WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive measures including

  1. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  2. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  4. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  5. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  6. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  7. Pneumoconiosis in mines and preventive measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bouffant, L; Froger, C

    1978-01-01

    In the medical rules for the prevention of pneumoconiosis, workings are classified in six categories of risk, and personnel are classified into five groups for assignment to different categories of workings. Technical measures for preventing pneumoconiosis include suppression of dust by water infusion or spraying, and by appropriate adaptation of the conditions under which equipment is used. Dust can be removed from the air by collecting and dedusting systems and by the use of brattices.

  8. Promoting CARE: including parents in youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Walsh, Elaine; Pike, Kenneth C; Herting, Jerald R

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of augmenting a youth suicide-preventive intervention with a brief, home-based parent program. A total of 615 high school youth and their parents participated. Three suicide prevention protocols, a youth intervention, a parent intervention, and a combination of youth and parent intervention, were compared with an "intervention as usual" (IAU) group. All groups experienced a decline in risk factors and an increase in protective factors during the intervention period, and sustained these improvements over 15 months. Results reveal that the youth intervention and combined youth and parent intervention produced significantly greater reductions in suicide risk factors and increases in protective factors than IAU comparison group.

  9. Consideration of Including Male Circumcision in the Indonesian HIV Prevention Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Sutarsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction HIV/AIDS is an emerging threat to population health. Globally, 33.4 million people were estimated to be living with HIV in 2008 including 2.1 million children.1,2 The total number of new cases was estimated to be 2.7 million people (including 430,000 children and HIV/AIDS related death was estimated to be 2.0 million in 2008.1 Sustainable prevention measures followed by care, support and treatment program is vital to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  11. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  12. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  13. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  14. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    ) prevention and countering of threats to national security, by the Danish Security and Intelligence Service (PET). The last two elements are in line with measures adopted by the international community. The element (a) is well known in some countries; however, the Danish programme and in particular the so...

  15. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  16. TERMINATION OF RIGHT TO PREVENTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU MARIUS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive measures were binding, without, however, being procedural criminal sanctions or penalties and not run counter to the freedom of the individual and does not attack the principle of presumption of innocence. They ensure the good running of the criminal process, which has led to the inclusion of modern legislation in all imprisonment by way of judicial review, as a procesuala of the most severe.Termination of right to preventive measures shall designate by virtue of which the legal situation, whether in judicial activities involved some "incident" which recognizes ope legis effect subject to extinctive interpretation towards preventive measures, judicial bodies are required to cease such action.The judicial authority is obliged, therefore, to release the detained or arrested when there is one of the situations referred to in article 140 from the code of penal procedure.This study has proceeded from the need to standardise and judicial practice and the consistent application of the law in the matter of the termination of the preventive measures — as a guarantee of the respect for rights indispensable accused/defendant in criminal proceedings.Even if at first glance the law is clear and concise, however, judicial practice has passed different solutions, often giving the misinterpretation, and precisely why during the study I will present some of the most relevant solutions jurisprudenţiale, both published and unpublished, as well as the jurisprudence of the European Court of human rights, also commenting on his own option likely controversy.In view of these considerations in the present research wish to realize a complete documentation and jurisprudenţiala and doctrinara, trying to force through the comments made on the text of regulations and solutions given by courts to make a judgment necessary and useful to practitioners of law cases of cessation of the right to preventive measures.

  17. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these

  18. A systematic review of income generation interventions, including microfinance and vocational skills training, for HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Fonner, Virginia A.; O'Reilly, Kevin R.; Sweat, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990-2012, examining secondary references, and hand searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of 5,218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with 6 conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, 3 in South or Southeast Asia, and 3 in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N=6), female sex workers/bar workers (N=3), and youth/orphans (N=3). All studies targeted females except 2 among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with 2 group-randomized trials and 2 individual-randomized trials. All interventions except 3 included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these interventions may have important effects

  19. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  20. Measurements for testing of fluoroscopic screens, including the photofluorographic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, R.

    1986-01-01

    Image quality control measurements for fluoroscopic screens and photofluorographs have shown that both types of equipment have a long operating life, so that constancy and technical performance tests are absolutely necessary. It is recommended to conclude in-service maintenance contracts with the manufacturers. (DG) [de

  1. The surgical care improvement project and prevention of post-operative infection, including surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active

  2. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  3. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  4. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  5. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  6. Economic evaluation of occupational safety preventive measures in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Delfina G; Arezes, Pedro M; Afonso, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    When an organization performs an integrated analysis of risks through its Occupational Health and Safety Management System, several steps are suggested to address the implications of the identified risks. Namely, the organization should make a detailed analysis of the monetary impact for the organization of each of the preventive measures considered. However, it is also important to perform an analysis of the impact of each measure on society (externalities). The aim of this paper is to present a case study related to the application of the proposed economic evaluation methodology. An analysis of the work accidents in a hospital has been made. Three of the major types of accidents have been selected: needle stings, falls and excessive strain. Following the risk assessment, some preventive measures have been designed. Subsequently, the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C) of these measures has been calculated, both in financial terms (from the organization's perspective) and in economic terms (including the benefits for the worker and for the Society). While the financial ratio is only advantageous in some cases, when the externalities are taken into account, the B/C ratio increases significantly. It is important to consider external benefits to make decisions concerning the implementation of preventive measures in Occupational Health and Safety projects.

  7. Emergency response facilities including primary and secondary prevention strategies across 79 professional football clubs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-06-14

    To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  9. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  10. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  11. Security techniques for prevention of rank manipulation in social tagging services including robotic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Okkyung; Jung, Hanyoung; Moon, Seungbin

    2014-01-01

    With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them.

  12. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    OpenAIRE

    D. K. Ting; R. J. Brison

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston,...

  13. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  14. Predictive Role of Preventive Measures in Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Ejub; Gojak, Refet; Novakovic, Ana; Gazibera, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disease of modern life. Diabetic foot (DF) is the term for a foot of a patient suffering from DM with the potential risk of a number of pathological sequels, including infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue. Goal: To determine the importance of preventive measures to prevent the development of diabetic foot. Results: The gender structure of respondents categorized by the complication of DF (yes/no) was uniform. The average age was 60.15±12.2 years. Respondents without DF, 63% had 2 visits to the doctor a month, while in the group of those with DF, 39% of them had 3 visits to a doctor and 33% four or more times. Wearing comfortable shoes and foot hygiene in relation to the development of the DF are interdependent: c2=4,409; c2 = 12.47 (p <0.0005). Also, recurrent foot injury, and slow healing of sores in comparison to the development of the DF are mutually dependent; c2=13,195; c2=14 (p <0.0005). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant statistical relationship between preventive measures and development of the DF. PMID:26543412

  15. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  16. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  17. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  18. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  19. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  20. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.

  1. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  2. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  3. Information and preventive measures can reduce absenteeism during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Working during pregnancy may expose women to several risk factors. According to recent findings of the National Survey on Working Conditions, information at an early stage on the consequences of the pregnancy for the working capacity of pregnant women, as well as implementing preventive measures,

  4. Dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands, an evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to half the level of early school leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their effect at both the individual

  5. Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…

  6. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  7. RESISTANCE TO INNOVATION: ESSENCE, PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND WAYS OUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of school teachers’ resistance to innovations related to modernization procedures, updates of educational content, methods and forms. The rejection of innovations is regarded by the authors as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon; its roots and causes being analyzed including the consequences of some ineffective, poorly developed and even harmful innovations introduced or proposed by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. The research findings demonstrate different innovation barriers along with the resulting inner skepticism and its external manifestation. However, in spite of partially justified skepticism, the authors maintain that the firm resistance to any innovation adversely affects both the education quality and teachers’ personal and professional characteristics. In conclusion, the paper suggests some preventive measures for overcoming teachers’ resistance to positive innovations in educational practices, and describes a successful experience of one of the rural schools applying a psychological mechanism of internalization of innovations. Additionally, the role of the school principal in developing teachers’ motivation for innovations is emphasized.

  8. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  10. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  11. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  12. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  13. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Zahra; Shojaei, Esphandiar; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the potential benefits of ginger in preventing antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity have been evaluated in patients with tuberculosis. Patients in the ginger and placebo groups (30 patients in each group) received either 500 mg ginger (Zintoma)(®) or placebo one-half hour before each daily dose of antituberculosis drugs for 4 weeks. Patients' gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain) and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity were recorded during the study period. In this cohort, nausea was the most common antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Forty eight (80%) patients experienced nausea. Nausea was more common in the placebo than the ginger group [27 (90%) vs 21 (70%), respectively, p = 0.05]. During the study period, 16 (26.7%) patients experienced antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients in the ginger group experienced less, but not statistically significant, antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity than the placebo group (16.7% vs 36.7%, respectively, p = 0.07). In conclusion, ginger may be a potential option for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  16. The cost of providing combined prevention and treatment services, including ART, to female sex workers in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cianci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to

  17. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  18. A comparison of different ways of including baseline counts in negative binomial models for data from falls prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Kimber, Alan; Goodwin, Victoria A; Pickering, Ruth M

    2018-01-01

    A common design for a falls prevention trial is to assess falling at baseline, randomize participants into an intervention or control group, and ask them to record the number of falls they experience during a follow-up period of time. This paper addresses how best to include the baseline count in the analysis of the follow-up count of falls in negative binomial (NB) regression. We examine the performance of various approaches in simulated datasets where both counts are generated from a mixed Poisson distribution with shared random subject effect. Including the baseline count after log-transformation as a regressor in NB regression (NB-logged) or as an offset (NB-offset) resulted in greater power than including the untransformed baseline count (NB-unlogged). Cook and Wei's conditional negative binomial (CNB) model replicates the underlying process generating the data. In our motivating dataset, a statistically significant intervention effect resulted from the NB-logged, NB-offset, and CNB models, but not from NB-unlogged, and large, outlying baseline counts were overly influential in NB-unlogged but not in NB-logged. We conclude that there is little to lose by including the log-transformed baseline count in standard NB regression compared to CNB for moderate to larger sized datasets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    by fourteen measurement units, tapping into the dimensions of staff resources and community assets. Staff resources are, in turn, operationalized in terms of staff size, staff certification status, staff turnover rate, and the accreditation status of a provider agency. Community assets are operationalized by the number of community centers accessible to the funded agency, number of formalized teams or antidrug coalitions active in the catchment area, and other social/human services providers with whom the prevention agency has formalized networks. The totality of process output from all sources of program activities is reduced to eighteen classes of measures. These are operationalized by thirty-three summary measures. Some of these include: total count of events facilitated; total number of clients served; average number of clients served per event; clients served by single and multiple program sessions; classification of target population in terms of the severity of risk as defined by the Institute of Medicine; age groups and race/ethnicity of clients served; number of program participants retained by recurring programs; number of clients who have completed the program; penetration rates to the target population; client attrition rates; average referral rates per provider per time interval; referral success rates; and so on. All process output measures specified in the Platform are derived from two broad classes of events classified as either products or services. The collectivity of these measures is expected to present a cost-effective, parsimonious, yet comprehensive picture of the entire spectrum of the process output, i.e., "what came out of the program as program activities". For the measurement of performance outcomes, two types of data are incorporated into the Platform: outcome data from individuals and the behavior (or performance) of social indicators from aggregated data bases. Individual data are used to evaluate the outcome of substance abuse programs

  20. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of the uranium including calcium. Time resolved measurement spectroscopic analysis (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaoka, Katsuaki; Maruyama, Youichiro; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

    2010-05-01

    For the remote analysis of low DF TRU (Decontamination Factor Transuranic) fuel, Laser Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to uranium oxide including a small amount of calcium oxide. The characteristics, such as spectrum intensity and plasma excitation temperature, were measured using time-resolved spectroscopy. As a result, in order to obtain the stable intensity of calcium spectrum for the uranium spectrum, it was found out that the optimum observation delay time of spectrum is 4 microseconds or more after laser irradiation. (author)

  1. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  2. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  4. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  5. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  6. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  7. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    , Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637.......BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS...

  8. Commentary on guidelines for radiation measurement and treatment of substances including naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Naoyuki; Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    Study group on safety regulation on research reactors in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reported the guidelines of 'Guidelines on radiation measurement and treatment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)' on 6 February 2006. RANDEC made the website contents 'Study on use and safety of the substances including uranium or thorium', based on the contract with MEXT to make theirs contents. This paper describes the outline of the website in MEXT homepage, background and contents of NORM guidelines in order to understand easily and visually the NORM guidelines, adding in some flowcharts and figures. (author)

  9. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  10. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  11. The Effectiveness and Cost of Lifestyle Interventions Including Nutrition Education for Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio; Estabrooks, Paul; Davy, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health concern. With the completion of the Diabetes Prevention Program, there has been a proliferation of studies attempting to translate this evidence base into practice. However, the cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these adapted interventions is unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle diabetes prevention interventions and compare effects by intervention delivery agent (dietitian vs non-dietitian) and channel (in-person vs technology-delivered). English and full-text research articles published up to July 2015 were identified using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, CAB Direct, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Sixty-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Most employed both dietary and physical activity intervention components (four of 69 were diet-only interventions). Changes in weight, fasting and 2-hour blood glucose concentration, and hemoglobin A1c were extracted from each article. Heterogeneity was measured by the I 2 index, and study-specific effect sizes or mean differences were pooled using a random effects model when heterogeneity was confirmed. Participants receiving intervention with nutrition education experienced a reduction of 2.07 kg (95% CI 1.52 to 2.62; Phemoglobin A1c level changes ranged from small to medium. The meta-regression analysis revealed a larger relative weight loss in dietitian-delivered interventions than in those delivered by nondietitians (full sample: -1.0 kg; US subsample: -2.4 kg), and did not find statistical evidence that the delivery channel was an important predictor of weight loss. The average cost per kilogram weight loss ranged from $34.06 over 6 months to $1,005.36 over 12 months. The cost of intervention per participant delivered by dietitians was lower than interventions delivered by non

  12. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ventilator associated pneumonia: risk factors and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J L; Lobo, S; Struelens, M

    2001-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Various risk factors for VAP have been identified and include the duration of ICU stay and of mechanical ventilation, a diagnosis of trauma, and severity of illness. Knowledge of these factors can promote early diagnosis and hence treatment. In addition to simple, but very effective, basic hygiene, different preventative strategies have been suggested, and can be divided into those that aim to limit airway colonization, and those that improve host defense mechanisms. Of the former, non-invasive ventilation is effective but not always applicable or available, nursing the patient in the semi-recumbent position is also associated with a reduced incidence of VAP but carries its own problems, stress ulcer prophylaxis remains controversial, and selective digestive decontamination is probably only relevant to certain subgroups of patients. Methods to improve host defense include early nutrition. Immunostimulatory therapies, such as interferon and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, require further research to confirm their place in the prevention or management of VAP.

  14. Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautron, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test-retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Constraints on inflation revisited. An analysis including the latest local measurement of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui-Yun [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    We revisit the constraints on inflation models by using the current cosmological observations involving the latest local measurement of the Hubble constant (H{sub 0} = 73.00 ± 1.75 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}). We constrain the primordial power spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations with the observational data including the Planck 2015 CMB full data, the BICEP2 and Keck Array CMB B-mode data, the BAO data, and the direct measurement of H{sub 0}. In order to relieve the tension between the local determination of the Hubble constant and the other astrophysical observations, we consider the additional parameter N{sub eff} in the cosmological model. We find that, for the ΛCDM+r+N{sub eff} model, the scale invariance is only excluded at the 3.3σ level, and ΔN{sub eff} > 0 is favored at the 1.6σ level. Comparing the obtained 1σ and 2σ contours of (n{sub s},r) with the theoretical predictions of selected inflation models, we find that both the convex and the concave potentials are favored at 2σ level, the natural inflation model is excluded at more than 2σ level, the Starobinsky R{sup 2} inflation model is only favored at around 2σ level, and the spontaneously broken SUSY inflation model is now the most favored model. (orig.)

  17. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  18. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    -2050. Service sector in India accounts for about 50% of GDP which will continue to increase further and will provide more jobs and better paid jobs than core industries and there will be continued shift of choice of employment towards service sector creating deep gap of manpower resource requirement in basic and core industries. There are reports that some countries may have to abandon some future projects because of non availability skilled manpower in core industries. The installed capacity of nuclear power in India in the year 2052 will be about 200 G We from the present about 4 G We which will be a manifold increase. This will need about estimated 1,30,000 skilled manpower from the present about 12,000 persons in nuclear industries. Moreover, the need for competent persons in nuclear industries because of high safety requirements of nuclear installations will further add to the problem. The following short-term strategies to retain and attract new employees in nuclear industries may be envisaged amongst others: - Recruit employees prior to the departure of experienced technical staff to facilitate knowledge transfer in time. - Increase compensation and the number of higher level positions. - Increase permanent entry-level intake of skilled manpower taking into account historical turn-over rate. - Implement attractive student loan repayment programs by tying up with banks and financial institutions. - Implement well researched strategies and measures including reassessing the practical capacity which nations including India can achieve in power generation in future taking practical aspects of manpower shortage. - Implement advanced technology which requires lesser manpower. - Implement higher level of automation in nuclear industries. The paper aims to highlight the acute problems of future manpower shortages in nuclear industries globally with special reference to India and discusses some remedial measures which may be taken to address the issue. (author)

  19. The effectiveness of a cardiometabolic prevention program in general practices offering integrated care programs including a patient tailored lifestyle treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M.; Eppink, L.; Nielen, M.; Badenbroek, I.; Stol, D.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: Selective cardio-metabolic prevention programs (CMP) may be especially effective in well-organized practices. We studied the effect of a CMP program in the academic primary care practices of the Julius Health Centers (JHC) that offer integrated cardiovascular disease management

  20. Measurement network design including traveltime determinations to minimize model prediction uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Valstar, J.R.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traveltime determinations have found increasing application in the characterization of groundwater systems. No algorithms are available, however, to optimally design sampling strategies including this information type. We propose a first-order methodology to include groundwater age or tracer arrival

  1. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in

  2. PDF uncertainties in precision electroweak measurements, including the W mass, in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Now that the Higgs mass is known all the parameters of the SM are known- but with what accuracy? Precision EW measurements test the self-consistency of the SM- and thus can give hints of BSM physics. Precision measurements of $sin^2\\theta _W$ and the W mass are limited by PDF uncertainties This contribution discusses these uncertainties and what can be done to improve them.

  3. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  4. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  5. Constraining dark energy with Hubble parameter measurements: an analysis including future redshift-drift observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy affects the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z) by an integral over w(z). However, the usual observables are the luminosity distances or the angular diameter distances, which measure the distance.redshift relation. Actually, the property of dark energy affects the distances (and the growth factor) by a further integration over functions of H(z). Thus, the direct measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) at different redshifts are of great importance for constraining the properties of dark energy. In this paper, we show how the typical dark energy models, for example, the ΛCDM, wCDM, CPL, and holographic dark energy models, can be constrained by the current direct measurements of H(z) (31 data used in total in this paper, covering the redshift range of z @ element of [0.07, 2.34]). In fact, the future redshift-drift observations (also referred to as the Sandage-Loeb test) can also directly measure H(z) at higher redshifts, covering the range of z @ element of [2, 5]. We thus discuss what role the redshift-drift observations can play in constraining dark energy with the Hubble parameter measurements. We show that the constraints on dark energy can be improved greatly with the H(z) data from only a 10-year observation of redshift drift. (orig.)

  6. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  7. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  8. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  9. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of work function and H‒ density including caesiation of a converter surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, S.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources rely on the surface conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen and positive hydrogen ions to H-. The efficiency of this process depends on the actual work function of the converter surface. By introducing caesium into the source the work function decreases, enhancing the negative ion yield. In order to study the impact of the work function on the H- surface production at similar conditions to the ones in ion sources for fusion devices like ITER and DEMO, fundamental investigations are performed in a flexible laboratory experiment. The work function of the converter surface can be absolutely measured by photoelectric effect, while a newly installed cavity ring-down spectroscopy system (CRDS) measures the H- density. The CRDS is firstly tested and characterized by investigations on H- volume production. Caesiation of a stainless steel sample is then performed in vacuum and the plasma effect on the Cs layer is investigated also for long plasma-on times. A minimum work function of (1.9±0.1) eV is reached after some minutes of plasma treatment, resulting in a reduction by a value of 0.8 eV compared to vacuum measurements. The H- density above the surface is (2.1±0.5)×1015 m-3. With further plasma exposure of the caesiated surface, the work function increases up to 3.75 eV, due to the impinging plasma particles which gradually remove the Cs layer. As a result, the H- density decreases by a factor of at least 2.

  11. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...

  12. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  13. Parents' Attitudes and Adherence to Unintentional Injury Prevention Measures in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Tolga; Yalçın, Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2017-08-04

    Childhood unintentional injuries are perceived as a leading public health issue since they are one of the preventable causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity. Whether and how parental factors are related to childhood injury has been researched insufficiently. To investigate parents' attitudes to preventive measures of unintentional childhood injury, and the parental adherence to these measures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The data were collected from the parents of children younger than ten years of age admitted to university hospital outpatient clinics for any reason and who agreed to be involved in the study. The first part of the questionnaire included sociodemographic profiles of participating children. Serious injuries were considered to be any injury that requires hospital admission. The second part of the questionnaire was prepared to evaluate parents' adherence to injury prevention rules. A total score calculation about the adherence of the parents to the injury prevention rules was worked out the addition of the scores of each answer given in each age group. Answers for each item given by the parents were scored as wrong (0), sometimes (1) or correct (2). The score for each item was added and the result normalized to 100 points. Only complete questionnaires were used for analysis. A total of 1126 children and parent pairs agreed to participate in the survey. It was found that 13.8% of the participating children had experienced at least one serious injury. Although three-quarters of the parents had received information about injury prevention, the overall injury prevention scores were found to be low. As children's age increased, the total injury prevention scores of parents decreased significantly. Injury prevention scores were shown to increase significantly with high education and maternal occupation. However, scores were shown to decrease significantly with increased child age and family size. Our study shows that parental adherence to the

  14. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  15. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  16. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  17. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-01-01

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 in the presence of potentially volatile [ 14 C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [ 14 C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate

  18. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  19. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  20. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  1. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G [Swedish Board of Customs, Control Division/Control Section, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  2. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  4. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  5. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhana; Ayub, Zeti N; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Hasan, Habsah; Harun, Azian; Ismail, Nabilah; Rahman, Zaidah A; Suraiya, Siti; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Aziz, Aniza A

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained. A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk. The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biomedical HIV Prevention Including Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Opiate Agonist Therapy for Women Who Inject Drugs: State of Research and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kimberly; Tsui, Judith; Maher, Lisa; Choopanya, Kachit; Vanichseni, Suphak; Mock, Philip A; Celum, Connie; Martin, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at higher risk of HIV compared with their male counterparts as a result of multiple factors, including biological, behavioral, and sociostructural factors, yet comparatively little effort has been invested in testing and delivering prevention methods that directly target this group. In this article, we discuss the need for expanded prevention interventions for WWID, focusing on 2 safe, effective, and approved, yet underutilized biomedical prevention methods: opiate agonist therapy (OAT) and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Although both interventions are well researched, they have not been well examined in the context of gender. We discuss the drivers of women injectors' higher HIV risk, review the effectiveness of OAT and PrEP interventions among women, and explain why these new HIV prevention tools should be prioritized for WWID. There is substantial potential for impact of OAT and PrEP programs for WWID in the context of broader gender-responsive HIV prevention initiatives. Although awaiting efficacy data on other biomedical approaches in the HIV prevention research "pipeline," we propose that the scale-up and implementation of these proven, safe, and effective interventions are needed now.

  8. MHC class II-derived peptides can bind to class II molecules, including self molecules, and prevent antigen presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosloniec, E F; Vitez, L J; Buus, S

    1990-01-01

    the alpha k-3 peptide binds slightly less well. These combined data, suggesting that class II-derived peptides can bind to MHC class II molecules, including the autologous molecule from which they are derived, have important implications for the molecular basis of alloreactivity and autoreactivity. Further...... found in the first and third polymorphic regions (PMR) of the A alpha k chain (alpha k-1 and alpha k-3) were capable of inhibiting the presentation of three different HEL-derived peptide antigens to their appropriate T cells. In addition, the alpha k-1 peptide inhibited the presentation of the OVA(323......-339) immunodominant peptide to the I-Ad-restricted T cell hybridomas specific for it. Prepulsing experiments demonstrated that the PMR peptides were interacting with the APC and not with the T cell hybridomas. These observations were confirmed and extended by the demonstration that the alpha k-1 and alpha k-3...

  9. Preventable and mitigable adverse events in cancer care: Measuring risk and harm across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Pfister, David; Classen, David; Atoria, Coral L; Killen, Aileen; Epstein, Andrew S; Anderson, Christopher; Fortier, Elizabeth; Weingart, Saul N

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012. Candidate AEs, or injuries due to medical care, were identified by trained nurse reviewers over the course of 1 year from medical records and safety-reporting databases. Physicians determined the AE harm severity and the likelihood of preventability and harm mitigation. The 400-patient sample represented 133,358 days of follow-up. Three hundred four AEs were identified for an overall rate of 2.3 events per 1000 patient days (91.2 per 1000 inpatient days and 0.9 per 1000 outpatient days). Thirty-four percent of the patients had 1 or more AEs (95% confidence interval, 29%-39%), and 16% of the patients had 1 or more preventable or mitigable AEs (95% confidence interval, 13%-20%). The AE rate for patients with breast cancer was lower than the rate for patients with colorectal or lung cancer (P ≤ .001). The preventable or mitigable AE rate was 0.9 per 1000 patient days. Six percent of AEs and 4% of preventable AEs resulted in serious harm. Examples included lymphedema, abscess, and renal failure. A heavy burden of AEs, including preventable or mitigable events, has been identified. Future research should examine risk factors and improvement strategies for reducing their burden. Cancer 2017;123:4728-4736. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  11. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  12. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  13. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  14. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (> 100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed...

  15. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  16. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Judge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. METHODOLOGY: Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. RESULTS: Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  17. Aetiology, complications, and preventive measures of liver cirrhosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common complications included ascites (92%), hepatic encephalopathy (19%), portal hypertension (8%), hepatocellular carcinoma (5%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (3%). In the majority of patients, management was based on diuretics (furosemide and spironolactone) and dietary sodium restriction. Few patients ...

  18. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  19. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  20. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  2. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  3. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  4. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  5. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  6. Fire Situations and Prevention Measures of residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Baixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of residential building is the largest in all buildings. With the development of urbanization, residential building fires are at high momentum. The paper lists the residential building fires and the number of casualties’ proportion to total fires from 2011 to 2014, analyzing the high incidence causes of the fires and casualties and putting forward suggestions and countermeasures including carrying out fire safety education to improve the fire safety awareness of residents, fulfilling responsibility to enhancing fire safety management capabilities, perfecting fire apparatus to develop fire safety environment and enhancing public awareness of fire safety, equipping evacuation equipments to promote response ability to deal with disasters etc.

  7. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  8. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  9. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  10. [Prognosis and progression of cognitive impairment. Preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Mongil, Rosa; López Trigo, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Because of the substantial increase in population ageing, age-related processes, such as dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD), are becoming highly prevalent. The course of this disease, including preprodromic phases, lasts at least 20 years. The presence of comorbidities, especially those of vascular origin, can trigger and aggravate disease progression. On the other hand, cognitive reserve, the absence or control of comorbid factors and healthy lifestyles can protect or modify -in the sense of slow down- disease progression. Knowledge of the phases of AD and their functional impact on affected individuals helps to identify the average prognosis and, in particular, to establish and predict care plans based on the individual's needs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  12. [Obesity in children: new controversies and present prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Evelina; Luchian, Ana-Maria; Bozomitu, Laura; Rusu, Tania; Sacaci, Paula; Antonesei, Luiza; Stana, B A; Tugurlan, Demetra Simona; Grudnicki, Alice; Popoiu, Anne-Marie; Ozkan, Mirçan; Moraru, D

    2006-01-01

    The authors realise a synthesis on classical data and recent pathogenic explanations in childhood obesity. The obesity is a nutritional disorder of great interest nowadays and surpasses the incidence of the major problem of pediatrics until now--the malnutrition. There is documented data concerning the global incidence of obesity which is continuously growing when it comes to children. That is why the prophylaxis must become a priority by using measures in the first period of life (natural feeding, the need of late diversification, the avoidance of hyperproteic diets). The recent pathogenic data and the long term populational studies change the old conceptions regarding the risk of some categories of children. Thus mother's malnutrition, the low birth weight, children that followed hyperproteic diets paradoxically represent categories of risk for obesity. A recent recorded phenomenon, which amplifies the risk for obesity is the early adiposity rebound which is recorded nowadays even for ages lower than five years. There are described the hormonal mechanisms involved in appetite and satiety up to the receptor level: leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, endocannabinoid receptors. There are pointed out all the long term risk elements (high birth weight, low birth weight, the pregnant woman's nutrition) and the modern medical treatments for obesity.

  13. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  14. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  15. Promoting quality through measurement of performance and response: prevention success stories.

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, C.; Emori, T. G.; Peavy, G.; Gaynes, R.

    2001-01-01

    Successful efforts to prevent health-care acquired infections occur daily in U.S. hospitals. However, few of these "success stories" are presented in the medical literature or discussed at professional meetings. Key components of successful prevention efforts include multidisciplinary teams, appropriate educational interventions, and data dissemination to clinical staff.

  16. EFFICIENT MEASURES FOR BURNOUT PREVENTION IN PALLIATIVE CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina DOBRE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term burnout, meaning ”professional exhaustion”, was introduced by Herbert Freudenberger in 1974. On May 21, 2014 , the World Health Assembly, the decisional organ of the World Health Organization, voted the resolution for the integration and development of the capacity of palliative care services as a constituent part of the health systems. The resolution represents a major pace in the development of palliative care at world level, once the ministers responsible for the field took upon themselves - by means of information and training programs - the task of services’ development, mainly at community level, the support from the part of the next of kins, the elaboration of educational programs, of guides and clinical protocols for specialists, of instruments for the monitorization of the quality of services provided, an easier access of patients to medication, as well as partnerships with the civil society. Burnout is a state of emotional, mental and physical overfatigue caused by excessive and prolongued stress. It is installed mainly when the person affected with it feels care-worn and uncapable of fulfilling his/her usual duties. As the stress continues, he/she will come to lose the interest or motivation which made him/her assume a certain position in the organizational hierarchy. The burnout phenomenon includes three components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of professional accomplishment. The main observations on the phenomenon indicate that, apparently, the burnout level in palliative care is not higher than in other services, such as intensive therapy or surgery. Nevertheless, mention should be made of a characteristic of the palliative care services which influences the burnout level, namely the emotional relation created between the patient and the medical team, as a result of the prolongued duration of the care services

  17. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  19. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  20. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  1. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility.

  2. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  3. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  4. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  5. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  6. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    index-based methodology to assess the groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). • GPI assessment includes PSH assessment and GIV assessment. • Measures to prevent and control groundwater pollution based on GPI assessment. • An index-based methodology for prevention and control technologies (PCT) screening. • PCT screening based on GPI assessment results and TOPSIS method.

  7. Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mindy; Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Sutherland, Jason; Vaughn, Thomas; Diekema, Daniel; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-06-01

    The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the US hospitals poses serious quality and safety problems. Expert panels, identifying strategies for optimizing antibiotic use and preventing AMR spread, have recommended hospitals undertake efforts to implement specific evidence-based practices. To develop and validate a measurement scale for assessing hospitals' efforts to implement recommended AMR prevention and control measures. Surveys were mailed to infection control professionals in a national sample of 670 US hospitals stratified by geographic region, bedsize, teaching status, and VA affiliation. : Four hundred forty-eight infection control professionals participated (67% response rate). Survey items measured implementation of guideline recommendations, practices for AMR monitoring and feedback, AMR-related outcomes (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence and outbreaks [MRSA]), and organizational features. "Derivation" and "validation" samples were randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factors underlying AMR prevention and control efforts. Multiple methods were used for validation. We identified 4 empirically distinct factors in AMR prevention and control: (1) practices for antimicrobial prescription/use, (2) information/resources for AMR control, (3) practices for isolating infected patients, and (4) organizational support for infection control policies. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale was reliable and had content and construct validity. MRSA prevalence was significantly lower in hospitals with higher resource/information availability and broader organizational support. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale offers a simple yet discriminating assessment of AMR prevention and control efforts. Use should complement assessment methods based exclusively on AMR outcomes.

  8. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  11. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  12. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to

  13. Performance measures for improving the prevention of venous thromboembolism: achievement in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth C; Merli, Geno J

    2011-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after hospitalization for acute medical illness or surgery. Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines for VTE prevention, real-world prescribing practices are frequently suboptimal. Specific performance measures relating to VTE prevention and treatment have been developed by US health care organizations to increase adherence with best-practice recommendations and ultimately reduce the number of preventable VTE events. Two measures developed by the Surgical Care Improvement Project have been endorsed by the National Quality Forum (NQF) and focus on VTE prevention. In addition, six measures have been developed recently by The Joint Commission in collaboration with the NQF; three measures relate to VTE prevention and three focus on treatment. To attain widespread achievement of these performance goals, it is essential to raise awareness of their existence and specifications. It is also imperative that hospitals develop and implement effective VTE protocols. The use of multiple, active strategies, such as computer decision support systems with regular audit and feedback, may be particularly valuable approaches to improve current practices within an integrated quality improvement program. During practical implementation of VTE protocols at Norton Healthcare (Kentucky's largest healthcare system), strong leadership, physician engagement, and caregiver accountability were identified as key factors influencing the process. As such, more hospitals may be able to increase adherence with guidelines, improve achievement of quality goals, and help to reduce the substantial burden associated with avoidable VTE.

  14. Technical standards and guidelines: prenatal screening for Down syndrome that includes first-trimester biochemistry and/or ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomaki, Glenn E; Lee, Jo Ellen S; Canick, Jacob A; McDowell, Geraldine A; Donnenfeld, Alan E

    2009-09-01

    This statement is intended to augment the current general ACMG Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Laboratories and to address guidelines specific to first-trimester screening for Down syndrome. The aim is to provide the laboratory the necessary information to ensure accurate and reliable Down syndrome screening results given a screening protocol (e.g., combined first trimester and integrated testing). Information about various test combinations and their expected performance are provided, but other issues such as availability of reagents, patient interest in early test results, access to open neural tube defect screening, and availability of chorionic villus sampling are all contextual factors in deciding which screening protocol(s) will be selected by individual health care providers. Individual laboratories are responsible for meeting the quality assurance standards described by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act, the College of American Pathologists, and other regulatory agencies, with respect to appropriate sample documentation, assay validation, general proficiency, and quality control measures. These guidelines address first-trimester screening that includes ultrasound measurement and interpretation of nuchal translucency thickness and protocols that combine markers from both the first and second trimesters. Laboratories can use their professional judgment to make modification or additions.

  15. Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed the technical studies contributed for the disposal measures of uranium-bearing waste with low concentration and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle. (1) Study of the trench disposal of uranium-bearing waste. As a part of the study of disposal measures of the uranium-bearing waste, we carried out the safety assessment (exposure dose assessment) and derived the upper limit of radioactivity concentration of uranium which was allowed to be included in radioactive waste for trench disposal. (2) Preliminary study for the expansion of material applied to clearance in uranium-bearing waste. Currently, the clearance level of uranium handling facilities was derived from the radioactivity concentration of uranium corresponding to dose criterion about the exposure pathways of the reuse and recycle of metal. Therefore, we preliminarily evaluated whether metal and concrete were able to be applied to clearance by the method of the undergrounding disposal. (3) Study of the concentration limitation scenarios for the intermediate depth disposal-based waste. We carried out dose assessment of intermediate depth disposal of radioactive waste generated from JAEA about radioactive concentration limitation scenarios of which the concept was shown by the study team in Nuclear Regulation Authority. Based on the results, we discussed whether the waste was applied to radioactive waste conforming to concept of intermediate depth disposal. (author)

  16. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig-pig and/or pig-wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  17. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting

  18. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  19. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  20. Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Koralia A; Ioannidou, Christina; Galanis, Petros; Tsoumakas, Kostantinos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D

    2017-09-01

    Nursery schools serve as reservoirs of transmission of infectious diseases, and teachers should be able to implement and monitor hygiene measures to prevent them. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of nursery school teachers on promoting preventive interventions and to identify associated factors, during the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A secondary objective was to evaluate their knowledge and vaccination status regarding the novel virus. A cross-sectional study was performed, with the use of a predesigned anonymous, questionnaire, and distributed to all public nursery teachers of Athens, Greece. General etiquette practices were highly acceptable to over 92% of teachers. Those with longer teaching experience promoted simple preventive measures, such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, more often while older children were more likely to familiarize with them. However, teachers presented inadequate knowledge concerning the novel virus and their vaccination rates with the pandemic vaccine were unacceptably low (1.1%). Our study showed that promotion of simple preventive measures is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of outbreaks in nursery schools, although knowledge gaps and fear concerning the pandemic vaccine highlight communication issues.

  1. Effectiveness of preventative and other surgical measures on hypocalcemia following bilateral thyroid surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakia, Ramez; Edafe, Ovie; Uttley, Lesley; Balasubramanian, Saba P

    2015-01-01

    A variety of measures have been proposed to reduce the incidence of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of preventive and other surgical measures on post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia as reported in the literature. Comprehensive searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed, and the quality of included papers was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool or a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The results of all included studies were summarized, and meta-analyses were performed where appropriate. Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 37 observational studies were included. Measures studied included hemostatic techniques, extent of thyroidectomy and central neck dissection, surgical approach, calcium/vitamin D/thiazide diuretic supplements, parathyroid gland autotransplantation (PGAT) and intraoperative parathyroid gland (PG) identification, truncal ligation of inferior thyroid artery (ITA), preoperative magnesium infusion, and use of magnification loupes and Surgicel. Measures associated with significantly lower rates of transient hypocalcemia in meta-analysis were postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation compared to either calcium supplements alone (odds ratio (OR) 0.66; p=0.04) or no supplements (OR 0.34; p=0.007), and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (BST) compared to Hartley Dunhill (HD) procedure (OR 0.35; p=0.01). Meta-analyses did not demonstrate any measure to be significantly associated with a reduction in permanent hypocalcemia. This review identified postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (over HD) as being effective in prevention of transient hypocalcemia. However, the majority of RCTs were of low quality, primarily due to a lack of blinding. The wide variability in study design, definitions of hypocalcemia, and methods of assessment prevented meaningful summation of results for

  2. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  3. Measurement of Fall Prevention Awareness and Behaviours among Older Adults at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katherine; Taing, Darcie; Roy, Jacqueline

    2017-12-01

    This study surveyed awareness of, and adherence to, six national fall prevention recommendations among community-dwelling older adults (n = 1050) in Ottawa. Although 76 per cent of respondents agreed falling is a concern and preventable, fewer perceived susceptibility to falling (63%). Respondents had high awareness that home modifications and physical activity can prevent falls. Reported modifications included grab bars (50%), night lights (44%), and raised toilet seats (19%). Half met aerobic activity recommendations; 38 per cent met strength recommendations. Respondents had lower awareness that an annual medication review, annual eye and physical examination, and daily vitamin D supplementation could reduce fall risk. However, reported annual medication review (79%) and eye examination (75%) was high. Nearly half met recommendations for vitamin D intake. These findings suggest a gap in knowledge of awareness and adherence to national recommendations, highlighting the ones that may require attention from those who work to prevent falls.

  4. PA03.05. Masha taila as a preventive measure in gulpha marma injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaded, Rajani; Kulkarni, BG

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In Basketball game Gulpha Marma injuries are common. Wrong landing causes inflammation & tearing of ligament resulting into sprain. Prevention can be carried out by protective wears like Ankelet,crape bandge which gives temporary recovery. Assessment and evaluation of the application of Masha Taila as a Snehana and Avagaha Sweda as a preventive measure for Gulpha Marma injuries. Method: 30 players with Normal ankle joint (Group A) & 30 players with Ankle sprain (1st degree) of Basketball players (Group B) were taken with age group 13 to 25 yrs. Goniometer to measure Range of motion (R.O.M.), pain analog scale for pain gradation. Result: Group A and B were compared with their control groups. The statistical result for normal dorsiflexion was 0.0007 degree, plantar flexion 0.001 degree, dorsi flexion of ankle sprain players 0.002 degree, plantar flexion 0.03 degree. The measurement of ROM of all players increased by 510 times indicating increased joint flexibility, based on ROM Mash taila proved to be a preventive measure. Pain analog scale for group B players indicated moderate pain at 0 day,reduced by 50% on 15th day and completely reduced on 30th day. Conclusion: “Prevention is better than cure”. As a preventive aspect the application of Masha Taila in normal ankle joint as Snehan & Swedan with warm water increases flexibility of joint and muscle strength. In sprained joint the same Taila application relives pain and regains its movements, this recovery and strength of joints happens because of reduce adhesion & influence the direction of new collage fibres in the healing process. It eliminates toxic accumulation from secondary muscle spasm. These Marma being the vital points must be prevented by applying Snehan & Swedan before starting the game just as warm up.

  5. A systematic review of non-antibiotic measures for the prevention of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Flavia; Hollywood, Amelia; Ryan, Kath

    2018-04-13

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnancy and account for the highest proportion of primary care antibiotic prescriptions issued to pregnant women in the UK. It is well known that antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and therefore measures to minimise antibiotic use for UTI prevention have been studied. The efficacy and safety of these measures in pregnancy have not been addressed and therefore the aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify and evaluate potential measures to prevent UTIs in pregnant women. Ten databases (EMBASE, AMED, BNI, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Trials, Scopus and Science Direct) were systematically searched in July 2017 for studies reporting non-antibiotic measures to prevent UTIs in pregnancy. The terms ("urinary tract infection" or UTI or bacteriuria or cystitis) AND (prevention) AND (pregnan*) were used. The quality of the publications was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists for cohort study, case-control study and randomised controlled trial. The results were synthesised using a textual narrative approach. Search results yielded 3276 publications and after reviewing titles and removing duplicates, 57 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and eight were included in the review. Five different approaches (hygiene measures, cranberry juice, immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron® N) have been identified, all of which are reported to be safe in pregnancy. The quality of the evidence varied considerably and only hygiene measures were supported by evidence to be recommended in practice. Future work needs to concentrate on strengthening the evidence base through improved design and reporting of studies with a focus on immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron® N.

  6. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  7. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongyan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore,the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident. (author)

  8. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  9. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  10. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  11. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  12. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  13. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  14. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  17. Safety measures to prevent workplace violence in emergency primary care centres--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Tone; Johansen, Ingrid H

    2013-10-03

    Employees in emergency primary care centres (EPCC) have raised personal safety as an issue. Despite a high risk of experiencing workplace violence at EPCCs in Norway, knowledge regarding applied preventive measures is limited. The description of existing safety measures is an important prerequisite to evaluate and make guidelines for the improvement of preventive practices on a national level. The objective of this study was to investigate to which extent general practitioners work alone in EPCCs in Norway, and to estimate the prevalence of other preventive measures against workplace violence. A survey was sent to the managers of all 210 registered EPCCs in Norway. The questionnaire included 22 items on safety measures, including available staff, architecture and outfitting of the reception and consulting rooms, and the availability of electronic safety systems and training or monitoring systems. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Differences between EPCCs staffed by one general practitioner alone and EPCCs with more health personnel on duty were explored. Sixty-one (30%) of the 203 participating EPCCs had more than one person on duty round-the-clock. These EPCCs reported the application of a significantly higher number of safety measures compared to the EPCCs with only one general practitioner on duty during some or part of the 24 hours. Examples of safety measures being more common in highly staffed EPCCs were automatic door locks (p < 0.001), arrangement of furniture in the consulting room ensuring that the patient is not seated between the clinician and the exit (p = 0.014), the possibility of bringing an extra person on emergency call-outs or home visits when needed for security reasons (p = 0.014), and having organised training regarding violence (p < 0.001). This study shows considerable differences between Norwegian EPCCs regarding applied preventive measures, and a higher prevalence of such measures in EPCCs staffed with

  18. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  19. 76 FR 81004 - Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign Persons, Including a Ban on U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7741] Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign... Nonproliferation, Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A determination has been made that a number of foreign entities and one foreign person have engaged in activities that warrant the imposition of measures...

  20. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  1. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  2. Measures to prevent and combat unusual occurences in the use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To achieve the objectives set out in the Ordinance on the Assurance of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984, senior managers of establishments using atomic energy are responsible for planning and implementing measures to prevent UOs, and staff, material and organizational preconditions necessary to immediately combat UOs, and to limit and remedy their consequences. The principles were compiled on the basis of legal regulations in force in the German Democratic Republic taking into account national and international experience

  3. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  4. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  5. Trauma center maturity measured by an analysis of preventable and potentially preventable deaths: there is always something to be learned….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Jung, Kyoungwon; Smith, Alan; Coimbra, Raul

    2018-06-23

    To establish the preventable and potentially preventable death rates in a mature trauma center and to identify the causes of death and highlight the lessons learned from these cases. We analyzed data from a Level-1 Trauma Center Registry, collected over a 15-year period. Data on demographics, timing of death, and potential errors were collected. Deaths were judged as preventable (PD), potentially preventable (PPD), or non-preventable (NPD), following a strict external peer-review process. During the 15-year period, there were 874 deaths, 15 (1.7%) and 6 (0.7%) of which were considered PPDs and PDs, respectively. Patients in the PD and PPD groups were not sicker and had less severe head injury than those in the NPD group. The time-death distribution differed according to preventability. We identified 21 errors in the PD and PPD groups, but only 61 (7.3%) errors in the NPD group (n = 853). Errors in judgement accounted for the majority and for 90.5% of the PD and PPD group errors. Although the numbers of PDs and PPDs were low, denoting maturity of our trauma center, there are important lessons to be learned about how errors in judgment led to deaths that could have been prevented.

  6. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by mass of cement as slag); - or the use of portland fly ash cement (containing at least 25% by mass of cement as fly ash). If one of these cement types is used, then the potential reactivity of the a...

  7. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  8. Marine litter plastics and microplastics and their toxic chemicals components: the need for urgent preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Frederic; Fossi, Cristina; Weber, Roland; Santillo, David; Sousa, Joao; Ingram, Imogen; Nadal, Angel; Romano, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Persistent plastics, with an estimated lifetime for degradation of hundreds of years in marine conditions, can break up into micro- and nanoplastics over shorter timescales, thus facilitating their uptake by marine biota throughout the food chain. These polymers may contain chemical additives and contaminants, including some known endocrine disruptors that may be harmful at extremely low concentrations for marine biota, thus posing potential risks to marine ecosystems, biodiversity and food availability. Although there is still need to carry out focused scientific research to fill the knowledge gaps about the impacts of plastic litter in the marine environment (Wagner et al. in Environ Sci Eur 26:9, 2014), the food chain and human health, existing scientific evidence and concerns are already sufficient to support actions by the scientific, industry, policy and civil society communities to curb the ongoing flow of plastics and the toxic chemicals they contain into the marine environment. Without immediate strong preventive measures, the environmental impacts and the economic costs are set only to become worse, even in the short term. Continued increases in plastic production and consumption, combined with wasteful uses, inefficient waste collection infrastructures and insufficient waste management facilities, especially in developing countries, mean that even achieving already established objectives for reductions in marine litter remains a huge challenge, and one unlikely to be met without a fundamental rethink of the ways in which we consume plastics. This document was prepared by a working group of Regional Centres of the Stockholm and Basel Conventions and related colleagues intended to be a background document for discussion in the 2017 Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Basel Convention on hazardous wastes and the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The COP finally approved that the issue of plastic waste could be dealt by its

  9. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  10. 49 CFR 23.25 - What measures must recipients include in their ACDBE programs to ensure nondiscriminatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN... race-neutral measures you can implement: (1) Locating and identifying ACDBEs and other small businesses...) Ensuring that competitors for concession opportunities are informed during pre-solicitation meetings about...

  11. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  12. Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente; Delgado‐Rodríguez, Miguel; Martínez‐Baz, Iván; Baricot, Maretva; Soldevila, Nuria; Mayoral, José M.; Astray, Jenaro; Quintana, José M.; Cantón, Rafael; Castro, Ady; González‐Candelas, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Saez, Marc; Tamames, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Castilla et al. (2013) Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 177–183. Background  The role of different risk exposures and preventive measures against influenza has not been well established. Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors and measures to prevent influenza infection in the community. Methods  We conducted a multicenter case–control study. Cases were 481 outpatients aged 18 years or older with laboratory‐confirmed influenza A(H1N1)09 in the 2009–2010 season in Spain. A control was selected for each case from outpatients from the same area matched by age and date of consultation. Information on risk situations, preventive measures and other variables was obtained by interview and review of the medical record. Results  In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the risk of a diagnosis of influenza increased with the number of cohabitants (compared with <3 cohabitants, three cohabitants had an OR = 1·80, 95% CI 1·12–2·89, and ≥5 cohabitants had an OR = 2·66, 95% CI 1·31–5·41) and for health care workers (OR = 2·94, 95% CI 1·53–5·66). The use of metropolitan public transport was associated with a lower frequency of a diagnosis of influenza (OR = 0·45, 95% CI 0·30–0·68) but not the use of taxis or long‐distance transport. The influenza A(H1N1)09 vaccine had a protective effect (OR = 0·13, 95% CI 0·04–0·48), unlike hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces or the use of alcohol‐based hand sanitizers. Conclusion  The home environment appears to play an important role in the spread of influenza in adults, but not the use of public transport. Health care workers have a higher risk of contracting influenza. Vaccination was the most effective preventive measure. PMID:22458533

  13. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  14. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires standardizing counseling content, as there are significant age differences in HIV prevention content received by adolescents.

  16. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  17. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  18. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  19. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures. Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method. Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers), nurses and TB program staff. HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures. HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  20. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  1. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  2. Stability enhancement of an atomic force microscope for long-term force measurement including cantilever modification for whole cell deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, P. P.; McGarry, J. P.; van Es, M. H.; Kilpatrick, J. I.; Ronan, W.; Nolan, D. R.; Jarvis, S. P.

    2012-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in the study of both morphology and mechanical properties of living cells under physiologically relevant conditions. However, quantitative experiments on timescales of minutes to hours are generally limited by thermal drift in the instrument, particularly in the vertical (z) direction. In addition, we demonstrate the necessity to remove all air-liquid interfaces within the system for measurements in liquid environments, which may otherwise result in perturbations in the measured deflection. These effects severely limit the use of AFM as a practical tool for the study of long-term cell behavior, where precise knowledge of the tip-sample distance is a crucial requirement. Here we present a readily implementable, cost effective method of minimizing z-drift and liquid instabilities by utilizing active temperature control combined with a customized fluid cell system. Long-term whole cell mechanical measurements were performed using this stabilized AFM by attaching a large sphere to a cantilever in order to approximate a parallel plate system. An extensive examination of the effects of sphere attachment on AFM data is presented. Profiling of cantilever bending during substrate indentation revealed that the optical lever assumption of free ended cantilevering is inappropriate when sphere constraining occurs, which applies an additional torque to the cantilevers "free" end. Here we present the steps required to accurately determine force-indentation measurements for such a scenario. Combining these readily implementable modifications, we demonstrate the ability to investigate long-term whole cell mechanics by performing strain controlled cyclic deformation of single osteoblasts.

  3. Shear bond strengths of tooth coating materials including the experimental materials contained various amounts of multi-ion releasing fillers and their effects for preventing dentin demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Shoko; Suzuki, Masaya; Kazama-Koide, Miku; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We examined shear bond strengths (SBSs) of various tooth-coating-materials including the experimental materials to dentin and demineralization resistance of a fractured adhesive surface after the SBS testing. Three resin-type tooth-coating-materials (BC, PRG Barrier Coat; HC, Hybrid Coat II; and SF, Shield force plus) and two glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials (CV, Clinpro XT Varnish; and FJ, Fuji VII) were selected. The experimental PRG Barrier Coat containing 0, 17, and 33 wt% S-PRG filler (BC0, BC17, and BC33, respectively) were developed. Each tooth-coating-material was applied to flattened dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth for SBS testing. After storing in water for 32 days with 4000 thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the SBS test. Specimens after SBS testing were subjected to a pH cycling test, and then, demineralization depths were measured using a polarized-light microscope. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test were used for statistical analysis. The SBS value of FJ and CV was significantly lower than those of other materials except for BC (p coating-materials demonstrated significantly higher SBS for dentin than the glass-ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials; however, they were inferior to the glass ionomer-type tooth-coating-materials in regards to the acid resistance of the fractured adhesion surface.

  4. Legislative Measures to Prevent and Combat Sexual Violence Against Child: National and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Antonius PS

    2016-01-01

    Legislative measures is one of some measures commonly used as Internationally accepted on the logical framework to ensure that implementation of the International convention at the States parties to its International convention will become appropriate. In context of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, legislative measures should be afforded by an administrative and other measures that include among others: decentralisation, federalisation and delegation; training and ...

  5. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [fr

  6. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  7. Caries preventive measures in orthodontic practice: the development of a clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, B C M; van der Sanden, W J M; Frencken, J E F M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2016-02-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are a side effect of orthodontic treatment, causing esthetic problems and a risk of deeper enamel and dentine lesions. Many strategies have been developed for preventing WSLs, but great variability exists in preventive measures between orthodontists. This study developed statements on which a clinical practice guideline (CPG) can be developed in order to help orthodontists select preventive measures based on the best available evidence. A nominal group technique (RAND-e modified Delphi procedure) was used. A multidisciplinary expert panel rated 264 practice- and evidence-based statements related to the management of WSLs. To provide panel members with the same knowledge, a total of six articles obtained from a systematic review of the literature were read by the panel in preparation of three consensus rounds. According to the technique, a threshold of 75% of all ratings within any 3-point section of the 9-point scale regarding a specific statement was accepted as consensus. After the first and second consensus rounds, consensus was reached on 37.5 and 31.1% of statements, respectively. For the remaining 31.4% of statements, consensus was reached during a 4-h consensus meeting. Statements on the management of WSLs derived from a systematic literature review combined with expert opinion were formally integrated toward consensus through a nominal group technique. These statements formed the basis for developing a CPG on the management of WSLs before and during orthodontic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Dunbar, James A

    2012-07-08

    Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004-05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = -0.226, p-value recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

  9. Development of a 2-h suicide prevention program for medical staff including nurses and medical residents: A two-center pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Yukako; Kubo, Hiroaki; Katsuki, Ryoko; Sakai, Tomomichi; Sugihara, Genichi; Naito, Chisako; Oda, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Suzuki, Yuriko; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kobara, Keiji; Cho, Tetsuji; Kuga, Hironori; Takao, Kiyoshi; Kawahara, Yoko; Matsumura, Yumi; Murai, Toshiya; Akashi, Koichi; Kanba, Shigenobu; Otsuka, Kotaro; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a crucial global health concern and effective suicide prevention has long been warranted. Mental illness, especially depression is the highest risk factor of suicide. Suicidal risk is increased in people not only with mental illness but also with physical illnesses, thus medical staff caring for physically-ill patients are also required to manage people with suicidal risk. In the present study, we evaluated our newly developed suicide intervention program among medical staff. We developed a 2-h suicide intervention program for medical staff, based on the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), which had originally been developed for the general population. We conducted this program for 74 medical staff members from 2 hospitals. Changes in knowledge, perceived skills, and confidence in early intervention of depression and suicide-prevention were evaluated using self-reported questionnaires at 3 points; pre-program, immediately after the program, and 1 month after program. This suicide prevention program had significant effects on improving perceived skills and confidence especially among nurses and medical residents. These significant effects lasted even 1 month after the program. Design was a single-arm study with relatively small sample size and short-term follow up. The present study suggests that the major target of this effective program is nurses and medical residents. Future research is required to validate the effects of the program with control groups, and also to assess long-term effectiveness and actual reduction in suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  11. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  12. Quality assessment and consistency check of measured nuclear data up to 20 MeV including the range of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedy, Z.T.

    1984-09-01

    This is the final report of a research contract with the IAEA. The object is the compilation and evaluation of all the data on (n,t) and (n,3He) reactions cross-sections, respectively. The main results of the research are given (some discrepancies in the experimental data; analytic formulas for an empirical description of the data, separately for the even and odd nuclei with z>20; methods to extrapolate to energies where measurements are missing; mass regions where data are needed), and publications by the authors with the detailed results are quoted

  13. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  14. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Schöffmann, Christine

    2010-03-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]). Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital?How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance?Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies?Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff?What kind of liability problems exist? Based on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The internal and external validity of the studies is too weak to evaluate single interventions

  15. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]. Objectives: * Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital? * How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance? * Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies? * Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff? * What kind of liability problems exist?MethodsBased on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. Results: 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. Discussion: It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The

  16. Validation of Measured Damping Trends for Flight-Like Vehicle Panel/Equipment including a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Davis, R. Benjamin; LaVerde, Bruce T.; Fulcher, Clay W.; Jones, Douglas C.; Waldon, James M.; Craigmyle, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that leverages a finite element model of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. While the full test series is not yet complete, the first configuration of cable bundles that was assessed effectively increased the viscous critical damping fraction of the system by as much as 0.02 in certain frequency ranges.

  17. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  18. Nonlinear method for including the mass uncertainty of standards and the system measurement errors in the fitting of calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; McClure, J.W.; Howell, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    A sophisticated nonlinear multiparameter fitting program was used to produce a best fit calibration curve for the response of an x-ray fluorescence analyzer to uranium nitrate, freeze dried, 0.2% accurate, gravimetric standards. The program is based on unconstrained minimization subroutine, VA02A. The program considers the mass values of the gravimetric standards as parameters to be fit along with the normal calibration curve parameters. The fitting procedure weights with the system errors and the mass errors in a consistent way. The resulting best fit calibration curve parameters reflect the fact that the masses of the standard samples are measured quantities with a known error. Error estimates for the calibration curve parameters can be obtained from the curvature of the ''Chi-Squared Matrix'' or from error relaxation techniques. It was shown that nondispersive XRFA of 0.1 to 1 mg freeze-dried UNO 3 can have an accuracy of 0.2% in 1000 s. 5 figures

  19. BER-3.2 report: Methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures including a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Sinkko, K.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Gjoerup, H.L.; Salo, A.

    1992-07-01

    This report is a part of the Nordic BER-3 project's work to propose and harmonize Nordic intervention levels for countermeasures in case of nuclear accidents. This report focuses on the methodology for justification and optimization of protective measures in case of a reactor accident situation with a large release of fission products to the environment. The down-wind situation is very complicated. The dose to the exposed society is almost unpredictable. The task of the radiation protection experts: To give advice to the decision makers on averted doses by the different actions at hand in the situation - is complicated. That of the decision makers is certainly more: On half of the society they represent, they must decide if they wish to follow the advices from their radiation protection experts or if they wish to add further arguments - economical or political (or personal) - into their considerations before their decisions are taken. Two analysis methods available for handling such situations: cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis are described in principle and are utilized in a case study: The impacts of a Chernobyl-like accident on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea are analyzed with regard to the acute consequences. The use of the intervention principles found in international guidance (IAEA 91, ICRP 91), which can be summarized as the principles of justification, optimization and avoidance of unacceptable doses, are described. How to handle more intangible factors of a psychological or political character is indicated. (au) (6 tabs., 3 ills., 17 refs.)

  20. Calculation of extracted ion beam particle distribution including within-extractor collisions from H-alpha Doppler shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Kim, Jinchoon; In, Sang Ryul; Jeong, Seung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Prototype long pulse ion sources are being developed and tested toward the goal of a deuterium beam extraction of 120 keV/65 A. The latest prototype source consists of a magnetic bucket plasma generator and a four-grid copper accelerator system with multicircular apertures of 568 holes. To measure the angular divergence and the ion species of the ion beam, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for a Doppler-shifted H-alpha lights was set up at the end of a gas-cell neutralizer. But the OMA data are very difficult to analyze due to a large background level on the top of the three energy peaks (coming from H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). These background spectra in the OMA signals seem to result from partially accelerated ion beams in the accelerator. Extracted ions could undergo a premature charge exchange as the accelerator column tends to have a high hydrogen partial pressure from the unused gas from the plasma generator, resulting in a continuous background of partially accelerated beam particles at the accelerator exit. This effect is calculated by accounting for all the possible atomic collision processes and numerically summing up three ion species across the accelerator column. The collection of all the atomic reaction cross sections and the numerical summing up will be presented. The result considerably depends on the background pressure and the ion beam species ratio (H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + ). This effect constitutes more than 20% of the whole particle distribution. And the energy distribution of those suffering from collisions is broad and shows a broad maximum in the vicinity of the half and the third energy region

  1. Shareholder‘s derivate action: "ex lege" measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalonienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second article on the topic related to the shareholder‘s derivate action. After evaluating the key general aspects of the shareholder’s derivate action (e.g. concept, rationale and goals) with respect to the Lithuanian Corporate Law, this article analyzes some ex lege protective measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse in bringing shareholder‘s derivate action as well as evaluates need to revise the related Lithuanian legislation. The focus of the article is, first, on spec...

  2. Taking measures in times of crisis: The political economy of obesity prevention in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    GRACIA ARNAIZ, MARIA ISABEL

    2017-01-01

    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.01.001 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919217300258 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI This article reports on a qualitative analysis of the measures proposed at the international level, but with a special focus on those adopted in Spain during the last decade. Analyzing biomedical definition of obesity as an epidemic and costly disease, this text aims is to unpack the conceptual structure of the obesity prevention model...

  3. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  5. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  6. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of preventive measures for air travel-related venous thrombosis in professionals who attend medical conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, S.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Büller, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lack of guidelines for prevention of air travel-related venous thrombosis may lead to excessive use of potentially dangerous precautions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of preventive measures for air travel-related thrombosis in professionals employed in the field of thrombosis and

  10. Guidelines on suicide prevention measures for South Korea and Japan based on recent suicide trends: the need to utilize this approach to devise future suicide prevention measures for the rest of asia and the rest of the world

    OpenAIRE

    INOUE K.; CHAIZHUNUSOVA N.; HOSHI M.; NOSO Y.; TAKEICHI N.; OSPANOVA N.; MOLDAGALIEV T.; SARSEMBINA ZH.; KALIEVA A.; JAMEDINOVA U.; CHEGEDEKOVA SH.; SHARAPIYEVA A.; BITEBAYEVA D.; RAKHYPBEKOV T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Devising and implementing effective suicide prevention measures is an urgent matter for countries around the world. South Korea and Japan have some of the world’s highest suicide rates, so the current study examined more effective suicide prevention measures for those countries with a focus on recent suicide rates by age group. Materials and Methods: This study examined the suicide rate for each sex by age group in South Korea and Japan in 2009 and 2012, and this study then calc...

  11. Comparative evaluation of preventive measures against primary side stress corrosion cracking of mill annealed Inconel 600 steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.; Hernalsteen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Significant amounts of primary side cracking have been reported in the mechanically expanded area of the tubes of PWR steam generators in Europe, in Japan and to a lesser extent in the USA. The Belgian utilities are faced with the same problem. At Doel 2, where the tubes are rolled for only a part of the tubesheet, primary side cracking appeared in the roll transition. The Doel 3 and Tihange 2 steam generators, whose tubes are expanded for the full depth of the tube sheet, have experienced cracking after about 10 000 h of operation not only in the roll transition but also at roll overlaps. While some leaks and eddy current indications are associated with tubesheet or rolling anomalies, many of them are found on normal tubes. A programme was launched by the Belgian utilities and was further co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop preventive actions applicable not only to hot steam generators but also to cold steam generators already installed on site. These preventive measures include stress relaxation and metallurgical improvement of the material by an in situ heat treatment of the whole tube sheet (a steam generator model was used to evaluate the feasibility of this treatment), and the introduction of residual compressive stresses on ID by rotopeening or shotpeening without inducing unacceptable tensile stresses on OD. A comparative evaluation of these measures was established on the basis of tests performed on representative mock-ups and specimens. (author)

  12. Adoption of preventive measures during and after the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic peak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Fernando; Adell, Manel Nebot; Pérez Giménez, Anna; López Medina, María José; Garcia Continente, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the preventive measures adopted by the Spanish population towards 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and their associated factors. An anonymous computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted in Spain in December 2009 and February 2010. Respondents were asked about their perceptions of influenza A (H1N1) virus and the preventive measures adopted. Factors associated with the adoption of preventive measures were assessed by logistic regression analyses. Out of 4892 households approached, 1627 valid responses were obtained (response rate of 33.3%). The most commonly adopted preventive measures were respiratory hygiene and hand washing. Factors independently associated with the adoption of the preventive measures recommended by the Spanish Ministry of Health were female gender, higher educational level, size of municipality of residence >50,000 inhabitants, high perceived susceptibility to infection, high perceived effectiveness of the measures and high perceived usefulness of the information provided by the government. The presence of school-aged children in household was associated with purchasing masks and hand sanitizer. In addition to demographic factors, modifiable factors such as personal beliefs and expectations play a role in the adoption of preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  14. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding

  15. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  16. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  17. Results of using engineering and technological measures for rock burst prevention. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, A P; Nechaev, A V; Khmara, O I

    1980-01-01

    The paper evaluates methods for rock burst forecasting and rock burst prevention used in the Donbass, Kuzbass, Karaganda and Pechora basins. Forecasting methods are based on measuring the initial velocity of gas flow from test boreholes and/or quantity ratio of drillings leaving a test borehole and monitoring seismoacoustic signals. Number of working faces at which each of the methods for rock burst forecasting is used is given. Methods for rock burst prevention are comparatively evaluated: explosive fracturing of rocks in seam roof or seam floor, fluid injection (water and surfactants), drilling destressing boreholes, cutting destressing slots using cutting machines or water jets, mining protective coal seams first for reducing rock burst hazard in protected coal seams, using narrow web coal cutter loaders, remote control of coal cutters at working faces with extremely high rock burst hazard, using mining schemes which reduce rock burst hazards (e.g. long pillar mining system). From 1976 to 1979 number of rock bursts in underground coal mines in the USSR decreased by 5 times in comparison to the period 1961 to 1965. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events.

  19. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  20. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: Definitions, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, and Management—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Oneil Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the “Achilles heel” of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  2. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  3. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. METHODS: A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. RESULTS: Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY, it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is

  4. Prevention of HPV-Related Cancers in Norway: Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the HPV Vaccination Program to Include Pre-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. Methods A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Results Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered ‘good value for money.’ For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. Conclusions At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more

  5. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  6. Measures for preventing and mitigating severe accidents of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge

    1993-01-01

    Safety goals, integrity of the containment, accident management, functions of existing equipment and measures and emergency preparedness are discussed as technical basis for implementing the new safety code on the nuclear power plant safety design (HAF-0200(91)). The main quantitative safety goals are presented as core melt frequency -5 /ry for new plants and -4 /ry for existing or constructed plants, and 0.1% I, Cs release frequency -6 /ry. To keep the integrity of the containment, main efforts should be placed on the prevention of early failure of the containment and by pass or isolation failures. Should a late failure of the containment occur at a high probability, measures such as filtering vent should be considered. The leak rate of the containment could be higher than the previous 0.1-0.5 wt%/day, depending on the source term and dose results. But, a limiting leak rate of 1 wt%/day is defined. Accident management involves emergency operating procedures, training and retraining for the AM and adding some supporting equipment and display and diagnostic system for the AM. Those requirements are described. Emergency preparedness and measures can reduced the risk significantly. In the most case of accidents, sheltering is preferred as an effective protective actions

  7. The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS—Some Thoughts on Complexity and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI, which was signed in June 2017, raises a multitude of questions relating not only to the text of the treaty provisions but also to the way the MLI will interact with tax treaties, for instance, and what it will mean for the future development of tax treaty law and international cooperation in tax matters. This article focuses on two aspects of the MLI. First, it deals with the substance of the MLI by providing an overview of its background and content, including the many options available to the contracting states under the MLI. Second, some thoughts are presented on the effects of the MLI in terms of complexity and uncertainty.

  8. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertebral artery injury in cervical spine surgery: anatomical considerations, management, and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chan W; Chou, Benedict T; Bendo, John A; Spivak, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) injury can be a catastrophic iatrogenic complication of cervical spine surgery. Although the incidence is rare, it has serious consequences including fistulas, pseudoaneurysm, cerebral ischemia, and death. It is therefore imperative to be familiar with the anatomy and the instrumentation techniques when performing anterior or posterior cervical spine surgeries. To provide a review of VA injury during common anterior and posterior cervical spine procedures with an evaluation of the surgical anatomy, management, and prevention of this injury. Comprehensive literature review. A systematic review of Medline for articles related to VA injury in cervical spine surgery was conducted up to and including journal articles published in 2007. The literature was then reviewed and summarized. Overall, the risk of VA injury during cervical spine surgery is low. In anterior cervical procedures, lateral dissection puts the VA at the most risk, so sound anatomical knowledge and constant reference to the midline are mandatory during dissection. With the development and rise in popularity of posterior cervical stabilization and instrumentation, recognition of the dangers of posterior drilling and insertion of transarticular screws and pedicle screws is important. Anomalous vertebral anatomy increases the risk of injury and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography (CT) scans should be carefully reviewed. When the VA is injured, steps should be taken to control local bleeding. Permanent occlusion or ligation should only be attempted if it is known that the contralateral VA is capable of providing adequate collateral circulation. With the advent of endovascular repair, this treatment option can be considered when a VA injury is encountered. VA injury during cervical spine surgery is a rare but serious complication. It can be prevented by careful review of preoperative imaging studies, having a sound anatomical knowledge and paying attention

  10. Conflict Prevention and Confidence Building Measures in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Prevention and Conflict Management in Northeast Asia (Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2005), 13. 4 Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse, Hugh Miall...Contemporary Conflict Resolution (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2011), 138. 28 5 Niklas Swanström, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management in...II): Regional Responses”, 4. 19 Niklas Swanström, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management in Northeast Asia, 8. 20 Kofi A. Annan, Prevention of

  11. A class I (Senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVB-induced ocular effects, including cataract, in the rabbit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R; Dang, Loan

    2011-06-01

    UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270-360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm(2) on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract.

  12. Multimodal interventions including nutrition in the prevention and management of disease-related malnutrition in adults: a systematic review of randomised control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Frances; Baldwin, Christine

    2014-06-01

    There has been a move to improve nutritional status in malnourished patients through the use of multimodal interventions (MI). There are currently no systematic reviews that have examined their effectiveness. This analysis aimed to examine the effects on nutritional, clinical, functional and patient-centred outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis using Cochrane methodology. 15 studies were included in the analysis, 13 comparing MI with usual care and 2 comparing MI with a nutrition intervention alone. Quality of studies varied and studies reported few relevant outcomes. Only 3 outcomes were compatible with meta-analysis; weight, mortality and length of stay (LOS). No statistically significant differences between groups were found. Narrative review was inconclusive. There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention groups in relation to body composition, functional status or quality of life (QoL). Intervention groups appeared to show a trend towards increased energy and protein intake however data was provided by only 2 studies (301 participants). No conclusive evidence of benefit for MI on any of the reviewed outcomes was found. Well designed, high quality trials addressing the impact of MI on relevant nutritional, functional and clinical outcomes are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic review of the use of Statistical Process Control methods to measure the success of pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Young, Trudie; Fallon, Maureen

    2018-06-01

    Successful prevention of pressure ulcers is the end product of a complex series of care processes including, but not limited to, the assessment of vulnerability to pressure damage; skin assessment and care; nutritional support; repositioning; and the use of beds, mattresses, and cushions to manage mechanical loads on the skin and soft tissues. The purpose of this review was to examine where and how Statistical Process Control (SPC) measures have been used to assess the success of quality improvement initiatives intended to improve pressure ulcer prevention. A search of 7 electronic bibliographic databases was performed on May 17th, 2017, for studies that met the inclusion criteria. SPC methods have been reported in 9 publications since 2010 to interpret changes in the incidence of pressure ulcers over time. While these methods offer rapid interpretation of changes in incidence than is gained from a comparison of 2 arbitrarily selected time points pre- and post-implementation of change, more work is required to ensure that the clinical and scientific communities adopt the most appropriate SPC methods. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of preventive measures for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Mara Dolce de Lemos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in children is from mother to child. The preventive measures established for the Aids Clinical Trial Group protocol 076 (ACTG 076 significantly reduces HIV vertical transmission rates. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the ACTG 076 protocol in the maternity units of State of Sergipe, Brazilian northeast. METHODS: This is a descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative approach, with HIV positive women and children exposed, attending a Maternity reference for high-risk pregnancies. Data were obtained from patient records registered in the years 1994 to 2010. RESULTS: Amongst the 110 pregnant women and exposed newborns, the ACTG 076 protocol was fully utilized in only 31.8% of the participants. During the prenatal period, zidovudine (ZDV was taken by 79.1% of the pregnant women. Only 49.1% of HIV seropositive patients used ZDV during delivery. Two (1.8% children were considered infected and 50 (45.5% do not have a conclusive diagnosis to date. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant deficiencies in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, including lack of compliance with the three phases of the ACTG 076 protocol; inadequacies in prenatal care; inappropriate mode of delivery and lack of adequate follow up of exposed children.

  15. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-05-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  16. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  17. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  18. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  19. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  20. Precautionary measures to prevent damage, as defined in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1983-01-01

    The requirement to take every 'precaution which is necessary in the light of existing scientific knowledge and technology to prevent damage' (section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 Atomic Energy Act) is not restricted to conventional (preventive) measures but is to be understood as a duty to actively provide for appropriate protection from conceivable damage. Below the level of legally binding laws and regulations, there is the level of scientific-technical codes and standards, which are of great significance to the licensing procedure under atomic energy law. As these codes and standards do not form part of the law but nevertheless represent the essence of scientific knowledge needed to fulfill the duty defined by the law, they are gaining full impact only through the licensing procedure, thus being transformed into concrete legal requirements. Hence one can say that the legal situation in atomic energy law relating to the licensing requirements as laid down in section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 is presently characterised by a regulatory deficit. This regulatory deficit cannot be overcome by the means and tools offered by the current law. One possibility to fill the gap is to give a legally binding status to the safety guides defined by the deterministic safety concept, by listing the conceivable accidents to be mastered. This recommendable procedure could lead to an ordinance on the safety of nuclear installations. Such an ordinance could be kept abreast with technical progress and scientific knowledge by creating a referring legal instrument, pointing to, e.g., the KTA Safety Guide. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  2. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  3. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  4. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  5. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  6. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  7. Esophageal lesions following button-battery ingestion in children: Analysis of causes and proposals for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, J; Célérier, C; Garabédian, E N; Couloigner, V; Leboulanger, N; Denoyelle, F

    2018-04-01

    To study recent cases of esophageal injury due to button-battery ingestion in children presenting in pediatric ENT emergency departments of the Paris area of France (Île-de-France region), in order to propose appropriate preventive measures. A retrospective descriptive single-center study included all children under 15 years of age, presenting in pediatric ENT emergency departments between January 2008 and April 2014 for button-battery ingestion with esophageal impaction requiring emergency removal. Twenty-two boys and 4 girls, with a median age of 25 months, were included. Twenty-five of the 26 batteries had diameters of 20mm or more. Median esophageal impaction time was 7 hours 30 minutes (range, 2 to 72 hours). The complications rate was 23%. Mean hospital stay cost was €38,751 (range, €5130-119,737). The origin of the battery was known in 23 of the 26 cases: remote control without screw-secured compartment (42.3%), open battery pack (15.4%), children's toy (15.3%), camera (7.7%), watch (1 case) and hearing aid without screw-secured compartment (1 case). Esophageal lesions due to ingestion of button-batteries in children are almost always due to batteries larger than 20mm in diameter, mostly from devices with a poorly protected compartment, or batteries that are not individually packaged. These lesions cause serious complications in a quarter of cases and their management entails high health costs. Legislation requiring screw-secured compartments and individual blisters for batteries could have prevented 69.2% of the ingestions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Infection prevention and control measures for acute respiratory infections in healthcare settings: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.

  9. Preventive or punitive disciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows a major paradigm shift towards preventive and positive rather than punitive disciplinary measures. Since the essence of learner discipline is correctional and educational rather than punitive, this approach seems to be the correct one – especially after the abolition of corporal punishment in South African schools. However, the question remains: is there still room for punitive and reactive learner discipline in our schools? And if so, which is the better approach, and where should the emphasis be? This article endeavours to evaluate the two approaches by means of a normative framework. Rather than ruling which approach is the more successful one, the authors argue that it is not the one or the other, but rather a combination of the two approaches. One of the guiding determinants for correct decision-making is vested in maintaining a safe, harmonious and orderly environment conducive to education and learning. The decision regarding the most effective form of discipline in a particular instance should therefore be determined by the context of the situation. For example, it depends on the seriousness of the misconduct, the attitude of the learners (e.g. was it as a result of intent or negligence?, the age of the learner, the influence it had on the teaching-learning environment, et cetera.

  10. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Disability management: the application of preventive measures, health promotion and case management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, G; De Giusti, M; Mannocci, A; De Waure, C; Agostinelli, A; Schena, S; Capelli, G; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, A; Damiani, G; von Pinoci, M; Fanton, C; Federico, B

    2009-03-01

    Disability Management can be defined as a practice to improve workers' health and to reduce the impact and costs of disability. The aim of the study was to estimate the diffusion of DM in Italian companies. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire, the Worksite Disability Management Audit. The questionnaire was structured into five parts addressing the following domains: 1) characteristics of the company; 2) health promotion activities; 3) preventive measures; 4) case management; 5) disability management. We selected public and private companies and collected information by direct interview. Twenty companies entered the survey. Twelve Companies (60%) indicated that health promotion programs and sensibilisation campaigns are usually carried out. The presence of an individual who provided workplace safety indications and materials was stated by 19 companies (95%). Periodical medical examinations are carried out by 19 companies (95%); 16 (80%) have an evaluation process for ergonomics concerns. Risk assessment and analysis are performed by all companies and the security procedures and policies are updated at least once in a year in 40% of cases. Health status monitoring of injured workers is performed in eight (40%) of the companies, while Disability Management is present as a whole in only three companies. This survey highlights that Disability Management is not undertaken in most companies and that, where applied, there is still confusion and disorganization about ways to promote health and manage workers' illness and disability. Hence, there is still the need to promote an all-inclusive evaluation and management of workers' safety, illness and disabilities.

  12. Expert assessment of preventive measures in the zone of guaranteed voluntary resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerova, I I; Prilipko, V A; Myshkovska, A A

    2013-01-01

    An expert evaluation of preventive measures focused on population health maintenance in the zone of guaranteed voluntary resettlement taking into account the limitations of the provisions of certain articles of the Law of Ukraine on the clean-up of the Chornobyl disaster aftermath. The research survey was applied using a peer review method. The three-level (national, regional, district) expert workgroup was involved been employed within recovery of the Chornobyl disaster aftermath. Professional experience of minimum 10 years, corresponding profile and current position were the requirements for selection. A simple streamlining the values of paired or consistent comparison was applied on the primary empirical data. The arrangements made in recent years by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and ministries engaged in clean-up and recovery from the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident are ineffective. Costs from the Fund for the implementation of measures to clean-up the consequences of the Chornobyl disaster and social protection are reduced. There is no consensus among experts regarding some constraint of an action of certain articles of the Law of Ukraine "On the status and social protection of citizens affected by the Chornobyl disaster" on the principles of social protection and healthcare of the population living in contaminated areas. In addressing the social and health consequences of the Chornobyl disaster the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine just for a long time has passes no amendment to the legislation on the subject. At that there are several restrictions in force for a large number of articles of the existing laws that were adopted in 1991. The mentioned above exacerbates social strain and destroys the "citizen-state relationship". The extreme need has emerged in a comprehensive public review of existing laws with involvement of multidisciplinary group of experts to a "round table" to justify the draft laws. Ozerova Ju. Ju., Prylypko V. A., Myshkovska A. A

  13. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  14. Aerosol measurement: the use of optical light scattering for the determination of particulate size distribution, and particulate mass, including the semi-volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Hans; Eatough, Delbert J

    2009-01-01

    The GRIMM model 1.107 monitor is designed to measure particle size distribution and particulate mass based on a light scattering measurement of individual particles in the sampled air. The design and operation of the instrument are described. Protocols used to convert the measured size number distribution to a mass concentration consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocols for measuring particulate matter (PM) less than 10 microm (PM10) and less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter are described. The performance of the resulting continuous monitor has been evaluated by comparing GRIMM monitor PM2.5 measurements with results obtained by the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co. (R&P) filter dynamic measurement system (FDMS). Data were obtained during month-long studies in Rubidoux, CA, in July 2003 and in Fresno, CA, in December 2003. The results indicate that the GRIMM monitor does respond to total PM2.5 mass, including the semi-volatile components, giving results comparable to the FDMS. The data also indicate that the monitor can be used to estimate water content of the fine particles. However, if the inlet to the monitor is heated, then the instrument measures only the nonvolatile material, more comparable to results obtained with a conventional heated filter tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor. A recent modification of the model 180, with a Nafion dryer at the inlet, measures total PM2.5 including the nonvolatile and semi-volatile components, but excluding fine particulate water. Model 180 was in agreement with FDMS data obtained in Lindon, UT, during January through February 2007.

  15. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  16. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Triantafyllopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added.

  17. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  18. [Concrete pain prevention measures regarding hospital internal transport in a cancer center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, Jean-Marie; Vignozzi, Annick; Bussy, Catherine; Charleux, Diane; Laplanche, Agnès; Mathivon, Delphine; Di Palma, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic pain is a common problem for cancer patients, including those due to hospital internal transport. An original prospective study conducted in 2006 allowed risk factor identification, and from 2007, a pluri-annual progress plan was implemented. Its actions were systematically evaluated and all phases of transportation reconsidered: preparation, patient transport to and care in medicotechnical units. Measures applied to anticipate these pains help improve the quality of hospital care. All professionals involved in the patient transportation system need to be made aware of this and not only hospital porters.

  19. Infection prevention and control measures and tools for the prevention of entry of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae into healthcare settings: guidance from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Magiorakos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are “at-risk” may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E. The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the “at-risk” patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE. Methods The guidance was created by a group of experts who were functioning independently of their organisations, during two meetings hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. A list of epidemiological risk factors placing patients “at-risk” for carriage with CRE was created by the experts. The conclusions of a systematic review on the prevention of spread of CRE, with the addition of expert opinion, were used to construct lists of core and supplemental infection prevention and control measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients upon admission to healthcare settings. Results Individuals with the following profile are “at-risk” for carriage of CRE: a a history of an overnight stay in a healthcare setting in the last 12 months, b dialysis-dependent or cancer chemotherapy in the last 12 months, c known previous carriage of CRE in the last 12 months and d epidemiological linkage to a known carrier of a CRE. Core infection prevention and control measures that should be considered for all patients in healthcare settings were compiled. Preliminary supplemental measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients on admission are: pre-emptive isolation, active screening for CRE, and contact precautions. Patients who are confirmed positive for CRE will need additional supplemental measures. Conclusions Strengthening the microbiological

  20. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii- measures and proposal for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Jesus, Lenize Adriana de; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Lima, Stella Sala Soares; Rezende, Edna Maria; Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Moreira, Ricardo Luiz Fontes; Neves, Francelli Aparecida Cordeiro; Brás, Nelma de Jesus

    2009-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  1. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: measures and proposal for prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  2. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  3. Response characteristics of probe-transducer systems for pressure measurements in gas-solid fluidized beds: how to prevent pitfalls in dynamic pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, van J.R.; Schouten, J.C.; Stappen, van der M.L.M.; Bleek, van den C.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is long known already that the pressure probe–transducer systems applied in gas–solid fluidized beds can distort the measured pressure fluctuations. Several rules of thumb have been proposed to determine probe length and internal diameter required to prevent this. Recently, Xie and Geldart [H.-Y.

  4. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Katharina; Becker, Christian

    2017-10-02

    Determining what constitutes "good practice" in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic) evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents' thought that determinants of a program's success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators' unfamiliarity with a program's contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive approach of evaluation targeting measures in children and adolescents.

  5. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative...

  6. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Güler

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Streptococcus mutans is commonly transferred from mothers to their babies, and the preventive program applied to the pregnant women reduced both the amount of plaque and S. mutans colonization and thus had a positive effect.

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wearing. Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved... containers should be disposed of by breaking. Chop holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or...

  8. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  9. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  10. A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Karrari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers,and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been amajor of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea,Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted andindustrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studiesevaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  11. Human Rights, Positive Obligations, and Measures to Prevent Human Trafficking in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ian David

    2015-01-01

    Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights is freedom from slavery. A key feature of this right is the obligation it imposes on states such as the UK to prevent violations of the freedom, such as the trafficking in human beings, by third parties. This piece finds that the UK’s response to its duties in preventing human trafficking is patchy but concludes that this will be much improved with its new Modern Slavery Bill 2014-15.

  12. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  13. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  14. Exploring the line between the preventive and punitive character of measures in the frame of a just culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Chionis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at exploring the perceptions of the employees of a large aviation organization regarding the punitive or preventive character of possible measures that management could take in cases of errors and violations. The analysis of the quantitative

  15. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  16. A Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Prevalence Data to Determine the Use of Pressure Ulcer Preventive Measures in Dutch Nursing Homes, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leen, Martin Wf; Schols, Joseph Mga; Hovius, Steven Er; Halfens, Ruud Jg

    2017-09-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are an important and distressing problem in Dutch nursing homes. A secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Dutch National Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems (LPZ) - an annual, multicenter, point-prevalence survey - was conducted for the years 2005-2014 to determine the use of specific recommended PU preventive measures from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 1998, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 2009, and the 2002 and 2011 Dutch PU guidelines. Preventive care was investigated among nursing home residents at risk for PUs and included skin care (moisturization); nutritional and hydration status assessment and optimization; and pressure redistribution involving mattresses, cushions, and heel pressure-relieving strategies and devices. Following abstraction from the study database, data for 3 at-risk groups were distinguished: 1) residents with a Braden score of 17, 18, or 19; 2) residents with a Braden score below 17; and 3) residents with a PU. Data were aggregated at the institutional level. Differences were tested with multiple regression analyses. The mean number of residents over the study period was 5435, the mean age was 82.8 years, and the mean Braden score was 15.3. None of the recommended preventive measures from the guidelines consulted was applied 100% of the time: preventive skin care measures were used in 25.1% to 63.8% of cases and dehydration and/or malnutrition were identified and managed in 27.8% to 65.6% of patients. Pressure redistribution with special types of mattresses was used in 85.2% of patients, cushions in (wheel)chairs were used in 64.8% of patients, and heels were offloaded in 57.8% of patients. The results regarding repositioning for the 3 groups, respectively, showed a maximum use of 9.7%, 30.3%, and 65.6%; the higher the PU risk, the more preventive measures were used. Although the results show a decrease in the percent of category 2 through

  17. Prediction of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies: development of a multivariable model including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Mheen, Lidewij; Schuit, Ewoud; Lim, Arianne C; Porath, Martina M; Papatsonis, Dimitri; Erwich, Jan J; van Eyck, Jim; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Hummel, Piet; Duvekot, Johannes J; Hasaart, Tom H M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Moons, Karl G M; de Groot, Christianne J M; Bruinse, Hein W; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W J

    2014-04-01

    To develop a multivariable prognostic model for the risk of preterm delivery in women with multiple pregnancy that includes cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and other variables. We used data from a previous randomized trial. We assessed the association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and time to delivery using multivariable Cox regression modelling. Performance of the final model was assessed for the outcomes of preterm and very preterm delivery using calibration and discrimination measures. We studied 507 women, of whom 270 (53%) delivered models for preterm and very preterm delivery had a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.75), respectively, and showed good calibration. In women with a multiple pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery can be assessed with a multivariable model incorporating cervical length and other predictors.

  18. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities.

  19. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippitzi, M. E.; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Postma, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different...... European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative...... on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used...

  20. Assessment of Critical Care Provider's Application of Preventive Measures for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Amiri-Abchuyeh, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Yazdani-Cherati, Jamshid; Nikkhah, Attieh

    2015-08-01

    The implementation of guidelines for the prevention of Ventilator-associated pneumonia has been shown to have a significant effect in reducing the incidence of VAP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation of the preventive strategies for VAP in ICUs of university hospitals of Sari, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 600 beds/day in the ICUs of university hospitals of Sari from April to June 2012. Sampling was done by availability technique in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ICU. The implementation of the preventive measures was assessed by a standard checklist with previously approved validity and reliability. The percentage of implementing each of the measures was as follows: sterile suction, 88.44%; semi-recumbent position, 76.8%; oral hygiene, 58.45%; using heat and moisture exchanges (HMEs), 58%; controlling cuff pressure, 46.8%; hand hygiene, 32.8%; using anti-coagulants, 26.8% and physiotherapy, 25.5%. Closed suction system, continuous drainage of subglottic secretions and kinetic beds were not used at all. The overall mean percentage of implementing preventive measures was low and required designing integrated guidelines by considering the conditions of the ICUs in each country, as well as educating and encouraging the staffs to use the recommended guidelines.

  1. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  2. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  3. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  4. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghorani-Azam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  5. Inter-Rater Agreement of Pressure Ulcer Risk and Prevention Measures in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators(®) (NDNQI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Shirley Moore; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this descriptive multi-site study, we examined inter-rater agreement on 11 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators(®) (NDNQI(®) ) pressure ulcer (PrU) risk and prevention measures. One hundred twenty raters at 36 hospitals captured data from 1,637 patient records. At each hospital, agreement between the most experienced rater and each other team rater was calculated for each measure. In the ratings studied, 528 patients were rated as "at risk" for PrU and, therefore, were included in calculations of agreement for the prevention measures. Prevalence-adjusted kappa (PAK) was used to interpret inter-rater agreement because prevalence of single responses was high. The PAK values for eight measures indicated "substantial" to "near perfect" agreement between most experienced and other team raters: Skin assessment on admission (.977, 95% CI [.966-.989]), PrU risk assessment on admission (.978, 95% CI [.964-.993]), Time since last risk assessment (.790, 95% CI [.729-.852]), Risk assessment method (.997, 95% CI [.991-1.0]), Risk status (.877, 95% CI [.838-.917]), Any prevention (.856, 95% CI [.76-.943]), Skin assessment (.956, 95% CI [.904-1.0]), and Pressure-redistribution surface use (.839, 95% CI [.763-.916]). For three intervention measures, PAK values fell below the recommended value of ≥.610: Routine repositioning (.577, 95% CI [.494-.661]), Nutritional support (.500, 95% CI [.418-.581]), and Moisture management (.556, 95% CI [.469-.643]). Areas of disagreement were identified. Findings provide support for the reliability of 8 of the 11 measures. Further clarification of data collection procedures is needed to improve reliability for the less reliable measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Scheier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  7. Did we get our money's worth? Bridging economic and behavioral measures of program success in adolescent drug prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M

    2013-11-08

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of "cost efficiency". The languages and methods of each respective discipline don't necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.

  8. Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kevin N.; Scheier, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy. PMID:24217178

  9. Helminth infections and practice of prevention and control measures among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Anbesame health center, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2017-07-12

    Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.

  10. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  11. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-09-01

    to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. identificar evidências de cuidados para prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central em pacientes adultos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. revisão Sistemática realizada por meio de busca nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf e Cochrane. Foram buscadas pesquisas com cuidados com a cateterização e manutenção do cateter venoso central, publicados de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014. Os 34 estudos incluídos foram organizados em um instrumento e avaliados por meio da classificação do The Joanna Briggs Institute. os estudos apresentaram bundles de cuidados com elementos como a higiene das mãos e precauções máximas de barreira; programas multidimensionais e estratégias como cateteres e curativos impregnados e o envolvimento da instituição e engajamento da equipe nos esforços para prevenção de infecção. os cuidados no formato de bundles aliados com a educação e engajamento da equipe e

  12. Flow measurement in turbine bearings. A measure to prevent damage; Durchflussmessung an Turbinenlagern. Eine Massnahme zur Verhuetung von Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, T. [STEAG AG, Heizkraftwerk Herne (Germany); Schenk, K. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The temperature of sliding bearings for turbines, pumps, compressors, blowers and motors is normally continually monitored. Depending on the type of construction and size of the aggregates, it has been common practice since the beginning of 1960 to measure the temperature of the bearing metal directly instead of the outflowing oil. Provided measurements are made also in areas of the highest surface compression, any deficiency, i.e. overload due to increasing bearing metal temperatues, are noticed at an early stage. In case of other design types, however, serious damage might result. But also serious maintenance errors due to the closure of bearing oil flow have forced us to implement more suitable measuring measures, one of them being an ultrasonic quantity measurement, that can be refurbished without great expenditure during operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gleitlager fuer Turbinen, Pumpen, Verdichter, Geblaese, Getriebe und Motoren werden ueblicherweise kontinuierlich temperaturmaessig ueberwacht. Seit Anfang 1960 werden je nach Bauart und Groesse der Aggregate Temperaturen nicht mehr des ablaufendes Oeles, sondern des Weissmetalls direkt gemessen. Vorausgesetzt, es wird auch im Bereich der hoechsten Flaechenpressung gemessen, werden Maengel, d.h. Ueberbelastung durch ansteigende Weissmetalltemperaturen, schnell erkannt. Bei anderen Konstruktionen hingegen kann es zu schweren Schaeden kommen. Aber auch gravierende Wartungsfehler durch Verschluss der Lageroelzufuhr haben uns gezwungen, geeignetere Messmethoden anzuwenden. Hierzu gehoert eine Mengenmessung mittels Ultraschall, die ohne viel Aufwand waehrend des Betriebes nachgeruestet werden kann. (orig.)

  13. Assessment, mechanisms, prevention, and measures for quick recovery of military operation-associated fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-shen LI; Wen HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a worldwide problem. Military members frequently feel fatigue in military operations, which hinders the successful completion of their tasks. In complicated international military environments, military fatigue has received great attention from the armed forces in all countries. The present paper elaborates the performances, assessment, and mechanism of fatigue in military operations. In addition, the current study discusses the prevention and rapid recovery of fatigue, aiming at p...

  14. Research on the Structure, Quality and Measures to Prevent and Combat Soil Erosion in the Village Stejaru from Teleorman County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project on the influence of agro-livestock activities on surface water quality inTeleorman County. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soil erosion in relationto agro-livestock activities in this area. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soilerosion in relation to agro-livestock activities in this area. The research has been done in the whole locality, and tooksoil samples to determine the type and soil texture and soil supply status with major nutrients (N, P, K. Based onthese results and knowing the types of main crops and livestock structure, at Stejaru level, recommendations weremade about avoiding the risks of pollution of surface water by nitrates from agricultural and livestock activities.

  15. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  16. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  17. Collective effect of personal behavior induced preventive measures and differential rate of transmission on spread of epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Vikram; Zhao, Yi

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the effect of personal behavior induced preventive measures is studied on the spread of epidemics over scale free networks that are characterized by the differential rate of disease transmission. The role of personal behavior induced preventive measures is parameterized in terms of variable λ, which modulates the number of concurrent contacts a node makes with the fraction of its neighboring nodes. The dynamics of the disease is described by a non-linear Susceptible Infected Susceptible model based upon the discrete time Markov Chain method. The network mean field approach is generalized to account for the effect of non-linear coupling between the aforementioned factors on the collective dynamics of nodes. The upper bound estimates of the disease outbreak threshold obtained from the mean field theory are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding non-linear stochastic model. From the results of parametric study, it is shown that the epidemic size has inverse dependence on the preventive measures (λ). It has also been shown that the increase in the average degree of the nodes lowers the time of spread and enhances the size of epidemics.

  18. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  19. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2012-02-03

    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  20. Uncertainty in Measurement: A Review of Monte Carlo Simulation Using Microsoft Excel for the Calculation of Uncertainties Through Functional Relationships, Including Uncertainties in Empirically Derived Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more ‘constants’, each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived ‘constants’ must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional

  1. Uncertainty in measurement: a review of monte carlo simulation using microsoft excel for the calculation of uncertainties through functional relationships, including uncertainties in empirically derived constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more 'constants', each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived 'constants' must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional relationship

  2. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT: The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink, M M; Braber, T L; Prakken, N H J; Doevendans, P A F M; Backx, F J G; Grobbee, D E; Rienks, R; Nathoe, H M; Bots, M L; Velthuis, B K; Mosterd, A

    2017-04-01

    Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatson units and/or ≥50% luminal stenosis on contrast-enhanced cardiac CT. Psychological impact was measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) (seven items) on a six-point scale (grade 0-5). A sum score ≥19 indicates clinically relevant psychological distress. A Likert scale was used to assess overall experiences and impact on sports and lifestyle. A total of 275 participants (86.5% response rate, 95% CI 83-90%) with a mean age of 54.5 ± 6.4 years completed the questionnaires, 48 (17.5%, 95% CI 13-22%) of whom had CAD. The median IES score was 1 (IQR 0-2, [0-23]). IES was slightly higher in those with CAD (mean rank 175 vs. 130, p psychological distress (IES = 23). Participants reported numerous benefits, including feeling safer exercising (58.6%, 95% CI 53-65%) and positive lifestyle changes, especially in those with CAD (17.2 vs. 52.1%, p psychological distress in older sportsmen. Psychological distress should not be a reason to forego screening in sportsmen.

  3. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  4. Development and validation of the Alzheimer's prevention beliefs measure in a multi-ethnic cohort-a behavioral theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Ganzer, Christine A; Vermeylen, Francoise; Parry, Stephen; Zhu, Jifeng; Lyons, Abigail; Isaacson, Richard; Kim, Sarang

    2017-12-01

    Understanding health beliefs and how they influence willingness will enable the development of targeted curricula that maximize public engagement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk reduction behaviors. Literature on behavioral theory and community input was used to develop and validate a health beliefs survey about AD risk reduction among 428 community-dwelling adults. Principal component analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Linear regression was performed to identify key predictors of Willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors. The measure as well as the individual scales (Benefits, Barriers, Severity, Susceptibility and Social Norm) were found to be internally consistent. Overall, as Benefits and Barriers scores increased, Willingness scores also increased. Those without prior AD experience or family history had lower willingness scores. Finally, we observed an interaction between age and norms, suggesting that social factors related to AD prevention may differentially affect people of different ages. The Alzheimer Prevention Beliefs Measure provides assessment of several health belief factors related to AD prevention. Age, Family History, Logistical Barriers and total Benefits are significant determinants of willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors, such as seeing a doctor or making a lifestyle change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  6. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Brinch Kruse, A; Postma, M; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Dewulf, J

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent™, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent™ questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms. © 2017 Blackwell

  7. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Gadani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at P96 h was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66% as compared to the early-onset type (20%. The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk of VAP and utmost importance must be given to prevent VAP.

  8. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  9. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  10. Study and application of measures for prevention of spontaneous combustion of coal in goaf induced by air leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Tang, H.; Zou, S.; Shi, S. [Xiangtan Mining Institute (China)

    1996-12-01

    To prevent spontaneous ignition of coal due to air leakage in the goaf, air stoppings were built periodically in a U-shaped air leakage area based on computer simulation and site experience. The measure had reduced remarkably the quantity and extent of air leakage in the mined-out area and expanded the extent of non-spontaneous combustion area, thus prevented effectively the risk of spontaneous ignition and gas explosion. Application of this method in Mugang Mine of Liuzhi Bureau for more than two years had reduced the economic loss by over 3 million Yuan RMB. This method is characterized by simple operation, low cost, etc. It is suitable for mines in under developed area and mines with complicated conditions which are prone to spontaneous ignition. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  12. Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical measures in preventing pediatric influenza: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Soldevila, Núria; Garcia, Juan Jose; Launes, Cristian; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-06-09

    Hygiene behavior plays a relevant role in infectious disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) in preventing pediatric influenza infections. Laboratory confirmed influenza cases occurred during 2009-10 and 2010-11 seasons matched by age and date of consultation. NPI (frequency of hand washing, alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces) during seven days prior to onset of symptoms were obtained from parents of cases and controls. Cases presented higher prevalence of underlying conditions such as pneumonia [OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.38-7.58 p = 0.007], asthma [OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.17-5.14 p = 0.02] and having more than 1 risk factor [OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 0.99-2.82 p = 0.05]. Hand washing more than 5 times per day [aOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39-0.99 p = 0.04] was the only statistically significant protective factor. When considering two age groups (pre-school age 0-4 yrs and school age 5-17) yrs , only the school age group showed a negative association for influenza infection for both washing more than 5 times per day [aOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.22-0.99 p = 0.04] and hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces [aOR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04-0.86 p = 0.03]. Frequent hand washing should be recommended to prevent influenza infection in the community setting and in special in the school age group.

  13. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh; Aparajit B. Dey, MD; Mohammed E. Hussain, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  14. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The aging of equipment in service: Preventive measures taken in the design of the EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, A.

    2009-01-01

    The design of a new Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has to take into account past experience, and in particular the lessons drawn from aging of components already in operation. The benefit of this process for tong term operation can be exceptionally high in the case of an evolutionary design such as that of the EPR TM reactor, for which the materials and the manufacturing conditions are the result of a very Long term optimization. Aging of materials in operation encompasses several damages, from the embrittlement caused by irradiation or thermal aging to the generation of cracks by fatigue or corrosion. These damages are known and characterized through international field experience and through a Cot of Laboratory studies performed worldwide, in France mainly by EDF, Cea and AREVA NP. Even if some damage mechanisms are not fully understood, good practice rules or empirical models were developed in order to give accurate predictions of damage kinetics and consequences. All this experience was taken into account during the design phase of the EPR TM project to define mate-rials and/or service conditions allowing to prevent or to minimize aging. (author)

  16. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  17. Oxygen-tension measurements - The first step towards prevention and early detection of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, D.; French, P.J.; Komen, N.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F.; Draaijer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients still die every year as a result of anastomotic leakage after surgery. The medical world needs an objective aid to detect leakage during surgery and during the critical recovery period. We propose a miniature measurement system to detect adequate tissue oxygenation pre- and

  18. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  19. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  20. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was u...

  1. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Dubey

    2018-03-01

    , genetics, toxicological aspects, control and prevention strategies, and other management aspects of PR toxin with paying special attention on economic impacts with intended legislations for avoiding PR toxin contamination with respect to food security and other biosafety purposes.

  3. PR Toxin - Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    , toxicological aspects, control and prevention strategies, and other management aspects of PR toxin with paying special attention on economic impacts with intended legislations for avoiding PR toxin contamination with respect to food security and other biosafety purposes.

  4. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S.; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2018-01-01

    , toxicological aspects, control and prevention strategies, and other management aspects of PR toxin with paying special attention on economic impacts with intended legislations for avoiding PR toxin contamination with respect to food security and other biosafety purposes. PMID:29651243

  5. The metabolic syndrome in long-term cancer survivors, an important target for secondary preventive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; Postma, A; Sleijfer, DT; Gietema, JA

    With increasing numbers of cancer survivors, attention has been drawn to long-term complications of curative cancer treatment, including a range of metabolic disorders. These metabolic disorders often resemble the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X, which is an important

  6. Identification of measures for prevention of black spots in organically produced stored carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Kastelein, P.; Elderson, J.; Blok, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands winter carrot for the fresh market is a cash crop for many organic growers of field vegetables. In the last few years blackish spots have been observed during storage of carrot roots. An inventory was carried out in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 including in total 42 carrot lots from 22

  7. Failure prevention with stress measurement for dismantling of nuclear facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komber, T.; Reimche, W.; Bach, F.W.

    2003-07-01

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities is in progress since 20 years in Germany. Practical experiences in decommissioning have shown, that problem can occur during dismantling operations caused by release of residual stresses. In this case cutting parts or cutting tools get jammed if mechanical cutting techniques are used. The aim of this research work was to develop measuring techniques for the determination of the stress state in RPV, to predict the deformation during dismantling operations. This can serve as additional base for improved decommissioning planning and for time optimised dismantling. For determination of the stress state in components two small and inexpensive measuring techniques were new designed, for remote-controlled on-site use in atmosphere and under water. For the nondestructive determination of the directional stress state, based on the magnetostriction and the Harmonic-Analysis of alternating magnetic fields, a new developed rotating sensor is in use with a principal magnetisation direction. Because of the mainly isotropic material properties and the directional stresses, measured Harmonic values are influenced mainly by the stress state in the surface areas. In this way it is possible to determine the stress state qualitatively and the direction of principal stresses in the surface areas of the component. As an alternative to the established wire strain gauge, which remote-controlled application is still not possible under water, a new slot jet cutting strain control technique was designed. This technique detects the deformation in the surface after stresses are cut free by a water jet. So the stress state could be determined quantitatively in the surface and assessed in the depth. With the help of these two measuring techniques it is possible to characterize the stress state along a planned cutting line. The use of an adapted FEM simulation enables to calculate and determine the deformation of the cutting gap beforehand. These information

  8. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Eda; Köprülü, Hülya

    2011-01-01

    Background/purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of Streptococcus mutans to babies from prospective mothers in whom protective measures were carried out and who were trained in dental health care. Materials and methods: Pregnant women were given fluoride varnish and restoration of active caries once during their pregnancy. No application of fluoride or restoration was given to the control group. Microbiological samples were taken after delivery of the babies in the...

  9. Design-based measures to prevent damage in nuclear power plants due to incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The question 'What are necessary provisions', or rather 'What level of safety is required' is used as an approach to the hitherto undefined legal concept of 'necessary provisions'. The Atomic Energy Act leaves the assessment of the types and extent of risk to the executive organs. So far, attempts to minimize the population risk have been made on the basis of emergency provisions against external influences, site selection and planning of emergency measures. (HP) [de

  10. Responsibility as a dimension of HIV prevention normative beliefs: measurement in three drug-using samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Timpson, S C; Williams, M L; Amos, C; McCurdy, S; Bowen, A M; Kilonzo, G P

    2007-03-01

    The concept of responsibility was derived originally from principles of morality, as part of a network of rights, duties and obligations. HIV risk-related studies have suggested that a sense of responsibility for condom use to protect a partner is a potentially important predictor of condom use in drug-using populations. We created a four-item scale measuring Self responsibility to use condoms and Partner's responsibility to use condoms. Data were collected from three drug-using samples: crack smokers, HIV seropositive crack smokers in an intervention study in Houston, Texas, and Tanzanian heroin users in Dar es Salaam. Data indicated that the four responsibility items had high alpha coefficients in each sample, and that there were moderate to high intercorrelations between equivalent self and partner responsibility items. There were significant differences in scale scores between the crack smokers and the HIV positive crack smokers and the Tanzanian samples, but no significant differences between the HIV positive and Tanzanian samples. Comparing within the first crack-smoker sample those who were HIV positive and negative showed significant differences in the direction of higher beliefs in responsibility to use condoms in the HIV positive group. These data suggest that responsibility is measurable, holds similar psychometric properties across three samples differing in culture and HIV serostatus, and that condom use responsibility is conceptualized as a measure of general responsibility rather than as a reciprocal self/partner responsibility.

  11. The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S; Fenton, D; Cremin, M; Morgan, A

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Irish homes have radon concentrations above the reference level of 200 Bq m −3 . To minimise the number of new homes with this problem, building regulations require that all new homes built since July 1998 in high radon areas are installed with radon barriers during construction. Measurements on local authority homes in a number of high radon areas have allowed the impact of these new regulations to be assessed. In County Cork a reduction of up to 70% in the mean radon concentration was observed in homes built since 1998 relative to those built before this date. A reduction in both the number of homes exceeding the reference level and the maximum concentration measured in homes was also measured. Homes exceeding the reference level were remediated with the use of an active sump. The results of this remedial work are also presented and show that the mean reduction in radon concentration achieved was 92%. (paper)

  12. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahagirdar, D.; Kroll, T.; Ritchie, K.; Wyke, S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated

  13. Implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures in designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China: are we doing enough to prevent nosocomial tuberculosis infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin

    2016-03-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764-7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154-459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79-426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission rates of patients with TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  14. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  15. Measures to prevent to illicit users of radioactive sources and nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiunaitiene, R.M.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The government of every country, depending on its economic recourses, attaches a great importance to the radiation protection and safety of population. And one of the instruments that helps in realization of this problem is to create a system in the country that prevents the possibility to illicitly use sources of ionizing radiation. It was a very important task to create such a system after Lithuania got back its independence in 1991. Because of its geographic location, Lithuania becomes a transit country of illicit transport of radioactive materials from Russia, Ukraine and other former Soviet states into western countries. At the same time it was very important to ensure the safety of the sources (that means to ensure from stealing, plundering, loss, etc.), because when the former system disintegrated, companies became bankrupt. The system was developed to solve such problems. Under the requirements of legal acts there were prescribed (delegated) functions of State institutions in order of competence in solving the problems to ensure Radiation Protection. Under the requirements of the Law on Radiation Protection, Radiation Protection Center is the main institution in Lithuania responsible for solving the problems of Radiation Protection of the population from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The responsibilities and obligations of the users of the sources were defined in legal acts: 1. The Law on Nuclear Energy; 2. The Law on Radiation Protection; 3. The Law on Radioactive Waste Management; 4. The Law on Changes and Appendices of the Code of the Administrative Law Violations; 5. On the Establishing the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, Governmental Resolution; 6. On the Confirm an Regulation of Licensing the Practices with Ionizing Radiation Sources, Governmental Resolution. After approval of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, all the users of sources of

  16. Awareness of rabies prevention and control measures among public health workers in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A K T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2015-12-01

    To assess and compare rabies related knowledge and awareness of public health workers at provincial and district levels in the seven provinces with the highest number of deaths from human rabies in northern Vietnam. A cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of public health workers attending four workshops on rabies disease, control and prevention between 16 October and 21 November, 2012. Total knowledge scores (maximum 38 points) were categorized into: 'high' (>30 points) 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (workers attending the workshops: 57% were male; 76% worked at the district level compared with 24% who worked at provincial level; and 45% had worked in rabies control for control for >5 years. Overall knowledge was patchy and ranked as 'moderate'. Important gaps in knowledge were identified particularly in relation to indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, and routes of exposure to rabies virus. One in ten respondents did not know that rabies virus could be transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. When examining the overall mean knowledge scores, marginally significant differences were identified. The average scores for district level health workers (DLHW) and provincial level health workers (PLHW) were 28 ± 3 and 29 ± 3 points respectively (p = 0.098), which fell within the study definition of 'moderate' knowledge. In contrast, when 'high' knowledge scores were compared, a significantly greater proportion of PLHW achieved >30 points compared to DLHW (44.0% vs 22.5%, p = 0.044). Important gaps in knowledge and awareness of public health workers were identified particularly in relation to routes of exposure to rabies virus and indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Overall, comparison of knowledge scores revealed significant differences between district and provincial public health workers. The results obtained suggest that in order for rabies control programmes to succeed public health

  17. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Compliance of an elderly hip fracture population with secondary preventative measures. Efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, John

    2012-02-03

    Secondary pharmaceutical measures are effective in all age groups for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This prospective study determines the demographics of 566 consecutive osteoporotic hip fractures presenting to a Level 1 Trauma Center. We examine the efficacy of simple treatment recommendations for pharmaceutical treatment of osteoporosis and the factors determining general practitioner and patient compliance with these recommendations in a community setting. One out of four patients (24.5%) had sustained a previous fragility fracture. Mean age was 80 years. Twenty five percent were resident in a nursing home and only 10% were taking anti-resorptive therapy preoperatively. In hospital mortality was 6%, and 39% of recruited patients were dead at 12 months. By this time more than half the survivors were resident in a nursing home. The compliance with anti-resorptive therapy had increased to over 70% consequent to our simple recommendations. Significant differences in GP and patient compliance were observed between nursing home and own residence dwellers. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention in increasing patient and GP compliance with secondary fracture prevention measures. We also discuss many of the confounding issues determining this compliance.

  19. The experience of some European Countries in the implementation of preventive measures against the phenomenon of violence and aggression at football stadiums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Uhrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sets forward the experience of the Slovak Republic in the field of prevention of violence and aggression in football stadiums. The text discusses initiatives aiming at dimnishing this alarming and increasing in size phenomenon. The experiences stemming from preventive measures which have been taken in this regard in other European countries, have also been brought closer in the text.

  20. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadani, Hina; Vyas, Arun; Kar, Akhya Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at Ppatients developed VAP. The risk factor significantly associated with VAP in our study was found to be duration of ventilator support, reintubation, supine position, advanced age and altered consciousness. Declining ratio of partial pressure to inspired fraction of oxygen (PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio) was found to be the earliest indicator of VAP. The most common organism isolated in our institution was Pseudomonas. The incidence of early-onset VAP (within 96 h) was found to be 27% while the late-onset type (>96 h) was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66%) as compared to the early-onset type (20%). The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk

  1. Prevalence of malaria, prevention measures, and main clinical features in febrile children admitted to the Franceville Regional Hospital, Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghendji-Nzondo Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760; among them 19 (21.4% had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738, after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738. Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months (p = 0.0013. Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001. Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17, followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17. The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162, followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162. Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936 and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001. Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001. The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced.

  2. Influence Of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions At A Global Level And Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the differences in the aircraft engine exhaustemissions, as well as the impact of the emissions on theenvironment depending on several factors. These include theage of the engine, i. e. technical refinement, engine operating regimesat different thrusts during time periods: takeoff, climb,approach, etc. Also, the exhaust emissions do not have thesame influence on different atmospheric layers. The pollutantsemitted at higher altitudes during cruising have become agreater problem, although the volume of pollutants is smaller,due to the chemical complexity and sensitivity of these layers ascompared to the lower layers of atmosphere. One of the reasonswhy these problems have long remained outside the focus of interestof the environmentalists is that the air transport of goodsand people is performed at high altitudes, so that the pollutionof atmosphere does not present a direct threat to anyone, sincethe environment is being polluted at a global level and thereforeis more difficult to notice at the local level.

  3. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  4. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  5. Safety in ready mixed concrete industry: descriptive analysis of injuries and development of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboğa, Özge; Baradan, Selim

    2017-02-07

    Ready mixed concrete (RMC) industry, one of the barebones of construction sector, has its distinctive occupational safety and health (OSH) risks. Employees experience risks that emerge during the fabrication of concrete, as well as its delivery to the construction site. Statistics show that usage and demand of RMC have been increasing along with the number of producers and workers. Unfortunately, adequate OSH measures to meet this rapid growth are not in place even in top RMC producing countries, such as Turkey. Moreover, lack of statistical data and academic research in this sector exacerbates this problem. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting data mining in Turkish Social Security Institution archives and performing univariate frequency and cross tabulation analysis on 71 incidents that RMC truck drivers were involved. Also, investigations and interviews were conducted in seven RMC plants in Turkey and Netherlands with OSH point of view. Based on the results of this research, problem areas were determined such as; cleaning truck mixer/pump is a hazardous activity where operators get injured frequently, and struck by falling objects is a major hazard at RMC industry. Finally, Job Safety Analyses were performed on these areas to suggest mitigation methods.

  6. 13 CFR 123.402 - Can your business include its relocation as a mitigation measure in an application for a pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participating in the Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program and SFHAs or visit the FEMA Web site at http://www.fema.gov. ... relocation as a mitigation measure in an application for a pre-disaster mitigation loan? 123.402 Section 123.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Pre-Disaster...

  7. Measurement properties of a novel survey to assess stages of organizational readiness for evidence-based interventions in community chronic disease prevention settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatakis Katherine A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great deal of variation in the existing capacity of primary prevention programs and policies addressing chronic disease to deliver evidence-based interventions (EBIs. In order to develop and evaluate implementation strategies that are tailored to the appropriate level of capacity, there is a need for an easy-to-administer tool to stage organizational readiness for EBIs. Methods Based on theoretical frameworks, including Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations, we developed a survey instrument to measure four domains representing stages of readiness for EBI: awareness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. A separate scale representing organizational climate as a potential mediator of readiness for EBIs was also included in the survey. Twenty-three questions comprised the four domains, with four to nine items each, using a seven-point response scale. Representatives from obesity, asthma, diabetes, and tobacco prevention programs serving diverse populations in the United States were surveyed (N = 243; test-retest reliability was assessed with 92 respondents. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test and refine readiness scales. Test-retest reliability of the readiness scales, as measured by intraclass correlation, ranged from 0.47–0.71. CFA found good fit for the five-item adoption and implementation scales and resulted in revisions of the awareness and maintenance scales. The awareness scale was split into two two-item scales, representing community and agency awareness. The maintenance scale was split into five- and four-item scales, representing infrastructural maintenance and evaluation maintenance, respectively. Internal reliability of scales (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.66–0.78. The model for the final revised scales approached good fit, with most factor loadings >0.6 and all >0.4. Conclusions The lack of adequate measurement tools hinders progress in dissemination and implementation

  8. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.

  9. Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: Opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Daniel, Carrie R.; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I.; George, Preethi S.; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C.; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarily added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk. PMID:21338207

  10. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to

  11. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete's Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H. J.; Doevendans, P. A. F. M.; Backx, F. J. G.; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged >= 45 years. Methods Coronary

  12. No psychological distress in sportsmen aged 45 years and older after cardiovascular screening, including cardiac CT : The Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, M. M.; Braber, T. L.; Prakken, N. H J; Doevendans, P. A F M; Backx, F. J G; Grobbee, D. E.; Rienks, R.; Nathoe, H. M.; Bots, M. L.; Velthuis, B. K.; Mosterd, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological distress caused by cardiovascular pre-participation screening (PPS) may be a reason not to implement a PPS program. We assessed the psychological impact of PPS, including cardiac computed tomography (CT), in 318 asymptomatic sportsmen aged ≥45 years. Methods Coronary artery

  13. Subjective and objective measurement of the intelligibility of synthesized speech impaired by the very low bit rate STANAG 4591 codec including packet loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Počta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the intelligibility of speech coded by the STANAG 4591 standard codec, including packet loss, using synthesized speech input. Both subjective and objective assessments are used. It is shown that this codec significantly degrades intelligibility when compared to a standard

  14. Measurement of the structure functions F2 and xF3 and comparison with QCD predictions including kinematical and dynamical higher twist effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Sansum, R.A.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Kasper, P.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Clayton, E.F.; Iaselli, G.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Petrides, A.; Jones, G.T.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Mermikides, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    The isoscalar nucleon structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) and xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) are measured in the range 0 2 2 , 1.7 2 2 , x 2 values, it is found that a low Λsub(anti Manti S) value in the neighbourhood of 100 MeV describes the data adequately and that the contribution of dynamical higher twist effects is small and negative. (orig.)

  15. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  16. [Impact of immunization measures by the Family Health Program on infant mortality from preventable diseases in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tânia Maria Rocha; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Tavares, Márcia Maia Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the Family Health Program (FHP) on infant health in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil, evaluating immunization and infant mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. A time-series study was conducted with data from the principal health information systems, analyzing indicators before and after implementation of the FHP in 1995. The independent variable was year of birth, related to degree of population coverage by the FHP. Three periods were analyzed: 1990-1994 (prior), 1995-1996 (implementation phase: 0 to 30% coverage), and 1997-2002 (intervention: coverage of 38.6% to 54%). Trends in the indicators were analyzed by simple linear regression, testing significance with the t test. During the implementation period there was an increase in all the vaccination coverage rates (176% BCG, 223% polio, 52% DPT, 61% measures) and a decrease in infant mortality from preventable diseases (12.7 deaths/year), even without a decrease in absolute poverty in the municipality or an increase in either coverage by the public health care system or the sewage system. Improvement in the indicators demonstrates the effectiveness of FHP actions in the municipality.

  17. EFFECT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RABIES AND ITS PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG FINAL YEAR NURSING STUDENTS OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Dixit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabies continues to be a major public health challenge with around 55,000 deaths every year. Amongst the health care providers nursing personnel are often the first point of contact and hence need to be well trained in the management of rabies cases. Methods: The present study was an educational intervention study conducted among 100 final year nursing students of a Medical College Hospital to assess the knowledge regarding rabies and its transmission, first aid measures undertaken, and pre and post exposure prophylaxis measures employed to prevent the infection. Results: 66% of the students knew about the signs and symptoms of the disease, post intervention this increased to 87%. Knowledge regarding animal bites which transmit rabies improved by 86 % mode of transmission by 49 % and first aid measures undertaken following an animal bite by 12%. 15% of the students knew about the correct site and route of PEP; post intervention 91% knew about it, 87% increase was observed as regards the dose of vaccine to be administered and 73% students correctly knew about the PEP schedule post educational intervention. Knowledge regarding groups / individuals who need to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis increased by 33% and that of the schedule of pre-exposure prophylaxis by 53%. The mean pre-intervention score was 6.95 and mean post-intervention score was 13.51; the results being statistically significant. Conclusion: Substantial improvement in knowledge about the disease was noted amongst the nursing students following the educational intervention session.

  18. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.

    2006-01-01

    A system of preventive protection of houses against radon penetration from the ground [1] has been in operation for more than 15 years in the Czech Republic. The determination of a so-called radon index of the building site represents the first step. The assessment is based on measurements of soil gas radon concentration and on the determination of soil permeability. During the years, the method was modified several times, especially the recommendation dealing with the classification of soil permeability, but the base remains stable: The soil characteristics are measured in-situ and protective measures are designed with respect to the measured properties of the soil and to the dwelling design. The site-specific, individual approach should enable to propose an optimal preventive strategy corresponding to local conditions. If the radon index is other than low (i.e. medium, or high), the building must be protected against radon in accordance with the Czech Atomic Law. Protective measures should be designed and installed according to the Czech National Standard [2]. Basic principles of the protection can be summarized in the following way: If the radon index of a building site is low, no special provisions are required. Normal damp-proofing that is designed in accordance with hydro-geological conditions provides sufficient building protection. Nevertheless, the insulation has to be installed over the whole ground area of the building. It is also recommended that the corridor with stairs leading from the underground floor to the upper floors should be separated by the door. In case of medium radon index of a building site, each high-quality and long life damp-proofing, with the measured radon diffusion coefficient, may be considered as radon-proof insulation in compliance with C.S.N. 73 06 01. A required insulation thickness is calculated using the known value of radon diffusion coefficient. The insulation must be laid down continuously on the whole area of the

  19. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  20. A Brief Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: Nature, Correlates, and Proposed Preventative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Regan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence are themes which characterize a significant proportion of many close romantic relationships. Both women and men may find themselves caught in a web of intimate terror – controlled, manipulated, and hurt by a coercive and violent partner. In this brief review article, we summarize existing literature on the form of intimate partner violence known as coercive controlling violence (CCV, domestic abuse, or intimate terrorism. We begin by discussing the nature and consequences of CCV relationships. Personal or individual (e.g., biological sex, age, immigrant status, socioeconomic status, attitudes and beliefs, mental health and psychopathology, relational or interpersonal (e.g., relationship type, relationship satisfaction, and environmental (e.g., economic strain, social isolation risk factors associated with the occurrence of domestic abuse are identified. Finally, potential preventative measures at the individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural level that may serve to reduce the likelihood of this pernicious interpersonal phenomenon are considered.

  1. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, J.M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40 K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40 K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40 K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system for 12-24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems. (author)

  2. Automated analysis of off-line measured gamma-spectra using UniSampo gamma-ray spectrum analysis software including criterias for alarming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In many laboratories the number of measured routine gamma-spectra can be significant and the labour work to review all the data is time consuming and expensive task. In many cases the routine sample does not normally contain radiation above a detectable level, and still the review of the spectra has to be performed. By introducing simple rules for emerging conditions, the review work can be significantly reduced. In one case the need to review the environmental measurement spectra was reduced to less than 1% compared to the original need, which in turn made the review personnel available for more useful functions. Using the UniSampo analysis system, the analysis results of spectra that are causing alarming conditions can be transmitted via e-mail to any address. Some systems are even equipped with the capability to forward these results to hand-portable telephones or pagers. This is a very practical solution for automated environmental monitoring, when the sample spectra are collected automatically and transmitted to central computer for further analysis. Set up of an automatic analysis system, rules for the emerging conditions, technical solutions for an automated alarming system and a generic hypothesis test for the alarming system developed for UniSampo analysis software are described. (author)

  3. Sorption of Sr, Co and Zn on illite: Batch experiments and modelling including Co in-diffusion measurements on compacted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental investigations on the uptake of divalent cations (Sr, Co and Zn) onto illite (Illite du Puy, Le-Puy-en-Velay, France) were carried out by three different international research groups (Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, KIT (Germany), Group Waste & Disposal, SCK-CEN, (Belgium) and Laboratory for Waste Management, PSI (Switzerland)) in the framework of the European FP7 CatClay project. The dependence of solid-liquid distribution ratios (Rd values) on pH at trace metal conditions (sorption edges) and on the metal ion concentration (sorption isotherms) was determined in dilute suspensions of homo-ionic Na-illite (Na-IdP) under controlled N2 atmosphere. The experimental results were modelled using the 2 Site Protolysis Non Electrostatic Surface Complexation and Cation Exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model. The sorption of Sr depends strongly on ionic strength, while a rather weak pH dependence is observed in a pH range between 3 and 11. The data were modelled with cation exchange reactions, taking into account competition with H, K, Ca, Mg and Al, and surface complexation on weak amphotheric edge sites at higher pH values. The sorption of Co on Na-IdP, however, is strongly pH dependent. Cation exchange on the planar sites and surface complexation on strong and weak amphoteric edge sites were used to describe the Co sorption data. Rd values for Co derived from in-diffusion measurements on compacted Na-IdP samples (bulk-dry density of 1700 kg m-3) between pH 5.0 and 9.0 are in good agreement with the batch sorption data. The equivalence of both approaches to measure sorption was thus confirmed for the present test system. In addition, the results highlight the importance of both major and minor surface species for the diffusive transport behaviour of strongly sorbing metal cations. While surface complexes at the edge sites determine largely the Rd value, the diffusive flux may be governed by those species bound to the planar sites, even at low fractional

  4. Measurement of the structure functions F 2 and xF 3 and comparison with QCD predictions including kinematical and dynamical higher twist effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvell, K.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Parker, M. A.; Sansum, R. A.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Bullock, F. W.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Burkot, W.; Calcchio, M.; Claytoh, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Iaselli, G.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Kochowski, C.; Marage, P.; Mermikides, M.; Middleton, R. P.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S. W.; Petiau, P.; Petrides, A.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallee, C.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W. A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1987-03-01

    The isoscalar nucleon structure functions F 2( x, Q 2) and xF 3( x, Q 2) are measured in the range 0< Q 2<64 GeV2, 1.7< W 2<250 GeV2, x<0.7 using ν andbar v interactions on neon in BEBC. The data are used to evaluate possible higher twist contributions and to determine their impact on the evaluation of the QCD parameter Λ. In contrast to previous analyses reaching to such low W 2 values, it is found that a lowΛ _{overline {MS} } value in the neighbourhood of 100 MeV describes the data adequately and that the contribution of dynamical higher twist effects is small and negative.

  5. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  6. A new approach of the surface temperature measurement for a preventive conservation of the work of arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tuccio, Maria Concetta; De Grandi, Sandro; Vivarelli, Arianna; Becherini, Francesca; Pockelé, Luc; Bernardi, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    To conserve the work of arts (paintings, sculptures, etc..) in a preventive mode, a careful monitoring of the environment around these artifacts, as well as of their surface temperature, is necessary. The latter is the only physical variable which can be measured in a non-invasive way, following directly the thermal conditions and variations of the work of arts due to the dynamics of the microclimate. Considering that the works of art are often untouchable, an automated and accurate remote sensing could be very useful to prevent dangerous processes of deterioration. For these reasons a new sensor has been developed by a spin-off of the ISAC - CNR. This sensor allows to check in real-time the surface temperature changes of the artifacts both over time and at different predefined points. This automated sensor is a radiometer sensible to wavelengths ranging from 7,5 µm to 13,4 µm. A system rotating over three dimension "pan and tilt" allows to make multiple measures on a grid of points previously defined on the surface of the work of arts. The accuracy, obtained by means of a carefull calibration process, is  0,5 °C, more precise than the usual remote sensing (thermal camera and commercial radiometers), characterized by an accuracy value of  2°C. In order to obtain accurate measures of the surface temperature for a real body, the correct emissivity values need to be integrated in the calculation. Hence, an easy to use management software has been developed allowing to set the emissivity value in each point of the grid. For rejoinable points of the surface, the exact emissivity value could be determined comparing the measurements recorded by the new infrared sensor with the ones obtained by a very sensitive sensor (0,02 - 0,03)°C manually placed on the surface for a short time. In case of work of arts placed at great distance from the sersor, the emissivity values must be determined previously. The emissivity depends on a lot of variables and one of them is

  7. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  10. LHCb: Measurements of the relative branching fractions of the decay channel $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ including charmonium contributions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The study of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel at LHCb is of great interest since it gives the possibility to study different aspects of the Standard Model and possibly Beyond Standard Model physics. A measurement of the direct CP asymmetry can be performed. Moreover intermediate states such as charmonium and "charmonium-like" resonances in the $p \\bar{p}$ final state can be observed and studied along with their characteristics. A multivariate selection has been implemented to select the interesting events using kinematic and topological variables and the particle identification information using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The selection has a high signal efficiency and high background rejection capability. The ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel, of the charmless component with $M_{p \\bar{p}} < 2.85 \\,{\\rm GeV/}c^{2}$ and of the charmonium contribution $\\eta_{c}$, ${\\mathcal B} (B^{\\pm}\\to \\eta_{c} K^{\\pm})\\times {\\mathcal B} (\\eta...

  11. A simple, generalizable method for measuring individual research productivity and its use in the long-term analysis of departmental performance, including between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard

    2013-01-14

    A simple, generalizable method for measuring research output would be useful in attempts to build research capacity, and in other contexts. A simple indicator of individual research output was developed, based on grant income, publications and numbers of PhD students supervised. The feasibility and utility of the indicator was examined by using it to calculate research output from two similarly-sized research groups in different countries. The same indicator can be used to assess the balance in the research "portfolio" of an individual researcher. Research output scores of 41 staff in Research Department A had a wide range, from zero to 8; the distribution of these scores was highly skewed. Only about 20% of the researchers had well-balanced research outputs, with approximately equal contributions from grants, papers and supervision. Over a five-year period, Department A's total research output rose, while the number of research staff decreased slightly, in other words research productivity (output per head) rose. Total research output from Research Department B, of approximately the same size as A, was similar, but slightly higher than Department A. The proposed indicator is feasible. The output score is dimensionless and can be used for comparisons within and between countries. Modeling can be used to explore the effect on research output of changing the size and composition of a research department. A sensitivity analysis shows that small increases in individual productivity result in relatively greater increases in overall departmental research output. The indicator appears to be potentially useful for capacity building, once the initial step of research priority setting has been completed.

  12. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. The Causes and Prevention Measures of Stuck Pump Phenomenon of Rod-pumped Well in CBM Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonggui, Mei

    2018-02-01

    In the process of CBM field exploitation, in order to realize the drainage equipment to work continuous stably, the article pays attention to study and solve the stuck pump problem, and aim of reducing reservoir damage and lowing production costs. Through coal particles stuck pump experiment and sediment composition analysis, we find out five primary cause of stuck pump phenomenon: sand from coal seam, sediment from ground, iron corrosion, iron scrap caused by eccentric wear, coal cake. According to stuck pump mechanism, the article puts forward 8 measures to prevent stuck pump phenomenon, and the measures are focused on technology optimization, operation management and drainage process control. After 7 years production practice, the yearly stuck pump rate has dropped from 8.9% to 1.2%, and the pump inspection period has prolonged 2 times. The experiment result shows that pure coal particles cannot cause stuck pump, but sand, scrap iron, and iron corrosion are the primary cause of stuck pump. The article study and design the new pipe string structure that the bottom of the pipe string is open. This kind of pipe string applied the sedimentation terminal velocity theory to solve the stuck pump phenomenon, and it can be widely used in CBM drainage development.

  14. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of preventive measures for accidental blood exposure in operating theaters: a survey of 20 hospitals in Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Golliot, Franck; L'Heriteau, François; Lebascle, Karin; Ha, Catherine; Farret, Danièle; Bignon, Sylvie; Smaïl, Amar; Doutrellot-Philippon, Catherine; Astagneau, Pascal; Bouvet, Elisabeth

    2006-08-01

    Accidental exposures to blood of body fluids (ABE) expose health care workers (HCW) to the risk of occupational infection. Our aim was to assess the prevention equipment available in the operating theater (OT) with reference to guidelines or recommendations and its use by the staff in that OT on that day and past history of ABE. Correspondents of the Centre de Coordination de la Lutte contre les Infections Nosocomiales (CCLIN) Paris-Nord ABE Surveillance Taskforce carried out an observational multicenter survey in 20 volunteer French hospitals. In total, 260 operating staff (including 151 surgeons) were investigated. Forty-nine of the 260 (18.8%) staff said they double-gloved for all patients and procedures, changing gloves hourly. Blunt-tipped suture needles were available in 49.1% of OT; 42 of 76 (55.3%) of the surgeons in these OT said they never used them. Overall, 60% and 64% of surgeons had never self-tested for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. Fifty-five surgeons said they had sustained a total of 96 needlestick injuries during the month preceding the survey. Ten of these surgeons had notified of 1 needlestick injury each to the occupational health department of their hospital (notification rate, 10.4%). The occurrence of needlestick injury remained high in operating personnel in France in 2000. Although hospitals may improve access to protective devices, operating staff mindful of safety in the OT should increase their use of available devices, their knowledge of their own serostatus, and their ABE notification rate to guide well-targeted prevention efforts.

  16. Prevention of microbial species introductions to the Arctic: The efficacy of footwear disinfection measures on cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine B. Rumpf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity measures are commonly used to prevent the introduction of non-native species to natural environments globally, yet the efficacy of practices is rarely tested under operational conditions. A voluntary biosecurity measure was trialled in the Norwegian high Arctic following concern that non-native species might be transferred to the region on the footwear of travellers. Passengers aboard an expedition cruise ship disinfected their footwear with the broad spectrum disinfectant Virkon S prior to and in-between landing at sites around the remote Svalbard archipelago. The authors evaluated the efficacy of simply stepping through a disinfectant foot bath, which is the most common practice of footwear disinfection aboard expedition cruise ships in the Arctic. This was compared to a more time consuming and little-used method involving drying disinfected footwear, as proposed by other studies. The two practices were evaluated by measuring microbial growth on paired footwear samples before and after disinfection under both conditions. Step-through disinfection did not substantially reduce microbial growth on the footwear. Allowing disinfected footwear to dry, however, reduced the microbial burden significantly to lower levels. Thus, the currently adopted procedures used aboard ships are ineffective at removing microbial burden and are only effective when footwear is given more time to dry than currently granted under operational conditions. These findings underscore results from empirical research performed elsewhere and suggest the need to better relay this information to practitioners. It is suggested that footwear should minimally be wiped dry after step-through disinfection as a reasonable compromise between biosecurity and practicability.

  17. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods

  18. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods.

  19. [Can falls be prevented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  20. Measuring and preventing alcohol use and related harm among young people in Asian countries: a thematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  1. Smoking behaviour in young families. Do parents take practical measures to prevent passive smoking by the children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D

    1995-12-01

    To investigate smoking behaviour in young families. Cross-sectional study. Mother and child health centres in Oslo, Norway. The families of 1,046 children attending the health centres for 6-weeks-, 2- or 4- year well child visits. Daily smoking, smoking quantity and practical measures taken by the parents to prevent passive smoking among the children as assessed by parental reports. In 48% of the families at least one adult was smoking. 33% of the smoking parents smoked more than ten cigarettes per day. 47% of the smoking families reported that they did not smoke indoors. The parents were less likely to smoke if they were more than 35 years of age, had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee or had a long education. Smoking parents smoked less if they had a spouse/co-habitee, had a child aged less than one year or had few children. Smoking parents were more often careful and did not smoke indoors if they had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee, did not have a smoking spouse/co-habitee or smoked a low number of cigarettes per day.

  2. Grey Incidence analyze of Environment Monitoring Data and Research on the Disease Prevention Measures of Longmen Grottoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeiLei, Zheng; XueZhi, Fu; Fei, Chu

    2018-05-01

    Longmen Grottoes was afflicted with many diseases for a long period such as weathering, seepage water and organism growth. Those adverse factors were threatening to preserve cultural relic. Longmen Grottoes conservation and restoration project being put into effect by UNESCO in 2002. The Longmen Grottoes area environmental monitoring system was built in order to comprehensively master the distribution law of environmental factors over the Longmen Grottoes. The monitoring items contains temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed, precipitation, light intensity,water content in soil, the rock surface temperature and so on. At the same time, monitoring three experiment caves, monitoring the inside temperature, humidity, seepage water and the wall face temperature etc. So as to analyze the relationship between cave environment and regional environment. We statistical and arrange the data using Excel software, Kgraph software and DPS software. Through the grey incidence analyze, the incidence matrix and the correlation degree of the environmental factors was obtained[1]. The main environment factors for the formation of the disease had been researched. Based on the existing environmental monitor data, the relevance of seepage water and fracture displacement with other environmental factors had been studied, and the relational order was obtained. Corresponding preventive measures were put forward by the formation mechanism analyze of the disease.

  3. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  4. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  5. Effects of an influenza prevention program using non-pharmaceutical prevention measures to improve the knowledge, attitudes and practices of elementary school students in Nakhon Phanom province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangklakeeree, Nutcharat; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Srisaenpang, Sompong

    2013-07-04

    We evaluated an influenza prevention educational program using educational media, e-books and cartoons conducted among students in grades 4 through 6. The course was 8 hours long. The study was conducted at 4 schools; 230 students at each school were in the experimental group and 224 students at each school were in the control group (no educational intervention). The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. The students in the experimental group had significantly greater knowledge (p<0.001), attitudes (p<0.001) and practices (p<0.001) scores after the intervention. However, the control group also had significantly greater knowledge (p<0.001) and attitudes (p<0.001) scores but not practices scores (p = 0.326). Further studies are needed to determine the factors that influenced these differences.

  6. Research report on the trend of preventive measures against global warming by substituting CFCs; Daitai freon no chiku ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper reports the research results on the present state and future trend of protective measures for the ozone layer, and the trend of preventive measures against global warming by substituting CFCs such as HFC, through international conferences, meetings and lecture meetings, and literature survey. In the 8th meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol, it was presented that refrigerator producers in Thailand phased out CFCs from their products earlier than the schedule in cooperation with Japan. The final draft including the approval of essential use from 1997 to 2002 was reviewed, and reported to the technology/economy assessment panel. Reduction of ozone depleting substances was guided in Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines. The latest trend of substituting technologies of HCFC was surveyed, and the control trend of F-containing greenhouse effect gas emission was also surveyed through the conference of the parties of climate change in fiscal 1996. Based on the IPCC report in 1995, the emission amount of greenhouse gases of nearly 10% in contribution such as CO2, methane and fluorocarbon was arranged. R and D on destruction of CFCs was also surveyed. 35 refs., 54 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling the population-level effects of male circumcision as an HIV-preventive measure: a gendered perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dushoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from biological, epidemiological, and controlled intervention studies has demonstrated that male circumcision (MC protects males from HIV infection, and MC is now advocated as a public-health intervention against HIV. MC provides direct protection only to men, but is expected to provide indirect protection to women at risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual transmission. How such indirect protection interacts with the possibility that MC campaigns will lead to behavior changes, however, is not yet well understood. Our objective here is to investigate the link between individual-level effects of MC campaigns and long-term population-level outcomes resulting from disease dynamics, looking at both genders separately, over a broad range of parameters. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use simple mathematical models of heterosexual transmission to investigate the potential effects of a circumcision scale-up, combined with possible associated behavioral disinhibition. We examine patterns in expected long-term prevalence using a simple equilibrium model based on transmission factors, and validate our results with ODE-based simulations, focusing on the link between effects on females and those on males.We find that the long-term population-level effects on females and males are not strongly linked: there are many possible ways in which an intervention which reduces prevalence in males might nonetheless increase prevalence in females. CONCLUSIONS: Since an intervention that reduces long-term male prevalence could nonetheless increase long-term female prevalence, MC campaigns should explicitly consider both the short-term and long-term effects of MC interventions on females. Our findings strongly underline the importance of pairing MC programs with education, support programs and HIV testing and counseling, together with other prevention measures.

  9. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  10. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of

  11. Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity, infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Oscar L; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez-Gómez, David; Villagra, Ariel; Calle, María E; Marcos, Ascensión

    2009-12-19

    Prior studies addressing the impacts of regular physical activity or sedentary habits on the immune system have been conducted in adults and laboratory settings. Thus, it is practically unknown how a healthy active lifestyle could affect low-grade inflammation processes, infections or allergies in young persons. The AFINOS Study was designed to determine the relationship between the regular physical activity levels of adolescents and overweight, infection, and allergies along with the presence of metabolic and immunological biomarkers of a deteriorated health status. A further objective of the AFINOS Study is to assess the health status and lifestyle habits of an adolescent population in an effort to identify any protective factors that could be used as preventive measures, since many chronic diseases and their associated co-morbidities often persist from adolescence into adulthood. This study was conducted as three separate sub-studies in three different populations as follows: (a) Study 1 was performed on a population sample of adolescents; (b) Study 2 on the adolescents' parents; and (c) Study 3 on a subset of the adolescents from Study 1. Study 1 assessed health and lifestyle indicators through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of adolescents from the Madrid Region (n = 2400) aged 13 to 16 years. In Study 2, the parents of the teenagers participating in Study 1 were required to fill out a questionnaire. Finally in Study 3, body composition, physical activity, health-related physical fitness, and blood measurements were determined in a subset (n = 200) of the individuals included in Study 1. This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodologies used in the AFINOS Study. This multidisciplinary, multicenter study seeks to evaluate several aspects of existing relationships between routine physical activity/sedentary behaviour and several health status markers, specifically those related to the immune system. The results of this cross

  12. EVALUATION OF A PORTABLE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED GAS ANALYZER FOR MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable Fourier transform infrared gas analyzer with a photoacoustic detector performed reliably during pollution prevention research at two industrial facilities. It exhibited good agreement (within approximately 6%) with other analytical instruments (dispersive infrared and ...

  13. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  14. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  15. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Gadani; Arun Vyas; Akhya Kumar Kar

    2010-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify v...

  16. "Until people start dying in droves, no actions will be taken": perception and experience of HIV-preventive measures among people who inject drugs in northwestern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakhs, Peter; Aasland, Aadne; Grønningsæter, Arne

    2017-06-05

    The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions. The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: "personal fatalism" - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; "prevention-related fatalism" - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; "state-related fatalism" - the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are "really working" with risk groups. As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in

  17. Co-ownership and Collaboration: Insights into the Measurement of Impact and Change from Evidence-Based Community and State Violence Prevention Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariro Mutongwizo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective partnerships in community crime and violence prevention interventions are challenging to foster. While this may be the case, their merits cannot be denied, thus it is necessary to involve diverse stakeholders in processes that aim to address violence and crime prevention in order to better approach the causes of crime. However practical experiences have identified the challenges of crime prevention partnerships, particularly in developing indicators that appropriately measure and work to monitor and evaluate progress. It has also been noted that it is difficult to discern which interventions yield success, particularly in partnerships with various stakeholders. This article therefore encourages joint assessments from the onset of crime prevention projects with the development of indicators that are relatable to all partners. The paper will draw on three violence and crime prevention pilot projects, conducted in South Africa. The discussion will focus on the processes of developing performance measurement frameworks and the challenges and successes experienced throughout the monitoring, evaluation and learning process.

  18. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  19. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers

    2017-02-01

    The specific cause was loss of visual contact between the operator and co-worker/bystander due to visual obstruction, the operator’s physical limitations, or the operator’s and/or bystander’s lack of alertness. To reduce the likelihood of future occurrences of agricultural machinery rearward travel-related incidents, preventive measures aimed at addressing the key causative factors for each scenario are offered.

  20. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  1. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Maike; Groen, Leon; Geraats-Peters, Kathelijn; Lutgens, Suzanne; Rietveld, Ariene; Jira, Petr; Kluytmans, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C; Hermans, Mirjam; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2012-11-20

    We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI), caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW) with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ET)A-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  2. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koningstein Maike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI, caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. Methods We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Results Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ETA-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. Conclusions We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  3. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  4. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  5. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  6. Trend analysis of human error events and assessment of their proactive prevention measure at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Satoru; Tanaka, Izumi; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A trend analysis of human error events is important for preventing the recurrence of human error events. We propose a new method for identifying the common characteristics from results of trend analysis, such as the latent weakness of organization, and a management process for strategic error prevention. In this paper, we describe a trend analysis method for human error events that have been accumulated in the organization and the utilization of the results of trend analysis to prevent accidents proactively. Although the systematic analysis of human error events, the monitoring of their overall trend, and the utilization of the analyzed results have been examined for the plant operation, such information has never been utilized completely. Sharing information on human error events and analyzing their causes lead to the clarification of problems in the management and human factors. This new method was applied to the human error events that occurred in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant from 2010 October. Results revealed that the output of this method is effective in judging the error prevention plan and that the number of human error events is reduced to about 50% those observed in 2009 and 2010. (author)

  7. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  8. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  9. The Underlying Mechanism of Preventing Facial Nerve Stimulation by Triphasic Pulse Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Users Assessed With Objective Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from facial nerve stimulation (FNS) because of a different electromyographic input-output function compared with biphasic pulse stimulation. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant users as an unwanted side effect of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The common stimulation applied in current cochlear implant consists of biphasic pulse patterns. Two common clinical remedies to prevent unpleasant FNS caused by activation of certain electrodes are to expand their pulse phase duration or simply deactivate them. Unfortunately, in some patients these methods do not provide sufficient FNS prevention. In these patients triphasic pulse can prevent from FNS. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (musculi orbicularis ori and oculi) were applied to quantitatively assess the effects on FNS. Triphasic and biphasic fitting maps were compared in four subjects with severe FNS. Based on the recordings, a model is presented which intends to explain the beneficial effects of triphasic pulse application. Triphasic stimulation provided by fitting of an OPUS 2 speech processor device. For three patients, EMG was successfully recorded depending on stimulation level up to uncomfortable and intolerable FNS stimulation as upper boarder. The obtained EMG recordings demonstrated high individual variability. However, a difference between the input-output function for biphasic and triphasic pulse stimulation was visually observable. Compared with standard biphasic stimulation, triphasic pulses require higher stimulation levels to elicit an equal amount of FNS, as reflected by EMG amplitudes. In addition, we assume a steeper slope of the input-output function for biphasic pulse stimulation compared with triphasic pulse stimulation. Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from FNS because of a smaller gradient of EMG input-output function compared with biphasic pulse

  10. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences

  11. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y; Lavie, J M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences. Les auteurs presentent une analyse des

  12. 3D nuclear organization of telomeres in the Hodgkin cell lines U-HO1 and U-HO1-PTPN1: PTPN1 expression prevents the formation of very short telomeres including "t-stumps"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Bruno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer cells the three-dimensional (3D telomere organization of interphase nuclei into a telomeric disk is heavily distorted and aggregates are found. In Hodgkin's lymphoma quantitative FISH (3D Q-FISH reveals a major impact of nuclear telomere dynamics during the transition form mononuclear Hodgkin (H to diagnostic multinuclear Reed-Sternberg (RS cells. In vitro and in vivo formation of RS-cells is associated with the increase of very short telomeres including "t-stumps", telomere loss, telomeric aggregate formation and the generation of "ghost nuclei". Results Here we analyze the 3D telomere dynamics by Q-FISH in the novel Hodgkin cell line U-HO1 and its non-receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase N1 (PTPN1 stable transfectant U-HO1-PTPN1, derived from a primary refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. Both cell lines show equally high telomerase activity but U-HO1-PTPN differs from U-HO1 by a three times longer doubling time, low STAT5A expression, accumulation of RS-cells (p As expected, multinuclear U-HO1-RS-cells and multinuclear U-HO1-PTPN1-RS-cells differ from their mononuclear H-precursors by their nuclear volume (p Conclusion Abundant RS-cells without additional very short telomeres including "t-stumps", high rate of apoptosis, but low STAT5A expression, are hallmarks of the U-HO1-PTPN1 cell line. These characteristics are independent of telomerase activity. Thus, PTPN1 induced dephosphorylation of STAT5 with consecutive lack of Akt/PKB activation and cellular arrest in G2, promoting induction of apoptosis, appears as a possible pathogenetic mechanism deserving further experimental investigation.

  13. Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

    2008-10-01

    Nail guns are responsible for a significant injury burden in residential construction. Risk, based on hours of work, is particularly high among apprentice carpenters due in part to more frequent exposure to tool use. Nail gun injuries were evaluated over 3 years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million residential work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard change calling for safer sequential triggers on framing nailers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent (AR%) and population attributable risk (PAR%) were calculated yearly for modifiable independent risk factors for injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both. Although injury rates changed over the observation period, the relative risk comparing trigger mechanisms did not; contact trip triggers consistently carried a twofold risk. Although training and safer trigger use both increased, because of the relative prevalence of training and trigger exposures in this population, the engineering solution consistently had the potential to make more difference in population risk. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observational methods including measures of population-based risk in monitoring intervention effectiveness and making recommendations that lead to injury reduction. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Engagement of non-government organisations and community care workers in collaborative TB/HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwimana Jeannine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities may help to mitigate the impact of the dual epidemic on patients and communities. Such implementation requires integrated interventions across facilities and levels of government, and with communities. Engaging Community Care Workers (CCWs in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services may enhance universal coverage and treatment outcomes, and address human resource needs in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Using pre-intervention research in Sisonke district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a case study, we report on three study objectives: (1 to determine the extent of the engagement of NGOs and CCWs in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV including PMTCT; (2 to identify constraints related to provision of TB/HIV/PMTCT integrated care at community level; and (3 to explore ways of enhancing the engagement of CCWs to provide integrated TB/HIV/PMTCT services. Our mixed method study included facility and NGO audits, a household survey (n = 3867, 33 key informant interviews with provincial, district, facility, and NGO managers, and six CCW and patient focus group discussions. Results Most contracted NGOs were providing TB or HIV support and care with little support for PMTCT. Only 11% of facilities’ TB and HIV patients needing care and support at the community level were receiving support from CCWs. Only 2% of pregnant women reported being counseled by CCWs on infant feeding options and HIV testing. Most facilities (83% did not have any structural linkage with NGOs. Major constraints identified were system-related: structural, organizational and managerial constraints; inadequate CCW training and supervision; limited scope of CCW practice; inadequate funding; and inconsistency in supplies and equipment. Individual and community factors, such as lack of disclosure, stigma related to HIV, and cultural beliefs were also identified as constraints. Conclusions NGO

  15. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  16. Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure factors influencing women's breast cancer prevention behaviors (ASSISTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Pashaei, Tahereh; Gholami, Ali; Ponnet, Koen

    2016-07-22

    Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors. A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested. Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds. The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both

  17. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  18. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  19. The combined effect of complex mixes of poisons on the organism of white rats in 30-day round-the-clock inhalation and measures of biological prevention

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAKARIMOVA MALOKHAT ABDUVAKHIDOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The direction of “biological prevention” in the field of hygiene of the environment, which is understood as the complex of measures directed to the increase in resistance of individual person and population to exposure of harmful factors of the industrial and ambient environment, are increasingly being developed over the last years. For biopreventive maintenance only the means are used harmless at long application in preventive effective dosage. In this context in the industrial towns for res...

  20. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  1. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  3. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  4. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  5. Compliance With Injury Prevention Measures in Youth Pitchers: Survey of Coaches in Little League of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamias-Velázquez, Kristian J; Figueroa-Negrón, Mariam M; Tirado-Crespo, Janiliz; Mulero-Portela, Ana L

    2016-05-01

    Because of the problem of elbow and shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers between 9 and 14 years of age, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee and the Department of Recreation and Sports in Puerto Rico developed injury prevention guidelines for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. (1) The coaches will have a satisfactory level of compliance with the Administrative Order as well as with the USA Baseball guidelines and (2) both the level of education of the coach as well as the years of experience will correlate with the level of compliance. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Level 5. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Administrative Order and on the USA Baseball guidelines. A descriptive univariate analysis was conducted to determine the mean coach compliance with both guidelines. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to describe the correlation between the level of education and the years of experience of the coaches with the level of compliance. Thirty-five coaches (response rate, 78%) participated in the study. On average, the coaches complied with 70% of the Administrative Order and with 73% of the USA Baseball guidelines. No significant correlations were found. The coaches who participated in the study did not reflect a satisfactory level of compliance with the USA Baseball guidelines or with the Administrative Order. These findings emphasize the need for reinforcing compliance with the injury prevention guidelines and the need to provide resources and training to coaches to effectively prevent elbow and shoulder injuries in pitchers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Role of nondrug methods in a package of measures for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Badalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.

  7. Measures to prevent oil pollution in oceans, and their preservation effect; Kaiyo no abura osen no boshi taisaku to hozen koka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, T; Fukuchi, N; Fujii, H [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sato, S

    1996-04-10

    It was intended to confirm, based on various problems surrounding oil flow-out accidents, that oil fences whose use is first considered when an oil flow-out accident occurs cause oil leakage due to oil pass-through phenomenon as the largest defect in performance of oil fences. Therefore, oil fence performance was analyzed by using a simulation. Furthermore, several types of diffusion prevention and avoidance measures, and combinations thereof were evaluated by using multi-criteria analysis. It was also elucidated how recognitions on the importance of methods to prevent oil pollution differ depending on standpoints. Difference in oil flow-out prevention performance of oil fences due to variation in tidal currents was made clear by combining a diffusion simulation using the finite element method with the prevention performance of oil fences relative to the tidal currents. In areas with no good hydrographic conditions where pollution spreads rapidly, it is necessary to suppress oil diffusion by extending oil fences double or triple, and using gelling agents. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Meng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS.

  9. A decrease in the number of cases of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the enhancement of infection prevention and control measures during a Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyre, Brigitte; Xiu, Wenlong; Bouali, Nicole Rouvinez; Brintnell, Janet; Janigan, Jo-Anne; Suh, Kathryn N; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are sporadic, but outbreaks in hospital settings suggest an infectious cause. Our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experienced an outbreak of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). We aimed to assess whether the enhancement of infection prevention and control measures would be associated with a reduction in the number of cases of NEC. Retrospective chart review. A 24-bed, university-affiliated, inborn level 3 NICU. Infants of less than 30 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1,500 g admitted to the NICU between January 2007 and December 2008 were considered at risk of NEC. All cases of NEC were reviewed. Infection prevention and control measures, including hand hygiene education, were enhanced during the outbreak. Avoidance of overcapacity in the NICU was reinforced, environmental services (ES) measures were enhanced, and ES hours were increased. Two hundred eighty-two at-risk infants were admitted during the study. Their gestational age and birth weight (mean ± SD) were 28.2 ± 2.7 weeks and 1,031 ± 290 g, respectively. The proportion of NEC was 18/110 (16.4%) before the outbreak, 1/54 (1.8%) during the outbreak, and 4/118 (3.4%) after the outbreak. After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, gender, and singleton versus multiple births, the proportion was lower in the postoutbreak period than in the preoutbreak period (P control measures to manage an MSSA outbreak.

  10. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  12. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Smyrnova, Yuliya; Klæboe, Ronny; Hornikx, Maarten; Mosslemi, Marjan; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall. PMID:23202816

  13. Valuation of Green Walls and Green Roofs as Soundscape Measures: Including Monetised Amenity Values Together with Noise-attenuation Values in a Cost-benefit Analysis of a Green Wall Affecting Courtyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Kang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic unit values of soundscape/acoustic effects have been based on changes in the number of annoyed persons or on decibel changes. The normal procedure has been the application of these unit values to noise-attenuation measures affecting the noisier façade of a dwelling. Novel modular vegetation-based soundscape measures, so-called green walls, might be relevant for both noisy and quieter areas. Moreover, their benefits will comprise noise attenuation as well as non-acoustic amenity effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the amenity value of urban greenery into design of the urban sound environment, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and overall sound environment improvement measures. Monetised unit values for green walls have been included in two alternative cases, or demonstration projects, of covering the entrances to blocks of flats with a green wall. Since these measures improve the noise environment on the quiet side of the dwellings and courtyards, not the most exposed façade, adjustment factors to the nominal quiet side decibel reductions to arrive at an estimate of the equivalent overall acoustic improvement have been applied. A cost-benefit analysis of the green wall case indicates that this measure is economically promising, when valuing the noise attenuation in the quieter area and adding the amenity/aesthetic value of the green wall.

  14. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  15. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  16. Conclusive experimental study of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition. Run-F9-1, Run-F9-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)

  17. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  18. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  19. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  20. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) of the WHO-5 in primary prevention of mental disorders. A measurement-based pilot study in positive psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lindberg, Lone; Moeller, Stine B

    2018-01-01

    with the removal of the stressor. We have focused on a measurement-based method to prevent the development of an adjustment disorder. AIM: The aim of this study has been to analyze from an ongoing Worklife Barometer Survey in which the World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5) has been applied to prevent...... distress leading to an adjustment disorder. METHODS: Persons identified with a decrease of 15 points in their repeatedly WHO-5 ratings over three months were through a brief psychological intervention by experienced psychologists. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used to determine the clinically...... meaningful change in the WHO-5 ratings. RESULTS: Within the group who received the psychological intervention (N = 1338), 35% of the persons were identified by the RCI analysis to have developed a clinically reliable change in the WHO-5 at the time of the intervention. The remaining 65% of the persons...

  1. [The risk for illegal behaviour and corruption in the healthcare sector: what preventive measures can be taken?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoiro, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    In the healthcare sector risk factors for illegal behavior and corruption are peculiar and greater than in other social areas, as it plays a crucial role in the community's economical, political and cultural life. The healthcare services is a complex network that require interaction between may people, constant contacts with the industry, safety and adequate facilities that require regular maintenance, upgrade and replacement of medical technology, connection with local and regional policy makers. This provides the opportunity of being exposed to improper influence. However, illegal behaviors can be prevented: first of all supporting all professionals that everyday work to protect our health with ethics and expertise; then with all instruments that anti-corruption action plans, such as the one introduced in Italy in 2012, aim to identify and target those areas most at risk of corruption phenomena.

  2. Monte Carlo simulated corrections for beam commissioning measurements with circular and MLC shaped fields on the CyberKnife M6 System: a study including diode, microchamber, point scintillator, and synthetic microdiamond detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Noll, J. M.; Masi, L.; Satariano, N.; Russo, S.

    2017-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate correction factors for output factor (OF), percentage depth-dose (PDD), and off-axis ratio (OAR) measurements with the CyberKnife M6 System. These include the first such data for the InCise MLC. Simulated detectors include diodes, air-filled microchambers, a synthetic microdiamond detector, and point scintillator. Individual perturbation factors were also evaluated. OF corrections show similar trends to previous studies. With a 5 mm fixed collimator the diode correction to convert a measured OF to the corresponding point dose ratio varies between  -6.1% and  -3.5% for the diode models evaluated, while in a 7.6 mm  ×  7.7 mm MLC field these are  -4.5% to  -1.8%. The corresponding microchamber corrections are  +9.9% to  +10.7% and  +3.5% to  +4.0%. The microdiamond corrections have a maximum of  -1.4% for the 7.5 mm and 10 mm collimators. The scintillator corrections are  15%, reducing to    d max were  M6 Systems and retrospectively checking estimated corrections used previously. We recommend the PDD and OAR corrections are used to guide detector selection and inform the evaluation of results rather than to explicitly correct measurements.

  3. RARE DECAYS INCLUDING PENGUINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigen, G

    2003-12-04

    The authors present a preliminary measurement of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B decays, B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}, and the extraction of the CKM parameters V{sub ub}. IN a data sample of 55 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they measure a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} {rho}{ell}{nu}) = (3.39 {+-} 0.44{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys} {+-} 0.60{sub th}) x 10{sup -4} yielding |V{sub ub}| = (3.69 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.27{sub sys -0.59th}{sup +0.40}) x 10{sup -3}. Next, they report on a preliminary study of the radiative penguin modes B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. In a data sample of 84 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events they observe a significant signal (4.4{sigma}) in B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, yielding a branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) = (0.78{sub -0.20-0.18}{sup +0.24+0.11}) x 10{sup -6}. In B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} the observed yield is not yet significant (2.8{sigma}), yielding an upper limit of the branching fraction of {Beta}(B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}) 3.0 x 10{sup -6} {at} 90% confidence level. Finally, they summarize preliminary results of searches for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  4. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  5. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  6. [Informatics support for risk assessment and identification of preventive measures in small and micro-enterprises: occupational hazard datasheets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Merich, D; Forte, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is the fundamental process of an enterprise's prevention system and is the principal mandatory provision contained in the Health and Safety Law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) amended by Legislative Decree 106/2009. In order to properly comply with this obligation also in small-sized enterprises, the appropriate regulatory bodies should provide the enterprises with standardized tools and methods for identifying, assessing and managing risks. To assist in particular small and micro-enterprises (SMEs) with risk assessment, by providing a flexible tool that can also be standardized in the form of a datasheet, that can be updated with more detailed information on the various work contexts in Italy. Official efforts to provide Italian SMEs with information may initially make use of the findings of research conducted by ISPESL over the past 20 years, thanks in part to cooperation with other institutions (Regions, INAIL-National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents and Diseases), which have led to the creation of an information system on prevention consisting of numerous databases, both statistical and documental ("National System of Surveillance on fatal and serious accidents", "National System of Surveillance on work-related diseases", "Sector hazard profiles" database, "Solutions and Best Practices" database, "Technical Guidelines" database, "Training packages for prevention professionals in enterprises" database). With regard to evaluation criteria applicable within the enterprise, the possibility of combining traditional and uniform areas of assessment (by sector or by risk factor) with assessments by job/occupation has become possible thanks to the cooperation agreement made in 2009 by ISPESL, the ILO (International Labour Organisation) of Geneva and IIOSH (Israel Institute for Occupational Health and Hygiene) regarding the creation of an international Database (HDODB) based on risk datasheets per occupation. The project sets out to assist in

  7. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  8. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. → Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. → Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  9. Measuring Success in Obesity Prevention: A Synthesis of Health Promotion Switzerland's Long-Term Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Ackermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. Methods: Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC, a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts. Results: The results presented in this article emphasize both content and methods. The national program successfully achieved outcomes on many different levels within complex societal structures. The evaluation system built around the SMOC enabled assessment of program progress and the development of key indicators. However, it is not possible to determine definitively to what extent the national program helped stabilize the prevalence of obesity in Switzerland. Conclusion: The model has shown its utility in providing a basis for evaluation and monitoring of the national program. Continuous analysis of data from evaluation and monitoring has made it possible to check the plausibility of suspected causal relationships as well as to establish an overall perspective and assessment of effectiveness supported by a growing body of evidence.

  10. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  11. Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Leckenby, Nicola; Quigg, Zara; Hardcastle, Katherine; Sharples, Olivia; Llewellyn, David J

    2014-05-01

    By measuring alcohol retailers' propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problematic (PMP) bars. 83.6% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale of alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated actor. Alcohol sales increased with the number of PMP markers bars had, yet even in those with no markers, 66.7% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale. Bar servers often recognised signs of drunkenness in actors, but still served them. In 18% of alcohol sales, servers attempted to up-sell by suggesting actors purchase double rather than single vodkas. UK law preventing sales of alcohol to drunks is routinely broken in nightlife environments, yet prosecutions are rare. Nightlife drunkenness places enormous burdens on health and health services. Preventing alcohol sales to drunks should be a public health priority, while policy failures on issues, such as alcohol pricing, are revisited.

  12. Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J. -M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-05-15

    It is important to guard against the risk of criticality accidents by seeking to prevent their occurrence through the elimination of their causes and also by taking steps to provide against their consequences. These two aspects are closely linked since the efforts made to elaborate preventive procedures are dictated by the importance of the repercussions which such accidents are liable to have in the human, economic and psychological spheres. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though small in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent them, and they constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating their consequences and developing suitable precautionary techniques. The authors give a detailed analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments in connection with the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operation, the characteristic accidents capable of serving as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident (location, design and lay-out of installations, accident detection dosimetry for exposed personnel) are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. Finally, the authors discuss the economic implications of adopting particular precautionary measures and of applying them uniformly, taking due account of the question of reliability. (author) [French] II est important de se proteger contre les risques d'accidents de criticite en tentant, d'une part, de prevenir les accidents eux-memes par l'elimination de leurs causes, d'autre part, de parer a leurs consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies: l'effort portant sur la prevention des accidents decoule de l'importance de leurs consequences sur les plans humain, economique

  13. THE REFLECTION OF PROCEDURAL GUILT IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PROVISIONS. LIABILITY FOR UNJUST CONDEMNATION OR FOR TAKING PREVENTIVE MEASURES UNLAWFULLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA EMANUELA OPREA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the criminal proceedings of some law states the wrongful sentencing of individuals is very rare, having a comprehensive system of procedural safeguards which prevent such a situation. The purpose of the criminal proceedings is to punish only the culprits, the Criminal Procedure code frontispiece being stated the idea that no innocent person should be held criminally liable. By achieving this aspect of purpose is ensured observance of legality and the rule of law. All the basic rules and the whole organization of the criminal trial are polarized around this major goal of justice. Also the professional qualification level of those summoned to administer criminal justice in the modern state to minimizes the risk of judiciar miscarriages. The deep humanism of our law requires though the regulation of those procedural arrangements, through which in the event of an act of injustice, the wrongly convicted is able to obtain prompt repairs that society owes them. A very important aspect related to the evolution over time of the regulation of this institution, is that in its doctrine of integration in the European Union, Romania has adopted a series of laws and regulations designed to ensure our legislation’s alignment with the relevant legislation of the countries from the European community and to ensure the compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights. This process is still ongoing, therefore the establishment and the subsequent modification of the special procedure concerning the remedies for the material or moral damage in the event of unjust sentence or unlawful deprivation of liberty was based on the desire to avoid the conviction situation of the Romanian state by the international courts for failure to comply with the Art. 5 paragraph 5 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms that 'any individual who is the victim of arrest or detention in conditions contrary to the provisions of this article

  14. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  15. 77 FR 34390 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Amendment to “Guidance for Industry: Revised Preventive Measures To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... recommendations for plasma-derived products, including albumin and products containing plasma-derived albumin, in..., submit either electronic or written comments on the draft guidance by September 10, 2012. ADDRESSES... electronic access to the draft guidance document. Submit electronic comments on the draft guidance to http...

  16. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. HAMLIN; Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and ...

  17. The prevention of slipping accidents: a review and discussion of work related to the methodology of measuring slip resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq , Sylvie

    1999-01-01

    International audience; The recommendations made after the analysis of accidents following an incident of slipping often include the use of anti-slip footwear and/or the installation of an anti-slip floor covering. Such recommendations make it necessary to study biomechanical and tribologic phenomena that occur during slipping, in particular in order to develop criteria for the evaluation of the slip resistance of footwear and floor surfaces. Consequently, research which deals with the preven...

  18. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif sur Yvette (France); Johansson, L.; Keightley, J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of {sup 99m}Tc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  19. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  20. Risk factors and potential preventive measures for nephropatia epidemica in Sweden 2011–2012: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Gherasim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nephropatia epidemica (NE, a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV, is endemic in northern Sweden. We aim to study the risk factors associated with NE in this region. Methods: We conducted a matched case–control study between June 2011 and July 2012. We compared confirmed NE cases with randomly selected controls, matched by age, sex, and place of infection or residence. We analyzed the association between NE and several occupational, environmental, and behavioral exposures using conditional logistic regression. Results: We included in the final analysis 114 cases and 300 controls, forming 246 case–control pairs. Living in a house with an open space beneath, making house repairs, living less than 50 m from the forest, seeing rodents, and smoking were significantly associated with NE. Conclusion: Our results could orient public health policies targeting these risk factors and subsequently reduce the NE burden in the region.