, Li-Ya; Soriano, Rosalia; Smyth, Gordon K; Dougall, William C; Visvader, Jane E; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Individuals who have mutations in the breast-cancer-susceptibility gene BRCA1 (hereafter referred to as BRCA1-mutation carriers) frequently undergo prophylactic mastectomy to minimize their risk of breast cancer. The identification of an effective prevention therapy therefore remains a 'holy grail' for the field. Precancerous BRCA1(mut/+) tissue harbors an aberrant population of luminal progenitor cells, and deregulated progesterone signaling has been implicated in BRCA1-associated oncogenesis. Coupled with the findings that tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11; also known as RANKL) is a key paracrine effector of progesterone signaling and that RANKL and its receptor TNFRSF11A (also known as RANK) contribute to mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated a role for this pathway in the pre-neoplastic phase of BRCA1-mutation carriers. We identified two subsets of luminal progenitors (RANK(+) and RANK(-)) in histologically normal tissue of BRCA1-mutation carriers and showed that RANK(+) cells are highly proliferative, have grossly aberrant DNA repair and bear a molecular signature similar to that of basal-like breast cancer. These data suggest that RANK(+) and not RANK(-) progenitors are a key target population in these women. Inhibition of RANKL signaling by treatment with denosumab in three-dimensional breast organoids derived from pre-neoplastic BRCA1(mut/+) tissue attenuated progesterone-induced proliferation. Notably, proliferation was markedly reduced in breast biopsies from BRCA1-mutation carriers who were treated with denosumab. Furthermore, inhibition of RANKL in a Brca1-deficient mouse model substantially curtailed mammary tumorigenesis. Taken together, these findings identify a targetable pathway in a putative cell-of-origin population in BRCA1-mutation carriers and implicate RANKL blockade as a promising strategy in the prevention of breast cancer.

  6. Nonmuscle myosin IIB as a therapeutic target for the prevention of relapse to methamphetamine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erica J.; Blouin, Ashley M.; Briggs, Sherri B.; Sillivan, Stephanie E.; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Miller, Courtney A.

    2015-01-01

    Memories associated with drug use increase vulnerability to relapse in substance use disorder (SUD) and there are no pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Previously, we reported a promising finding that storage of memories associated with methamphetamine (METH), but not memories for fear or food reward, is vulnerable to disruption by actin depolymerization in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC). However, actin is not a viable therapeutic target because of its numerous functions throughout the body. Here we report the discovery of a viable therapeutic target, nonmuscle myosin II (NMIIB), a molecular motor that supports memory by directly driving synaptic actin polymerization. A single intra-BLC treatment with Blebbistatin, a small molecule inhibitor of class II myosin isoforms, including NMIIB, produced a long-lasting disruption of context-induced drug seeking (at least 30 days). Further, post-consolidation genetic knockdown of Myh10, the heavy chain of the most highly expressed NMII in the BLC, was sufficient to produce METH-associated memory loss. Blebbistatin was found to be highly brain penetrant. A single systemic injection of the compound selectively disrupted the storage of METH-associated memory and reversed the accompanying increase in BLC spine density. This effect was specific to METH-associated memory, as it had no effect on an auditory fear memory. The effect was also independent of retrieval, as METH-associated memory was disrupted twenty-four hours after a single systemic injection of Blebbistatin delivered in the home cage. Together, these results argue for the further development of small molecule inhibitors of nonmuscle myosin II as potential therapeutics for the prevention of SUD relapse triggered by drug associations. PMID:26239291

  7. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  8. Adolescent transformations of behavioral and neural processes as potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldreth, Dana; Hardin, Michael G; Pavletic, Nevia; Ernst, Monique

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.

  9. Sphingosine Kinase: A Novel Putative Target for the Prevention of Infection-Triggered Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks of gestation. Major research efforts are directed towards improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P. S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth.

  10. Culturally Targeted Strategies for Diabetes Prevention in Minority Populations: A Systematic Review and Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja A.; Priyadarshini, Shubadra; Terrell, Stephanie; Hamati, Mary; Landgraf, Jessica; Chopra, Vineet; Heisler, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to (a) assess the effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes prevention interventions in minority populations and (b) develop a novel framework to characterize four key domains of culturally tailored interventions. Prevention strategies specifically tailored to the culture of ethnic minority patients may help reduce the incidence of diabetes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL for English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental (QE) trials testing culturally tailored interventions to prevent diabetes in minority populations. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop a framework with four domains (FiLLM: Facilitating [i.e., delivering] Interventions through Language, Location and Message). The framework was used to assess the overall effectiveness of culturally tailored interventions. Results Thirty-four trials met eligibility criteria. Twelve studies were randomized controlled trials, and 22 were quasi-experimental trials. Twenty-five out of 34 studies (74%) that used cultural tailoring demonstrated significantly improved Hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, and/or weight loss. Of the 25 successful interventions, 21 (84%) incorporated at least three culturally targeted domains. Seven studies used all four domains and were all successful. The least utilized domain was delivery (4/34) of the intervention’s key educational message. Conclusions Culturally tailoring interventions across the four domains of facilitators, language, location, and messaging can be effective in improving risk factors for progression to diabetes among ethnic minority groups. Future studies should evaluate how specific tailoring approaches work compared to usual care as well as comparative effectiveness of each tailoring domain. Registration (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016914) PMID:28118127

  11. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  12. Target-Derived Neurotrophins Coordinate Transcription and Transport of Bclw to Prevent Axonal Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosker, Katharina E.; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Fenstermacher, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of neuronal circuitry depends on both formation and refinement of neural connections. During this process, target-derived neurotrophins regulate both transcription and translation to enable selective axon survival or elimination. However, it is not known whether retrograde signaling pathways that control transcription are coordinated with neurotrophin-regulated actions that transpire in the axon. Here we report that target-derived neurotrophins coordinate transcription of the antiapoptotic gene bclw with transport of bclw mRNA to the axon, and thereby prevent axonal degeneration in rat and mouse sensory neurons. We show that neurotrophin stimulation of nerve terminals elicits new bclw transcripts that are immediately transported to the axons and translated into protein. Bclw interacts with Bax and suppresses the caspase6 apoptotic cascade that fosters axonal degeneration. The scope of bclw regulation at the levels of transcription, transport, and translation provides a mechanism whereby sustained neurotrophin stimulation can be integrated over time, so that axonal survival is restricted to neurons connected within a stable circuit. PMID:23516285

  13. Appropriate Targets for Search Advertising as Part of Online Gatekeeping for Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueki, Hajime; Ito, Jiro

    2018-05-01

    Gatekeeper training is an effective suicide prevention strategy. However, the appropriate targets of online gatekeeping have not yet been clarified. We examined the association between the outcomes of online gatekeeping using the Internet and the characteristics of consultation service users. An advertisement to encourage the use of e-mail-based psychological consultation services among viewers was placed on web pages that showed the results of searches using suicide-related keywords. All e-mails received between October 2014 and December 2015 were replied to as part of gatekeeping, and the obtained data (responses to an online questionnaire and the content of the received e-mails) were analyzed. A total of 154 consultation service users were analyzed, 35.7% of whom were male. The median age range was 20-29 years. Online gatekeeping was significantly more likely to be successful when such users faced financial/daily life or workplace problems, or revealed their names (including online names). By contrast, the activity was more likely to be unsuccessful when it was impossible to assess the problems faced by consultation service users. It may be possible to increase the success rate of online gatekeeping by targeting individuals facing financial/daily life or workplace problems with marked tendencies for self-disclosure.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy, General Preventive Strategies, and Novel Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Sher Zaman; Kumar, Selva; Ismail, Ikram Shah Bin

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors. PMID:25105142

  15. Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Optimization of Target Concentrations of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Rada M; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Kajubi, Richard; Huang, Liusheng; Zhang, Nan; Were, Moses; Kakuru, Abel; Muhindo, Mary K; Mwebaza, Norah; Wallender, Erika; Clark, Tamara D; Opira, Bishop; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane V; Rosenthal, Philip J; Dorsey, Grant; Aweeka, Francesca T

    2018-03-14

    Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy. Pharmacokinetic sampling for piperaquine was performed every 4 weeks, and an intensive pharmacokinetic sub-study was performed in 30 women at 28 weeks gestation. Concentration-effect relationships were assessed between exposure to piperaquine; the prevalence of P. falciparum infection during pregnancy; outcomes at delivery including placental malaria, low birthweight, and preterm birth; and risks for toxicity. Simulations of new dosing scenarios were performed. Model-defined piperaquine target venous plasma concentrations of 13.9 ng/ml provided 99% protection from P. falciparum infection during pregnancy. Each 10 day increase in time>target piperaquine concentrations was associated with reduced odds of placental parasitemia (0∙67, P<0.0001), preterm birth (0.74, P<0.01), and low birthweight (0.74, P<0.05), though increases in piperaquine concentrations were associated with QTc prolongation (5 msec increase per 100 ng/ml). Modeling suggests that daily or weekly administration of lower dosages of piperaquine, compared to standard dosing, will maintain piperaquine trough levels above target concentrations with reduced piperaquine peak levels, potentially limiting toxicity. The protective efficacy of IPTp with dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine was strongly associated with higher drug exposure. Studies of the efficacy and safety of alternative dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine IPTp dosing strategies are warranted. NCT02163447.

  16. RESISTANCE TO INNOVATION: ESSENCE, PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND WAYS OUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of school teachers’ resistance to innovations related to modernization procedures, updates of educational content, methods and forms. The rejection of innovations is regarded by the authors as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon; its roots and causes being analyzed including the consequences of some ineffective, poorly developed and even harmful innovations introduced or proposed by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. The research findings demonstrate different innovation barriers along with the resulting inner skepticism and its external manifestation. However, in spite of partially justified skepticism, the authors maintain that the firm resistance to any innovation adversely affects both the education quality and teachers’ personal and professional characteristics. In conclusion, the paper suggests some preventive measures for overcoming teachers’ resistance to positive innovations in educational practices, and describes a successful experience of one of the rural schools applying a psychological mechanism of internalization of innovations. Additionally, the role of the school principal in developing teachers’ motivation for innovations is emphasized.

  17. A Ge-Si active target for the measurement of short lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tenchini, R.; Triggiani, G.; Tonelli, G.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin; D'Angelo, P.; Manfredi, P.F.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Perasso, L.; Sala, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Enorini, M.; Laurelli, P.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.

    1984-01-01

    A new Ge-Si active target is presently used in the Na1 experiment at CERN to study photoproduction of charmed particles and to measure their lifetimes. Some general comments on the active target technique are made. (orig.)

  18. Targeted proteomics as a tool for porcine acute phase proteins measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna; Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    2013-01-01

    . Selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a targeted quantitative proteomic technique, may be used as an alternative to commercial kits for the measurement and validation of target proteins. Acute phase proteins (APPs) are widely recognized inflammation and infection biomarkers (Eckersall, 2010...

  19. Enhanced surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia to identify targets for infection prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A K; Russell, C D

    2016-06-01

    Surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in Scotland is limited to the number of infections per 100,000 acute occupied bed-days and susceptibility to meticillin. To demonstrate the value of enhanced SAB surveillance to identify targets for infection prevention. Prospective cohort study of all patients identified with SAB over a five-year period in a single health board in Scotland. All patients were reviewed at the bedside by a clinical microbiologist. In all, 556 SAB episodes were identified: 261 (46.6%) were hospital-acquired; 209 (37.9%) were healthcare-associated; 80 (14.4%) were community-acquired; and in six (1.1%) the origin of infection was not hospital-acquired, but could not be separated into healthcare-associated or community-acquired. These were classified as non-hospital-acquired. Meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia was associated with hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. In addition, there was a significantly higher 30-day mortality associated with hospital-acquired (31.4%) and healthcare-associated (16.3%) infections compared to community-acquired SAB (8.7%). Vascular access devices were associated with hospital-acquired SAB and peripheral venous cannulas were the source for most of these (43.9%). Community-acquired infections were associated with intravenous drug misuse, respiratory tract infections and skeletal and joint infections. Skin and soft tissue infections were more widely seen in healthcare-associated infections. The data indicate that enhanced surveillance of SAB by origin of infection and source of bacteraemia has implications for infection prevention, empirical antibiotic therapy, and health improvement interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  1. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  2. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  3. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, Miguel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC

  4. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2015-07-06

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  5. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  6. Predicting drug-target interaction for new drugs using enhanced similarity measures and super-target clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Yu; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Li, Yiming; Leung, Henry C M; Chin, Francis Y L

    2015-07-15

    Predicting drug-target interaction using computational approaches is an important step in drug discovery and repositioning. To predict whether there will be an interaction between a drug and a target, most existing methods identify similar drugs and targets in the database. The prediction is then made based on the known interactions of these drugs and targets. This idea is promising. However, there are two shortcomings that have not yet been addressed appropriately. Firstly, most of the methods only use 2D chemical structures and protein sequences to measure the similarity of drugs and targets respectively. However, this information may not fully capture the characteristics determining whether a drug will interact with a target. Secondly, there are very few known interactions, i.e. many interactions are "missing" in the database. Existing approaches are biased towards known interactions and have no good solutions to handle possibly missing interactions which affect the accuracy of the prediction. In this paper, we enhance the similarity measures to include non-structural (and non-sequence-based) information and introduce the concept of a "super-target" to handle the problem of possibly missing interactions. Based on evaluations on real data, we show that our similarity measure is better than the existing measures and our approach is able to achieve higher accuracy than the two best existing algorithms, WNN-GIP and KBMF2K. Our approach is available at http://web.hku.hk/∼liym1018/projects/drug/drug.html or http://www.bmlnwpu.org/us/tools/PredictingDTI_S2/METHODS.html. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impulsive Delayed Reward Discounting as a Genetically-Influenced Target for Drug Abuse Prevention: A Critical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Gray

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the viability of delayed reward discounting (DRD, an index of how much an individual devalues a future reward based on its delay in time, for genetically-informed drug abuse prevention. A review of the literature suggests that impulsive DRD is robustly associated with drug addiction and meets most of the criteria for being an endophenotype, albeit with mixed findings for specific molecular genetic influences. Several modes of experimental manipulation have been demonstrated to reduce DRD acutely. These include behavioral strategies, such as mindfulness, reward bundling, and episodic future thinking; pharmacological interventions, including noradrengic agonists, adrenergic agonists, and multiple monoamine agonists; and neuromodulatory interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. However, the generalization of these interventions to positive clinical outcomes remains unclear and no studies to date have examined interventions on DRD in the context of prevention. Collectively, these findings suggest it would be premature to target DRD for genetically-informed prevention. Indeed, given the evidence of environmental contributions such as early life adversity to impulsive DRD, whether genetically-informed secondary prevention would ever be warranted is debatable. However, progress in identifying polymorphisms associated with DRD preference could further clarify the underlying biological systems implicated in impulsive DRD for further progress in pharmacological and neuromodulatory interventions. Furthermore, independent of genetically-informed prevention, impulsive DRD is a qualitatively different risk factor from existing prevention programs and is generally worthy of investigation as a novel and promising drug abuse prevention target.

  8. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  9. Improving prevention of depression and anxiety disorders: repetitive negative thinking as a promising target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topper, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Ehring, T.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of depression and anxiety disorders is widely acknowledged as an important health care investment. However, existing preventive interventions have only shown modest effects. In order to improve the efficacy of prevention of depression and anxiety disorders, a number of authors have

  10. Skipping breakfast is detrimental for primary school children: cross-sectional analysis of determinants for targeted prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skipping breakfast was found to be associated with abdominal obesity in primary school children. The aim of this research was to examine factors associated with skipping breakfast in primary school children in order to develop targeted preventive measures. Methods Baseline data assessment (2010 of a cluster-randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a school-based health promotion program in primary school children in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measures of 1,943 primary school children aged 7.1 ± 0.6 years (51.2% boys were conducted according to ISAK-standards (International Standard for Anthropometric Assessment by trained staff. Further information on the health and living conditions of the children and their parents were assessed in parental questionnaires. Generalized linear mixed regression analysis was calculated to define correlates for skipping breakfast in terms of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results According to the final regression models, significant correlates of skipping breakfast can be divided into modifiable behavioral components (high consumption of soft drinks (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.81; 3.43, screen media (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.77; 3.46 and high levels of physical activity (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44; 0.93 on the one hand, and more or less static socio-economic factors (migration background (OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.02; 3.91, single parenting (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.34; 3.40, and high family education level (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28; 0.64 on the other hand, and finally individual factors (female gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03; 1.99 and having a percentage of body fat at or above the 95th percentile (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.00; 2.17. Conclusion Targeted prevention should aim at health-related behaviors accompanying the habit of skipping breakfast. Focusing on vulnerable groups, characterized by not so easily modifiable socio-economic as well as individual factors, may improve

  11. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  12. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G [Swedish Board of Customs, Control Division/Control Section, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  13. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  16. Targeting androgen receptor and JunD interaction for prevention of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Kegel, Stacy J; Church, Dawn R; Schmidt, Joseph S; Reuter, Quentin R; Saphner, Elizabeth L; Basu, Hirak S; Wilding, George

    2014-05-01

    Multiple studies show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Previously, we reported an induction of Spermidine/Spermine N(1) -Acetyl Transferase (SSAT) by androgen-activated androgen receptor (AR)-JunD protein complex that leads to over-production of ROS in PCa cells. In our current research, we identify small molecules that specifically block AR-JunD in this ROS-generating metabolic pathway. A high throughput assay based on Gaussia Luciferase reconstitution was used to identify inhibitors of the AR-JunD interaction. Selected hits were further screened using a fluorescence polarization competitor assay to eliminate those that bind to the AR Ligand Binding Domain (LBD), in order to identify molecules that specifically target events downstream to androgen activation of AR. Eleven molecules were selected for studies on their efficacy against ROS generation and growth of cultured human PCa cells by DCFH dye-oxidation assay and DNA fluorescence assay, respectively. In situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA), SSAT promoter-luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting of apoptosis and cell cycle markers were used to study mechanism of action of the lead compound. Selected lead compound GWARJD10 with EC(50) 10 μM against ROS production was shown to block AR-JunD interaction in situ as well as block androgen-induced SSAT gene expression at IC(50) 5 μM. This compound had no effect on apoptosis markers, but reduced cyclin D1 protein level. Inhibitor of AR-JunD interaction, GWARJD10 shows promise for prevention of progression of PCa at an early stage of the disease by blocking growth and ROS production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as

  18. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  19. Representing Targets of Measurement within Evidence-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Packman, Sheryl; Hamen, Cynthia; Thurber, Allison Clark

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, the Advanced Placement (AP) Program[R] has used evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) to articulate the knowledge, skills, and abilities to be taught in the course and measured on the summative exam for four science courses, three history courses, and six world language courses; its application to calculus and English…

  20. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  1. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Philippe; Clinton, Eric; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, Dave; Miskimen, Rory; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Asaturyan, Arshak; Baker, O.; Benton, LaRay; Bernstein, Aron; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Dale, Daniel; Danagoulian, Samuel; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, Raphael; Deur, Alexandre; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Evdokimov, Anatoly; Feng, JIng; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hardy, K.; Ito, Mark; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kingsberry, Paul; Kolarkar, Ameya; Konchatnyi, Mykhailo; Korchin, O.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kubantsev, Mikhail; Kubarovsky, Valery; Larin, Ilya; Matveev, V.; McNulty, Dustin; Milbrath, Brian; Minehart, Ralph; Mochalov, Vasiliy; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Nakagawa, Itaru; Overby, Steven; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Payen, Marvin; Pedroni, Ronald; Prok, Yelena; Ritchie, Barry; Salgado, Carlos; Sitnikov, Anatoly; Sober, Daniel; Stephens, W.; Teymurazyan, Aram; Underwood, Jarreas; Vasiliev, A.; Verebryusov, V.; Vishnyakov, Vladimir; Wood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  2. More than just openness: developing and validating a measure of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Kam, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    Research addressing parent-child communication on the topic of alcohol use relies heavily on assessing frequency of discussions and general assessments of openness in parent-child communication, ignoring the complexity of this communication phenomenon. This study adds to the literature by articulating a conceptualization and developing a measurement of parent-child communication-targeted parent-child communication about alcohol-and comparing the efficacy of targeted parent-child communication about alcohol in predicting positive expectancies of alcohol use and recent alcohol use. The predictive power of general openness in parent-child communication and frequency of communication about alcohol also were assessed. Students in fifth and sixth grade (N = 1,407) from 29 public schools completed surveys. Targeted parent-child communication about alcohol was negatively associated with both outcomes. Frequency and general openness were only negatively associated with positive expectancies regarding alcohol. Implications of these findings for the etiology and prevention of substance use are discussed.

  3. Maritime target and sea clutter measurements with a coherent Doppler polarimetric surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Gelsema, S.J.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Melief, H.W.; Premel Cabic, G.; Theil, A.; Woudenberg, E.

    2002-01-01

    Doppler polarimetry in a surveillance radar for the maritime surface picture is considered. This radar must be able to detect low-RCS targets in littoral environments. Measurements on such targets have been conducted with a coherent polarimetric measurement radar in March 2001 and preliminary

  4. Targeting the master regulator mTOR: a new approach to prevent the neurological of consequences of parasitic infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Donnelly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain. Here, we hypothesize that the same therapeutic strategy could be adopted for other protozoan infections with a brain tropism, to prevent cerebral parasitosis by limiting pathogen replication and preventing immune mediated destruction of brain tissue.

  5. Targeted delivery of antigen to intestinal dendritic cells induces oral tolerance and prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Wu, Jie; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Bohui; Xu, Xiaojun; Zong, Li

    2018-03-15

    The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. A targeting NP delivery system was developed to encapsulate H6P, and the ability of this system to protect and facilitate H6P delivery to gut DCs was assessed. NOD mice were immunised with H6P-loaded targeting NPs orally once a week for 7 weeks and the onset of diabetes was assessed by monitoring blood glucose levels. H6P-loaded targeting NPs protected the encapsulated H6P from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract environment and significantly increased the uptake of H6P by DCs in the gut Peyer's patches (4.1 times higher uptake compared with the control H6P solution group). Oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting NPs induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented diabetes in 100% of NOD mice. Immune deviation (T helper [Th]1 to Th2) and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were found to participate in the induction of immune tolerance. In this study, we successfully induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at delivering antigen to gut DCs using targeting NPs to induce T cell tolerance.

  6. Learning about which measure of inflation to target

    OpenAIRE

    Luis-Felipe Zanna; Marco Airaudo

    2005-01-01

    Using a closed economy model with a flexible-price good and a sticky-price good we study the conditions under which interest rate rules induce real determinacy and, more importantly, the MSV solution is learnable in the E-stability sense proposed by Evans and Honkapohja (2001). We show that these conditions depend not only on how aggressively the rule responds to inflation but also on the measure of inflation included in the rule and on whether the flexible-price good and the sticky-price goo...

  7. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E

    2007-07-01

    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  8. An infrared small target detection method based on multiscale local homogeneity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinyan; Qu, Shaocheng; Wei, Yantao; Zhang, Liming; Deng, Lizhen

    2018-05-01

    Infrared (IR) small target detection plays an important role in the field of image detection area owing to its intrinsic characteristics. This paper presents a multiscale local homogeneity measure (MLHM) for infrared small target detection, which can enhance the performance of IR small target detection system. Firstly, intra-patch homogeneity of the target itself and the inter-patch heterogeneity between target and the local background regions are integrated to enhance the significant of small target. Secondly, a multiscale measure based on local regions is proposed to obtain the most appropriate response. Finally, an adaptive threshold method is applied to small target segmentation. Experimental results on three different scenarios indicate that the MLHM has good performance under the interference of strong noise.

  9. Cognitive frailty, a novel target for the prevention of elderly dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei; Chen, Ma; Bao, Zhijun; Li, Jin; He, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Frailty is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Cognitive frailty has been considered as a subtype of frailty. In this study, we refine the definition of cognitive frailty based on existing reports about frailty and the latest progress in cognition research. We obtain evidence from the literature regarding the role of pre-physical frailty in pathological aging. We propose that cognitive impairment of cognitive frailty results from physical or pre-physical frailty and comprises two subtypes: the reversible and the potentially reversible. Reversible cognitive impairment is indicated by subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and/or positive fluid and imaging biomarkers of amyloid-β accumulation and neurodegeneration. Potentially reversible cognitive impairment is MCI (CDR=0.5). Based on the severity of cognitive impairment, it is possible to determine the primary and secondary preventative measures for cognitive frailty. We further determine whether SCD is a component of pre-clinical AD or the early stage of other neurodegenerative diseases, which is required for guiding personal clinical intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of Depression Stigma in Medical Students: Potential Targets for Prevention and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Leslie A; Schwenk, Thomas L; Sen, Ananda

    2015-11-01

    Suicide rates are higher among U.S. physicians than the general population. Untreated depression is a major risk factor, yet depression stigma presents a barrier to treatment. This study aims to identify early career indications of stigma among physicians-in-training and to inform the design of stigma-reduction programs. A cross-sectional student survey administered at a large, Midwestern medical school in fall 2009 included measures of depression symptoms, attitudes toward mental health, and potential sources of depression stigma. Principal components factor analysis and linear regression were used to examine stigma factors associated with depression in medical students. The response rate was 65.7%, with 14.7% students reporting a previous depression diagnosis. Most students indicated that, if depressed, they would feel embarrassed if classmates knew. Many believed that revealing depression could negatively affect professional advancement. Factor analyses revealed three underlying stigma constructs: personal weakness, public devaluation, and social/professional discrimination. Students associating personal weakness with depression perceived medication as less efficacious and the academic environment as more competitive. Those endorsing public stigma viewed medication and counseling as less efficacious and associated depression with an inability to cope. Race, gender, and diagnosis of past/current depression also related to beliefs about stigma. Depression measures most strongly predicted stigma associated with personal weakness and social/professional discrimination. Recommendations for decreasing stigma among physicians-in-training include consideration of workplace perceptions, depression etiology, treatment efficacy, and personal attributes in the design of stigma reduction programs that could facilitate help-seeking behavior among physicians throughout their career. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, R; Endo, T; Yoshida, H; Norimatsu, T

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre. (paper)

  12. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  13. Does Prevention Pay? Costs and Potential Cost-savings of School Interventions Targeting Children with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellander, Lisa; Wells, Michael B; Feldman, Inna

    2016-06-01

    -savings due to a reduction in the prevalence of mental health problems and averted additional support required. The school district was comprised of 6,256 students, with 310 students receiving additional support for their mental health problems. Of these, 143 received support in their original school due to either having ADHD (n = 111), psychosocial problems (n = 26), or anxiety/depression (n = 6). The payers' total cost of additional support was 2,637,850 Euro per school year (18,447 Euro per student). The cost of running both interventions for the school district was 953,643 Euro for one year, while the potential savings for these interventions were estimated to be 627,150 Euro. The estimated effects showed that there would be a reduction of students needing additional support (25 for ADHD, eight for psychosocial problems, and one for anxiety/depression), and the payer would receive a return on their invested resources in less than two years (1.5 years) after implementation. Preventive school interventions can both improve some children's mental health problems and be financially beneficial for the payer. However, they are still limited in their scope of reducing all students' mental health statuses to below clinical cut-offs; therefore, the preventive school interventions should be used as a supplement, but not a replacement, to current practices. The findings have political and societal implications, in that payers can reallocate their funds toward preventive measures targeting students' mental health problems, while reducing the costs. When evaluating public health actions, it is necessary to consider their economic impact. The resources are scarce and the decision makers need knowledge on how to allocate their resources in an efficient way. Cost-offset analysis is seen as one way for decision makers to comprehend research findings; however, such analyses tend to not include the full benefits of the interventions, and actual impacts need to be fully evaluated in routine

  14. Targeted methods for measuring patient satisfaction in a radiological center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M.H.; Stein, E.; Schreiter, N.F.; Renz, D.M.; Poellinger, A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate two event-oriented methods for evaluating patient satisfaction with radiological services like outpatient computed tomography (CT) examinations. Materials and Methods: 159 patients (55 % men, 45 % women) were asked to complete a questionnaire to provide information about their satisfaction with their examination. At first, patients were asked to spontaneously recall notably positive and negative aspects (so-called 'critical incidents', critical incident technique = CIT) of the examination. Subsequently a flow chart containing all single steps of the examination procedure was shown to all patients. They were asked to point out the positive and negative aspects they perceived at each step (so-called sequential incident technique = SIT). Results: The CIT-based part of the questionnaire yielded 356 comments (183 positive and 173 negative), which were assigned to one of four categories: interaction of staff with patient, procedure and organization, CT examination, and overall setting of the examination. Significantly more detailed comments regarding individual aspects of the CT examination were elicited in the second part of the survey, which was based on the SIT. There were 1413 statements with a significantly higher number of positive comments (n = 939, 66 %) versus negative comments (n = 474, 34 %; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The critical and sequential incident techniques are suitable to measure the subjective satisfaction with the delivery of radiological services such as CT examinations. Positive comments confirm the adequacy of the existing procedures, while negative comments provide direct information about how service quality can be improved. (orig.)

  15. Ventilator associated pneumonia: risk factors and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J L; Lobo, S; Struelens, M

    2001-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Various risk factors for VAP have been identified and include the duration of ICU stay and of mechanical ventilation, a diagnosis of trauma, and severity of illness. Knowledge of these factors can promote early diagnosis and hence treatment. In addition to simple, but very effective, basic hygiene, different preventative strategies have been suggested, and can be divided into those that aim to limit airway colonization, and those that improve host defense mechanisms. Of the former, non-invasive ventilation is effective but not always applicable or available, nursing the patient in the semi-recumbent position is also associated with a reduced incidence of VAP but carries its own problems, stress ulcer prophylaxis remains controversial, and selective digestive decontamination is probably only relevant to certain subgroups of patients. Methods to improve host defense include early nutrition. Immunostimulatory therapies, such as interferon and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, require further research to confirm their place in the prevention or management of VAP.

  16. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  17. Targeting activator protein 1 signaling pathway by bioactive natural agents: Possible therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Devesh; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sureda, Antoni; Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Atanasov, Atanas G; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Sethi, Gautam; Bishayee, Anupam

    2018-02-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a key transcription factor in the control of several cellular processes responsible for cell survival proliferation and differentiation. Dysfunctional AP-1 expression and activity are involved in several severe diseases, especially inflammatory disorders and cancer. Therefore, targeting AP-1 has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. This review summarizes our current understanding of AP-1 biology and function as well as explores and discusses several natural bioactive compounds modulating AP-1-associated signaling pathways for cancer prevention and intervention. Current limitations, challenges, and future directions of research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of dopaminergic neurotoxicity by targeting nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: implications for the prevention of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S Z; Islam, F; Itzhak, Y; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    2000-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic psychostimulant that produces catecholaminergic brain damage by producing oxidative stress and free radical generation. The role of oxygen and nitrogen radicals is well documented as a cause of METH-induced neurotoxic damage. In this study, we have obtained evidence that METH-induced neurotoxicity is the resultant of interaction between oxygen and nitrogen radicals, and it is mediated by the production of peroxynitrite. We have also assessed the effects of inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as well as scavenger of nitric oxide and a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. Significant protective effects were observed with the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), as well as by the selective peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTPPS). However, the use of a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), did not provide any significant protection against METH-induced hyperthermia or peroxynitrite generation and the resulting dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In particular, treatment with FeTPPS completely prevented METH-induced hyperthermia, peroxynitrite production, and METH-induced dopaminergic depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is mediated by the generation of peroxynitrite, which can be selectively protected by nNOS inhibitors or peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalysts.

  19. Effects of diffraction and target finite size on coherent transition radiation spectra in bunch length measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A.; Verzilov, V.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Orlandi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)]|[Rome Univ., Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Effects of diffraction and the size of the target on TR in the context of CTR-based bunch length measurements are studied on the basis of Kirchhoff diffraction theory. Spectra of TR from the finite-size target for several schemes of measurements are calculated in the far-infrared region showing strong distortion at low frequencies. Influence of the effect on the accuracy of bunch length measurements is estimated.

  20. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.

  1. Evaluation of a novel ultra small target technology supporting on-product overlay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Henk-Jan H.; den Boef, Arie; Kubis, Michael; Jak, Martin; van Schijndel, Mark; Fuchs, Andreas; van der Schaar, Maurits; Meyer, Steffen; Morgan, Stephen; Wu, Jon; Tsai, Vincent; Wang, Cathy; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the size of metrology targets is essential for in-die overlay metrology in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper, μ-diffraction-based overlay (μDBO) measurements with a YieldStar metrology tool are presented for target-sizes down to 10 × 10 μm2. The μDBO technology enables selection of only the diffraction efficiency information from the grating by efficiently separating it from product structure reflections. Therefore, μDBO targets -even when located adjacent to product environment- give excellent correlation with 40 × 160 μm2 reference targets. Although significantly smaller than standard scribe-line targets, they can achieve total-measurement-uncertainty values of below 0.5 nm on a wide range of product layers. This shows that the new μDBO technique allows for accurate metrology on ultra small in-die targets, while retaining the excellent TMU performance of diffraction-based overlay metrology.

  2. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  3. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  4. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger st...

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in France (1999-2014) and impact of targeted prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Essat, Asma; Frange, Pierre; Smith, Davey M; Delaugerre, Constance; Barin, Francis; Ghosn, Jade; Pialoux, Gilles; Robineau, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Meyer, Laurence; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-21

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i.e. clusters of transmission, between HIV-1 sequences. Bayesian coalescent-based methods were used to examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of identified clusters from different regions in France. We also evaluated the use of network information to target prevention efforts. Participants were mostly Caucasian (85.9%) and men (86.7%) who reported sex with men (MSM, 71.4%). Overall, 387 individuals (28.5%) were involved in clusters: 156 patients (11.5%) in 78 dyads and 231 participants (17%) in 42 larger clusters (median size: 4, range 3-41). Compared to individuals with single PHI (n = 969), those in clusters were more frequently men (95.9 vs 83%, p turnaround time for sample processing, targeting prevention efforts based on phylogenetic monitoring may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions but would require near real time targeted interventions on the identified index cases and their partners.

  6. Nighttime assaults: using a national emergency department monitoring system to predict occurrence, target prevention and plan services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency department (ED data have the potential to provide critical intelligence on when violence is most likely to occur and the characteristics of those who suffer the greatest health impacts. We use a national experimental ED monitoring system to examine how it could target violence prevention interventions towards at risk communities and optimise acute responses to calendar, holiday and other celebration-related changes in nighttime assaults. Methods A cross-sectional examination of nighttime assault presentations (6.01 pm to 6.00 am; n = 330,172 over a three-year period (31st March 2008 to 30th March 2011 to English EDs analysing changes by weekday, month, holidays, major sporting events, and demographics of those presenting. Results Males are at greater risk of assault presentation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.14, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 3.11-3.16; P 2 = 0.918; P  Conclusions To date, the role of ED data has focused on helping target nightlife police activity. Its utility is much greater; capable of targeting and evaluating multi-agency life course approaches to violence prevention and optimising frontline resources. National ED data are critical for fully engaging health services in the prevention of violence.

  7. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  8. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    A thin isotopic 94 Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm 2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm 2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94 Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94 Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94 Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94 Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC

  9. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R. P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    A thin isotopic 94Zr target of thickness 520 μg /cm2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  10. Fabrication of {sup 94}Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mehta, D. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Chamoli, S.K., E-mail: skchamoli@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-11-11

    A thin isotopic {sup 94}Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm{sup 2} has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm{sup 2} thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of {sup 94}Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a {sup 94}Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched {sup 94}Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of {sup 94}Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  11. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  12. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  14. Calculated /alpha/-induced thick target neutron yields and spectra, with comparison to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; Bozoian, M.; Perry, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    One component of the neutron source associated with the decay of actinide nuclides in many environments is due to the interaction of decay /alpha/ particles in (/alpha/,n) reactions on low Z nuclides. Measurements of (/alpha/,n) thick target neutron yields and associated neutron spectra have been made for only a few combinations of /alpha/ energy and target nuclide or mixtures of actinide and target nuclides. Calculations of thick target neutron yields and spectra with the SOURCES code require /alpha/-energy-dependent cross sections for (/alpha/,n) reactions, as well as branching fractions leading to the energetically possible levels of the product nuclides. A library of these data has been accumulated for target nuclides of Z /le/ 15 using that available from measurements and from recent GNASH code calculations. SOURCES, assuming neutrons to be emitted isotopically in the center-of-mass system, uses libraries of /alpha/ stopping cross sections, (/alpha/,n) reaction cross reactions, product nuclide level branching fractions, and actinide decay /alpha/ spectra to calculate thick target (/alpha/,n) yields and neutron spectra for homogeneous combinations of nuclides. The code also calculates the thick target yield and angle intergrated neutron spectrum produced by /alpha/-particle beams on targets of homogeneous mixtures of nuclides. Illustrative calculated results are given and comparisons are made with measured thick target yields and spectra. 50 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  16. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  17. Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes 
on Tumor Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress.

  18. Measurement of lithium target surface velocity in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: kanemura.takuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the free-surface velocity field of the IFMIF Li target. • The Li target has an important role to remove 10 MW heat input from a deuteron beam. • The free-surface of the Li target is under the most severe heat load condition. • Measured surface velocities are almost equal to cross-sectional average velocities. • It was confirmed that the IFMIF Li target has adequate heat removal performance. - Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), we measured surface velocity fields of a lithium (Li) target at the EVEDA Li test loop under specifically-designated IFMIF conditions (target speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa, and Li temperature of 250 °C). In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free-surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target. The measured results (using the surface-wave tracking method that our team developed) showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. The uniformity of the velocity distributions was less than 1 m/s. The comparison between the measured and analyzed surface velocity at the beam center showed that the analysis accurately predicts the measurement results within a margin of 3%. Finally, it was confirmed that the Li target delivers adequate heat removal performance in the IFMIF as designed.

  19. Characteristics of Incarcerated Fathers and Mothers: Implications for Preventive Interventions Targeting Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrand, Jean; Cearley, Jennifer; Eddy, J Mark; Foney, Dana; Martinez, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has grown dramatically in recent years. These children appear to be at risk for various problems, and a number of family-focused preventive efforts have been attempted. The current study examines differences between incarcerated mothers, incarcerated fathers, and their families on factors that might be important to consider when creating the content and process of preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates (54% women; 41% minority) who were parents of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years and who parented their children prior to imprisonment. Mothers and fathers were similar on a number of dimensions including age, education-level, number and age of children, and family criminal history, but differences were observed on key variables relevant to outcomes for children and families, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  20. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.

  1. Targeting "risky" gender ideologies: constructing a community-driven, theory-based HIV prevention intervention for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, C; Somera, D M; Gowen, L K; Díaz, R M

    1999-04-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, school-based HIV prevention education targeting youth has taken many forms. Although there has been some success, educators continue to be challenged by situations in which youth are knowledgeable about HIV but continue to engage in risky sexual behavior. In this article, the authors propose that the underlying or implicit theories about teenagers' sexual risk behavior that guide most of these prevention activities are not accurate descriptions or valid explanations of sexual risk in this population. The article is divided into three major sections. First, the authors articulate the theories underlying HIV prevention activities that are typically found in standard school-based prevention curricula, discussing both their limitations and strengths. Second, they discuss their increased awareness of the role of gender ideologies and sexual scripts in the sexual lives of youth. Finally, the authors describe their current HIV prevention activity ("The Game") as it emerges and is shaped by their increasing understanding of the critical role of gender-based ideologies and sexual scripts in young people's sexual risk behavior.

  2. A Targeted Infection Prevention Intervention in Nursing Home Residents With Indwelling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Krein, Sarah L.; Saint, Sanjay K.; Min, Lillian C.; Montoya, Ana; Lansing, Bonnie; McNamara, Sara E.; Symons, Kathleen; Fisch, Jay; Koo, Evonne; Rye, Ruth Anne; Galecki, Andrzej; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Fitzgerald, James T.; Olmsted, Russell N.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Bradley, Suzanne F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Indwelling devices (eg, urinary catheters and feeding tubes) are often used in nursing homes (NHs). Inadequate care of residents with these devices contributes to high rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and device-related infections in NHs. OBJECTIVE To test whether a multimodal targeted infection program (TIP) reduces the prevalence of MDROs and incident device-related infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized clinical trial at 12 community-based NHs from May 2010 to April 2013. Participants were high-risk NH residents with urinary catheters, feeding tubes, or both. INTERVENTIONS Multimodal, including preemptive barrier precautions, active surveillance for MDROs and infections, and NH staff education. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the prevalence density rate of MDROs, defined as the total number of MDROs isolated per visit averaged over the duration of a resident's participation. Secondary outcomes included new MDRO acquisitions and new clinically defined device-associated infections. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects multilevel Poisson regression model (primary outcome) and a Cox proportional hazards model (secondary outcome), adjusting for facility-level clustering and resident-level variables. RESULTS In total, 418 NH residents with indwelling devices were enrolled, with 34 174 device-days and 6557 anatomic sites sampled. Intervention NHs had a decrease in the overall MDRO prevalence density (rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.94). The rate of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisitions was lower in the intervention group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). Hazard ratios for the first and all (including recurrent) clinically defined catheter-associated urinary tract infections were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.30–0.97) and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.49–0.99), respectively, in the intervention group and the control group. There were no reductions in new vancomycin

  3. 'Intensity' targets. Pathway or roadblock to preventing climate change while enhancing economic growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, D.; Golub, A.

    2003-12-01

    After establishing the operative definitions of greenhouse gas emissions 'intensity' targets and 'absolute' targets for greenhouse gas emissions limits, we identify examples of these approaches in current laws and policies. We focus in particular on the US experience with the sulfur dioxide emissions 'cap and trade' program as an example of the use of an 'absolute' target approach. We compare and contrast this example with 'performance standard' programs under the US Clean Air Act and the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for motor vehicles, which embody the emissions rate or 'intensity' concept. These case studies give us insights into the pros and cons of the intensity versus absolute approaches. Moving from retrospective to prospective, we consider the possible application of alternative absolute and intensity targets (IT) to global, national and firm-level emissions. We then identify criteria for evaluating the use of 'intensity' targets as a tool for achieving both environmental and economic goals. These include success in limiting climate change, achieving cost certainty and manageability, providing flexibility for public and private sector decision-makers in responding to new information, stimulating technological progress and sustaining a global climate regime

  4. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  5. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  6. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  7. Evaluation of a Family-based Substance Abuse Prevention Program Targeted for the Middle School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Pilgrim, Colleen; Hendrickson, Peggy; Buresl, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates family-based substance abuse prevention program implemented in a rural community for families with middle school students. In comparison with nonparticipants, students had higher family cohesion, less family fighting, greater school attachment, higher self-esteem, and believed alcohol should be consumed at an older age, at one-year…

  8. Risks for depression onset in primary care elderly patients: potential targets for preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Jeffrey M; Yu, Qin; Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2009-12-01

    Prevention of late-life depression, a common, disabling condition with often poor outcomes in primary care, requires identification of seniors at highest risk of incident episodes. The authors examined a broad range of clinical, functional, and psychosocial predictors of incident depressive episodes in a well-characterized cohort of older primary care patients. In this observational cohort study, patients age >/=65 years without current major depression, recruited from practices in general internal medicine, geriatrics, and family medicine, received annual follow-up assessments over a period of 1 to 4 years. Of 617 enrolled subjects, 405 completed the 1-year follow-up evaluation. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) determined incident major depressive episodes. Each risk indicator's predictive utility was examined by calculating the risk exposure rate, incident risk ratio, and population attributable fraction, leading to determination of the number needed to treat in order to prevent incident depression. A combination of risks, including minor or subsyndromal depression, impaired functional status, and history of major or minor depression, identified a group in which fully effective treatment of five individuals would prevent one new case of incident depression. Indicators routinely assessed in primary care identified a group at very high risk for onset of major depressive episodes. Such markers may inform current clinical care by fostering the early detection and intervention critical to improving patient outcomes and may serve as the basis for future studies refining the recommendations for screening and determining the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  9. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  10. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  11. Measurement of Li target thickness in the EVEDA Li Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: kanemura.takuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji; Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The objective is to validate stability of the IFMIF liquid Li target flowing at 15 m/s. • Design requirement of target thickness fluctuation is ±1 mm. • Mean and maximum wave amplitude are 0.26 and 1.46 mm, respectively. • Average thickness can be well predicted with developed analytical model. • Li target was adequately stable and satisfied design requirement. - Abstract: A high-speed (nominal: 15 m/s, range: 10–16 m/s) liquid lithium wall jet is planned to serve as the target for two 40 MeV and 125 mA deuteron beams in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The design requirement of target thickness stability is 25 ± 1 mm under a vacuum of 10{sup −3} Pa. This paper presents the results of the target thickness measurement conducted in the EVEDA Li Test Loop under a wide range of conditions including the IFMIF condition (target speed of 10, 15, and 20 m/s; vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa; and Li temperature of 250 °C). For measurement, we use a laser probe method that we developed in advance; this method generates statistical measurements method using a laser distance meter. The measurement results obtained under the IFMIF nominal condition (15 m/s, 10{sup −3} Pa, 250 °C) at the IFMIF beam center are as follows: average target thickness = 26.08 ± 0.09 mm (2σ), mean wave amplitude = 0.26 ± 0.01 mm (2σ), and maximum wave amplitude = 1.46 ± 0.25 mm (2σ). Of the total wave components, 99.7% are within the design requirement. The analytically predicted target thickness is in excellent agreement with the experimental data, resulting in successful characterization of the Li target thickness.

  12. [Obesity in children: new controversies and present prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Evelina; Luchian, Ana-Maria; Bozomitu, Laura; Rusu, Tania; Sacaci, Paula; Antonesei, Luiza; Stana, B A; Tugurlan, Demetra Simona; Grudnicki, Alice; Popoiu, Anne-Marie; Ozkan, Mirçan; Moraru, D

    2006-01-01

    The authors realise a synthesis on classical data and recent pathogenic explanations in childhood obesity. The obesity is a nutritional disorder of great interest nowadays and surpasses the incidence of the major problem of pediatrics until now--the malnutrition. There is documented data concerning the global incidence of obesity which is continuously growing when it comes to children. That is why the prophylaxis must become a priority by using measures in the first period of life (natural feeding, the need of late diversification, the avoidance of hyperproteic diets). The recent pathogenic data and the long term populational studies change the old conceptions regarding the risk of some categories of children. Thus mother's malnutrition, the low birth weight, children that followed hyperproteic diets paradoxically represent categories of risk for obesity. A recent recorded phenomenon, which amplifies the risk for obesity is the early adiposity rebound which is recorded nowadays even for ages lower than five years. There are described the hormonal mechanisms involved in appetite and satiety up to the receptor level: leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, endocannabinoid receptors. There are pointed out all the long term risk elements (high birth weight, low birth weight, the pregnant woman's nutrition) and the modern medical treatments for obesity.

  13. Therapeutic assessment of cytochrome C for the prevention of obesity through endothelial cell-targeted nanoparticulate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Nazir; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Akita, Hidetaka; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ishitsuka, Taichi; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2013-03-01

    Because the functional apoptosis-initiating protein, cytochrome C (CytC) is rapidly cleared from the circulation (t1/2 (half-life): 4 minutes), it cannot be used for in vivo therapy. We report herein on a hitherto unreported strategy for delivering exogenous CytC as a potential and safe antiobesity drug for preventing diet-induced obesity, the most common type of obesity in humans. The functional activity of CytC encapsulated in prohibitin (a white fat vessel-specific receptor)-targeted nanoparticles (PTNP) was evaluated quantitatively, as evidenced by the observations that CytC-loaded PTNP causes apoptosis in primary adipose endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CytC alone did not. The delivery of a single dose of CytC through PTNP into the circulation disrupted the vascular structure by the targeted apoptosis of adipose endothelial cells in vivo. Intravenous treatment of CytC-loaded PTNP resulted in a substantial reduction in obesity in high-fat diet (HFD) fed wild-type (wt) mice, as evidenced by the dose-dependent prevention of the percentage of increase in body weight and decrease in serum leptin levels. In addition, no detectable hepatotoxicity was found to be associated with this prevention. Thus, the finding highlights the promising potential of CytC for use as an antiobesity drug, when delivered through a nanosystem.

  14. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Scheier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  15. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  16. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  17. Getting satisfied with "satisfaction of search": How to measure errors during multiple-target visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T

    2017-07-01

    Visual search studies are common in cognitive psychology, and the results generally focus upon accuracy, response times, or both. Most research has focused upon search scenarios where no more than 1 target will be present for any single trial. However, if multiple targets can be present on a single trial, it introduces an additional source of error because the found target can interfere with subsequent search performance. These errors have been studied thoroughly in radiology for decades, although their emphasis in cognitive psychology studies has been more recent. One particular issue with multiple-target search is that these subsequent search errors (i.e., specific errors which occur following a found target) are measured differently by different studies. There is currently no guidance as to which measurement method is best or what impact different measurement methods could have upon various results and conclusions. The current investigation provides two efforts to address these issues. First, the existing literature is reviewed to clarify the appropriate scenarios where subsequent search errors could be observed. Second, several different measurement methods are used with several existing datasets to contrast and compare how each method would have affected the results and conclusions of those studies. The evidence is then used to provide appropriate guidelines for measuring multiple-target search errors in future studies.

  18. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  19. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  20. Faster diffraction-based overlay measurements with smaller targets using 3D gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Kritsun, Oleg; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Volkman, Catherine; Hu, Jiangtao

    2012-03-01

    Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the overlay metrology challenges for 22nm technology node and beyond. Most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. The traditional empirical approach (eDBO) using normal incidence spectroscopic reflectometry (NISR) relies on linear response of the reflectance with respect to overlay displacement within a small range. It offers convenience of quick recipe setup since there is no need to establish a model. However it requires three or four pads per direction (x or y) which adds burden to throughput and target size. Recent advances in modeling capability and computation power enabled mDBO, which allows overlay measurement with reduced number of pads, thus reducing measurement time and DBO target space. In this paper we evaluate the performance of single pad mDBO measurements using two 3D targets that have different grating shapes: squares in boxes and L-shapes in boxes. Good overlay sensitivities are observed for both targets. The correlation to programmed shifts and image-based overlay (IBO) is excellent. Despite the difference in shapes, the mDBO results are comparable for square and L-shape targets. The impact of process variations on overlay measurements is studied using a focus and exposure matrix (FEM) wafer. Although the FEM wafer has larger process variations, the correlation of mDBO results with IBO measurements is as good as the normal process wafer. We demonstrate the feasibility of single pad DBO measurements with faster throughput and smaller target size, which is particularly important in high volume manufacturing environment.

  1. Targeting of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms by a Novel Small Molecule Prevents Dental Caries and Preserves the Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S S; Blackledge, M S; Michalek, S; Su, L; Ptacek, T; Eipers, P; Morrow, C; Lefkowitz, E J; Melander, C; Wu, H

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is a costly and prevalent disease characterized by the demineralization of the tooth's enamel. Disease outcome is influenced by host factors, dietary intake, cariogenic bacteria, and other microbes. The cariogenic bacterial species Streptococcus mutans metabolizes sucrose to initiate biofilm formation on the tooth surface and consequently produces lactic acid to degrade the tooth's enamel. Persistence of S. mutans biofilms in the oral cavity can lead to tooth decay. To date, no anticaries therapies that specifically target S. mutans biofilms but do not disturb the overall oral microbiome are available. We screened a library of 2-aminoimidazole antibiofilm compounds with a biofilm dispersion assay and identified a small molecule that specifically targets S. mutans biofilms. At 5 µM, the small molecule annotated 3F1 dispersed 50% of the established S. mutans biofilm but did not disperse biofilms formed by the commensal species Streptococcus sanguinis or Streptococcus gordonii. 3F1 dispersed S. mutans biofilms independently of biofilm-related factors such as antigen I/II and glucosyltransferases. 3F1 treatment effectively prevented dental caries by controlling S. mutans in a rat caries model without perturbing the oral microbiota. Our study demonstrates that selective targeting of S. mutans biofilms by 3F1 was able to effectively reduce dental caries in vivo without affecting the overall oral microbiota shaped by the intake of dietary sugars, suggesting that the pathogenic biofilm-specific treatment is a viable strategy for disease prevention.

  2. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  3. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig-pig and/or pig-wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  4. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting

  5. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  6. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  8. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  9. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders...

  10. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g 1 n (x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a 3 He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized 3 He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the 3 He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the 3 He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure 3 He reference cell in place of the polarized 3 He target. The spin dependent structure function g 1 n (z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 2 of 5 (GeV/c) 2 . One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g 1 n (x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g 1 n (x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g 1 n (x) to low x. The precision of the measurement made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC puts a tighter

  11. A Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Functions Using a Polarized HE-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T

    2003-11-05

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure function, g{sub 1}{sup n}(x). The measurement was made by the E154 collaboration at SLAC using a longitudinally polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam, and a {sup 3}He target polarized by spin exchange with optically pumped rubidium. A target polarization as high as 50% was achieved. The elements of the experiment which pertain to the polarized {sup 3}He target will be described in detail in this thesis. To achieve a precision measurement, it has been necessary to minimize the systematic error from the uncertainty in the target parameters. All of the parameters of the target have been carefully measured, and the most important parameters of the target have been measured using multiple techniques. The polarization of the target was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and has been calibrated using both proton NMR and by measuring the shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance frequency due to the {sup 3}He polarization. The fraction of events which originated in the {sup 3}He, as measured by the spectrometers, has been determined using a physical model of the target and the spectrometers. It was also measured during the experiment using a variable pressure {sup 3}He reference cell in place of the polarized {sup 3}He target. The spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(z) was measured in the Bjorken x range of 0.014 < x < 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. One of the primary motivations for this experiment was to test the Bjorken sum rule. Because the experiment had smaller statistical errors and a broader kinematic coverage than previous experiments, the behavior of the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) could be studied in detail at low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. It was found that g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) has a strongly divergent behavior at low values of x, calling into question the methods commonly used to extrapolate the value of g

  12. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  13. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility.

  14. Performance Measurement and Target-Setting in California's Safety Net Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Shirin; Schillinger, Dean; Lyles, Courtney; Ackerman, Sara; Gourley, Gato; Vittinghoff, Eric; Handley, Margaret; Sarkar, Urmimala

    Health policies encourage implementing quality measurement with performance targets. The 2010-2015 California Medicaid waiver mandated quality measurement and reporting. In 2013, California safety net hospitals participating in the waiver set a voluntary performance target (the 90th percentile for Medicare preferred provider organization plans) for mammography screening and cholesterol control in diabetes. They did not reach the target, and the difference-in-differences analysis suggested that there was no difference for mammography ( P = .39) and low-density lipoprotein control ( P = .11) performance compared to measures for which no statewide quality improvement initiative existed. California's Medicaid waiver was associated with improved performance on a number of metrics, but this performance was not attributable to target setting on specific health conditions. Performance may have improved because of secular trends or systems improvements related to waiver funding. Relying on condition-specific targets to measure performance may underestimate improvements and disadvantage certain health systems. Achieving ambitious targets likely requires sustained fiscal, management, and workforce investments.

  15. Applicability of International and DOE Target Values to ALD Destructive Measurement Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    International Target values and target value applicability are a function of the nuclear material processing campaign or application for which the accountability measurement method is being applied. Safeguarding significant quantities of nuclear-grade materials requires that accountability measurements be as accurate, precise, and representative as practically possible. In general, the ITV provides a benchmark for determining generic acceptability of the performance of the various accountability measurement methods, since it represents a performance level that is accepted as highly reliable. There are cases where it is acceptable to select alternative accountability methods not specifically referenced by the ITV, or to use the recognized measurement method, even though the uncertainties are greater than the target values

  16. Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xufei, X.; Fan, T.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Bonomo, F.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Grünauer, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes

  17. Target asymmetry measurement of deuteron photodisintegration at a photon energy of 550 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althoff, K.H.; Anton, G.; Bock, B.; Bour, D.; Erbs, P.; Ferber, W.; Gelhausen, H.; Haertel, U.; Havenith, W.; Jahnen, T.; Kaufmann, H.P.; Kaul, O.; Luecking, B.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Miczaika, T.; Rennings, K.; Riechert, H.; Roderburg, E.; Ruhm, W.; Schenuit, E.; Schilling, E.; Schwille, W.; Sternal, G.; Sundermann, D.; Thiel, W.; Thiesmeyer, D.; Wagener, K.

    1984-01-01

    The target asymmetry of the deuteron photodisintegration was measured at a photon energy of 550+-50 MeV and at proton center-off-mass angles between 25 and 155 degrees. D-butanol and ND 3 were used as target material yielding a maximum deuteron polarization of 41%. Proton and neutron were detected in coincidence. The data show a structure which cannot be described by the existing analyses. (orig.)

  18. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  19. Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mindy; Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Sutherland, Jason; Vaughn, Thomas; Diekema, Daniel; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-06-01

    The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the US hospitals poses serious quality and safety problems. Expert panels, identifying strategies for optimizing antibiotic use and preventing AMR spread, have recommended hospitals undertake efforts to implement specific evidence-based practices. To develop and validate a measurement scale for assessing hospitals' efforts to implement recommended AMR prevention and control measures. Surveys were mailed to infection control professionals in a national sample of 670 US hospitals stratified by geographic region, bedsize, teaching status, and VA affiliation. : Four hundred forty-eight infection control professionals participated (67% response rate). Survey items measured implementation of guideline recommendations, practices for AMR monitoring and feedback, AMR-related outcomes (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence and outbreaks [MRSA]), and organizational features. "Derivation" and "validation" samples were randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factors underlying AMR prevention and control efforts. Multiple methods were used for validation. We identified 4 empirically distinct factors in AMR prevention and control: (1) practices for antimicrobial prescription/use, (2) information/resources for AMR control, (3) practices for isolating infected patients, and (4) organizational support for infection control policies. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale was reliable and had content and construct validity. MRSA prevalence was significantly lower in hospitals with higher resource/information availability and broader organizational support. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale offers a simple yet discriminating assessment of AMR prevention and control efforts. Use should complement assessment methods based exclusively on AMR outcomes.

  20. Targeting Inflammatory Pathways by Triterpenoids for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B. Aggarwal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine and diet has served mankind through the ages for prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that chronic inflammation mediates most chronic diseases, including cancer. More than other transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and STAT3 have emerged as major regulators of inflammation, cellular transformation, and tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, agents that can inhibit NF-κB and STAT3 activation pathways have the potential to both prevent and treat cancer. In this review, we examine the potential of one group of compounds called triterpenes, derived from traditional medicine and diet for their ability to suppress inflammatory pathways linked to tumorigenesis. These triterpenes include avicins, betulinic acid, boswellic acid, celastrol, diosgenin, madecassic acid, maslinic acid, momordin, saikosaponins, platycodon, pristimerin, ursolic acid, and withanolide. This review thus supports the famous adage of Hippocrates, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”.

  1. Surface Laser Scanning Measurements for the n_TOF spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V; Cennini, P; Lebbos, E; Lettry, J

    2010-01-01

    The n_TOF spallation target is made of pure lead immersed into cooling water. The target was operating normally from 2001 until august 2004, when an increased transfer of radioactive products from the spallation target to the cooling circuit has been observed. The target was considered damaged by the safety commission (SC/RP), and an investigation campaign started to verify the actual status of the target. According to FLUKA and Ansys calculations the target was working in the elastoplastic regime of the lead material, therefore a deformation might be expected. The present paper describes a laser photographic method and the results of a possible such deformation. The target had a surface activity of the order of 20 mSv/h, therefore we were forced to perform the measurement from distance. The used method, is based on a linelaser and a high resolution digital camera for retrieving the 3D position of the surface of the lead target. Similar methods are used in the film industry and animation studios for scanning ...

  2. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  3. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  4. A retrospective population-based cohort study identifying target areas for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. Many factors can lead to increased risk of ALRI in children and predispose a child to hospitalisation, but population attributable fractions for different risk factors and how these fractions differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children is unknown. This study investigates population attributable fractions of known infant and maternal risk factors for ALRI to inform prevention strategies that target high-risk groups or particular risk factors. Methods A retrospective population-based data linkage study of 245,249 singleton births in Western Australia. Population attributable fractions of known maternal and infant risk factors for hospitalisation with ALRI between 1996 and 2005 were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Results The overall ALRI hospitalisation rate was 16.1/1,000 person-years for non-Aboriginal children and 93.0/1,000 for Aboriginal children. Male gender, being born in autumn, gestational age Conclusions The population attributable fractions estimated in this study should help in guiding public health interventions to prevent ALRI. A key risk factor for all children is maternal smoking during pregnancy, and multiple previous pregnancies and autumnal births are important high-risk groups. Specific key target areas are reducing elective caesareans in non-Aboriginal women and reducing teenage pregnancies and improving access to services and living conditions for the Aboriginal population.

  5. Pharmacological Targeting of the Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Complex: The Next Frontier in CVD Prevention Beyond Lowering LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Hegele, Robert A; Lewis, Gary F

    2016-07-01

    Notwithstanding the effectiveness of lowering LDL cholesterol, residual CVD risk remains in high-risk populations, including patients with diabetes, likely contributed to by non-LDL lipid abnormalities. In this Perspectives in Diabetes article, we emphasize that changing demographics and lifestyles over the past few decades have resulted in an epidemic of the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex," the main features of which include hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, qualitative changes in LDL particles, accumulation of remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia. We briefly review the underlying pathophysiology of this form of dyslipidemia, in particular its association with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, and the marked atherogenicity of this condition. We explain the failure of existing classes of therapeutic agents such as fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors that are known to modify components of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. Finally, we discuss targeted repurposing of existing therapies and review promising new therapeutic strategies to modify the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex. We postulate that targeting the central abnormality of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, the elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles, represents a new frontier in CVD prevention and is likely to prove the most effective strategy in correcting most aspects of the atherogenic dyslipidemia complex, thereby preventing CVD events. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Small molecules targeting LapB protein prevent Listeria attachment to catfish muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akgul

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis. L. monocytogenes lapB gene encodes a cell wall surface anchor protein, and mutation of this gene causes Listeria attenuation in mice. In this work, the potential role of Listeria LapB protein in catfish fillet attachment was investigated. To achieve this, boron-based small molecules designed to interfere with the active site of the L. monocytogenes LapB protein were developed, and their ability to prevent L. monocytogenes attachment to fish fillet was tested. Results indicated that seven out of nine different small molecules were effective in reducing the Listeria attachment to catfish fillets. Of these, three small molecules (SM3, SM5, and SM7 were highly effective in blocking Listeria attachment to catfish fillets. This study suggests an alternative strategy for reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination in fresh and frozen fish products.

  7. Accuracy of position measurement method using Arago spot for inertial fusion energy target tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saruta, Koichi; Tsuji, Ryusuke

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of a position measurement method using the Arago spot is reported for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target tracking system, where the position of the target is determined by the position of the Arago spot, which is a bright spot appearing in the central portion of the diffraction pattern of a spherical obstacle. We use a He-Ne laser as the light source and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a microscope objective lens to magnify and record the diffraction pattern of a spherical target. We examine two different algorithms to determine the center of the Arago spot in order to compare the measurement performances. The experimental results show that the position of a 5-mm-diameter target can be obtained with a measurement resolution of 1 μm and an rms measurement error of less than 0.2μm for both algorithms when the distance between the target and the microscope objective lens is 5 cm. (author)

  8. Spectroscopic measurement of target plate erosion in the ASDEX Upgrade divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filed, A R; Garcia-Rosales, C; Lieder, G; Pitcher, C S; Radtke, R [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1996-02-01

    The erosion of the graphite divertor plates in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is measured spectroscopically. Spatial profiles of the D{sup 0} and C{sup +} influxes across the outer target plate are determined from measured absolute line intensities. Plasma parameters (n{sub e}, T{sub e}) at the target, which are required to determine the appropriate photon emission efficiencies for these lines, are obtained from an in-vessel reciprocating Langmuir probe above the target plate. Yields for the erosion of the graphite by the incident D{sup +} flux are determined from the ratio of the measured C{sup +} to D{sup 0} fluxes. Over a range of moderate densities the measured yields of {<=} 4% are explicable in terms of physical sputtering alone. Chemical sputtering by low energy Franck-Condon neutrals probably contributes, however, to the total erosion. At higher densities detachment of the plasma from the targets occurs owing to formation of a MARFE near the X point. Under these conditions localized physical sputtering of the targets ceases. The impurity level (Z{sub eff}) is, however, maintained following detachment, indicating a corresponding maintenance of carbon influx, perhaps due to chemical erosion of the total graphite surface and/or an improvement in particle confinement in the detached state. (author). 26 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  10. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  11. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to

  12. Potential high-frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xing, Hui-Li; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Chen; Chen, Qi-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We present novel observations of high-specificity SpCas9 variants, sgRNA expression strategies based on mutant sgRNA scaffold and tRNA processing system, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated T-DNA integrations. Specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 tools has been a major concern along with the reports of their successful applications. We report unexpected observations of high frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in T1 Arabidopsis mutants although the sgRNA was predicted to have a high specificity score. We also present evidence that the off-target effects were further exacerbated in the T2 progeny. To prevent the off-target effects, we tested and optimized two strategies in Arabidopsis, including introduction of a mCherry cassette for a simple and reliable isolation of Cas9-free mutants and the use of highly specific mutant SpCas9 variants. Optimization of the mCherry vectors and subsequent validation found that fusion of tRNA with the mutant rather than the original sgRNA scaffold significantly improves editing efficiency. We then examined the editing efficiency of eight high-specificity SpCas9 variants in combination with the improved tRNA-sgRNA fusion strategy. Our results suggest that highly specific SpCas9 variants require a higher level of expression than their wild-type counterpart to maintain high editing efficiency. Additionally, we demonstrate that T-DNA can be inserted into the cleavage sites of CRISPR/Cas9 targets with high frequency. Altogether, our results suggest that in plants, continuous attention should be paid to off-target effects induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in current and subsequent generations, and that the tools optimized in this report will be useful in improving genome editing efficiency and specificity in plants and other organisms.

  13. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  14. Calorimetric measurement of afterheat in target materials for the accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The estimate of afterheat in a spallation target of lead (Pb) or tungsten (W), by calorimetry, is the purpose of this experiment in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). Such measurements are needed to confirm code calculations, these being the only practical way of gaining this type of information in a form suitable to aid the design of the APT machine. Knowledge of the magnitude and duration of afterheat resulting from decay of activation products produced by proton bombardment of the target is necessary to quantify APT safety assumptions, to design target cooling and safety systems, and to reduce technical risk. Direct calorimetric measurement of the afterheat for the appropriate incident proton energies is more reliable than the available alternative, which is indirect, based on data from gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. The basic concept, a direct measurement of decay afterheat which bypasses the laborious classical way of determining this quantity, has been demonstrated to work. The gamma-ray energy given off by the decay products produced in the activation of lead or tungsten with high-energy protons apparently does represent a significant fraction of the total decay energy. A calorimeter designed for measurement of isotopes decaying by alpha emission must be modified to reduce energy lost with escaping gamma rays. Replacement of the aluminum liner with a tungsten liner in the SSC measurement chamber resulted in a 270% increase in measured heat, proving that the energy loss in the earlier (1992) measurements was significant. Gamma-ray measurements are needed to confirm the gamma-ray absorption calculations for the calorimeter to determine the correction for loss of heat due to transmission of high-energy gamma rays through the calorimeter walls. The experiments at BLIP have shown that calorimetry can be a useful tool in measuring the afterheat in APT target materials

  15. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A C; Swinburn, B A

    2004-02-01

    To determine differences in the contribution of foods and beverages to energy consumed in and out of school, and to compare consumption patterns between school canteen users and noncanteen users. Cross-sectional National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Australia. SUBJECTS ON SCHOOL DAYS: A total of 1656 children aged 5-15 y who had weekday 24-h dietary recall data. An average of 37% of total energy intake was consumed at school. Energy-dense foods and beverages such as fat spreads, packaged snacks, biscuits and fruit/cordial drinks made a greater contribution to energy intake at school compared to out of school (Pfoods and soft drinks contributed 11 and 3% of total energy intake; however, these food groups were mostly consumed out of school. Fruit intake was low and consumption was greater in school. In all, 14% of children purchased food from the canteen and they obtained more energy from fast food, packaged snacks, desserts, milk and confectionary (Pfoods and beverages are over-represented in the Australian school environment. To help prevent obesity and improve nutrition in schools, biscuits, snack bars and fruit/cordial drinks brought from home and fast food, packaged snacks, and confectionary sold at canteens should be replaced with fruit and water.

  16. Tomato as a Source of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Targeted to Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martí

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato and a reduced risk of suffering different types of cancer. These bioactive constituents comprise phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The direct intake of these chemoprotective molecules seems to show higher efficiencies when they are ingested in its natural biological matrix than when they are ingested isolated or in dietary supplements. Consequently, there is a growing trend for improvement of the contents of these bioactive compounds in foods. The control of growing environment and processing conditions can ensure the maximum potential accumulation or moderate the loss of bioactive compounds, but the best results are obtained developing new varieties via plant breeding. The modification of single steps of metabolic pathways or their regulation via conventional breeding or genetic engineering has offered excellent results in crops such as tomato. In this review, we analyse the potential of tomato as source of the bioactive constituents with cancer-preventive properties and the result of modern breeding programs as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet.

  17. Remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system and method for a moving target in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei LIU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of position and attitude parameters for the isolated target from a high-speed aircraft is a great challenge in the field of wind tunnel simulation technology. This paper proposes a remote-controlled flexible pose measurement system in wind tunnel conditions for the separation of a target from an aircraft. The position and attitude parameters of a moving object are obtained by utilizing a single camera with a focal length and camera orientation that can be changed based on different measurement conditions. Using this proposed system and method, both the flexibility and efficiency of the pose measurement system can be enhanced in wind tunnel conditions to meet the measurement requirements of different objects and experiments, which is also useful for the development of an intelligent position and attitude measurement system. The position and the focal length of the camera also can be controlled remotely during measurements to enlarge both the vertical and horizontal measurement range of this system. Experiments are conducted in the laboratory to measure the position and attitude of moving objects with high flexibility and efficiency, and the measurement precision of the measurement system is also verified through experiments.

  18. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

  19. Development and validation of the Alzheimer's prevention beliefs measure in a multi-ethnic cohort-a behavioral theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Ganzer, Christine A; Vermeylen, Francoise; Parry, Stephen; Zhu, Jifeng; Lyons, Abigail; Isaacson, Richard; Kim, Sarang

    2017-12-01

    Understanding health beliefs and how they influence willingness will enable the development of targeted curricula that maximize public engagement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk reduction behaviors. Literature on behavioral theory and community input was used to develop and validate a health beliefs survey about AD risk reduction among 428 community-dwelling adults. Principal component analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Linear regression was performed to identify key predictors of Willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors. The measure as well as the individual scales (Benefits, Barriers, Severity, Susceptibility and Social Norm) were found to be internally consistent. Overall, as Benefits and Barriers scores increased, Willingness scores also increased. Those without prior AD experience or family history had lower willingness scores. Finally, we observed an interaction between age and norms, suggesting that social factors related to AD prevention may differentially affect people of different ages. The Alzheimer Prevention Beliefs Measure provides assessment of several health belief factors related to AD prevention. Age, Family History, Logistical Barriers and total Benefits are significant determinants of willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors, such as seeing a doctor or making a lifestyle change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. MFP scanner diagnostics using a self-printed target to measure the modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current market, reduction of warranty costs is an important avenue for improving profitability by manufacturers of printer products. Our goal is to develop an autonomous capability for diagnosis of printer and scanner caused defects with mid-range laser multifunction printers (MFPs), so as to reduce warranty costs. If the scanner unit of the MFP is not performing according to specification, this issue needs to be diagnosed. If there is a print quality issue, this can be diagnosed by printing a special test page that is resident in the firmware of the MFP unit, and then scanning it. However, the reliability of this process will be compromised if the scanner unit is defective. Thus, for both scanner and printer image quality issues, it is important to be able to properly evaluate the scanner performance. In this paper, we consider evaluation of the scanner performance by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF is a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of imaging systems. Several ways have been proposed to measure the MTF, all of which require a special target, for example a slanted-edge target. It is unacceptably expensive to ship every MFP with such a standard target, and to expect that the customer can keep track of it. To reduce this cost, in this paper, we develop new approach to this task. It is based on a self-printed slanted-edge target. Then, we propose algorithms to improve the results using a self-printed slanted-edge target. Finally, we present experimental results for MTF measurement using self-printed targets and compare them to the results obtained with standard targets.

  1. Poison pills: A defensive measure against a hostile takeover or a demonstration of power of the target company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Zattila Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance of power is particularly at stake in hostile takeovers, which makes the issue of establishing the balance of power one of the most controversial issues in the contemporary company law. In the circumstances of direct market competition and the need to have a dominant market position, companies are necessarily forced to constantly upgrade and advance their offensive and defensive methods, techniques and strategies. In order to prevent a hostile takeover, the target company may resort to an array of defence mechanisms, the most prominent of which are 'poison pills'. In spite of being perceived as the most powerful tool for obstructing hostile takeovers (and commonly designated as the 'Holy Grail' among the defensive mechanisms, there are many pros and cons underlying their application. One of the positive effects of using the poison pills is that the fear of takeovers makes the target company management more disciplined and efficient in business operations. The negative consequences are reflected in the relationship between the company board of directors and the shareholders. The target company management makes a unilateral decision on using a poison pill and this decision does not have to be approved by the shareholders in the General Meeting; however, this is highly inconsistent with the basic principles of corporate governance. The asymmetry of information, where the management (an agent has disproportionately more relevant information at its disposal than the shareholders (principals, generates a conflict between the management and the shareholders. In company law, this agency problem is generally known as the principal-agent problem, which is most prominent in a takeover. Poison pills are often associated with the discrimination of the target company shareholders, but not necessarily. The controversial nature of this defensive measure which can be applied by the target company has given rise to numerous debates on the need to

  2. Prevention against diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma: can the Notch pathway be a novel treatment target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether the Notch pathway is involved in the development of diffuse spinal cord astrocytomas. BALB/c nude mice received injections of CD133 + and CD133− cell suspensions prepared using human recurrent diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma tissue through administration into the right parietal lobe. After 7-11 weeks, magnetic resonance imaging was performed weekly. Xenografts were observed on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133 + cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was observed in the xenografts. By contrast, no xenografts appeared in the identical position on the surfaces of the brains of mice receiving the CD133− cell suspension, and Notch-immunopositive expression was hardly detected either. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed xenografts on the convex surfaces of the brains of mice that underwent CD133 + astrocytoma transplantation. Some sporadic astroglioma cells showed pseudopodium-like structures, which extended into the cerebral white matter. However, it should be emphasized that the subcortex xenograft with Notch-immunopositive expression was found in the fourth mouse received injection of CD133− astrocytoma cells. However, these findings suggest that the Notch pathway plays an important role in the formation of astrocytomas, and can be considered a novel treatment target for diffuse spinal cord astrocytoma.

  3. Cholera cases cluster in time and space in Matlab, Bangladesh: implications for targeted preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K; Ali, Mohammad; Azman, Andrew S; Yunus, Mohammad; Sack, David A

    2016-12-01

    : Cholera remains a serious public health threat in Asia, Africa and in parts of the Americas. Three World health Organization (WHO) pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines are now available but their supply is limited, so current supplies must be administered strategically. This requires an improved understanding of disease transmission and control strategies. : We used demographics and disease surveillance data collected from 1991 to 2000 in Matlab, Bangladesh, to estimate the spatial and temporal extent of the zone of increased risk around cholera cases. Specifically, we compare the cholera incidence among individuals living close to cholera cases with that among individuals living close to those without medically-attended cholera in this rural endemic setting. : Those living within 50 m of a confirmed cholera case had 36 times (95% confidence interval: 23-56) the risk of becoming a cholera case in the first 3 days (after case presentation) compared with risk elsewhere in the community. The relative risk gradually declined in space and time, but remained significantly high up to 450 me away within 3 days of case presentation, and up to 150 m away within 23 days from the date of presentation of the case. : These findings suggest that, if conducted rapidly, vaccinating individuals living close to a case (ring vaccination) could be an efficient and effective strategy to target vaccine to a high-risk population in an endemic setting. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. Internal models of target motion: expected dynamics overrides measured kinematics in timing manual interceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Myrka; Bosco, Gianfranco; Maffei, Vincenzo; Iosa, Marco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-04-01

    Prevailing views on how we time the interception of a moving object assume that the visual inputs are informationally sufficient to estimate the time-to-contact from the object's kinematics. Here we present evidence in favor of a different view: the brain makes the best estimate about target motion based on measured kinematics and an a priori guess about the causes of motion. According to this theory, a predictive model is used to extrapolate time-to-contact from expected dynamics (kinetics). We projected a virtual target moving vertically downward on a wide screen with different randomized laws of motion. In the first series of experiments, subjects were asked to intercept this target by punching a real ball that fell hidden behind the screen and arrived in synchrony with the visual target. Subjects systematically timed their motor responses consistent with the assumption of gravity effects on an object's mass, even when the visual target did not accelerate. With training, the gravity model was not switched off but adapted to nonaccelerating targets by shifting the time of motor activation. In the second series of experiments, there was no real ball falling behind the screen. Instead the subjects were required to intercept the visual target by clicking a mousebutton. In this case, subjects timed their responses consistent with the assumption of uniform motion in the absence of forces, even when the target actually accelerated. Overall, the results are in accord with the theory that motor responses evoked by visual kinematics are modulated by a prior of the target dynamics. The prior appears surprisingly resistant to modifications based on performance errors.

  5. Targeted disruption of CD1d prevents NKT cell development in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guan; Artiaga, Bianca L; Hackmann, Timothy J; Samuel, Melissa S; Walters, Eric M; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Driver, John P

    2015-06-01

    Studies in mice genetically lacking natural killer T (NKT) cells show that these lymphocytes make important contributions to both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the usefulness of murine models to study human NKT cells is limited by the many differences between mice and humans, including that their NKT cell frequencies, subsets, and distribution are dissimilar. A more suitable model may be swine that share many metabolic, physiological, and growth characteristics with humans and are also similar for NKT cells. Thus, we analyzed genetically modified pigs made deficient for CD1d that is required for the development of Type I invariant NKT (iNKT) cells that express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (TCR) and Type II NKT cells that use variable TCRs. Peripheral blood analyzed by flow cytometry and interferon-γ enzyme-linked immuno spot assays demonstrated that CD1d-knockout pigs completely lack iNKT cells, while other leukocyte populations remain intact. CD1d and NKT cells have been shown to be involved in shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota in mice. Therefore, we also compared the fecal microbiota profile between pigs expressing and lacking NKT cells. However, no differences were found between pigs lacking or expressing CD1d. Our results are the first to show that knocking-out CD1d prevents the development of NKT cells in a non-rodent species. CD1d-deficient pigs should offer a useful model to more accurately determine the contribution of NKT cells for human immune responses. They also have potential for understanding how NKT cells impact the health of commercial swine.

  6. Targeting inflammatory pathways by dietary agents for prevention and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, radiation, environmental pollutants and high-calorie diet have been recognized as major risk factors for the most common types of cancer. All these risk factors are linked to cancer through inflammation. While acute inflammation that persists for short-term mediates host defense against infections, chronic inflammation that lasts for long-term can predispose the host to various chronic illnesses, including cancer. Linkage between cancer and inflammation is indicated by numerous lines of evidence; first, transcription factors NF-kB and STAT3, two major pathways for inflammation, are activated by most cancer risk factors; second, an inflammatory condition precedes most cancers; third, NFkB and STAT3 are constitutively active in most cancers; fourth, hypoxia and acidic conditions found in solid tumors activate NF-kB; fifth, chemotherapeutic agents and γ-irradiation activate NF-kB and lead to chemoresistance and radioresistance; sixth, most gene products linked to inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis are regulated by NF-kB and STAT3; seventh, suppression of NF-kB and STAT3 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of tumors; and eighth, most chemopreventive agents mediate their effects through inhibition of NF-kB and STAT3 activation pathways. Thus, the suppression of these proinflammatory pathways may provide opportunities for both prevention and treatment of cancer. We will discuss the potential of nutraceuticals derived from spices and from traditional Indian medicine in suppression of inflammatory pathways and their role inprevention and therapy of cancer. (author)

  7. Immune Checkpoint Targets for Host-Directed Therapy to Prevent and Treat Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis encompasses a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. These diseases range from life threatening visceral forms to self-healing cutaneous lesions, and each disease manifestations can progress to complications involving dissemination of parasites to skin or mucosal tissue. A feature of leishmaniasis is the key role host immune responses play in disease outcome. T cells are critical for controlling parasite growth. However, they can also contribute to disease onset and progression. For example, potent regulatory T cell responses can develop that suppress antiparasitic immunity. Alternatively, hyperactivated CD4+ or CD8+ T cells can be generated that cause damage to host tissues. There is no licensed human vaccine and drug treatment options are often limited and problematic. Hence, there is an urgent need for new strategies to improve the efficacy of current vaccine candidates and/or enhance both antiparasitic drug effectiveness and subsequent immunity in treated individuals. Here, we describe our current understanding about host immune responses contributing to disease protection and progression in the various forms of leishmaniasis. We also discuss how this knowledge may be used to develop new strategies for host-directed immune therapy to prevent or treat leishmaniasis. Given the major advances made in immune therapy in the cancer and autoimmune fields in recent years, there are significant opportunities to ride on the back of these successes in the infectious disease domain. Conversely, the rapid progress in our understanding about host immune responses during leishmaniasis is also providing opportunities to develop novel immunotherapy strategies that could have broad applications in diseases characterized by inflammation or immune dysfunction.

  8. Preventing, Reducing and Ending LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness: The Need for Targeted Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Abramovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender non-conforming and sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population and are frequently discriminated against in shelters and youth serving organizations. This paper provides a contextual understanding of the ways that institutional and governmental policies and standards often perpetuate the social exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S youth, by further oppression and marginalization. Factors, including institutional erasure, homophobic and transphobic violence, and discrimination that is rarely dealt with, addressed, or even noticed by shelter workers, make it especially difficult for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness to access support services, resulting in a situation where they feel safer on the streets than in shelters and housing programs. This paper draws on data from a qualitative Critical Action Research study that investigated the experiences of a group of LGBTQ2S homeless youth and the perspectives of staff in shelters through one-on-one interviews in Toronto, Canada. One of the main recommendations of the study included the need for governmental policy to address LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. A case study is shared to illustrate how the Government of Alberta has put this recommendation into practice by prioritizing LGBTQ2S youth homelessness in their provincial plan to end youth homelessness. The case study draws on informal and formal data, including group activities, questions, and surveys that were collected during a symposium on LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. This paper provides an overview of a current political, social justice, and public health concern, and contributes knowledge to an under researched field of study by highlighting concrete ways to prevent, reduce, and end LGBTQ2S youth homelessness.

  9. Detection of metabolic syndrome features among childhood cancer survivors: A target to prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Siviero-Miachon1, Angela Maria Spinola-Castro1, Gil Guerra-Junior21Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP/EPM, Brazil; 2Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas – FCM/UNICAMP, BrazilAbstract: Along with the growing epidemic of obesity, the risk of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease morbidity, and mortality are increasing markedly. Several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as visceral obesity, glucose intolerance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia commonly cluster together as a condition currently known as metabolic syndrome. Thus far, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction are the primary events of the metabolic syndrome. Several groups have recommended clinical criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonetheless, in what concerns children and adolescents, there are no unified definitions, and modified adult criteria have been suggested by many authors, despite major problems. Some pediatric disease states are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease, with clinical coronary events occurring very early in adult life. Survivors of specific pediatric cancer groups, particularly acute lymphocytic leukemia, central nervous system tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, testicular cancer, and following bone marrow transplantation, may develop metabolic syndrome traits due to: hormonal deficiencies (growth hormone deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, and gonadal failure, drug or radiotherapy damage, endothelial impairment, physical inactivity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and/or drug-induced magnesium deficiency. In conclusion, some primary and secondary prevention remarks are proposed in order to reduce premature cardiovascular disease risk in this particular group of patients.Keywords: metabolic syndrome X, cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, obesity, growth hormone

  10. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  11. Performance measures for improving the prevention of venous thromboembolism: achievement in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth C; Merli, Geno J

    2011-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after hospitalization for acute medical illness or surgery. Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines for VTE prevention, real-world prescribing practices are frequently suboptimal. Specific performance measures relating to VTE prevention and treatment have been developed by US health care organizations to increase adherence with best-practice recommendations and ultimately reduce the number of preventable VTE events. Two measures developed by the Surgical Care Improvement Project have been endorsed by the National Quality Forum (NQF) and focus on VTE prevention. In addition, six measures have been developed recently by The Joint Commission in collaboration with the NQF; three measures relate to VTE prevention and three focus on treatment. To attain widespread achievement of these performance goals, it is essential to raise awareness of their existence and specifications. It is also imperative that hospitals develop and implement effective VTE protocols. The use of multiple, active strategies, such as computer decision support systems with regular audit and feedback, may be particularly valuable approaches to improve current practices within an integrated quality improvement program. During practical implementation of VTE protocols at Norton Healthcare (Kentucky's largest healthcare system), strong leadership, physician engagement, and caregiver accountability were identified as key factors influencing the process. As such, more hospitals may be able to increase adherence with guidelines, improve achievement of quality goals, and help to reduce the substantial burden associated with avoidable VTE.

  12. .A computer program for nuclear lifetimes measurements by DSAM using a self-supporting target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, C.; Chan, T.U.

    1981-02-01

    The present Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, for nuclear lifetimes measurements using self supporting target, has already been described. Therefore this paper only mentions the peculiar features of that DSAM, describes several code facilities, comments the subroutines working along the program structure, in order to be easily handled by other physicists

  13. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  14. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  15. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique

  16. Target detection and driving behaviour measurements in a driving simulator at mesopic light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    During night-time driving hazardous objects often appear at mesopic light levels, which are typically measured using light meters with a spectral sensitivity that is only valid for photopic light levels. In order to develop suitable mesopic models a target detection experiment was performed in a

  17. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted case finding for cardiovascular disease prevention using a stepped wedged cluster RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Tom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical

  18. Sleep-time BP: prognostic marker of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic target for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prognostic value of clinic and ambulatory BP (ABP) to predict new-onset diabetes and whether risk reduction is related to the progressive decrease of clinic BP or awake or asleep ABP. We prospectively evaluated 2,656 individuals without diabetes, 1,292 men and 1,364 women, 50.6 ± 14.3 years of age, with baseline BP ranging from normotension to hypertension according to ABP criteria. At baseline and annually (more frequently if hypertension treatment was adjusted based on ABP) thereafter, ABP and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) were simultaneously monitored for 48 h to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means. During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 190 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The asleep systolic ABP mean was the most significant predictor of new-onset diabetes in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for age, waist circumference, glucose, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension treatment. Daytime clinic BP and awake or 48 h ABP mean had no predictive value when corrected by the asleep ABP mean. Analyses of BP changes during follow-up revealed a 30% reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes per 1-SD decrease in asleep systolic ABP mean, independent of changes in clinic BP or awake or 48 h ABP means. Sleep-time BP is a highly significant independent prognostic marker for new-onset diabetes. Alteration in sleep-time BP regulation seems to precede, rather than follow, the development of new-onset diabetes. Most important, lowering asleep BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring ABP evaluation, could be a significant method for reducing new-onset diabetes risk.

  19. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods: A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Results: Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05. Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Conclusion: Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction.

  20. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Tian, Yinghai; Jiang, Yanqiong; Chen, Shihua; Liu, Ting; Moyer, Mary Pat; Qin, Huanlong; Zhou, Xinke

    2018-01-01

    Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO) mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ) proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05). Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Ground glass hepatocytes provide targets for therapy or prevention of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yi Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground glass hepatocyte (GGH represents a histologic hallmark of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and is characterized by the accumulation of pre-S mutant surface antigens in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. In the past decade, GGHs have been recognized as pre-neoplastic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The accumulation of pre-S mutant protein in ER may induce a misfolded protein response or ER stress signals with activation of VEGF/Akt/mTOR and COX-2/NF-κB signals, leading to oxidative DNA damage, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. Molecular studies revealed clonal HBV DNA integration in type II GGHs which continue to express and secrete surface antigens, representing the sustained surface antigens in the serum after NA antiviral treatment. The persistence of GGHs in the liver after anti-viral therapy not only constitute the challenge to eliminate HBV infection but also carry the high risk to develop HCC. DNA chip and ELISA kit are designing to detect the pre-S mutants in serum. Novel or second generation anti-HBV drugs are under phase II development and include the combination of anti-virals, immunomodulators, agents for host DNA damage, and siRNA to target at the transcription of HBsAg gene in cccDNA or integrated HBV DNA. In the past years, we explored the possibility to provide drugs or natural agents targeting at ER stress signals in GGHs to prevent HCC development. In a transgenic mice model of pre-S mutant and HBx, a combination of silymarin and resveratrol targeting at mTOR and NF-κB signals could reduce a 80% of HCC development. In a pilot clinical trial, liposomal curcumin (Meriva® combined with anti-virals and immumodulators P1101 have been designed and attempted to eliminate the serum surface antigen and hence the recurrence of HCC after surgical resection. Therefore, the detection of pre-S mutants in serum or GGHs in the liver should provide rational target design for therapy or prevention of HCC in these high

  2. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  3. A modified R-type bacteriocin specifically targeting Clostridium difficile prevents colonization of mice without affecting gut microbiota diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Dana; Lok, Stephen; Clare, Simon; Tomas, Myreen; Stares, Mark; Scholl, Dean; Donskey, Curtis J; Lawley, Trevor D; Govoni, Gregory R

    2015-03-24

    Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and has become an urgent public health threat requiring immediate attention. Epidemic lineages of the BI/NAP1/027 strain type have emerged and spread through health care systems across the globe over the past decade. Limiting person-to-person transmission and eradicating C. difficile, especially the BI/NAP1/027 strain type, from health care facilities are difficult due to the abundant shedding of spores that are impervious to most interventions. Effective prophylaxis for C. difficile infection (CDI) is lacking. We have genetically modified a contractile R-type bacteriocin ("diffocin") from C. difficile strain CD4 to kill BI/NAP1/027-type strains for this purpose. The natural receptor binding protein (RBP) responsible for diffocin targeting was replaced with a newly discovered RBP identified within a prophage of a BI/NAP1/027-type target strain by genome mining. The resulting modified diffocins (a.k.a. Avidocin-CDs), Av-CD291.1 and Av-CD291.2, were stable and killed all 16 tested BI/NAP1/027-type strains. Av-CD291.2 administered in drinking water survived passage through the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract, did not detectably alter the mouse gut microbiota or disrupt natural colonization resistance to C. difficile or the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF), and prevented antibiotic-induced colonization of mice inoculated with BI/NAP1/027-type spores. Given the high incidence and virulence of the pathogen, preventing colonization by BI/NAP1/027-type strains and limiting their transmission could significantly reduce the occurrence of the most severe CDIs. This modified diffocin represents a prototype of an Avidocin-CD platform capable of producing targetable, precision anti-C. difficile agents that can prevent and potentially treat CDIs without disrupting protective indigenous microbiota. Treatment and prevention strategies for bacterial diseases rely heavily on traditional

  4. Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Koralia A; Ioannidou, Christina; Galanis, Petros; Tsoumakas, Kostantinos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D

    2017-09-01

    Nursery schools serve as reservoirs of transmission of infectious diseases, and teachers should be able to implement and monitor hygiene measures to prevent them. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of nursery school teachers on promoting preventive interventions and to identify associated factors, during the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A secondary objective was to evaluate their knowledge and vaccination status regarding the novel virus. A cross-sectional study was performed, with the use of a predesigned anonymous, questionnaire, and distributed to all public nursery teachers of Athens, Greece. General etiquette practices were highly acceptable to over 92% of teachers. Those with longer teaching experience promoted simple preventive measures, such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, more often while older children were more likely to familiarize with them. However, teachers presented inadequate knowledge concerning the novel virus and their vaccination rates with the pandemic vaccine were unacceptably low (1.1%). Our study showed that promotion of simple preventive measures is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of outbreaks in nursery schools, although knowledge gaps and fear concerning the pandemic vaccine highlight communication issues.

  5. Targeting memory reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in patients with fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Price, Matthew; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Odenat, Lydia; Post, Loren; Zwiebach, Liza; Breazeale, Kathryn; Gross, Robin; Kim, Sae-Jin; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2017-07-01

    When a memory is recalled, it may again exist in a labile state and stored information becomes amenable to change, a psychobiological process known as reconsolidation. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders involves accessing a fear memory and modifying it with less fearful information. A preclinical study reported that providing a reminder of a fear memory 10 min prior to extinction training in humans decreased fear up to 1 year later (Schiller et al., 2010). For this pilot clinical study, we used virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for fear of flying (FoF) to determine if using a cue to reactivate the memory of the feared stimulus 10 min prior to exposure sessions leads to fewer anxiety-related behaviors and a more durable response compared to a neutral cue. FoF participants (N = 89) received four sessions of anxiety management training followed by four sessions of VRE. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an FoF cue (reactivation group) or a neutral cue (control group) prior to the VRE sessions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels (SCLs) were collected during posttreatment and 3-month follow-up assessments as objective markers of fear responding. Treatment was effective and all clinical measures improved equally between groups at posttreatment with maintained gains through follow-ups. Significant differences were identified with regard to HR and SCL indices. These results suggest that memory reactivation prior to exposure therapy did not have an impact on clinical measures but may enhance the effect of exposure therapy at the physiological level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Implementation of Global Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection: Targeting Proton Pump Inhibitors and Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul O; Lundberg, Timothy S; Tharp, Jennifer L; Runnels, Clay W

    2017-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Probiotics given concurrently with antibiotics have been shown to have a moderate impact on preventing CDI. To evaluate the effectiveness of hospital-wide interventions designed to reduce PPI use and increase probiotics and whether these interventions were associated with a change in the incidence of hospital onset (HO)-CDI. This retrospective cohort study compared 2 fiscal years: July 2013 to June 2014 (FY14) and July 2014 to June 2015 (FY15). In July of FY15, global educational initiatives were launched targeting PPIs. Additionally, a HO-CDI prevention bundle was added to antibiotic-containing order sets targeting probiotics. Overall PPI use, probiotic use, and incidence of HO-CDI were recorded and compared for each cohort. Charts were also reviewed for patients who developed HO-CDI for the presence and appropriateness of a PPI and presence of probiotics. The interventions resulted in a decrease in PPI use by 14% or 96 doses/1000 patient days (TPD; P = 0.0002) and a reduction in IV PPI use by 31% or 71 doses/TPD ( P = 0.0008). Probiotic use increased by 130% or 126 doses/TPD ( P = 0.0006). The incidence of HO-CDI decreased by 20% or 0.1 cases/TPD ( P = 0.04). A collaborative, multifaceted educational initiative directed at highlighting the risks associated with PPI use was effective in reducing PPI prescribing. The implementation of a probiotic bundle added to antibiotic order sets was effective in increasing probiotic use. These interventions were associated with a decrease in incidence of HO-CDI.

  7. An automatic controlled apparatus of target chamber for atomic spectra and level lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mengchun; Yang Zhihu

    1998-01-01

    An automatically controlled apparatus of target chamber was made to measure spectra of the excited atoms and lifetime of the excited levels. The hardware is composed of nine parts including a computer and a step-motor, while the software consists of three branch programs. The maximum movable distance of target position is 65 cm with a step-length of 8.3 μm and a precision of +- 18 μm per 2 mm. On account of simple structure and double protection, the apparatus exhibits flexibility and reliability in years service

  8. POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raguzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  9. Measurement of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in targets driven by optically smoothed laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desselberger, M.; Willi, O.; Savage, M.; Lamb, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Growth rates of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability were measured in targets with imposed sinusoidal modulations irradiated by optically smoothed 0.53-μm laser beams. A hybrid optical smoothing technique utilizing induced-spatial-incoherence and random-phase-plate technology was used for the first time. The wave-number dependence and the nonlinear behavior of Rayleigh-Taylor growth were investigated by using targets with a range of modulation periodicities and depths. The results are compared to 2D hydrodynamic-code simulations

  10. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  11. Pose measurement method and experiments for high-speed rolling targets in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Xin; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wenbo; Li, Xiao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Zhengqu; Cui, Xiaochun

    2014-12-12

    High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  12. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Gadani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at P96 h was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66% as compared to the early-onset type (20%. The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk of VAP and utmost importance must be given to prevent VAP.

  13. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  14. Measurement of pzz of the laser-driven polarized deuterium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.P.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Buchholz, M.; Neal, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    1993-01-01

    The question of whether nuclei are polarized as a result of H-H (D-D) spin-exchange collisions within the relatively dense gas of a laser-driven source of polarized hydrogen (deuterium) can be addressed directly by measuring the nuclear polarization of atoms from the source. The feasibility of using a polarimeter based on the D + T → n + 4 He reaction to measure the tensor polarization of deuterium in an internal target fed by the laser-driven source has been tested. The device and the measurements necessary to test the spin-exchange polarization theory are described

  15. Measurement of resonances in 12 C + 4 He through inverse kinematics with thick targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Lizcano, D.; Martinez Q, E.; Fernandez, M.C.; Murillo, G.; Goldberg, V.; Skorodumov, B.B.; Rogachev, G.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation function of elastic scattering for the system 12 C + 4 He to energy from 0.5 to 3.5 MeV in the center of mass system (c.m.) was measured. We use a gassy thick target and the technique of inverse kinematics which allows to make measurements at 180 degrees in c.m. Using the R matrix theory those was deduced parameters of the resonances and the results were compared with measurements reported in the literature made with other techniques. (Author)

  16. PA03.05. Masha taila as a preventive measure in gulpha marma injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaded, Rajani; Kulkarni, BG

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In Basketball game Gulpha Marma injuries are common. Wrong landing causes inflammation & tearing of ligament resulting into sprain. Prevention can be carried out by protective wears like Ankelet,crape bandge which gives temporary recovery. Assessment and evaluation of the application of Masha Taila as a Snehana and Avagaha Sweda as a preventive measure for Gulpha Marma injuries. Method: 30 players with Normal ankle joint (Group A) & 30 players with Ankle sprain (1st degree) of Basketball players (Group B) were taken with age group 13 to 25 yrs. Goniometer to measure Range of motion (R.O.M.), pain analog scale for pain gradation. Result: Group A and B were compared with their control groups. The statistical result for normal dorsiflexion was 0.0007 degree, plantar flexion 0.001 degree, dorsi flexion of ankle sprain players 0.002 degree, plantar flexion 0.03 degree. The measurement of ROM of all players increased by 510 times indicating increased joint flexibility, based on ROM Mash taila proved to be a preventive measure. Pain analog scale for group B players indicated moderate pain at 0 day,reduced by 50% on 15th day and completely reduced on 30th day. Conclusion: “Prevention is better than cure”. As a preventive aspect the application of Masha Taila in normal ankle joint as Snehan & Swedan with warm water increases flexibility of joint and muscle strength. In sprained joint the same Taila application relives pain and regains its movements, this recovery and strength of joints happens because of reduce adhesion & influence the direction of new collage fibres in the healing process. It eliminates toxic accumulation from secondary muscle spasm. These Marma being the vital points must be prevented by applying Snehan & Swedan before starting the game just as warm up.

  17. Targeting Overconsumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages vs. Overall Poor Diet Quality for Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Prevention: Place Your Bets!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Lamarche, Benoît; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-13

    Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world, yet with marked heterogeneity across countries. SSB overconsumption is also particularly worrisome among children and adolescents. Although the relationships between SSB overconsumption and obesity, T2D, and CVD are rather consistent in epidemiological studies, it has also been shown that SSB overconsumption is part of an overall poor dietary pattern and is particularly prevalent among subgroups of the population with low socioeconomic status, thereby questioning the major focus on SSBs to target/prevent cardiometabolic diseases. Public health initiatives aimed specifically at decreasing SSB overconsumption will most likely be successful in influencing SSB consumption per se. However, comprehensive strategies targeting poor dietary patterns and aiming at improving global dietary quality are likely to have much more impact in addressing the unprecedented public health challenges that we are currently facing.

  18. Targeting Overconsumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages vs. Overall Poor Diet Quality for Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Prevention: Place Your Bets!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit J. Arsenault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world, yet with marked heterogeneity across countries. SSB overconsumption is also particularly worrisome among children and adolescents. Although the relationships between SSB overconsumption and obesity, T2D, and CVD are rather consistent in epidemiological studies, it has also been shown that SSB overconsumption is part of an overall poor dietary pattern and is particularly prevalent among subgroups of the population with low socioeconomic status, thereby questioning the major focus on SSBs to target/prevent cardiometabolic diseases. Public health initiatives aimed specifically at decreasing SSB overconsumption will most likely be successful in influencing SSB consumption per se. However, comprehensive strategies targeting poor dietary patterns and aiming at improving global dietary quality are likely to have much more impact in addressing the unprecedented public health challenges that we are currently facing.

  19. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  20. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongyan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore,the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident. (author)

  1. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  2. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  3. The metabolic syndrome in long-term cancer survivors, an important target for secondary preventive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; Postma, A; Sleijfer, DT; Gietema, JA

    With increasing numbers of cancer survivors, attention has been drawn to long-term complications of curative cancer treatment, including a range of metabolic disorders. These metabolic disorders often resemble the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X, which is an important

  4. Spallation reactions and energy deposition in heavy target materials comparison of measurements and MC-calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Enke, M.; Galin, J.

    2001-01-01

    A renascence of interest for energetic proton induced production of neutrons originates recently by the inception of new projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources (like the planned European Spallation Source ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation and also the application for radioactive beams. Here we verify the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market by confronting observables and quantities of interest with an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data essentially coming from two experiments being performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin(!) targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target. While also the observables related to the energy deposition in thick targets are in a good agreement with the model predictions, the production cross section measurements however for light charged particles on thin targets point out that problems exist within these models. (author)

  5. LH2 Target Design & Position Survey Techniques for the MUSE experiment for Precise Proton Radius Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pottier, Luc; Roy, Pryiashee; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Raymond, Richard; Steinberg, Noah; Rossi de La Fuente, Erick; MUSE (MUon proton Scattering Experiment) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The proton radius puzzle is a currently unresolved problem which has intrigued the scientific community, dealing with a 7 σ discrepancy between the proton radii determined from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy and electron scattering measurements. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) aims to resolve this puzzle by performing the first simultaneous elastic scattering measurements of both electrons and muons on the proton, which will allow the comparison of the radii from the two interactions with reduced systematic uncertainties. The data from this experiment is expected to provide the best test of lepton universality to date. The experiment will take place at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland in 2018. An essential component of the experiment is a liquid hydrogen (LH2) cryotarget system. Our group at the University of Michigan is responsible for the design, fabrication and installation of this system. Here we present our LH2 target cell design and fabrication techniques for successful operation at 20 K and 1 atm, and our computer vision-based target position survey system which will determine the position of the target, installed inside a vacuum chamber, with 0.01 mm or better precision at the height of the liquid hydrogen target and along the beam direction during the experiment.

  6. VHF/UHF imagery and RCS measurements of ground targets in forested terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesman, Andrew J.; Beaudoin, Christopher J.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E.

    2002-08-01

    The monostatic VV and HH-polarized radar signatures of several targets and trees have been measured at foliage penetration frequencies (VHF/UHF) by using 1/35th scale models and an indoor radar range operating at X-band. An array of high-fidelity scale model ground vehicles and test objects as well as scaled ground terrain and trees have been fabricated for the study. Radar measurement accuracy has been confirmed by comparing the signature of a test object with a method of moments radar cross section prediction code. In addition to acquiring signatures of targets located on a smooth, dielectric ground plane, data have also been acquired with targets located in simulated wooded terrain that included scaled tree trunks and tree branches. In order to assure the correct backscattering behavior, all dielectric properties of live tree wood and moist soil were scaled properly to match the complex dielectric constant of the full-scale materials. The impact of the surrounding tree clutter on the VHF/UHF radar signatures of ground vehicles was accessed. Data were processed into high-resolution, polar-formatted ISAR imagery and signature comparisons are made between targets in open-field and forested scenarios.

  7. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  8. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  9. D III-D divertor target heat flux measurements during Ohmic and neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Petrie, T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Lao, L.; Howl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Time resolved power deposition profiles on the D III-D divertor target plates have been measured for Ohmic and neutral beam injection heated plasmas using fast response infrared thermography (τ ≤ 150 μs). Giant Edge Localized Modes have been observed which punctuate quiescent periods of good H-mode confinement and deposit more than 5% of the stored energy of the core plasma on the divertor armour tiles on millisecond time-scales. The heat pulse associated with these events arrives approximately 0.5 ms earlier on the outer leg of the divertor relative to the inner leg. The measured power deposition profiles are displaced relative to the separatrix intercepts on the target plates, and the peak heat fluxes are a function of core plasma density. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  10. The E760 Jet Target: Measurements of performance at 77K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, G.; Macri, M.; Robutti, E.; Allspach, D.; Kendziora, C.; Marinelli, M.

    1994-11-01

    In this report we describe the measurements performed on the E760 hydrogen Jet Target in order to some of the basic parameters of the system. These measurements were performed in the context of the upgrade program of the target for the successor experiment E835. Fermilab experiment E760 studied charmonium states formed in antiproton-proton annihilations. The antiproton-proton interactions were produced in a jet of hydrogen gas which intersected the antiproton beam coasting in the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator. The results from E760 have shown that an increase in integrated luminosity by a factor of more than 5 is needed to complete the study of the charmonium spectrum. The E835 experiment is designed to achieve this by increasing the intensity of the antiproton beam and the density of the hydrogen-cluster-jet. This report is concerned with preparations for the work needed to increase the density of the hydrogen-cluster-jet

  11. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target during type III ELMs in MAST measured by RFEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, S., E-mail: Sarah.Elmore@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Allan, S.Y.; Fishpool, G.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kočan, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tamain, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Thornton, A.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Edge-localised modes (ELMs) can carry significant fractions of their energy as far as main chamber plasma-facing components in divertor tokamaks. Since in future devices (e.g. ITER, DEMO) these energies could cause issues for material lifetime and impurity production, the energy and temperature of ions in ELMs needs to be investigated. In MAST, novel divertor measurements of T{sub i} during ELMs have been made using the divertor retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) probe. These measurements have shown instantaneous ion energy distributions corresponding to an effective T{sub i} at 5 cm from the strike point at the target that can be as high as 60 eV and that this decreases with time after the ELM start. This is consistent with the hottest, fastest ions arriving at the target first by parallel transport, followed by the lower end of the ion energy distribution. This analysis will form a basis for future data analysis of fast swept measurements of ion distributions in ELMs.

  12. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K Redekop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA-also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT. The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments.Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010. Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters.The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011-2020 and I$313 billion in 2021-2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss.Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large uncertainty, these benefits far exceed the

  13. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redekop, William K; Lenk, Edeltraud J; Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A C; Richardus, Jan H; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J; Severens, Johan L

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)-also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011-2020 and I$313 billion in 2021-2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large uncertainty, these benefits far exceed the investment

  14. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Katharina; Becker, Christian

    2017-10-02

    Determining what constitutes "good practice" in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic) evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents' thought that determinants of a program's success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators' unfamiliarity with a program's contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive approach of evaluation targeting measures in children and adolescents.

  15. Measurement of the Barkas effect around the stopping-power maximum for light and heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.; Knudsen, H.; Mikkelsen, U.; Paludan, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1997-01-01

    The first direct measurements of antiproton stopping powers around the stopping power maximum are presented. The LEAR antiproton-beam of 5.9 MeV is degraded to 50-700 keV, and the energy-loss is found by measuring the antiproton velocity before and after the target. The antiproton stopping powers of Si and Au are found to be reduced by 30 and 40% near the electronic stopping power maximum as compared to the equivalent proton stopping power. The Barkas effect, that is the stopping power difference between protons and antiprotons, is extracted and compared to theoretical estimates. (orig.)

  16. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  17. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  18. HIV prevention and care services for female sex workers: efficacy of a targeted community-based intervention in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Isidore T; Meda, Nicolas; Hema, Noelie M; Ouedraogo, Djeneba; Some, Felicien; Some, Roselyne; Niessougou, Josiane; Sanon, Anselme; Konate, Issouf; Van De Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Although interventions to control HIV among high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSW) are highly recommended in Africa, the contents and efficacy of these interventions are unclear. We therefore designed a comprehensive dedicated intervention targeting young FSW and assessed its impact on HIV incidence in Burkina Faso. Between September 2009 and September 2011 we conducted a prospective, interventional cohort study of FSW aged 18 to 25 years in Ouagadougou, with quarterly follow-up for a maximum of 21 months. The intervention combined prevention and care within the same setting, consisting of peer-led education sessions, psychological support, sexually transmitted infections and HIV care, general routine health care and reproductive health services. At each visit, behavioural characteristics were collected and HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy were tested. We compared the cohort HIV incidence with a modelled expected incidence in the study population in the absence of intervention, using data collected at the same time from FSW clients. The 321 HIV-uninfected FSW enrolled in the cohort completed 409 person-years of follow-up. No participant seroconverted for HIV during the study (0/409 person-years), whereas the expected modelled number of HIV infections were 5.05/409 person-years (95% CI, 5.01-5.08) or 1.23 infections per 100 person-years (p=0.005). This null incidence was related to a reduction in the number of regular partners and regular clients, and by an increase in consistent condom use with casual clients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.19; 95% CI, 1.16-4.14, p=0.01) and with regular clients (aOR=2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.76, p=0.005). Combining peer-based prevention and care within the same setting markedly reduced the HIV incidence among young FSW in Burkina Faso, through reduced risky behaviours.

  19. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. VME online system of the Bonn polarized nucleon targets and polarization measurements on NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, W.

    1991-02-01

    The measurement of spin observables is the main purpose of the PHOENICS detector at the Bonn Electron Accelerator ELSA. Therefore a new frosen spin target was built allowing any spin orientation by means of two perpendicular holding fields and the use of a polarizing field up to 7 Tesla. With a vertical dilution refrigerator the polarization can be frozen at a temperature of 70 mK. This thesis describe a VME based control and monitor system for the various parts of this target. It mainly consists of a VIP processor together with different kinds of I/O and interface boards. Caused by its modular structure in hard- and software it can be easyly set up to control and monitor different hardware environments. A menu and command oriented user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liferpool module allowing a dispersion user interface running on an ATARI computer allows a comfortable operation. Secondly the new NMR system is described in detail. It is based on the Liverpool module allowing a dispersion free detection and a simple adjustment to different magnetic fields. A similar VME system takes care of all the necessary task for the polarization measurements. Fast optodecoupled analog I/O modules a e used as an interface to the NMR hardware. Finally the first measurements with this target are presented. Using NH 3 as target material and a polarizing field of 3.5 Tesla a proton polarization of +94% and -100% could be achieved. By lowering the magnetic field to 0.35 Tesla a superradiance effect was observed. (orig.)

  1. Efforts to save 244Pu in Mark 18A targets for use in international safeguards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Steven A.; Cappis, John; Clarke, Stephanie; Whitesel, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation and the Office of Security and Emergency Operations are working collaboratively to evaluate the disposition of a large quantity of the 244 Pu isotope contained in 65 Mark ISA targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). 244 Pu is used as a standard reference material for plutonium analytical measurements required for both domestic and international safeguards. 244 Pu is particularly valuable for high accuracy measurements of plutonium in small samples containing trace quantities of plutonium (environmental analysis) and for measurements of material through-put in bulk processing facilities handling large volumes of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials. In October 2000, an assessment team was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Under Secretary to evaluate pathways and costs for the chemical separation and isotopic enrichment of the 244 Pu identified in the targets. Even though the target materials have recently been designated as a National Resource, they are scheduled for waste disposal unless funds can be identified and assigned to the project. Background information on the Mark ISA targets and a review of the assessment process are presented below to inform other organizations and governments of current efforts to examine potential disposition options and to solicit international cooperation for the extraction of the 244 Pu. Background - The United States possesses the bulk of the world's supply of the rare isotope 244 Pu. This isotope was produced by extremely long neutron irradiation of 242 Pu in a high-flux reactor during experiments used primarily to create isotopes of medical interest. In its separated enriched form, 244 Pu is regarded as the most accurate and desirable spike for safeguards, forensics, and environmental analysis of plutonium, allowing the simultaneous measurement of a sample for isotopic abundances and elemental concentration. Such measurements are a critical component of

  2. THE PROGRAM-TARGET PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marichev Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: study of the Park of Measuring Equipment (PME that includes hundreds of thousands of standard samples, measuring instruments, control and measuring devices and other measuring mechanisms with different areas of application, levels of reliability, service life, levels of technical perfection and levels of technical condition. Research objectives: 1. Development of a complex of mathematical models to simulate the processes of development of PME, control indicators of PME performance as a whole, purposefully control the stages of life cycle of measuring equipment samples. 2. Development of the method which, with a sufficient degree of validity and objectivity, would solve the tasks of management of procurement and repairs both in preparation of proposals for preliminary long-term plan documents (LTPD and to ensure control over the implementation of adopted plans. Thus, the method being developed should be fairly simple to use, easily adjustable for solving problems of different dimensions, suitable for solving the optimal control problem for PME as a whole, for a part of PME, and also suitable for solving a generalized problem for certain “aggregated objects” such as the Metrology Centers. Materials and methods: the methods of mathematical simulation, methods of comparative analysis, simplex method for solving linear programming problem, methods of program-target planning were used. Results: an approach to the solution of problems of program-target planning based on solving a series of linear programming problems has been developed. The results have been presented of using the approach both for formulation of proposals into the preliminary LTPD and also for introducing revisions (amendments to annual plans, which are implemented in the framework of the state defense order. Conclusions: the described method and algorithms constitute an effective tool for solving practical problems of target-oriented management of PME performance

  3. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  4. A moving target for accelerated charged particle induced X-ray measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.; Shima, K.; Ebihara, H.; Seki, R.; Mikumo, T.

    1980-01-01

    To attain good reproducibility as well as to enable an absolute determination in the measurement of X-ray fluorescences, resulting from bombardment of a heterogeneous sample by accelerated charged particles, a moving-target mechanism incorporating an electronic remote control system has been devised. The system is designed to scan the whole sample area with a chosen constant linear speed, by a fixed particle beam with a cross-sectional area a small fraction of that of the sample. Using 16 MeV protons and 40 MeV oxygen-ion beams, test runs of this system showed that the attempted objectives are attainable with good accuracies: reproducibility of the data for a given target is better than 3%, the linearity of the calibration curve is in good agreement, within the weighing errors of the standard elements and the uncertainty due to beam current fluctuation, with the expected values, and the results of absolute determinations using both metal foils and heterogeneous powder samples are in good agreement with accepted results using different methods. Detailed accounts of the moving-target system, and the test for reproducibility and linearity are presented. An absolute determination of the quantities related to accelerated charged-particle induced X-ray fluorescence (PIXE) using the moving target is presented for samples in different forms. (orig./HP)

  5. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  6. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  7. A statistical model for measurement error that incorporates variation over time in the target measure, with application to nutritional epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W; Carroll, Raymond J; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-11-30

    Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for measurement error assume that the target exposure T is a fixed quantity for each individual. However, in many applications, the value of T for an individual varies with time. We develop a model that accounts for such variation, describing the model within the framework of a meta-analysis of validation studies of dietary self-report instruments, where the reference instruments are biomarkers. We demonstrate that in this application, the estimates of the attenuation factor and correlation with true intake, key parameters quantifying the accuracy of the self-report instrument, are sometimes substantially modified under the time-varying exposure model compared with estimates obtained under a traditional fixed-exposure model. We conclude that accounting for the time element in measurement error problems is potentially important. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Measurement of Charged Pion Production Yields off the NuMI Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paley, J. M.; et al.

    2014-08-04

    The fixed-target MIPP experiment, Fermilab E907, was designed to measure the production of hadrons from the collisions of hadrons of momenta ranging from 5 to 120 GeV/c on a variety of nuclei. These data will generally improve the simulation of particle detectors and predictions of particle beam fluxes at accelerators. The spectrometer momentum resolution is between 3 and 4%, and particle identification is performed for particles ranging between 0.3 and 80 GeV/c using $dE/dx$, time-of-flight and Cherenkov radiation measurements. MIPP collected $1.42 \\times10^6$ events of 120 GeV Main Injector protons striking a target used in the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The data have been analyzed and we present here charged pion yields per proton-on-target determined in bins of longitudinal and transverse momentum between 0.5 and 80 GeV/c, with combined statistical and systematic relative uncertainties between 5 and 10%.

  9. Measurement of drug-target engagement in live cells by two-photon fluorescence anisotropy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Brand, Christian; Lee, Sungon; Nibbs, Antoinette E; Stapleton, Shawn; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Reiner, Thomas; Mazitschek, Ralph; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    The ability to directly image and quantify drug-target engagement and drug distribution with subcellular resolution in live cells and whole organisms is a prerequisite to establishing accurate models of the kinetics and dynamics of drug action. Such methods would thus have far-reaching applications in drug development and molecular pharmacology. We recently presented one such technique based on fluorescence anisotropy, a spectroscopic method based on polarization light analysis and capable of measuring the binding interaction between molecules. Our technique allows the direct characterization of target engagement of fluorescently labeled drugs, using fluorophores with a fluorescence lifetime larger than the rotational correlation of the bound complex. Here we describe an optimized protocol for simultaneous dual-channel two-photon fluorescence anisotropy microscopy acquisition to perform drug-target measurements. We also provide the necessary software to implement stream processing to visualize images and to calculate quantitative parameters. The assembly and characterization part of the protocol can be implemented in 1 d. Sample preparation, characterization and imaging of drug binding can be completed in 2 d. Although currently adapted to an Olympus FV1000MPE microscope, the protocol can be extended to other commercial or custom-built microscopes.

  10. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Ricco, G.; Alba, R.; Schillaci, M.; Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Boccaccio, P.; Esposito, J.; Celentano, A.; Viberti, C.M.; Kostyukov, A.

    2013-06-01

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3 He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  11. Laser - Polarized HE-3 Target Used for a Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romalis, M

    2003-11-05

    This thesis describes a precision measurement of the deep inelastic neutron spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x). The main motivation for the experiment is a test of the Bjorken sum rule. Because of smaller statistical errors and broader kinematic coverage than in previous experiments, we are able to study in detail the behavior of the spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) for low values of the Bjorken scaling variable x. We find that it has a strongly divergent behavior, in contradiction to the naive predictions of the Regge theory. This calls into question the methods commonly used for extrapolation of g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) to x = 0. The difference between the proton and the neutron spin structure functions is less divergent at low x, so a test of the Bjorken sum rule is possible. We confirm the sum rule with an accuracy of 8%. The experiment was performed at SLAC using a 50 GeV polarized electron beam and a polarized {sup 3}He target. In this thesis the polarized target is described in detail. We used the technique of Rb optical pumping and Rb-He spin exchange to polarize the {sup 3}He. Because of a novel mechanical design our target had the smallest dilution ever achieved for a high density gas target. Since this is a precision measurement, particular efforts were made to reduce the systematic errors due to the uncertainty in the target parameters. Most important parameters were measured by more than one method. We implemented novel techniques for measuring the thickness of the glass windows of the target, the {sup 3}He density, and the polarization. In particular, one of the methods for measuring the gas density relied on the broadening of the Rb optical absorption lines by collisions with {sup 3}He atoms. The calibration of this technique resulted in the most precise measurements of the pressure broadening parameters for {sup 3}He as well as several other gases, which are described in an Appendix. The polarization of the {sup 3}He was also measured by

  12. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  13. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions, including the latest one

  14. Obesity Prevention from Conception: A Workshop to Guide the Development of a Pan-Canadian Trial Targeting the Gestational Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi B. Adamo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes a meeting, Obesity Prevention from Conception , held in Ottawa in 2012. This planning workshop was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR to bring together researchers with expertise in the area of maternal obesity (OB and weight gain in pregnancy and pregnancy-related disease to attend a one-day workshop and symposium to discuss the development of a cross-Canada lifestyle intervention trial for targeting pregnant women. This future intervention will aim to reduce downstream OB in children through encouraging appropriate weight gain during the mother's pregnancy. The workshop served to (i inform the development of a lifestyle intervention for women with a high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, (ii identify site investigators across Canada, and (iii guide the development of a grant proposal focusing on the health of mom and baby. A brief summary of the presentations as well as the focus groups is presented for use in planning future research.

  15. Peripheral 5-HT7 receptors as a new target for prevention of lung injury and mortality in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai; Bayir, Yasin; Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Karakus, Emre; Polat, Beyzagul; Unal, Deniz; Atamanalp, Sabri S; Aksak, Selina; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2013-10-01

    Sepsis is a complex pathophysiological event involving metabolic acidosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, tissue damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Although many new mechanisms are being investigated to enlighten the pathophysiology of sepsis, there is no effective treatment protocol yet. Presence of 5-HT7 receptors in immune tissues prompted us to hypothesize that these receptors have roles in inflammation and sepsis. We investigated the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists on serum cytokine levels, lung oxidative stress, lung histopathology, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) positivity and lung 5-HT7 receptor density in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis model of rats. Agonist administration to septic rats increased survival time; decreased serum cytokine response against CLP; decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant system in lungs; decreased the tissue NF-κB immunopositivity, which is high in septic rats; and decreased the sepsis-induced lung injury. In septic rats, as a result of high inflammatory response, 5-HT7 receptor expression in lungs increased significantly and agonist administration, which decreased inflammatory response and related mortality, decreased the 5-HT7 receptor expression. In conclusion, all these data suggest that stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors may be a new therapeutic target for prevention of impaired inflammatory response related lung injury and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Familial risk factors in social anxiety disorder: calling for a family-oriented approach for targeted prevention and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Within the last decade, social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been identified as a highly prevalent and burdensome disorder. Both the characterization of its symptomatology and effective treatment options are widely documented. Studies particularly indicate that SAD aggregates in families and has its onset in early adolescence. Given the family as an important context for children's cognitive, emotional and behavioural development, familial risk factors could be expected to significantly contribute to the reliable detection of populations at risk for SAD. Reviewing studies on familial risk factors for SAD argues for the importance of parental psychopathology and unfavourable family environment, but also denotes to several shortcomings such as cross-sectional designs, short follow-up periods, diverging methodologies and the focus on isolated factors. Using a prospective longitudinal study that covers the high-risk period for SAD, including a broader spectrum of putative risk factors may help to overcome many of the methodological limitations. This review sets out to develop a more family-oriented approach for predicting the onset and maintenance of SAD that may be fruitful to derive targeted prevention and early intervention in SAD.

  17. Measures to prevent and combat unusual occurences in the use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To achieve the objectives set out in the Ordinance on the Assurance of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984, senior managers of establishments using atomic energy are responsible for planning and implementing measures to prevent UOs, and staff, material and organizational preconditions necessary to immediately combat UOs, and to limit and remedy their consequences. The principles were compiled on the basis of legal regulations in force in the German Democratic Republic taking into account national and international experience

  18. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhana; Ayub, Zeti N; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Hasan, Habsah; Harun, Azian; Ismail, Nabilah; Rahman, Zaidah A; Suraiya, Siti; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Aziz, Aniza A

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained. A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk. The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  20. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  1. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  2. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  3. Trauma center maturity measured by an analysis of preventable and potentially preventable deaths: there is always something to be learned….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Jung, Kyoungwon; Smith, Alan; Coimbra, Raul

    2018-06-23

    To establish the preventable and potentially preventable death rates in a mature trauma center and to identify the causes of death and highlight the lessons learned from these cases. We analyzed data from a Level-1 Trauma Center Registry, collected over a 15-year period. Data on demographics, timing of death, and potential errors were collected. Deaths were judged as preventable (PD), potentially preventable (PPD), or non-preventable (NPD), following a strict external peer-review process. During the 15-year period, there were 874 deaths, 15 (1.7%) and 6 (0.7%) of which were considered PPDs and PDs, respectively. Patients in the PD and PPD groups were not sicker and had less severe head injury than those in the NPD group. The time-death distribution differed according to preventability. We identified 21 errors in the PD and PPD groups, but only 61 (7.3%) errors in the NPD group (n = 853). Errors in judgement accounted for the majority and for 90.5% of the PD and PPD group errors. Although the numbers of PDs and PPDs were low, denoting maturity of our trauma center, there are important lessons to be learned about how errors in judgment led to deaths that could have been prevented.

  4. Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoolmiller, M; Eddy, J M; Reid, J B

    2000-04-01

    This study examined theoretical, methodological, and statistical problems involved in evaluating the outcome of aggression on the playground for a universal preventive intervention for conduct disorder. Moderately aggressive children were hypothesized most likely to benefit. Aggression was measured on the playground using observers blind to the group status of the children. Behavior was micro-coded in real time to minimize potential expectancy biases. The effectiveness of the intervention was strongly related to initial levels of aggressiveness. The most aggressive children improved the most. Models that incorporated corrections for low reliability (the ratio of variance due to true time-stable individual differences to total variance) and censoring (a floor effect in the rate data due to short periods of observation) obtained effect sizes 5 times larger than models without such corrections with respect to children who were initially 2 SDs above the mean on aggressiveness.

  5. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by mass of cement as slag); - or the use of portland fly ash cement (containing at least 25% by mass of cement as fly ash). If one of these cement types is used, then the potential reactivity of the a...

  6. International Target Values 2010 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Penkin, M.; Norman, C.; Balsley, S. [IAEA, Vienna (Australia); others, and

    2012-12-15

    This issue of the International Target Values (ITVs) represents the sixth revision, following the first release of such tables issued in 1979 by the ESARDA/WGDA. The ITVs are uncertainties to be considered in judging the reliability of analytical techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile material, which are subject to safeguards verification. The tabulated values represent estimates of the 'state of the practice' which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions. The most recent standard conventions in representing uncertainty have been considered, while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous releases of the ITVs. The present report explains why target values are needed, how the concept evolved and how they relate to the operator's and inspector's measurement systems. The ITVs-2010 are intended to be used by plant operators and safeguards organizations, as a reference of the quality of measurements achievable in nuclear material accountancy, and for planning purposes. The report suggests that the use of ITVs can be beneficial for statistical inferences regarding the significance of operator-inspector differences whenever valid performance values are not available.

  7. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  8. Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente; Delgado‐Rodríguez, Miguel; Martínez‐Baz, Iván; Baricot, Maretva; Soldevila, Nuria; Mayoral, José M.; Astray, Jenaro; Quintana, José M.; Cantón, Rafael; Castro, Ady; González‐Candelas, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Saez, Marc; Tamames, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Castilla et al. (2013) Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 177–183. Background  The role of different risk exposures and preventive measures against influenza has not been well established. Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors and measures to prevent influenza infection in the community. Methods  We conducted a multicenter case–control study. Cases were 481 outpatients aged 18 years or older with laboratory‐confirmed influenza A(H1N1)09 in the 2009–2010 season in Spain. A control was selected for each case from outpatients from the same area matched by age and date of consultation. Information on risk situations, preventive measures and other variables was obtained by interview and review of the medical record. Results  In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the risk of a diagnosis of influenza increased with the number of cohabitants (compared with <3 cohabitants, three cohabitants had an OR = 1·80, 95% CI 1·12–2·89, and ≥5 cohabitants had an OR = 2·66, 95% CI 1·31–5·41) and for health care workers (OR = 2·94, 95% CI 1·53–5·66). The use of metropolitan public transport was associated with a lower frequency of a diagnosis of influenza (OR = 0·45, 95% CI 0·30–0·68) but not the use of taxis or long‐distance transport. The influenza A(H1N1)09 vaccine had a protective effect (OR = 0·13, 95% CI 0·04–0·48), unlike hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces or the use of alcohol‐based hand sanitizers. Conclusion  The home environment appears to play an important role in the spread of influenza in adults, but not the use of public transport. Health care workers have a higher risk of contracting influenza. Vaccination was the most effective preventive measure. PMID:22458533

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  10. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, R; Cosentino, G; Zoppo, A Del; Pietro, A Di; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M; Barbagallo, M; Colonna, N; Boccaccio, P; Esposito, J; Celentano, A; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Kostyukov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  11. Influence of target-scattered neutrons on cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiecki, H.; Cosack, M.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Monoenergetic neutrons produced with accelerators are usually accompanied by degraded and secondary neutrons which arise from reactions of source neutrons in the material of the target construction. A Monte Carlo code was written which takes into account the kinematics and the angular source strength of the neutron producing reaction and the interactions of the neutrons with the material in the immediate vicinity of their production. The calculation of the spectral distribution of the neutron fluence is compared with the result of a time-of-flight measurement. (author)

  12. Measurement of the GMR in the Unstable 56Ni Nucleus using the Active Target Maya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrozeau, C.; Khan, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Mittig, W.; Beaumel, D.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Demonchy, C.E.; Frascaria, N.; Garg, U.; Gelin, M.; Gillibert, A.; Gupta, D.; Marechal, F.; Obertelli, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Scarpaci, J.-A.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance(GMR) in unstable nuclei remains a major experimental challenge due to low radioactive beam intensities and unfavourable conditions in reverse kinematics. At GANIL, we have tested a new experimental method based on the unique capabilities of the active target Maya to probe the GMR by the inelastic scattering reaction 56 Ni(d,d') at 50 AMeV. The preliminary excitation energy spectrum of 56 Ni presents a bump between 12 and 25 MeV where isoscalar resonances are expected

  13. Guidelines to PET measurements of the target occupancy in the brain for drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Varrone, Andrea; Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Salvadori, Piero [CNR Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa (Italy); Gee, Antony [Kings College London, Department of Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Windhorst, Albert; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vercouillie, Johnny [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, UMR Inserm U930, Tours (France); Bormans, Guy [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    This guideline summarizes the current view of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Drug Development Committee. The purpose of this guideline is to guarantee a high standard of PET studies that are aimed at measuring target occupancy in the brain within the framework of development programs of drugs that act within the central nervous system (CNS drugs). This guideline is intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be applied within the context of local conditions and regulations. (orig.)

  14. Measurements of the thermophysical properties of graphite composites for a neutron target converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmurikov, E.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 690090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation); Savchenko, I.V.; Stankus, S.V.; Yatsuk, O.S. [Kutateladze Institute of Thermal Physics, 690090 Novosibirsk, SB RAS (Russian Federation); Tecchio, L.B., E-mail: tecchio@lnl.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy)

    2012-05-11

    The thermo-physical characteristics of both nuclear, industrial graphite, such as MPG-6 from NIIGRAFIT or SGL composite from SGL Carbon Group, and the first synthesized graphite composite based on a carbon {sup 13}S isotope have been measured from room temperature to 1675 K by laser flash method on an LFA-427 setup from Netzsch (Germany). The results obtained are compared to the previous data of X-Ray analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy and can be used in thermal calculations of the design of a neutron converter graphite target.

  15. Measurements of the thermophysical properties of graphite composites for a neutron target converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmurikov, E.I.; Savchenko, I.V.; Stankus, S.V.; Yatsuk, O.S.; Tecchio, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thermo-physical characteristics of both nuclear, industrial graphite, such as MPG-6 from NIIGRAFIT or SGL composite from SGL Carbon Group, and the first synthesized graphite composite based on a carbon 13 S isotope have been measured from room temperature to 1675 K by laser flash method on an LFA-427 setup from Netzsch (Germany). The results obtained are compared to the previous data of X-Ray analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy and can be used in thermal calculations of the design of a neutron converter graphite target.

  16. Immunotherapy by targeting of VGKC complex for seizure control and prevention of cognitive impairment in a mouse model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; Feng, Xiaojuan; Fan, Zhigang; Zhu, Xingyuan; Yin, Shaohua

    2018-05-09

    Epilepsy is a type of refractory neurologic disorder mental disease, which is associated with cognitive impairments and memory dysfunction. However, the potential mechanisms of epilepsy are not well understood. Previous evidence has identified the voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) as a target in various cohorts of patients with epilepsy. In the present study, the efficacy of an antibody against VGKC (anti‑VGKC) for the treatment of epilepsy in mice was investigated. A mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy was established and anti‑VGKC treatment was administered for 30 days. Memory impairment, anxiety, visual attention, inhibitory control and neuronal loss were measured in the mouse model of lithium‑pilocarpine temporal lobe epilepsy. The results revealed that epileptic mice treated with anti‑VGKC were able to learn the task and presented attention impairment, even a tendency toward impulsivity and compulsivity. It was also exhibited that anti‑VGKC treatment decreased neuronal loss in structures classically associated with attentional performance in hippocampus. Mice who received Anti‑VGKC treatment had inhibited motor seizures and hippocampal damage as compared with control mice. In conclusion, these results indicated that anti‑VGKC treatment may present benefits for improvements of the condition of motor attention impairment and cognitive competence, which suggests that VGKC may be a potential target for the treatment of epilepsy.

  17. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  18. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  19. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  20. Isolation of {sup 163}Ho from dysprosium target material by HPLC for neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Veronika; Taylor, Wayne A.; Nortier, Francois M.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Pollington, Anthony D.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Rabin, Michael W.; Birnbaum, Eva R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Div.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J. [Univ. Wisconsinn, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2015-07-01

    The rare earth isotope {sup 163}Ho is of interest for neutrino mass measurements. This report describes the isolation of {sup 163}Ho from a proton-irradiated dysprosium target and its purification. A Dy metal target was irradiated with 16 MeV protons for 10 h. After target dissolution, {sup 163}Ho was separated from the bulk Dy via cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography using 70 mmol dm{sup -3} α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as the mobile phase. Subsequent purification of the collected Ho fraction was performed to remove the α-hydroxyisobutyrate chelating agent and to concentrate the Ho in a low ionic strength aqueous matrix. The final solution was characterized by MC-ICP-MS to determine the {sup 163}Ho/{sup 165}Ho ratio, {sup 163}Ho and the residual Dy content. The HPLC purification process resulted in a decontamination factor 1.4 x 10{sup 5} for Dy. The isolated Ho fraction contained 24.8 ± 1.3 ng of {sup 163}Ho corresponding to holmium recovery of 72 ± 3%.

  1. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures. Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method. Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers), nurses and TB program staff. HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures. HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  3. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  4. Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Crijnen, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  5. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  6. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [fr

  7. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  8. Caries preventive measures in orthodontic practice: the development of a clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, B C M; van der Sanden, W J M; Frencken, J E F M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2016-02-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are a side effect of orthodontic treatment, causing esthetic problems and a risk of deeper enamel and dentine lesions. Many strategies have been developed for preventing WSLs, but great variability exists in preventive measures between orthodontists. This study developed statements on which a clinical practice guideline (CPG) can be developed in order to help orthodontists select preventive measures based on the best available evidence. A nominal group technique (RAND-e modified Delphi procedure) was used. A multidisciplinary expert panel rated 264 practice- and evidence-based statements related to the management of WSLs. To provide panel members with the same knowledge, a total of six articles obtained from a systematic review of the literature were read by the panel in preparation of three consensus rounds. According to the technique, a threshold of 75% of all ratings within any 3-point section of the 9-point scale regarding a specific statement was accepted as consensus. After the first and second consensus rounds, consensus was reached on 37.5 and 31.1% of statements, respectively. For the remaining 31.4% of statements, consensus was reached during a 4-h consensus meeting. Statements on the management of WSLs derived from a systematic literature review combined with expert opinion were formally integrated toward consensus through a nominal group technique. These statements formed the basis for developing a CPG on the management of WSLs before and during orthodontic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measurement of electromagnetic pulses generated during interactions of high power lasers with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M.; Krása, J.; Margarone, D.; Giuffrida, L.; Vrana, R.; Velyhan, A.; Korn, G.; Weber, S.; Cikhardt, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Krouský, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Limpouch, J.; Velardi, L.; Side, D. Delle; Nassisi, V.

    2016-01-01

    A target irradiated with a high power laser pulse, blows off a large amount of charge and as a consequence the target itself becomes a generator of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) owing to high return current flowing to the ground through the target holder. The first measurement of the magnetic field induced by the neutralizing current reaching a value of a few kA was performed with the use of an inductive target probe at the PALS Laser Facility (Cikhardt et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014) 103507). A full description of EMP generation should contain information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the electromagnetic field inside and outside of the interaction chamber. For this reason, we consider the interaction chamber as a resonant cavity in which different modes of EMP oscillate for hundreds of nanoseconds, until the EMP is transmitted outside through the glass windows and EM waves are attenuated. Since the experimental determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is limited by the number of employed antennas, a mapping of the electromagnetic field has to be integrated with numerical simulations. Thus, this work reports on a detailed numerical mapping of the electromagnetic field inside the interaction chamber at the PALS Laser Facility (covering a frequency spectrum from 100 MHz to 3 GHz) using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2. Moreover we carried out a comparison of the EMP generated in the parallelepiped-like interaction chamber used in the Vulcan Petawatt Laser Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, against that produced in the spherical interaction chamber of PALS.

  10. How to (or not to) … measure performance against the Abuja target for public health expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Jones, Alex; Ensor, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, African heads of state committed 'to set a target of allocating at least 15% of our annual budget to the improvement of the health sector'. This target has since been used as a benchmark to hold governments accountable. However, it was never followed by a set of guidelines as to how it should be measured in practice. This article sets out some of the areas of ambiguity and argues for an interpretation which focuses on actual expenditure, rather than budgets (which are theoretical), and which captures areas of spending that are subject to government discretion. These are largely domestic sources, but include budget support, which is externally derived but subject to Ministry of Finance sectoral allocation. Theoretical and practical arguments in favour of this recommendation are recommended using a case study from Sierra Leone. It is recommended that all discretionary spending by government is included in the numerator and denominator when calculating performance against the target, including spending by all ministries on health, social health insurance payments, debt relief funds and budget support. Conversely, all forms of private payment and earmarked aid should be excluded. The authors argue that the target, while an important vehicle for tracking political commitment to the sector, should be assessed intelligently by governments, which have legitimate wider public finance objectives of maximizing overall social returns, and should be complemented by a wider range of indicators, to avoid distortions. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  11. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  12. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31 Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Degeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J. Calkins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuronal systems, the health and activity of mitochondria and synapses are tightly coupled. For this reason, it has been postulated that mitochondrial abnormalities may, at least in part, drive neurodegeneration in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Mounting evidence from multiple Alzheimer’s disease cell and mouse models and postmortem brains suggest that loss of mitochondrial integrity may be a key factor that mediates synaptic loss. Therefore, the prevention or rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction may help delay or altogether prevent AD-associated neurodegeneration. Since mitochondrial health is heavily dependent on antioxidant defenses, researchers have begun to explore the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as therapeutic tools to prevent neurodegenerative diseases. This review will highlight advances made using a model mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide, SS31, as a potential treatment for AD.

  13. Preventable and mitigable adverse events in cancer care: Measuring risk and harm across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Pfister, David; Classen, David; Atoria, Coral L; Killen, Aileen; Epstein, Andrew S; Anderson, Christopher; Fortier, Elizabeth; Weingart, Saul N

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012. Candidate AEs, or injuries due to medical care, were identified by trained nurse reviewers over the course of 1 year from medical records and safety-reporting databases. Physicians determined the AE harm severity and the likelihood of preventability and harm mitigation. The 400-patient sample represented 133,358 days of follow-up. Three hundred four AEs were identified for an overall rate of 2.3 events per 1000 patient days (91.2 per 1000 inpatient days and 0.9 per 1000 outpatient days). Thirty-four percent of the patients had 1 or more AEs (95% confidence interval, 29%-39%), and 16% of the patients had 1 or more preventable or mitigable AEs (95% confidence interval, 13%-20%). The AE rate for patients with breast cancer was lower than the rate for patients with colorectal or lung cancer (P ≤ .001). The preventable or mitigable AE rate was 0.9 per 1000 patient days. Six percent of AEs and 4% of preventable AEs resulted in serious harm. Examples included lymphedema, abscess, and renal failure. A heavy burden of AEs, including preventable or mitigable events, has been identified. Future research should examine risk factors and improvement strategies for reducing their burden. Cancer 2017;123:4728-4736. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Production, separation and target preparation of 171Tm an 147Pm for neutron cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Heinitz, S; Schumann, D; Dressler, R; Kivel, N; Guerrero, C; Köster, U; Tessler, M; Paul, M; Halfon, S

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections of s-process branching point isotopes represents a basic requirement for the understanding of star evolution. Since such branching point isotopes are by definition radioactive, the measurement of their cross sections from thermal to stellar energies becomes a challenging task. Considerable amounts of material have to be produced, representing a significant radioactive hazard. We report here on the production and separation of 3.5 mg 171Tm from 240 mg 170Er2O3 and 72 µg 147Pm from 100 mg 146Nd2O3 irradiated at the ILL high flux reactor. Thin targets were prepared with high chemical and radioisotopic purity suitable for neutron capture measurements at n_TOF CERN and the SARAF-LiLiT facility.

  15. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Taiee [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  16. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick beryllium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, M., E-mail: osipenko@ge.infn.it [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ripani, M. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ricco, G. [INFN, sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Schillaci, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Barbagallo, M. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Boccaccio, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Celentano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Esposito, J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kostyukov, A. [Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, 95123 Catania (Italy); Viberti, C.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-09-21

    The design of a low-power prototype of neutron amplifier recently proposed within the INFN-E project indicated the need for more accurate data on the neutron yield produced by a proton beam with energy of about 70 MeV impinging on a thick beryllium target. Such measurement was performed at the LNS superconducting cyclotron, covering a wide angular range from 0° to 150° and a complete neutron energy interval from thermal to beam energy. Neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV were measured by liquid scintillators exploiting their time of flight to determine the kinetic energy. For lower energy neutrons, down to thermal energy, a {sup 3}He detector was used. The obtained data are in good agreement with previous measurements at 0° using 66 MeV proton beam, covering neutron energies >10MeV, as well as with measurements at few selected angles using protons of 46, 55 and 113 MeV energy. The present results extend the neutron yield data in the 60–70 MeV beam energy range. A comparison of measured yields to MCNP, FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations was performed.

  17. Targeting Th17-IL-17 Pathway in Prevention of Micro-Invasive Prostate Cancer in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Cunningham, David M; Huang, Feng; Ma, Lin; Burris, Thomas P; You, Zongbing

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development and progression of human cancers including prostate cancer. The exact role of the inflammatory Th17-IL-17 pathway in prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the importance of Th17 cells and IL-17 in a Pten-null prostate cancer mouse model. The Pten-null mice were treated by Th17 inhibitor SR1001 or anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody from 6 weeks of age up to 12 weeks of age. For SR1001 treatment, the mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice a day with vehicle or SR1001, which was dissolved in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution. All mice were euthanized for necropsy at 12 weeks of age. For IL-17 antibody treatment, the mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) once every two weeks with control IgG or rat anti-mouse IL-17 monoclonal antibody, which was dissolved in PBS. The injection time points were at 6, 8, and 10 weeks old. All mice were analyzed for the prostate phenotypes at 12 weeks of age. We found that either SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treatment decreased the formation of micro-invasive prostate cancer in Pten-null mice. The SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated mouse prostates had reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, as well as reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. By assessing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, we found that SR1001 or anti-IL-17 antibody treated prostate tissues had weaker EMT phenotype compared to the control treated prostates. These results demonstrated that Th17-IL-17 pathway plays a key role in prostate cancer progression in Pten-null mice. Targeting Th17-IL-17 pathway could prevent micro-invasive prostate cancer formation in mice. Prostate 77:888-899, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  19. Targeting apoptosis signalling kinase-1 (ASK-1 does not prevent the development of neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Newton

    Full Text Available Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1 is a mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase (MAPKKK/MAP3K which lies upstream of the stress-activated MAPKs, JNK and p38. ASK1 may be activated by a variety of extracellular and intracellular stimuli. MAP kinase activation in the sensory nervous system as a result of diabetes has been shown in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. As a common upstream activator of both p38 and JNK, we hypothesised that activation of ASK1 contributes to nerve dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. We therefore wanted to characterize the expression of ASK1 in sensory neurons, and determine whether the absence of functional ASK1 would protect against the development of neuropathy in a mouse model of experimental diabetes. ASK1 mRNA and protein is constitutively expressed by multiple populations of sensory neurons of the adult mouse lumbar DRG. Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 and transgenic ASK1 kinase-inactive (ASK1n mice using streptozotocin. Levels of ASK1 do not change in the DRG, spinal cord, or sciatic nerve following induction of diabetes. However, levels of ASK2 mRNA increase in the spinal cord at 4 weeks of diabetes, which could represent a future target for this field. Neither motor nerve conduction velocity deficits, nor thermal or mechanical hypoalgesia were prevented or ameliorated in diabetic ASK1n mice. These results suggest that activation of ASK1 is not responsible for the nerve deficits observed in this mouse model of diabetic neuropathy.

  20. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  1. Precise measurements of the thick target neutron yields of the 7Li(p,n) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, W.; Prestwich, W.V.; Byun, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Thick target neutron yield of the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction was measured in the proton energy range from 1.95 to 2.3 MeV by determining induced activity of the 7 Be. A HPGe detector was used to detect the 478 keV gamma-rays emitted through 7 Be decay. A series of irradiations with nominal proton energies of 1.95, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 MeV were carried out. In an independent experiment, raw neutron spectra were collected by a 3 He ion chamber for the same series of proton energies. From the raw neutron spectra, it was noted, that the effective proton energies were lower than the nominal by 50-58 keV. After corrections for the proton energy offsets were applied, the measured neutron yields matched the analytically calculated yields within 20%. Long term stability of neutron yield was tested at two nominal proton energies, 2.1 and 1.95 MeV over an experimental period of one year. The results show that the yield at 2.1 MeV was stable within rmse variation coefficient of 4.7% and remained consistent even when the lithium target was replaced, whereas at 1.95 MeV, the maximum fluctuations reached a factor of 10.

  2. First shock tuning and backscatter measurements for large case-to-capsule ratio beryllium targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Eric; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Kyrala, George; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Doug; Ralph, Joe; Dewald, Eduard; Strozzi, David; Celliers, Peter; Millot, Marius; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The current under performance of target implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated scaling back from high convergence ratio to access regimes of reduced physics uncertainties. These regimes, we expect, are more predictable by existing radiation hydrodynamics codes giving us a better starting point for isolating key physics questions. One key question is the lack of predictable in-flight and hot spot shape due to a complex hohlraum radiation environment. To achieve more predictable, shape tunable implosions we have designed and fielded a large 4.2 case-to-capsule ratio (CCR) target at the NIF using 6.72 mm diameter Au hohlraums and 1.6 mm diameter Cu-doped Be capsules. Simulations show that at these dimensions during a 10 ns 3-shock laser pulse reaching 270 eV hohlraum temperatures, the interaction between hohlraum and capsule plasma, which at lower CCR lead to beam propagation impedance by artificial plasma stagnation, are reduced. In this talk we will present measurements of early time drive symmetry using two-axis line-imaging velocimetry (VISAR) and streaked radiography measuring velocity of the imploding shell and their comparisons to post-shot calculations using the code HYDRA (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).

  3. Target Tracking with Sensor Navigation Using Coupled RSS and AoA Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavisa Tomic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of tracking a signal-emitting mobile target in wireless sensor networks (WSNs with navigated mobile sensors. The sensors are properly equipped to acquire received signal strength (RSS and angle of arrival (AoA measurements from the received signal, while the target transmit power is assumed not known. We start by showing how to linearize the highly non-linear measurement model. Then, by employing a Bayesian approach, we combine the linearized observation model with prior knowledge extracted from the state transition model. Based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP principle and the Kalman filtering (KF framework, we propose new MAP and KF algorithms, respectively. We also propose a simple and efficient mobile sensor navigation procedure, which allows us to further enhance the estimation accuracy of our algorithms with a reduced number of sensors. Model flaws, which result in imperfect knowledge about the path loss exponent (PLE and the true mobile sensors’ locations, are taken into consideration. We have carried out an extensive simulation study, and our results confirm the superiority of the proposed algorithms, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed navigation routine.

  4. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun; Kar, Akhya Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at Ppatients developed VAP. The risk factor significantly associated with VAP in our study was found to be duration of ventilator support, reintubation, supine position, advanced age and altered consciousness. Declining ratio of partial pressure to inspired fraction of oxygen (PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio) was found to be the earliest indicator of VAP. The most common organism isolated in our institution was Pseudomonas. The incidence of early-onset VAP (within 96 h) was found to be 27% while the late-onset type (>96 h) was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66%) as compared to the early-onset type (20%). The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk

  5. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  6. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Judge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. METHODOLOGY: Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. RESULTS: Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  7. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Tadgh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms

  8. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not) for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms of ethnicity) and the use of

  9. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: silvio@abacc.org.b, E-mail: grenha@abacc.org.b [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  10. Management of cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia: Lessons from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Mudenda, Victor; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a referral and management system for cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia. Methods We established criteria for patient referral, developed a training program for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) providers, and adapted LEEP to a resource-constrained setting. Results We successfully trained 15 nurses to perform visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate cryotherapy. Women with positive tests but ineligible for cryotherapy were referred for further evaluation. We trained four Zambian physicians to evaluate referrals, perform punch biopsy, LEEP, and manage intra-operative and post-operative complications. From January 2006 through October 2007, a total of 8823 women (41.5% HIV seropositive) were evaluated by nurses in outlying prevention clinics; of these, 1477 (16.7%) were referred for physician evaluation based on established criteria. Of the 875 (59.2% of 1147 referred) that presented for evaluation, 748 (8.4% of total screened) underwent histologic evaluation in the form of punch biopsy or LEEP. Complications associated with LEEP included anesthesia reaction (n=2) which spontaneously resolved, intra-operative (n=12) and post-operative (n=2) bleeding managed by local measures, and post-operative infection (n=12) managed with antibiotics. Conclusion With adaptations for a resource-constrained environment, we have demonstrated that performing LEEP is feasible and safe, with low rates of complications that can be managed locally. It is important to establish referral and management systems using LEEP-based excisional evaluation for women with cryotherapy-ineligible lesions in VIA-based “screen-and-treat” protocols nested within HIV-care programs in resource-constrained settings. PMID:18556050

  11. Management of cryotherapy-ineligible women in a "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia: lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaendler, Krista S; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Mudenda, Victor; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Parham, Groesbeck P

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a referral and management system for cryotherapy-ineligible women in a "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia. We established criteria for patient referral, developed a training program for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) providers, and adapted LEEP to a resource-constrained setting. We successfully trained 15 nurses to perform visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate cryotherapy. Women with positive tests but ineligible for cryotherapy were referred for further evaluation. We trained four Zambian physicians to evaluate referrals, perform punch biopsy, LEEP, and manage intra-operative and post-operative complications. From January 2006 through October 2007, a total of 8823 women (41.5% HIV seropositive) were evaluated by nurses in outlying prevention clinics; of these, 1477 (16.7%) were referred for physician evaluation based on established criteria. Of the 875 (59.2% of 1147 referred) that presented for evaluation, 748 (8.4% of total screened) underwent histologic evaluation in the form of punch biopsy or LEEP. Complications associated with LEEP included anesthesia reaction (n=2) which spontaneously resolved, intra-operative (n=12) and post-operative (n=2) bleeding managed by local measures, and post-operative infection (n=12) managed with antibiotics. With adaptations for a resource-constrained environment, we have demonstrated that performing LEEP is feasible and safe, with low rates of complications that can be managed locally. It is important to establish referral and management systems using LEEP-based excisional evaluation for women with cryotherapy-ineligible lesions in VIA-based "screen-and-treat" protocols nested within HIV-care programs in resource-constrained settings.

  12. 2D simulations of hohlraum targets for laser-plasma experiments and ion stopping measurement in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basko, M.M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, Anna [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Novikov, V.G.; Grushin, A.S. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    An attractive way to create uniform plasma states at high temperatures and densities is by using hohlraums - cavities with heavy-metal walls that are either directly or indirectly heated by intense laser pulses to x-ray temperatures of tens and hundreds electron volts. A sample material, whose plasma state is to be studied, can be placed inside such a hohlraum (usually in the form of a low-density foam) and uniformly heated to a high temperature. In this case a high-Z hohlraum enclosure serves a double purpose: it prevents the hot plasma from rapid disassembly due to hydrodynamic expansion and, at the same time, suppresses its rapid radiative cooling by providing high diffusive resistivity for X-rays. Of course, both the inertial and the thermal confinement of high-temperature plasmas can be achieved only for a limited period of time - on the order of nanoseconds for millimeter-scale hohlraums. Some time ago such hohlraum targets were proposed for measurements of the stopping power of hot dense plasmas for fast ions at GSI (Darmstadt). Theoretical modeling of hohlraum targets has always been a challenging task for computational physics because it should combine multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations with the solution of the spectral transfer equation for thermal radiation. In this work we report on our latest progress in this direction, namely, we present the results of 2D (two-dimensional) simulations with a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics code RALEF-2D of two types of the hohlraum targets proposed for experiments on the PHELIX laser at GSI. The first configuration is a simple spherical hohlraum with gold walls and empty interior, which has two holes - one for laser beam entrance, and the other for diagnostics. The hohlraums of this type have already been used in several experimental sessions with the NHELIX and PHELIX lasers at GSI. The second type is a two-chamber cylindrical hohlraum with a characteristic {omega}-shaped cross-section of the enclosure

  13. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  14. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  15. Experimental research on laser tracking system with galvanometer scanner for measuring spatial coordinates of moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hu, Zhaohui; Liu, Yongdong; Liang, Jinwen

    2000-10-01

    The spatial position of industrial object, such as robot end- effector, is an important geometric parameter whose accuracy determines whether robot can perform accurately. Therefore, we have established a laser tracking and coordinate measuring system with galvanometer scanner for high accuracy, large range, non- contact, and spatial dynamic measurement. In this paper, the laser tracking system and its setup are illuminated at first. Then, the formulae for calculating coordinates are deduced, and the calibration method of the initial distance from tracking mirror to target is presented. After that, two preliminary experiments in different distances are described. One is on CMM; the other is with grating ruler as reference. In the former, the maximum measurement error of coordinates is 70micrometers and the maximum error of length is 35micrometers in the 85x100x100mm3 measurement volume, and in the 1m initial distance. In the later, the maximum error of length is 140micrometers in the range of 480mm, and in the 5m initial distance. At the end of the paper, the error sources are analyzed and simulated.

  16. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Target Versus Low-Target Blood Pressure Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Prevent Cerebral Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars S; Langkilde, Annika; Paulson, Olaf B; Lange, Theis; Thomsen, Carsten; Olsen, Peter Skov; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Nilsson, Jens C

    2018-04-24

    Cerebral injury is an important complication after cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The rate of overt stroke after cardiac surgery is 1% to 2%, whereas silent strokes, detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, are found in up to 50% of patients. It is unclear whether a higher versus a lower blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral infarction in these patients. In a patient- and assessor-blinded randomized trial, we allocated patients to a higher (70-80 mm Hg) or lower (40-50 mm Hg) target for mean arterial pressure by the titration of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass. Pump flow was fixed at 2.4 L·min -1 ·m -2 . The primary outcome was the total volume of new ischemic cerebral lesions (summed in millimeters cubed), expressed as the difference between diffusion-weighted imaging conducted preoperatively and again postoperatively between days 3 and 6. Secondary outcomes included diffusion-weighted imaging-evaluated total number of new ischemic lesions. Among the 197 enrolled patients, mean (SD) age was 65.0 (10.7) years in the low-target group (n=99) and 69.4 (8.9) years in the high-target group (n=98). Procedural risk scores were comparable between groups. Overall, diffusion-weighted imaging revealed new cerebral lesions in 52.8% of patients in the low-target group versus 55.7% in the high-target group ( P =0.76). The primary outcome of volume of new cerebral lesions was comparable between groups, 25 mm 3 (interquartile range, 0-118 mm 3 ; range, 0-25 261 mm 3 ) in the low-target group versus 29 mm 3 (interquartile range, 0-143 mm 3 ; range, 0-22 116 mm 3 ) in the high-target group (median difference estimate, 0; 95% confidence interval, -25 to 0.028; P =0.99), as was the secondary outcome of number of new lesions (1 [interquartile range, 0-2; range, 0-24] versus 1 [interquartile range, 0-2; range, 0-29] respectively; median difference estimate, 0; 95% confidence interval, 0-0; P =0

  18. Shareholder‘s derivate action: "ex lege" measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalonienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second article on the topic related to the shareholder‘s derivate action. After evaluating the key general aspects of the shareholder’s derivate action (e.g. concept, rationale and goals) with respect to the Lithuanian Corporate Law, this article analyzes some ex lege protective measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse in bringing shareholder‘s derivate action as well as evaluates need to revise the related Lithuanian legislation. The focus of the article is, first, on spec...

  19. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  20. Taking measures in times of crisis: The political economy of obesity prevention in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    GRACIA ARNAIZ, MARIA ISABEL

    2017-01-01

    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.01.001 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919217300258 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI This article reports on a qualitative analysis of the measures proposed at the international level, but with a special focus on those adopted in Spain during the last decade. Analyzing biomedical definition of obesity as an epidemic and costly disease, this text aims is to unpack the conceptual structure of the obesity prevention model...

  1. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  3. High-Target vs Low-Target Blood Pressure Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Prevent Cerebral Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2018-01-01

    .71). No significant difference was observed in frequency of severe adverse events. Conclusions -Among patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery, targeting a higher versus a lower MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass did not seem to affect the volume or numbers of new cerebral infarcts. Clinical Trial Registration -URL...

  4. A Novel Detection Method for Underwater Moving Targets by Measuring Their ELF Emissions with Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel detection method for underwater moving targets by detecting their extremely low frequency (ELF emissions with inductive sensors. The ELF field source of the targets is modeled by a horizontal electric dipole at distances more than several times of the targets’ length. The formulas for the fields produced in air are derived with a three-layer model (air, seawater and seafloor and are evaluated with a complementary numerical integration technique. A proof of concept measurement is presented. The ELF emissions from a surface ship were detected by inductive electronic and magnetic sensors as the ship was leaving a harbor. ELF signals are of substantial strength and have typical characteristic of harmonic line spectrum, and the fundamental frequency has a direct relationship with the ship’s speed. Due to the high sensitivity and low noise level of our sensors, it is capable of resolving weak ELF signals at long distance. In our experiment, a detection distance of 1300 m from the surface ship above the sea surface was realized, which shows that this method would be an appealing complement to the usual acoustic detection and magnetic anomaly detection capability.

  5. The influence of target and sample properties on nuclear data measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1988-10-01

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on The Influence of Target and Sample Properties on Nuclear Data Measurements was held at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, during the week 5-9 September 1988. The AGM (hereafter ''Meeting'') was held concurrently during the 14th World Conference (hereafter ''Conference'') of the International Nuclear Target Development Society (INTDS) in co-operation with the IAEA-International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC). The Meeting's special sessions (5th, 7th and 9th September 1988) were held to review and prepare the summary of the papers presented to the Conference and recommendations on the objectives of the AGM. The contributed papers to the Conference are to be published in the Journal Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physical Research. The contributed notes to the Meeting's special sessions together with the summary of the contributed papers by the Agency's invitees and the discussions during the Meeting's special sessions and the recommendations are issued in this report. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Miniature proportional counter for compression measurements of laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, S.M.; Dellis, J.H.; Bennett, C.K.; Campbell, E.M.

    1981-10-01

    Direct drive laser fusion targets consisting of DT gas encapsulated in glass microshells produce 14.1 MeV neutrons that can interact with silicon-28 nuclei in the glass to produce a 2.2 minute aluminum-28 activity. From the number of 28 Al nuclei created and the neutron yield, the compressed glass areal density can be found. To determine the number of activated atoms created, we collect approximately one-half of the target debris on a thin metal foil which is transferred to our beta-gamma coincidence detector. This detector consists of a 25 cm x 25 cm NaI(Tl) crystal having a 5 cm x 15 cm well. We have recently built a miniature proportional counter that fits into this well and is used to detect beta particles. It is constructed of .025 cm thick copper and has nine separate chambers through which methane flows. The coincidence background is 0.14 cpm and the measured beta efficiency is 45%. We are now building a .0125 cm thick counter made of aluminum having a predicted efficiency of > 90%

  7. Measurement of Gas and Volatile Elements Production Cross Section in a Molten Lead-Bismuth Target

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    MEGAPIE is a project for a 1 MW liquid PbBi spallation source, to be built at the SINQ facility at the Paul Scherrer Institut, which will be an important step in the roadmap towards the demonstration of the ADS concept and high power molten metal targets in general. In the design and construction of such a challenging project it is extremely important to evaluate the amount and type of gas and volatile elements which will be produced, for a reliable and safe operation of the experiment. Both stable (H, $^{4}$He and other noble gases) and radioactive isotopes are of interest. Currently, different design options are under consideration to deal with the gas produced during operation. \\\\ For a correct estimation of the production cross sections, a measurement with a liquid PbBi target and a proton beam of energy close to the one of MEGAPIE (575 MeV) is necessary. We would like to use the ISOLDE facility, which offers the unique opportunity via its mass spectrometric analysis of the elements present in the gas pha...

  8. What should be measured in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strokovskij, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    At present, two different approaches are used for interpretation of inclusive data on deuteron breakup with emission of protons-fragments at zero degree by hadrons. According to one of them the observed characteristics of this reaction (cross sections, polarization observables) are determined by the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure at short distances (in the commonly accepted sense) plays a minor role. According to the other approach it is the deuteron structure at short distances which determines the observed trend of the data. Neither of these approaches can describe the data even qualitatively in the whole investigated region of kinematical variables, having particular success for some narrow region corresponding to long distances. Installation of the polarized proton target at LHE (Laboratory of High Energies) JINR opens an opportunity to perform a rather simple experiment which could discriminate one of these completing approaches. The idea of this experiment is discussed in the present paper. Measurement of the observable suggested here is a particular example of a general problem of a search for spin correlations in inelastic reactions between particles separated well in 4-velocity or rapidity spaces. In our particular case correlations of spin degrees of freedom between particles, one of which is in the target fragmentation region and the other belongs to the projectile fragmentation region, are discussed. 10 refs., 1 fig

  9. Perceived Changes in Well-Being: The Role of Chronological Age, Target Age, and Type of Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Dittburner, Julie L.; Huff, Barbara P.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate whether perceived changes in one's well-being from the present to the future are related to chronological age, target age, and type of measure (psychological well-being versus life satisfaction). Young adults (N = 114) rated their current well-being and their future well-being at one of three target ages…

  10. A high content, high throughput cellular thermal stability assay for measuring drug-target engagement in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Determining and understanding drug target engagement is critical for drug discovery. This can be challenging within living cells as selective readouts are often unavailable. Here we describe a novel method for measuring target engagement in living cells based on the principle of altered protein thermal stabilization / destabilization in response to ligand binding. This assay (HCIF-CETSA) utilizes high content, high throughput single cell immunofluorescent detection to determine target protein levels following heating of adherent cells in a 96 well plate format. We have used target engagement of Chk1 by potent small molecule inhibitors to validate the assay. Target engagement measured by this method was subsequently compared to target engagement measured by two alternative methods (autophosphorylation and CETSA). The HCIF-CETSA method appeared robust and a good correlation in target engagement measured by this method and CETSA for the selective Chk1 inhibitor V158411 was observed. However, these EC50 values were 23- and 12-fold greater than the autophosphorylation IC50. The described method is therefore a valuable advance in the CETSA method allowing the high throughput determination of target engagement in adherent cells.

  11. HARP targets pion production cross section and yield measurements. Implications for MiniBooNE neutrino flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickremasinghe, Don Athula Abeyarathna [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of the muon neutrino flux from a 71.0 cm long beryllium target for the MiniBooNE experiment is based on a measured pion production cross section which was taken from a short beryllium target (2.0 cm thick - 5% nuclear interaction length) in the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment at CERN. To verify the extrapolation to our longer target, HARP also measured the pion production from 20.0 cm and 40.0 cm beryllium targets. The measured production yields, d2Nπ± (p; θ )=dpd Ω, on targets of 50% and 100% nuclear interaction lengths in the kinematic rage of momentum from 0.75 GeV/c to 6.5 GeV/c and the range of angle from 30 mrad to 210 mrad are presented along with an update of the short target cross sections. The best fitted extended Sanford-Wang (SW) model parameterization for updated short beryllium target π+ production cross section is presented. Yield measurements for all three targets are also compared with that from the Monte Carlo predictions in the MiniBooNE experiment for different SW parameterization. The comparisons of vμ flux predictions for updated SW model is presented.

  12. Light-reflection random-target method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of a digital video-camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Jakubík, P.; Machala, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 573-585 ISSN 0030-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : random-target measuring method * light-reflection white - noise target * digital video camera * modulation transfer function * power spectral density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.395, year: 2005

  13. International target values 2000 for measurement uncertainties in safeguarding nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, H.; Binner, R.; Kuhn, E.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA has prepared a revised and updated version of International Target Values (ITVs) for uncertainty components in measurements of nuclear material. The ITVs represent uncertainties to be considered in judging the reliability of analytical techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile material subject to safeguards verification. The tabulated values represent estimates of the 'state of the practice' which ought to be achievable under routine conditions by adequately equipped, experienced laboratories. The ITVs 2000 are intended to be used by plant operators and safeguards organizations as a reference of the quality of measurements achievable in nuclear material accountancy, and for planning purposes. The IAEA prepared a draft of a technical report presenting the proposed ITVs 2000, and in April 2000 the chairmen or officers of the panels or organizations listed below were invited to co- author the report and to submit the draft to a discussion by their panels and organizations. Euratom Safeguards Inspectorate, ESAKDA Working Group on Destructive Analysis, ESARDA Working Group on Non Destructive Analysis, Institute of Nuclear Material Management, Japanese Expert Group on ITV-2000, ISO Working Group on Analyses in Spent Fuel Reprocessing, ISO Working Group on Analyses in Uranium Fuel Fabrication, ISO Working Group on Analyses in MOX Fuel Fabrication, Agencia Brasileno-Argentina de Contabilidad y Control de Materiales Nucleares (ABACC). Comments from the above groups were received and incorporated into the final version of the document, completed in April 2001. The ITVs 2000 represent target standard uncertainties, expressing the precision achievable under stipulated conditions. These conditions typically fall in one of the two following categories: 'repeatability conditions' normally encountered during the measurements done within one inspection period; or 'reproducibility conditions' involving additional sources of measurement variability such as

  14. Neonicotinoid insecticides negatively affect performance measures of non‐target terrestrial arthropods: a meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Goyne, Keith W.; Mengel, Doreen C.

    2018-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are currently the fastest‐growing and most widely used insecticide class worldwide. Valued for their versatility in application, these insecticides may cause deleterious effects in a range of non‐target (beneficial) arthropods. However, it remains unclear whether strong patterns exist in terms of their major effects, if broad measures of arthropod performance are negatively affected, or whether different functional groups are equally vulnerable. Here, we present a meta‐analysis of 372 observations from 44 field and laboratory studies that describe neonicotinoid effects on 14 arthropod orders across five broad performance measures: abundance, behavior, condition, reproductive success, and survival. Across studies, neonicotinoids negatively affected all performance metrics evaluated; however, magnitude of the effects varied. Arthropod behavior and survival were the most negatively affected and abundance was the least negatively affected. Effects on arthropod functional groups were inconsistent. Pollinator condition, reproductive success, and survival were significantly lower in neonicotinoid treatments compared to untreated controls; whereas, neonicotinoid effects on detritivores were not significant. Although magnitude of arthropod response to neonicotinoids varied among performance measures and functional groups, we documented a consistent negative relationship between exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides in published studies and beneficial arthropod performance.

  15. Analyzing power measurements for the (π+,π0) reaction on a polarized 13C target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, J.J.

    1991-05-01

    The analyzing powers A y differential cross sections dσ/dΩ for the reaction 13 C(π + ,π 0 ) 13 N have been measured for forward scattering angles at an incident pion kinetic energy of T pi + = 163 MeV by using a transversely polarized target. Analyzing powers and reaction cross sections impose stringent constrains on nuclear reaction models and can be used to test the present understanding of nuclear structure for 1p-shell nuclei. The resulting A y are compared to the predictions of first-order Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) calculations, which reproduce well the differential cross sections. Although there is qualitative agreement at forward angles, the quantitative agreement is poor, especially at scattering angles larger than 50 degrees. Since the DWIA calculations do not appear to be strongly sensitive to the assumed nuclear structure model, the discrepancy in describing the analyzing powers suggests that the reaction mechanism may not yet be well understood and higher order corrections may be important. Also measured were the analyzing powers for the elementary charge exchange reaction π - bar p → π degrees n over the same angular range and at an incident pion kinetic energy of T pi - = 161 MeV. The results are compared to the most recents phase shift predictions. Within the experimental uncertainties, phase shift calculations agree with the measured A y and no changes in the πN phase shifts near the P 33 resonance are needed to describe the data

  16. Maximising the Opportunity for Healthy Ageing: Online Mental Health Measurement and Targeted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, Matthew; Bartholomaeus, Jonathan; Jarden, Aaron; van Agteren, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Longevity is a valuable resource for society, as older people are increasingly looking for new ways to contribute after retirement. Their contribution is however dependent upon their physical health, mental health and wellbeing. The potential role that mental health and wellbeing, two separate but interrelated constructs, play often are both under-recognised and insufficiently targeted. Positive ageing is a positive and constructive view of ageing, where older people actively work on maintaining a positive attitude, work towards keeping fit and healthy, and strive to maximize their wellbeing. Interventions stimulating positive ageing show promising results for both mental health and wellbeing, and telehealth can play an important role in improving the reach and effectiveness of positive ageing interventions. Telehealth solutions can also help researchers reliably measure and better understand the drivers of wellbeing at individual and population levels; results that can both form the basis for advancing the field of positive ageing and help inform public policy.

  17. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppi M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  18. A new measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on a transversely polarised deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Ageev, E.S.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Becker, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Bytchkov, V.N.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; dHose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Demchenko, D.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; He, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Horn, I.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanchin, I.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, D.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Krivokhizhin, G.V.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kubart, J.; Kuhn, R.; Kukhtin, V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.E.; Lamanna, M.; Goff, J.M.Le; Leberig, M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Masek, L.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Matthia, D.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nozdrin, A.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schroeder, W.; Schoenmeier, P.; Seeharsch, D.; Seimetz, M.; Setter, D.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.-W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Toeda, T.; Trippel, S.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    New high precision measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on a transversely polarised 6LiD target are presented. The data were taken in 2003 and 2004 with the COMPASS spectrometer using the muon beam of the CERN SPS at 160 GeV/c. Both the Collins and Sivers asymmetries turn out to be compatible with zero, within the present statistical errors, which are more than a factor of 2 smaller than those of the published COMPASS results from the 2002 data. The final results from the 2002, 2003 and 2004 runs are compared with naive expectations and with existing model calculations

  19. Measurements of the divergence of fast electrons in laser-irradiated spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Solodov, A. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Delettrez, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent experiments using directly driven spherical targets on the OMEGA laser system, the energy in fast electrons was found to reach ∼1% of the laser energy at an irradiance of ∼1.1 × 10 15 W/cm 2 . The fraction of these fast electrons absorbed in the compressed fuel shell depends on their angular divergence. This paper describes measurements of this divergence deduced from a series of shots where Mo-coated shells of increasing diameter (D) were suspended within an outer CH shell. The intensity of the Mo–Kα line and the hard x-ray radiation were found to increase approximately as ∼D 2 , indicating wide divergence of the fast electrons. Alternative interpretations of these results (electron scattering, radiation excitation of Kα, and an electric field due to return current) are shown to be unimportant

  20. Measurement of strange particle production in the NICA fixed-target programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Volker [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Strange particles provide a sensitive tool to study the dense and hot matter created in relativistic nuclear collisions. Although strangeness production in such collisions has been a topic of experimental and theoretical research for many years, its understanding is far from being complete. This holds in particular for multi-strange hyperons and for lower collision energies as relevant for NICA and FAIR. Multi-strange particles, being sensitive to both the mechanism of strangeness production and the net-baryon density, are expected to shed light on the state of the created matter and to indicate possible transitions to new phases of strongly interacting matter. We thus advocate the measurement of hyperons and φ mesons in a fixed-target experiment at NICA (BM rate at N), which can be achieved by a relatively compact detector system. (orig.)

  1. Genetic Targeting of Arginase-II in Mouse Prevents Renal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Rajapakse, Angana; Xiong, Yuyan; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Verrey, François; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I) and arginase-II (Arg-II) in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial. We aimed to investigate the role of Arg-II in renal damage associated with diet-induced obesity mouse model. Wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient in Arg-II gene (Arg-II -/- ) were fed with either a normal chow (NC) or a high-fat-diet (HFD) for 14 weeks (starting at the age of 7 weeks) to induce obesity. In WT mice, HFD feeding caused frequent renal lipid accumulation, enhancement of renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which could be attenuated by a NOS inhibitor, suggesting uncoupling of NOS in kidney. HFD feeding also significantly augmented renal Arg-II expression and activity. All the alterations in the kidney under HFD feeding were reduced in Arg-II -/- mice. Moreover, mesangial expansion as analyzed by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and renal expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HFD-fed WT mouse assessed by immunoblotting were reduced in the HFD-fed Arg-II -/- mice, although there was no significant difference in body weight and renal weight/body weight ratio between the WT and Arg-II -/- mice. Thus, Arg-II expression/activity is enhanced in kidney of diet-induced obesity mice. Genetic targeting of Arg-II prevents renal damage associated with obesity, suggesting an important role of Arg-II in obesity-associated renal disease development.

  2. Genetic Targeting of Arginase-II in Mouse Prevents Renal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Recent evidence demonstrates that enhanced levels of the L-arginine:ureahydrolase, including the two isoenzymes arginase-I (Arg-I and arginase-II (Arg-II in vascular endothelial cells promote uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, leading to increased superoxide radical anion and decreased NO production thereby endothelial dysfunction. Arg-II but not Arg-I is abundantly expressed in kidney and the role of Arg-II in CKD is uncertain and controversial. We aimed to investigate the role of Arg-II in renal damage associated with diet-induced obesity mouse model. Wild type (WT C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient in Arg-II gene (Arg-II-/- were fed with either a normal chow (NC or a high-fat-diet (HFD for 14 weeks (starting at the age of 7 weeks to induce obesity. In WT mice, HFD feeding caused frequent renal lipid accumulation, enhancement of renal ROS levels which could be attenuated by a NOS inhibitor, suggesting uncoupling of NOS in kidney. HFD feeding also significantly augmented renal Arg-II expression and activity. All the alterations in the kidney under HFD feeding were reduced in Arg-II-/- mice. Moreover, mesangial expansion as analysed by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining and renal expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in HFD-fed WT mouse assessed by immunoblotting were reduced in the HFD-fed Arg-II-/- mice, although there was no significant difference in body weight and renal weight/body weight ratio between the WT and Arg-II-/- mice. Thus, Arg-II expression/activity is enhanced in kidney of diet-induced obesity mice. Genetic targeting of Arg-II prevents renal damage associated with obesity, suggesting an important role of Arg-II in obesity-associated renal disease development.

  3. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  4. Targeting Health Care Through Preventive Work - A study of the impact of social distance on professionals’ judgments of children and families’ need of health improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    care access. The political response has been to target health services to ‘those in need of special care’ through a more intense focus on prevention. The idea is to prevent illness instead of curing it. I study the impact of these new rules on the frontline level where home nurses, pedagogues......It is widely recognized that health care is in a state of crisis. Increased public spending and a decline in support towards poor-resourced people dominate as standard explanations. In Denmark, a welfare state with universal health care, the crisis has led to an adjustment of the universal health...

  5. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  6. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  9. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Measurement of Isobaric Analogue Resonances of 47Ar with the Active-Target Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joshua William

    While the nuclear shell model accurately describes the structure of nuclei near stability, the structure of unstable, neutron-rich nuclei is still an area of active research. One region of interest is the set of nuclei near N=28. The shell model suggests that these nuclei should be approximately spherical due to the shell gap predicted by their magic number of neutrons; however, experiments have shown that the nuclei in this region rapidly become deformed as protons are removed from the spherical 48Ca. This makes 46Ar a particularly interesting system as it lies in a transition region between 48Ca and lighter isotones that are known to be deformed. An experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to measure resonant proton scattering on 46Ar. The resonances observed in this reaction correspond to unbound levels in the 47K intermediate state nucleus which are isobaric analogues of states in the 47Ar nucleus. By measuring the spectroscopic factors of these states in 47Ar, we gain information about the single-particle structure of this system, which is directly related to the size of the N=28 shell gap. Four resonances were observed: one corresponding to the ground state in 47Ar, one corresponding its first excited 1/2- state, and two corresponding to 1/2+ states in either 47Ar or the intermediate state nucleus. However, only a limited amount of information about these states could be recovered due to the low experimental statistics and limited angular resolution caused by pileup rejection and the inability to accurately reconstruct the beam particle track. In addition to the nuclear physics motivations, this experiment served as the radioactive beam commissioning for the Active-Target Time Projection Chamber (AT-TPC). The AT-TPC is a new gas-filled charged particle detector built at the NSCL to measure low-energy radioactive beams from the ReA3 facility. Since the gas inside the detector serves as both the tracking medium and

  11. Feasibility and effectiveness of a targeted diabetes prevention program for 18 to 60-year-old South Asian migrants: design and methods of the DH!AAN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaar Everlina MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian migrants are at particularly high risk of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have shown that intensive lifestyle interventions may prevent the onset of diabetes. Such interventions have not been culturally adapted and evaluated among South Asians in industrialized countries. Therefore, we have set up a randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of a targeted lifestyle intervention for the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among 18 to 60-year-old Hindustani Surinamese (South Asians in The Hague, the Netherlands. Here we present the study design and describe the characteristics of those recruited. Methods Between May 18, 2009 and October 11, 2010, we screened 2307 Hindustani Surinamese (18–60 years old living in The Hague. We sent invitations to participate to those who had an impaired fasting glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, an impaired glucose tolerance of 7.8-11.0 mmol/L, a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or more and/or a value of 2.39 or more for the homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance. In total, 536 people (56.1% of those eligible participated. People with a higher level of education and a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to participate. The control and intervention groups were similar with regard to important background characteristics. The intervention group will receive a culturally targeted intervention consisting of dietary counseling using motivational interviewing and a supervised physical activity program. The control group will receive generic lifestyle advice. To determine the effectiveness, a physical examination (anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory test, lipid profile, and measures of oral glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin and interview (physical activity, diet, quality of life, and intermediate outcomes were carried out at baseline and will be repeated at 1 year and 2 years. The process and the

  12. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Use of preventive measures for air travel-related venous thrombosis in professionals who attend medical conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, S.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Büller, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lack of guidelines for prevention of air travel-related venous thrombosis may lead to excessive use of potentially dangerous precautions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of preventive measures for air travel-related thrombosis in professionals employed in the field of thrombosis and

  14. Guidelines on suicide prevention measures for South Korea and Japan based on recent suicide trends: the need to utilize this approach to devise future suicide prevention measures for the rest of asia and the rest of the world

    OpenAIRE

    INOUE K.; CHAIZHUNUSOVA N.; HOSHI M.; NOSO Y.; TAKEICHI N.; OSPANOVA N.; MOLDAGALIEV T.; SARSEMBINA ZH.; KALIEVA A.; JAMEDINOVA U.; CHEGEDEKOVA SH.; SHARAPIYEVA A.; BITEBAYEVA D.; RAKHYPBEKOV T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Devising and implementing effective suicide prevention measures is an urgent matter for countries around the world. South Korea and Japan have some of the world’s highest suicide rates, so the current study examined more effective suicide prevention measures for those countries with a focus on recent suicide rates by age group. Materials and Methods: This study examined the suicide rate for each sex by age group in South Korea and Japan in 2009 and 2012, and this study then calc...

  15. Healthy weight regulation and eating disorder prevention in high school students: a universal and targeted Web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan; Taylor Lynch, Katherine; Kass, Andrea E; Burrows, Amanda; Williams, Joanne; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2014-02-27

    Given the rising rates of obesity in children and adolescents, developing evidence-based weight loss or weight maintenance interventions that can be widely disseminated, well implemented, and are highly scalable is a public health necessity. Such interventions should ensure that adolescents establish healthy weight regulation practices while also reducing eating disorder risk. This study describes an online program, StayingFit, which has two tracks for universal and targeted delivery and was designed to enhance healthy living skills, encourage healthy weight regulation, and improve weight/shape concerns among high school adolescents. Ninth grade students in two high schools in the San Francisco Bay area and in St Louis were invited to participate. Students who were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile) were offered the weight management track of StayingFit; students who were normal weight were offered the healthy habits track. The 12-session program included a monitored discussion group and interactive self-monitoring logs. Measures completed pre- and post-intervention included self-report height and weight, used to calculate BMI percentile for age and sex and standardized BMI (zBMI), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) nutrition data, the Weight Concerns Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A total of 336 students provided informed consent and were included in the analyses. The racial breakdown of the sample was as follows: 46.7% (157/336) multiracial/other, 31.0% (104/336) Caucasian, 16.7% (56/336) African American, and 5.7% (19/336) did not specify; 43.5% (146/336) of students identified as Hispanic/Latino. BMI percentile and zBMI significantly decreased among students in the weight management track. BMI percentile and zBMI did not significantly change among students in the healthy habits track, demonstrating that these students maintained their weight. Weight/shape concerns significantly decreased among participants in

  16. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  17. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  18. Multi probes measurements at the PALS Facility Research Centre during high intense laser pulse interactions with various target materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the interaction of high intense laser pulse with solid target, a large amount of hot electrons is produced and a giant Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP is generated due to the current flowing into the system target–target holder, as well as due to the escaping charged particles in vacuum. EMP production for different target materials is investigated inside and outside the target chamber, using monopole antenna, super wide-band microstrip antenna and Moebius antenna. The EMP consists in a fast transient magnetic field lasting hundreds of nanosecond with frequencies ranging from MHz to tens of GHz. Measurements of magnetic field and return target current in the range of kA were carried out by an inductive target probe (Cikhardt J. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014 103507.

  19. Measurements of neutron spectrum from stopping-length target irradiated by several tens-MeV/u particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tanaka, Susumu; Shin, Kazuo; Ono, Shinji

    1997-03-01

    Using a Time-of-Flight technique, we have measured neutron spectra from stopping-length targets bombarded with 68-MeV protons and 100-MeV {alpha}-particles. The measured spectra were used to validate the results calculated by the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) plus Statistical Decay Model (SDM). The results of QMD plus SDM code agreed fairly well with the experimental data for the light target. On the other hand, the QMD plus SDM gives a larger value than the experimental for the heavy target. (author)

  20. Measuring fusion excitation functions with RIBs: A thorough analysis of the stacked target technique and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Marchetta, C.; Shotter, A. C.; Lattuada, M.; Torresi, D.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of the stacked target technique to measure fusion cross-sections of reactions induced by low intensity radioactive beams offers considerable advantages since several reaction energies may be simultaneously measured. The main disadvantage of the method is the degradation of the beam quality as it passes through the stack due to statistical nature of energy loss processes and any non-uniformity of the stacked targets. This degradation can lead to ambiguities of associating effective beam energies to reaction product yields for the targets within the stack. A detailed investigation of these ambiguities has been performed and some of the obtained results are presented

  1. New Target for an Old Method: Hubble Measures Globular Cluster Parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-05-01

    Measuring precise distances to faraway objects has long been a challenge in astrophysics. Now, one of the earliest techniques used to measure the distance to astrophysical objects has been applied to a metal-poor globular cluster for the first time.A Classic TechniqueAn artists impression of the European Space Agencys Gaia spacecraft. Gaia is on track to map the positions and motions of a billion stars. [ESA]Distances to nearby stars are often measured using the parallax technique tracing the tiny apparent motion of a target star against the background of more distant stars as Earth orbits the Sun. This technique has come a long way since it was first used in the 1800s to measure the distance to stars a few tens of light-years away; with the advent of space observatories like Hipparcos and Gaia, parallax can now be used to map the positions of stars out to thousands of light-years.Precise distance measurements arent only important for setting the scale of the universe, however; they can also help us better understand stellar evolution over the course of cosmic history. Stellar evolution models are often anchored to a reference star cluster, the properties of which must be known precisely. These precise properties can be readily determined for young, nearby open clusters using parallax measurements. But stellar evolution models that anchor on themore-distant, ancient, metal-poor globular clusters have been hampered by theless-precise indirect methods used tomeasure distance to these faraway clusters until now.Top: An image of NGC 6397 overlaid with the area scanned by Hubble (dashed green) and the footprint of the camera (solid green). The blue ellipse represents the parallax motion of a star in the cluster, exaggerated by a factor of ten thousand. Bottom: An example scan from this field. [Adapted from Brown et al. 2018]New Measurement to an Old ClusterThomas Brown (Space Telescope Science Institute) and collaborators used the Hubble Space Telescope todetermine the

  2. "Until people start dying in droves, no actions will be taken": perception and experience of HIV-preventive measures among people who inject drugs in northwestern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakhs, Peter; Aasland, Aadne; Grønningsæter, Arne

    2017-06-05

    The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions. The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: "personal fatalism" - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; "prevention-related fatalism" - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; "state-related fatalism" - the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are "really working" with risk groups. As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in

  3. The Road Ahead to Cure Alzheimer’s Disease: Development of Biological Markers and Neuroimaging Methods for Prevention Trials Across all Stages and Target Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavedo, E.; Lista, S.; Khachaturian, Z.; Aisen, P.; Amouyel, P.; Herholz, K.; Jack, C.R.; Sperling, R.; Cummings, J.; Blennow, K.; O’Bryant, S.; Frisoni, G.B.; Khachaturian, A.; Kivipelto, M.; Klunk, W.; Broich, K.; Andrieu, S.; de Schotten, M. Thiebaut; Mangin, J.-F.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Johnson, K.; Teipel, S.; Drzezga, A.; Bokde, A.; Colliot, O.; Bakardjian, H.; Zetterberg, H.; Dubois, B.; Vellas, B.; Schneider, L.S.; Hampel, H.

    2015-01-01

    techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in regions of interest, such as the hippocampus and in an exploratory fashion, observer and hypothesis-indedendent, throughout the entire brain. Evolving modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and advanced tractography as well as resting-state functional MRI provide useful additionally useful measures indicating the degree of fiber tract and neural network disintegration (structural, effective and functional connectivity) that may substantially contribute to early detection and the mapping of progression. These modalities require further standardization and validation. The use of molecular in vivo amyloid imaging agents (the fifth validated biomarker), such as the Pittsburgh Compound-B and markers of neurodegeneration, such as fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) (as the sixth validated biomarker) support the detection of early AD pathological processes and associated neurodegeneration. How to use, interpret, and disclose biomarker results drives the need for optimized standardization. Multimodal AD biomarkers do not evolve in an identical manner but rather in a sequential but temporally overlapping fashion. Models of the temporal evolution of AD biomarkers can take the form of plots of biomarker severity (degree of abnormality) versus time. AD biomarkers can be combined to increase accuracy or risk. A list of genetic risk factors is increasingly included in secondary prevention trials to stratify and select individuals at genetic risk of AD. Although most of these biomarker candidates are not yet qualified and approved by regulatory authorities for their intended use in drug trials, they are nonetheless applied in ongoing clinical studies for the following functions: (i) inclusion/exclusion criteria, (ii) patient stratification, (iii) evaluation of treatment effect, (iv) drug target engagement, and (v) safety. Moreover, novel promising hypothesis-driven, as well as exploratory biochemical, genetic

  4. Adoption of preventive measures during and after the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic peak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Fernando; Adell, Manel Nebot; Pérez Giménez, Anna; López Medina, María José; Garcia Continente, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the preventive measures adopted by the Spanish population towards 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and their associated factors. An anonymous computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted in Spain in December 2009 and February 2010. Respondents were asked about their perceptions of influenza A (H1N1) virus and the preventive measures adopted. Factors associated with the adoption of preventive measures were assessed by logistic regression analyses. Out of 4892 households approached, 1627 valid responses were obtained (response rate of 33.3%). The most commonly adopted preventive measures were respiratory hygiene and hand washing. Factors independently associated with the adoption of the preventive measures recommended by the Spanish Ministry of Health were female gender, higher educational level, size of municipality of residence >50,000 inhabitants, high perceived susceptibility to infection, high perceived effectiveness of the measures and high perceived usefulness of the information provided by the government. The presence of school-aged children in household was associated with purchasing masks and hand sanitizer. In addition to demographic factors, modifiable factors such as personal beliefs and expectations play a role in the adoption of preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Structure Function Using Polarized HE-3 Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X

    2004-01-05

    Using a 48.6 GeV polarized electron beam scattering off a polarized {sup 3}He target at Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), they measured the neutron spin structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} over kinematic(x) ranging 0.014 < x <0.7 and 1 < Q{sup 2} < 17GeV{sup 2}. The measurement gave the integral result over the neutron spin structure function {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} g{sub 1}{sup n}(x)dx = -0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat) {+-} 0.005(syst) at an average Q{sup 2} = 5GeV{sup 2}. Along with the proton results from SLAC E143 experiment (0.03 < x) and SMC experiment (0.014 < x < 0.03), they find the Bjorken sum rule appears to be largely saturated by the data integrated down to x of 0.014. However, they observe relatively large values for g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x. The result calls into question the usual methods (Regge theory) for extrapolating to x = 0 to find the full neutron integral {integral}{sub 0}{sup t} g{sub 1}{sup n}(x) dx, needed for testing the Quark-Parton Model (QMP).

  7. Target values for nuclear material safeguards measurements - motivation or burden to operators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Kuhn, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    The analytical determination of material streams and inventories plays an important part in those nuclear facilities called bulk-handling facilities in safeguards terminology. Reprocessing plants and mixed-oxide fabrication facilities are typical examples. With respect to their safeguards, the relevant regulations attach fundamental importance to material accountancy. The balance itself is examined by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors and within the boundaries of the European Communities by Euratom inspectors as well, with regard to formal correctness. The analytical methods of accountancy in, for example, reprocessing plants, make high demands on the qualifications of the analyst. A conscientious analyst will, of course, try to fulfill his task as well and effectively as possible. These target values will become a burden, however, when they have been drawn up for purely scientific interest and the operator has been urged to achieve them on the pretext of improving safeguards. There are basically two reasons for which the authors have misgivings in this respect. First, the measurement system, which the material balance is based on, has to conform to the latest international regulations. This could easily lead to a permanent obligation of updating for the plants concerned. Second, the goal quantities set by the IAEA will induce an attempt to adjust measurement techniques and chemical analysis to goals totally unsuitable for large-scale plants

  8. Measurement of the production of charged pions by protons on a tantalum target

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M.G.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, Malcolm; Robbins, S.; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjed, G.; Artamonov, A.; Arce, P.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; De Min, A.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential cross-section for the production of charged pions in proton--tantalum collisions emitted at large angles from the incoming beam direction is presented. The data were taken in 2002 with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a tantalum target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The angular and momentum range covered by the experiment ($100 \\MeVc \\le p < 800 \\MeVc$ and $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$) is of particular importance for the design of a neutrino factory. The produced particles were detected using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. Track recognition, momentum determination and particle identification were all performed based on the measurements made with the TPC. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results a...

  9. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  10. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  11. Finding the keys to successful adult-targeted advertisements on obesity prevention: an experimental audience testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; O'Hara, Blythe J; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-20

    Mass media communications are an important component of comprehensive interventions to address population levels of overweight and obesity, yet we have little understanding of the effective characteristics of specific advertisements (ads) on this topic. This study aimed to quantitatively test audience reactions to existing adult-focused public health television ads addressing overweight and obesity to determine which ads have the highest levels of message acceptance, argument strength, personalised perceived effectiveness and negative emotional impact. 1116 Australian adults aged 21-55 years recruited from a national online panel participated in this web-based study. Quotas were applied to achieve even numbers of males and females, those aged 21-29 years and 30-55 years, and those with a healthy weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) and overweight/obesity (BMI = 25+). Participants were randomly assigned to view and rate four of eight ads that varied in terms of message content (health consequences, supportive/encouraging or social norms/acceptability) and execution style (graphic, simulation/animation, positive or negative testimonial, or depicted scene). Toxic fat (a graphic, health consequences ad) was the top performing ad on all four outcome measures and was significantly more likely than the other ads tested to promote strong responses in terms of message acceptance, argument strength and negative emotional impact. Measure up (a negative testimonial, health consequences ad) performed comparably on personalised perceived effectiveness. Most ads produced stronger perceptions of personalised perceived effectiveness among participants with overweight/obesity compared to participants with healthy weight. Some ads were more likely to promote strong negative emotions among participants with overweight/obesity. Findings provide preliminary evidence of the most promising content and executional styles of ads that could be pursued as part of obesity prevention campaigns. Ads

  12. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  13. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  14. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  15. Results of using engineering and technological measures for rock burst prevention. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, A P; Nechaev, A V; Khmara, O I

    1980-01-01

    The paper evaluates methods for rock burst forecasting and rock burst prevention used in the Donbass, Kuzbass, Karaganda and Pechora basins. Forecasting methods are based on measuring the initial velocity of gas flow from test boreholes and/or quantity ratio of drillings leaving a test borehole and monitoring seismoacoustic signals. Number of working faces at which each of the methods for rock burst forecasting is used is given. Methods for rock burst prevention are comparatively evaluated: explosive fracturing of rocks in seam roof or seam floor, fluid injection (water and surfactants), drilling destressing boreholes, cutting destressing slots using cutting machines or water jets, mining protective coal seams first for reducing rock burst hazard in protected coal seams, using narrow web coal cutter loaders, remote control of coal cutters at working faces with extremely high rock burst hazard, using mining schemes which reduce rock burst hazards (e.g. long pillar mining system). From 1976 to 1979 number of rock bursts in underground coal mines in the USSR decreased by 5 times in comparison to the period 1961 to 1965. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  16. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates i