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Sample records for preventive measures hinges

  1. A hinged-pad test structure for sliding friction measurement in micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.P. de; Redmond, J.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the design, modeling, fabrication and initial testing of a new test structure for friction measurement in MEMS. The device consists of a cantilevered forked beam and a friction pad attached via a hinge. Compared to previous test structures, the proposed structure can measure friction over much larger pressure ranges, yet occupies one hundred times less area. The placement of the hinge is crucial to obtaining a well-known and constant pressure distribution in the device. Static deflections on the device were measured and modeled numerically, Preliminary results indicate that friction pad slip is sensitive to friction pad normal force.

  2. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  3. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years......, the research in concrete hinges has not evolved significantly in that period. But introducing a new state-of-the-art concrete arch bridge solution (Pearl-Chain arches invented at the Technical University of Denmark) creates a necessity of a concrete hinge research based on modern standards. Back when research....... The present paper uses the prior research results to optimize a test-setup for concrete hinge testing by means of a universal method taking into account the application of the hinge in an arch structure. 3D CAD is utilized in all steps of the planning to reduce errors during assembly of the parts in the test...

  4. Concrete Hinges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the 20th century concrete hinges developed by Freyssinet and Mesnager were widely tested and implemented in concrete structures. The concrete hinges were used a great deal in closed-spandrel arch bridges. Since such a bridge type has not been competitive for the past 40 years....... The present paper uses the prior research results to optimize a test-setup for concrete hinge testing by means of a universal method taking into account the application of the hinge in an arch structure. 3D CAD is utilized in all steps of the planning to reduce errors during assembly of the parts in the test...

  5. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  6. The development of a new femoral brace hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D J; Rowley, D I; Halstead, A; Robinson, P

    1987-08-01

    Mechanical and clinical trials have been performed on a new design of femoral fracture brace-the Protectair hinge system. The hinge, constructed from polythene, aluminium, stainless steel and nylon, incorporates some novel features; pre-bent hinge arms, detachable headplates and a unique knee joint mechanism. Mechanical tests under various stress states have shown the hinge to be of sufficient strength. Biomechanical tests on volunteer subjects have indicated that the unique combination of good knee flexion and prevention of knee hyperextension will be of clinical value. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  8. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  9. Flexible Hinges in Bacterial Chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaladevi, Narahari; Bunyak, Filiz; Stalla, David; White, Tommi A; Hazelbauer, Gerald L

    2018-03-01

    Transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors are extended, rod-shaped homodimers with ligand-binding sites at one end and interaction sites for signaling complex formation and histidine kinase control at the other. There are atomic-resolution structures of chemoreceptor fragments but not of intact, membrane-inserted receptors. Electron tomography of in vivo signaling complex arrays lack distinct densities for chemoreceptor rods away from the well-ordered base plate region, implying structural heterogeneity. We used negative staining, transmission electron microscopy, and image analysis to characterize the molecular shapes of intact homodimers of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor Tar rendered functional by insertion into nanodisc-provided E. coli lipid bilayers. Single-particle analysis plus tomography of particles in a three-dimensional matrix revealed two bend loci in the chemoreceptor cytoplasmic domain, (i) a short, two-strand gap between the membrane-proximal, four-helix-bundle HAMP (histidine kinases, adenylyl cyclases, methyl-accepting chemoreceptors, and phosphatases) domain and the membrane-distal, four-helix coiled coil and (ii) aligned glycines in the extended, four-helix coiled coil, the position of a bend noted in the previous X-ray structure of a receptor fragment. Our images showed HAMP bends from 0° to ∼13° and glycine bends from 0° to ∼20°, suggesting that the loci are flexible hinges. Variable hinge bending explains indistinct densities for receptor rods outside the base plate region in subvolume averages of chemotaxis arrays. Bending at flexible hinges was not correlated with the chemoreceptor signaling state. However, our analyses showed that chemoreceptor bending avoided what would otherwise be steric clashes between neighboring receptors that would block the formation of core signaling complexes and chemoreceptor arrays. IMPORTANCE This work provides new information about the shape of transmembrane bacterial chemoreceptors, crucial

  10. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  11. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  12. Adaptive fiber optics collimator based on flexible hinges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Ma, Pengfei; Si, Lei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu

    2014-08-20

    In this manuscript, we present a new design for an adaptive fiber optics collimator (AFOC) based on flexible hinges by using piezoelectric stacks actuators for X-Y displacement. Different from traditional AFOC, the new structure is based on flexible hinges to drive the fiber end cap instead of naked fiber. We fabricated a real AFOC based on flexible hinges, and the end cap's deviation and resonance frequency of the device were measured. Experimental results show that this new AFOC can provide fast control of tip-tilt deviation of the laser beam emitting from the end cap. As a result, the fiber end cap can support much higher power than naked fiber, which makes the new structure ideal for tip-tilt controlling in a high-power fiber laser system.

  13. Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Affect Myofibrillar Structure and Myosin Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Dambacher, Corey M.; Knowles, Aileen F.; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Swank, Douglas M.; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Maughan, David W.; (RPI); (IIT); (SDSU); (Vermont)

    2009-07-01

    The subfragment 2/light meromyosin 'hinge' region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.

  14. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J. S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J. P. K.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitted

  15. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients,

  16. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  17. Reassessing the Plastic Hinge Model for Energy Dissipation of Axially Loaded Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Korol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy dissipation potential of axially loaded columns and evaluates the use of a plastic hinge model for analysis of hi-rise building column collapse under extreme loading conditions. The experimental program considered seven axially loaded H-shaped extruded aluminum structural section columns having slenderness ratios that would be typical of floor-to-ceiling heights in buildings. All seven test specimens initially experienced minor-axis overall buckling followed by formation of a plastic hinge at the mid-height region, leading to local buckling of the flanges on the compression side of the plastic hinge, and eventual folding of the compression flanges. The experimental energy absorption, based on load-displacement relations, was compared to the energy estimates based on section plastic moment resistance based on measured yield stress and based on measured hinge rotations. It was found that the theoretical plastic hinge model underestimates a column’s actual ability to absorb energy by a factor in the range of 3 to 4 below that obtained from tests. It was also noted that the realizable hinge rotation is less than 180°. The above observations are based, of course, on actual columns being able to sustain high tensile strains at hinge locations without fracturing.

  18. The Stress Analysis and Tests on the Hinge Beam of the Diamond Synthesis Cubic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the lug fractures of hinge beam caused by the fatigue and overload during the operation of the cubic press, the analysis methods of finite element are applied to the analysis of the internal stress distributions of the hinge beam. The simulation results show that the internal stress of the hinge beam mainly concentrates on the upper surface of the lug roots connecting the outer cylinder with the both lugs. According to the data of simulation and analysis as well as the actual fracture situations, considering the strain-test methods we have designed the schemes of testing the strain on the lugs of hinge beam. And the strain measurements of the lugs are completed by the repeated loading experiments. Comparing the data of simulation and analysis with the measured data has verified their consistency. It also confirms the model established by the simulation and analysis is reasonable and accurate at the same time.

  19. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish anti- and de-radicalization strategy involves three interwoven elements: (a) an early prevention and exit programme, (b) prosecution of radicalized persons who have committed violent crimes (in Denmark or in a foreign country), including measures such as confiscation of passport, and (c...

  20. Defined carriers for synthetic antigens: Hinge Peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Jan; Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 68 ISSN 0939-4451. [International Congress on Amino Acids and Proteins /9./. 08.08.2005-12.08.2005, Gert Lubec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : synthetic carrier * antigen * hinge peptide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Simulations of the hinge micro flow field of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2006-11-01

    Studies have shown that bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV) promote blood cell damage and thromboembolic events due to their non-physiologic hemodynamics. Clinical reports and recent in-vitro experiments suggest that these complications are mainly associated with the hemodynamic stresses of flow through the valve hinge regions. To date, hinge hemodynamics has been largely studied using experimental approaches. This study aims at numerically simulating the pulsatile flow through the hinge region of a BMHV. The numerical technique uses a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary methodology and a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume method. The hinge and leaflet dimensions are obtained from Micro Computed Tomography of an actual clinical bileaflet valve and the leaflet motion is provided as prescribed boundary conditions based on experimental measurements. Calculations will be presented for pulsatile flow conditions and reveal a complex three dimensional flow pattern throughout the entire cardiac cycle.

  2. Hinge(ga) Brand - tõhusaim relv mõrtsukate ja varaste vastu / Hinge Brand ; interv. Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu 40 aastat prokuröriametit pidanud ja pensionile siirduva Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV ning Põhja ringkonnaprokuratuuri erisasjade prokuröri Jüri Kasesalu, siseministeeriumi arendusjuhi Lauri Taburi ja keskkriminaalpolitsei politseijuhtivinspektori Margus Maasepa kommentaarid

  3. Evaluation of Digital Shadow Economy Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although during the past few years the scopes of shadow economy in Lithuania have slightly decreased, different forms of this phenomenon, in particular digital shadow activities, still generate a significant part of the overall value added. As no constant estimations of the scope of digital shadow economy have been made in Lithuania, alleviation of this problem is based on consequence fighting rather than reason elimination. Digital shadow economy poses a significant challenge for law enforcement agencies concerning its investigation and prevention. Hence, it is purposeful to research both theoretical and practical aspects of digital shadow economy prevention in order to identify the measures that could be used for the efficient reduction of the scope of this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to identify the measures of digital shadow economy prevention and compare the attitudes of governmental institutions and consumers towards the efficiency of these measures. The results of the empirical research showed that both consumers and experts agree that the level of tax morale has to be raised not only by using the measures of self-education but also by introducing long-term educational programmes; second, public authorities should ensure business friendly environment, actively implement the principles of justice and officially acknowledge and announce the concept of digital shadow economy; finally, for more efficient detection of the cases of digital shadow activities, it is necessary to reinforce current labour resources that should be specially trained to be able to disclose revenue hiding and tax evasion schemes, employed in e-trade.

  4. Kinematics analysis on hinges of robot arm gripper for harmful chemical handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Mustafa, Nurul Fahimah; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    The development of manufacturing industry is booming the application of industrial robot, and proportional to the use of robot arm. Some of the purpose of robot arm gripper is to sort things and place to the proper place. And some of the things are harmful to human, such as harmful chemical. By using robot arm to do picking and placing, it is expected to replace human tasks, as well as to reduce human from the harmful job. The problem of the robot arm gripper, most likely the problem of hinge, thus the analysis on the hinges of robot arm gripper to prevent claw is essential. By using robot arm, instead of human, is labored to do the harmful tasks and unexpected accident happen, costs and expenses in handling injured employee due to the harmful chemicals can be minimized. Thus the objective of this project is to make a kinematics analysis on the hinges of the robot arm gripper. Suitable material such as steel structure has also been selected for the construction of this hinges. This material has properties associated with compressive strength, fire resistance, corrosion and has a shape that is easy to move. Solid Works and ANSYS software is used to create animated movement on the design model and to detect deficiencies in the hinges. Detail methodology is described in this paper.

  5. Evading pre-existing anti-hinge antibody binding by hinge engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hok Seon; Kim, Ingrid; Zheng, Linda; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Spiess, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-binding fragments (Fab) and F(ab′)2 antibodies serve as alternative formats to full-length anti-bodies in therapeutic and immune assays. They provide the advantage of small size, short serum half-life, and lack of effector function. Several proteases associated with invasive diseases are known to cleave antibodies in the hinge-region, and this results in anti-hinge antibodies (AHA) toward the neoepitopes. The AHA can act as surrogate Fc and reintroduce the properties of the Fc that are otherwise lacking in antibody fragments. While this response is desired during the natural process of fighting disease, it is commonly unwanted for therapeutic antibody fragments. In our study, we identify a truncation in the lower hinge region of the antibody that maintains efficient proteolytic cleavage by IdeS protease. The resulting neoepitope at the F(ab′)2 C-terminus does not have detectable binding of pre-existing AHA, providing a practical route to produce F(ab′)2 in vitro by proteolytic digestion when the binding of pre-existing AHA is undesired. We extend our studies to the upper hinge region of the antibody and provide a detailed analysis of the contribution of C-terminal residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 to pre-existing AHA reactivity in human serum. While no pre-existing antibodies are observed toward the Fab of IgG2 and IgG4 isotype, a significant response is observed toward most residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1. We identify a T225L variant and the natural C-terminal D221 as solutions with minimal serum reactivity. Our work now enables the production of Fab and F(ab′)2 for therapeutic and diagnostic immune assays that have minimal reactivity toward pre-existing AHA. PMID:27606571

  6. Deployment shock attenuation of a solar array tape hinge by means of the Martensite detwinning of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ho; Jeong, Ju-Won; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new tape hinge for attenuating the deployment shock of a satellite solar array. This hinge uses the Martensite detwinning of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). To attenuate the deployment shock, a NiTi SMA strip is assembled between two curved steel strips. The attenuation performance of the hinge is analyzed using a SMA detwinning constitutive equation. A prototype of the hinge is manufactured and its characteristics are measured in a bending test and in a deployment test. Finally, the deployment performance of the prototype hinge is investigated on a satellite model. It is shown that the new SMA damped tape hinge can effectively minimize the deployment shock and dynamic perturbation while also maintaining suitable deployment performance.

  7. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  8. A numerical investigation of blood damage in the hinge area of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min; Wu, Jingshu; Simon, Helene; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Aidun, Cyrus; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2010-11-01

    Studies have shown that high shear stress and large recirculation regions have a strong impact on thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHV). This study quantitatively compares the hinge flow field and blood damage of the 23mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) regent with different hinge gap widths and the 23mm CarboMedics (CM) valves. The lattice-Boltzmann method with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) [Wu and Aidun, Int. J Num. Methods Fluids, 62, 7, 2009] was implemented to simulate the flow and capture the dynamics and the surface shear stress of the platelets with realistic geometry. The velocity boundary conditions for the small-scale hinge flow are obtained from previous 3D large-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations [Simon et al, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 38, 3, 2009]. The flow patterns of three hinges that were studied were similar during diastole. However, velocity magnitudes and shear stresses at the hinge gap were different, which may explain the higher blood damage index (BDI) value for the CM valve and lower BDI value for the SJM valve with a larger gap width. The multiscale computational method used to quantitatively measure the BDI during a full cardiac cycle will be discussed.

  9. Precision Hinge Actuator for Advanced Telescope Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CTD proposes to investigate the deployment repeatability and microdynamic stability of a hinge and demonstration this repeatability in a deployable mirror test...

  10. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  11. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  12. Experimental investigation of hinged and spring loaded rolling piston compressors pertaining to a turbo rotary engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, Melih; Akmandor, Ibrahim Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Hinged rolling piston compressor of a new thermodynamic cycle Pars engine promises high performance figures such as single stage high compression levels and higher volume flow discharge with competitively low input power and torque. The pumping characteristic of the present engine compressor unit has been increased by the implementation of a spring less vane configuration. The reciprocating vane which is usually operated by spring compression in air conditioning and refrigeration unit has been replaced by a hinge vane mechanism. At high speeds, the conventional spring loaded vane which is forced against the eccentrically moving rotor periphery does disconnect and starts rocking. With the new configuration, this mishap has been eliminated and subsequently resulting compressor pressure leaks have been avoided. Compressor experiments have been carried out at predetermined rotor speeds and compressed volume flow amounts and required shaft powers have been measured and derived accordingly. Experimentally determined pressure-volume relations have been compared with isentropic, isothermal, isochoric compressions as well as isobaric process. It is seen that at lower speeds, hinged vane compression is half way between isentropic and isochoric compressions whereas at high speed the compression process approaches further isochoric compression behavior. The isentropic compression efficiency of the hinged vane compressor is around 85% for pressures reaching 9 atm. - Research highlights: → Volume flow rate of rotary vane compressor unit has been increased by a hinged vane mechanism. → Hinged compressor pressure output is almost twice the performance of a spring loaded compressor. → The slipping and rocking of the spring loaded vane against the rolling piston have been eliminated.

  13. God of the hinge: treating LGBTQIA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Annie

    2017-11-01

    This paper looks at systems of gender within the context of analysis. It explores the unique challenges of individuation faced by transsexual, transgender, gender queer, gender non-conforming, cross-dressing and intersex patients. To receive patients generously we need to learn how a binary culture produces profound and chronic trauma. These patients wrestle with being who they are whilst simultaneously receiving negative projections and feeling invisible. While often presenting with the struggles of gender conforming individuals, understanding the specifically gendered aspect of their identity is imperative. An analyst's unconscious bias may lead to iatrogenic shaming. The author argues that rigorous, humble inquiry into the analyst's transphobia can be transformative for patient, analyst, and the work itself. Analysis may, then, provide gender-variant patients with their first remembered and numinous experience of authentic connection to self. Conjuring the image of a hinge, securely placed in the neutral region of a third space, creates a transpositive analytic temenos. Invoking the spirit of the Trickster in the construction of this matrix supports the full inclusion of gender-variant patients. Nuanced attunement scaffolds mirroring and the possibility of play. Being mindful that gender is sturdy and delicate as well as mercurial and defined enriches the analyst's listening. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  15. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.

  16. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  17. Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of neonatal malaria remains a major public health problem in Nigeria receiving less attention. Knowledge and awareness of preventive measures of neonatal malaria is still very low. This study aimed at assessing the Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of neonatal ...

  18. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  19. Solar array deployment analysis considering path-dependent behavior of a tape spring hinge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Won; Park, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Solar array deployment analysis is conducted considering the path-dependent nonlinear behavior of tape spring hinge. Such hinges offer many advantages over rigid hinges; they are self-deployable, self-locking, lightweight, and simple. However, they show strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to rotation angle, making deployment analysis difficult. To accurately consider the characteristics of tape spring hinges for deployment analysis, a path-dependent path identification (PI) method for tracing the previous path of the moment is introduced. To analyze the deployment motion, the governing equation for solar array deployment is derived within the framework of Kane's dynamic equation for three deployable solar panels. The numerical solution is compared with the Recurdyn's multi-body dynamics analysis solution using experimentally measured moment-rotation profiles. Solar array deployment analysis is conducted by considering and not considering the path-dependent PI method. This simulation example shows that the proposed path-dependent PI method is very effective for accurately predicting the deployment motion.

  20. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  1. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  2. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  3. Study Of Rust Preventive Characteristics Of Rust Preventive Oil From Polarization Curve Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashima D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cu-C sintered steels are widely used as powder materials, because of its small volumetric shrinkage. However, Cu, which acts as cathode enhance formation of rust Fe2O3·xH2O during fabrication. To prevent formation of Fe2O3·xH2O rust preventive oils are widely used. High viscosity of those rust preventive oils decrease workability. While, low viscosity degrade rust preventive performance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rust preventive oils with contradictory properties of low viscosity and superior rust prevention. In this study, we developed technique to quantitatively evaluate rust prevention ability by measuring polarization curve through thin corrosive solution on Fe-Cu-C sintered steels coated with rust preventive oils. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in corrosive solution of 0.35 mass % NaCl. Using a double capillary was added dropwise to the specimen. From the experimental, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion rate quantitatively in the surface of specimen, which was coated with rust preventive oil through thin corrosive solution. From the measurement results, Corrosion rate is reduced by coating the rust preventive oil. Especially, corrosion rate of the specimen coated with oil that showed best performance indicated 10000 times better than that of without oil ones. Zn addition negative correlation between corrosion rate and period of potential oscillation.

  4. Numerical study of the influence of the hinge gap width on the hinge flow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2008-11-01

    Previous clinical and in-vitro studies have shown that the complex non-physiologic hemodynamics occurring in the hinge region of bileaflet mechanical heart valves promotes blood cell damage and thrombus formation. Modifying the hinge design could improve the flow and thus reduce the associated blood cell trauma. This study aims at investigating numerically the effect of the hinge gap width on the flow field. The governing equations are solved using a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary method coupled with a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume approach. The hinge dimensions are obtained from MicroComputed Tomography of a clinical valve. The leaflet motion and inlet velocity profile are imposed based on the Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations of the bulk flow of a valve placed under aortic physiologic conditions. 3D pulsatile flows through two hinge designs are presented along with their Lagrangian analysis. The hinge gap width is shown to have a strong influence on the flow, and thus on blood cell trauma.

  5. The impacts of hinged and solid ankle-foot orthoses on standing and walking in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Hamid; Dehghan, Leila; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Amirsalari, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of hinged and solid anklefoot orthoses (AFOs) on standing and walking abilities in children with spastic diplegia. In a quasi-experimental design, 30 children with spastic diplegia, aged 4-6 years were recruited. They were matched in terms of age, IQ, and level of GMFCS E&R. Children were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a hinged AFO group (n=10) plus occupational therapy (OT), a solid AFO group (n=10) plus OT, a control group who used only OT for three months. Gross motor abilities were measured using Gross Motor Measure Function (GMFM). We obtained statistically significant differences in the values between baseline and after treatment in all groups. The groups were also significantly different in total GMFM after intervention. Furthermore, there were differences between hinged AFOs and solid AFOs groups, and between hinged AFOs and control groups. We concluded that gross motor function was improved in all groups; however, hinged AFOs group appears to improve the gross motor function better than solid AFOs and control groups.

  6. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  7. A comparison of gait with solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtka, Sandra A; Skinner, Stephen R; Johanson, M Elise

    2005-04-01

    This study compared the effects of solid and hinged ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) on the gait of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who ambulate with excessive ankle plantar flexion during stance. Twelve children with spastic diplegic CP wore no AFOs for an initial 2-week period, solid AFOs for 1 month, no AFOs for 2 weeks, and hinged AFOs for 1 month. Lower extremity muscle timing, knee and ankle joint motions, moments and powers, and temporal-distance characteristics were measured during ambulation for an initial barefoot baseline test, and with solid and hinged AFOs for the other two tests. Both orthoses increased stride length, reduced abnormal ankle plantar flexion during initial contact, midstance and terminal stance (TST), and increased ankle plantar flexor moments closer to normal during TST. Hinged AFOs increased ankle dorsiflexion at TST and increased ankle power generation during preswing (PSW) as compared to solid AFOs, and increased ankle dorsiflexion at loading compared to no AFOs. No other significant differences were found for the gait variables when comparing these orthoses. Either AFO could be used to reduce the excessive ankle plantar flexion without affecting the knee position during stance. The hinged AFO would be recommended to produce more normal dorsiflexion during TST and increased ankle power generation during PSW in children with spastic diplegic CP.

  8. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  9. AUDITORS‘ PERCEPTION OF FRAUD PREVENTION MEASURES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Dilek Sengur

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to identify auditors‘ perception regarding fraudprevention measures. In particular, the research focuses on the differences in perception ofthe effectiveness of fraud prevention measures among three categories of fraud: fraudulentfinancial statement, misappropriation of assets and corruption. In the analysis Friedman testand Wilcoxon test were used to examine differences in perception of the effectiveness of fraudprevention measures. The results of the analysis ...

  10. Hinge Dimension: An Exploration of Enaction in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franinovic, Karmen; Wilson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of technologically mediated enactive experience with and within architectural contexts, and the ways in which it may affect our relationships to constructed surroundings. We present the conceptual ideas and design development of the Hinge Dimension project...

  11. Flutter of cantilevered interconnected beams with variable hinge positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, A.; McCarthy, J. M.; John, S.; Watkins, S.; Trivailo, P.; Coman, F.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, flutter of slender, high-compliance cantilever beams in a fluid flow is discussed. Parametric factors that influence the critical flutter speed of these beams are examined theoretically, and experimentally validated. A relationship between the lowest bending-mode frequency of the beam and its critical flutter speed is established. A single ideal, revolute hinge with zero torsional stiffness is introduced at differing positions along the beam, so as to alter the effective natural frequency of the beam, and the effect of the hinge presence on the first few bending modes is analytically determined. A computational modal analysis is conducted in ANSYS® MechanicalTM and the results match well with analytical results, despite the difference in numerical schemes utilised between the two models. Experiments are then carried out in a smooth-flow wind tunnel to observe the critical flutter speed of these hinged beams. It is found that the critical flutter speed and oscillatory mode shape changes based on the hinge position. The experimental results are compared with the analytical and computational outcomes. Application of these connected bodies in the field of energy harvesting from fluid flow is discussed and the working principle of these harvesters is explained.

  12. Awareness And Preventive Measures Against Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) infection among Dental Surgeons in Lagos state and to identify preventive measures adopted against HBV infection. Materials and Methods: 220 structured self-administered questionnaires about knowledge of HBV and infection ...

  13. Evaluation of certain preventive measures to malaria infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides information on the infectivity rate of Plasmodium falciparum on subjects attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Information on the use of certain preventive measures to control malaria transmission and also the need to keep a clean environment for more ...

  14. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  15. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Malaria Preventive Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), injections 116 (46.6%) herbs 5 (2.0%) and unspecified 5(2.0%). In the event of ... Sustained health education especially to less educated women is strongly advocated to enhance to knowledge of malaria and practice of preventive measures.

  16. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  17. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  18. Knowledge and prevention measures against dengue in southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Neupane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the knowledge and prevention measures against dengue among selected adult population in southern Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Rapti Zonal Hospital, Dang and Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during August-November, 2011. A total of 212 patients were interviewed regarding their knowledge and practices about dengue fever. Serum samples were collected and investigated for the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies by IgM-ELISA. Results: Data from 156 patients greater than 15 years were analyzed. Among them, 21 samples were found to possess anti-dengue IgM antibodies by ELISA. Females, economically active people, farmers, unemployed and housewives were more frequently affected by dengue. Of the total, 118 (76% were reported to know the disease dengue. Fever, headache and myalgia were the most known symptoms and house drains and kitchen garden were known as the most common breeding sites of mosquitoes. Garbage disposal, use of mosquito nets and covering water containers were the best known preventive measures. Conclusions: The overall knowledge of dengue was high, but females, old persons, unemployed and housewives had relatively little knowledge of dengue. Therefore, these groups may need special attention in future dengue education programs. Persons with knowledge of the disease more frequently reported the use of preventive measures, indicating the value of education programs as a tool in dengue prevention.

  19. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  20. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  1. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy P; Whitman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS) and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients.

  2. A stepwise approach for the management of capsular contraction syndrome in hinge-based accommodative intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page TP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy P Page,1 Jeffrey Whitman2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, MI, 2Key-Whitman Eye Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: The aims of this study are to define the various stages of capsular contraction syndrome (CCS and its effect on refractive error with hinge-based accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs and to describe a systematic approach for the management of the different stages of CCS. Methods: Hinge-based accommodative IOLs function via flexible hinges that vault the optic forward during accommodation. However, it is the flexibility of the IOL that makes it prone to deformation in the event of CCS. The signs of CCS are identified and described as posterior capsular striae, fibrotic bands across the anterior or posterior capsule, and capsule opacification. Various degrees of CCS may affect hinge-based accommodating IOLs in a spectrum from subtle changes in IOL appearance to significant increases in refractive error and loss of uncorrected visual acuity. The signs of CCS and its effect on IOL position and the resulting changes in refractive error are matched to appropriate treatment plans. Results: A surgeon can avoid CCS and manage the condition if familiar with the early signs of CCS. If CCS is identified, yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser capsulotomy should be considered. If moderate CCS occurs, it may be effectively treated with insertion of a capsular tension ring. If CCS is allowed to progress to advanced stages, an IOL exchange may be necessary. Conclusion: Surgeons should be familiar with the stages of CCS and subsequent interventions. The steps outlined in this article help to guide surgeons in the prevention and management of CCS with hinge-based accommodative IOLs in order to provide improved refractive outcomes for patients. Keywords: z-syndrome, pseudophakic tilt, IOL subluxation, CTR, capsular tension ring, capsular fibrosis

  3. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced PEEK Hinge Mechanism Articulation Components in a Rotating Hinge Knee Design: A Comparison of In Vitro and Retrieval Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronja A. Schierjott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK represents a promising alternative material for bushings in total knee replacements, after early clinical failures of polyethylene in this application. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the damage modes and the extent of damage observed on CFR-PEEK hinge mechanism articulation components after in vivo service in a rotating hinge knee (RHK system and to compare the results with corresponding components subjected to in vitro wear tests. Key question was if there were any similarities or differences between in vivo and in vitro damage characteristics. Twelve retrieved RHK systems after an average of 34.9 months in vivo underwent wear damage analysis with focus on the four integrated CFR-PEEK components and distinction between different damage modes and classification with a scoring system. The analysis included visual examination, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, as well as surface roughness and profile measurements. The main wear damage modes were comparable between retrieved and in vitro specimens (n=3, whereby the size of affected area on the retrieved components showed a higher variation. Overall, the retrieved specimens seemed to be slightly heavier damaged which was probably attributable to the more complex loading and kinematic conditions in vivo.

  5. Prokurör nägi inimliku jõhkruse piiritust / Hinge Brand ; interv. Tiiu Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brand, Hinge, 1940-2007

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu ametist lahkuva prokurör Hinge Brandiga. Lisatud: Hinge Brandi CV; Hinge Brandi osavõtul peetud kõmulisemad mõrvaprotsessid. Kommenteerivad Aivar Pilv, Elmar Vaher, Alar Kirs, Eda Murak, Dilaila Nahkur-Tammiksaar

  6. Influence of hinge point on flexible flap aerodynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H Y; Ye, Z; Wu, P; Li, C

    2013-01-01

    Large scale wind turbines lead to increasing blade lengths and weights, which presents new challenges for blade design. This paper selects NREL S809 airfoil, uses the parameterized technology to realize the flexible trailing edge deformation, researches the static aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoil with flexible deformation, and the dynamic aerodynamic characteristics in the process of continuous deformation, analyses the influence of hinge point position on flexible flap aerodynamic performance, in order to further realize the flexible wind turbine blade design and provides some references for the active control scheme. The results show that compared with the original airfoil, proper trailing edge deformation can improve the lift coefficient, reduce the drag coefficient, and thereby more efficiently realize flow field active control. With hinge point moving forward, total aerodynamic performance of flexible flap improves. Positive swing angle can push the transition point backward, thus postpones the occurrence of the transition phenomenon

  7. Lapses in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P N; Milind, K

    2001-03-01

    This study was carried out in a rural tertiary care referral hospital in central India, to ascertain lapses made by people caring for neonates in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Unobtrusive observation of the healthcare personnel (doctors, nurses, mothers and hospital attendants) during care of the newborn was undertaken. Lapse in handwashing by healthcare personnel was observed around 41% of the time, although mothers practiced their instructions meticulously. Lapses in methods of hand drying were seen around 7-8% of the time, in those who did wash their hands. Gloves were not used around 21% of the time, when they should have been; and of those using gloves, they were unsterile in around 22% cases. At delivery babies were received unhygienically on approximately 67% of occasions observed. Lapses during cord care ranged from 14.2% to 28.6% and during resuscitation from 16.6% to 60% of occasions. An uncleaned stethoscope was used 75% of the time. The practice of putting a finger in the baby's mouth was observed on 18 occasions. Considerable lapses by all, in every measure recommended for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were observed. It is concluded that nothing other than an individual's commitment is likely to be successful in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  8. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  9. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration...

  10. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  11. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  12. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  13. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  14. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  15. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Mid-term Results of Rotating Hinged Knee Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Buyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In surgeries on patients with advanced ligament instabilities or severe bone defects rotating hinged knee prostheses are one of a limited number of appropriate options. The objective of our study is to evaluate the mid-term functional results and complications of several surgeries using this form of prothesis. Material and Method: The rotating hinged knee prosthesis (RHKP was applied to 23 knees of 19 patients in primary or revision surgeries at our instution between February 2009 and December 2011. Following their operations, patients underwent several retrospective evaluations to assess surgical success. The average follow-up period for the patients was 54 months. The average age of the patients at their last follow-up was 75. Results: The average Special Surgery Knee Scores, Knee Society Knee Scores, and Knee Society Functional Scores were 44, 27, and 18, respectively, before the surgery; and 83, 92, and 70 in the final post-surgery follow-ups. In addition, the average range of motion increased from the pre-operative level of 76 to 101 degrees at the final evaluation. Two patients had per-operative rupture of the patellar tendon, and four patients had various complications after the surgery, including periprosthetic fracture, deep infection, aseptic loosening, and patellofemoral instability. Discussion: Primary or revision knee arthroplasty using RKHP can be successful in cases with advanced ligament instability or severe bone defects; however, increased complication rates should be kept in mind.

  17. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  18. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of the Therapeutic IgG4 Antibody Pembrolizumab: Hinge Modification Blocks Half Molecule Exchange In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Fengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Larry; Antonenko, Svetlana; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Yi Wei; Tabrizifard, Mohammad; Ermakov, Grigori; Wiswell, Derek; Beaumont, Maribel; Liu, Liming; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    IgG4 antibodies are evolving as an important class of cancer immunotherapies. However, human IgG4 can undergo Fab arm (half molecule) exchange with other IgG4 molecules in vivo. The hinge modification by a point mutation (S228P) prevents half molecule exchange of IgG4. However, the experimental confirmation is still expected by regulatory agencies. Here, we report for the first time the extensive analysis of half molecule exchange for a hinge-modified therapeutic IgG4 molecule, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) targeting programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor that was approved for advanced melanoma. Studies were performed in buffer or human serum using multiple exchange partners including natalizumab (Tysabri) and human IgG4 pool. Formation of bispecific antibodies was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, exchange with Fc fragments, mixed mode chromatography, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half molecule exchange was also examined in vivo in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the hinge modification in pembrolizumab prevented half molecule exchange, whereas the unmodified counterpart anti-PD1 wt showed active exchange activity with other IgG4 antibodies or self-exchange activity with its own molecules. Our work, as an example expected for meeting regulatory requirements, contributes to establish without ambiguity that hinge-modified IgG4 antibodies are suitable for biotherapeutic applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Deployment Testing of Flexible Composite Hinges in Bi-Material Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Trease, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Composites have excellent properties for strength, thermal stability, and weight. However, they are traditionally highly rigid, and when used in deployable structures require hinges bonded to the composite material, which increases complexity and opportunities for failure. Recent research in composites has found by adding an elastomeric soft matrix, often silicone instead of an epoxy, the composite becomes flexible. This work explores the deployment repeatability of silicone matrix composite hinges which join rigid composite beams. The hinges were found to have sub-millimeter linear deployment repeatability, and sub-degree angular deployment repeatability. Also, an interesting relaxation effect was discovered, as a hinges deployment error would decrease with time.

  1. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  2. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei

  3. Modal Characteristics of Novel Wind Turbine Rotors with Hinged Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2018-03-01

    The vibration problems of the wind turbine rotors have drawn public attention as the size of wind turbine has increased incredibly. Although various factors may cause the vibration problems, the flexibility is a big threat among them. Therefore, ensuring the high stiffness of the rotors by adopting novel techniques becomes a necessity. The study was a further investigation of several novel designs regarding the dynamic behaviour and the influencing mechanism. The modal testing experiments were conducted on a traditional blade and an isolated blade with the hinged rods mounted close to the root. The results showed that the rod increased both the modal frequency and the damping of the blade. More studies were done on the rods’ impact on the wind turbine rotor with a numerical model, where dimensionless parameters were defined to describe the configuration of the interveined and the bisymmetrical rods. Their influences on the modal frequencies of the rotor were analyzed and discussed.

  4. Radar Interferometry Detection of Hinge Line Migration on Rutford Ice Stream and Carlson Inlet, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) Interferometry is employed to map the hinge line, or limit of tidal flexing, of Rutford Ice Stream and Carlson Inlet, Antarctica, and detect its migration between 1992 and 1996. The hinge line is mapped using a model fit from an elastic beam theory.

  5. Hinge-free topology optimization with embedded translation-invariant differentiable wavelet shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, G. H.; Kim, Y. Y.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    In topology optimization applications for the design of compliant mechanisms, the formation of hinges is typically encountered. Often such hinges are unphysical artifacts that appear due to the choice of discretization spaces for design and analysis. The objective of this work is to present a new...

  6. Multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinges made of superelastic materials is a promising candidate to enhance the movability of compliant mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge. The objective is to determine a set of optimal geometric parameters that maximizes the motion range and the relative compliance of the flexure hinge and minimizes the relative rotation error during the deformation as well. Firstly, the paper presents a new type of ellipse-parabola shaped flexure hinge which is constructed by an ellipse arc and a parabola curve. Then, the static responses of superelastic flexure hinges are solved via non-prismatic beam elements derived by the co-rotational approach. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiment tests are performed to verify the modeling method. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed and the Pareto frontier is found via the NSGA-II algorithm.

  7. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  8. Prevention measures of flooding inside building at Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Naoya; Wakunaga, Takao; Ishida, Takahisa; Yasuda, Mitsuhiro; Kawabata, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    As the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, we will implement installing the sea wall in order to block direct intrusion of tsunami on Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. In addition, assuming a tsunami higher than the sea wall, we will implement countermeasures to prevent flooding inside the building and the important equipment containment room. In this paper, we present countermeasures to prevent flooding for penetrations and openings of ventilation. (author)

  9. A Structurally Variable Hinged Tetrahedron Framework from DNA Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized polyhedral wire-frame objects hold a wide range of potential applications both as structural scaffolds as well as a basis for synthetic nanocontainers. The utilization of DNA as basic building blocks for such structures allows the exploitation of bottom-up self-assembly in order to achieve molecular programmability through the pairing of complementary bases. In this work, we report on a hollow but rigid tetrahedron framework of 75 nm strut length constructed with the DNA origami method. Flexible hinges at each of their four joints provide a means for structural variability of the object. Through the opening of gaps along the struts, four variants can be created as confirmed by both gel electrophoresis and direct imaging techniques. The intrinsic site addressability provided by this technique allows the unique targeted attachment of dye and/or linker molecules at any point on the structure's surface, which we prove through the superresolution fluorescence microscopy technique DNA PAINT.

  10. Numerical investigation of the performance of three hinge designs of bileaflet mechanical heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hélène A; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2010-11-01

    Thromboembolic complications (TECs) of bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the nonphysiologic mechanical stresses imposed on blood elements by the hinge flows. Relating hinge flow features to design features is, therefore, essential to ultimately design BMHVs with lower TEC rates. This study aims at simulating the pulsatile three-dimensional hinge flows of three BMHVs and estimating the TEC potential associated with each hinge design. Hinge geometries are constructed from micro-computed tomography scans of BMHVs. Simulations are conducted using a Cartesian sharp-interface immersed-boundary methodology combined with a second-order accurate fractional-step method. Leaflet motion and flow boundary conditions are extracted from fluid-structure-interaction simulations of BMHV bulk flow. The numerical results are analyzed using a particle-tracking approach coupled with existing blood damage models. The gap width and, more importantly, the shape of the recess and leaflet are found to impact the flow distribution and TEC potential. Smooth, streamlined surfaces appear to be more favorable than sharp corners or sudden shape transitions. The developed framework will enable pragmatic and cost-efficient preclinical evaluation of BMHV prototypes prior to valve manufacturing. Application to a wide range of hinges with varying design parameters will eventually help in determining the optimal hinge design.

  11. Incorporation of a hinge domain improves the expansion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple iterations of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have been developed, mainly focusing on intracellular signaling modules. However, the effect of non-signaling extracellular modules on the expansion and therapeutic efficacy of CARs remains largely undefined. Methods We generated two versions of CAR vectors, with or without a hinge domain, targeting CD19, mesothelin, PSCA, MUC1, and HER2, respectively. Then, we systematically compared the effect of the hinge domains on the growth kinetics, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity of CAR T cells in vitro and in vivo. Results During in vitro culture period, the percentages and absolute numbers of T cells expressing the CARs containing a hinge domain continuously increased, mainly through the promotion of CD4+ CAR T cell expansion, regardless of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv. In vitro migration assay showed that the hinges enhanced CAR T cells migratory capacity. The T cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs with or without a hinge had similar antitumor capacities in vivo, whereas the T cells expressing anti-mesothelin CARs containing a hinge domain showed enhanced antitumor activities. Conclusions Hence, our results demonstrate that a hinge contributes to CAR T cell expansion and is capable of increasing the antitumor efficacy of some specific CAR T cells. Our results suggest potential novel strategies in CAR vector design.

  12. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  13. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  14. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  15. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  17. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  18. Analysis of intelligent hinged shell structures: deployable deformation and shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Guang-Hui; Yang, Qing-Sheng; He, X Q

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of intelligent materials with the ability to recover their initial shape from a temporarily fixable state when subjected to external stimuli. In this work, the thermo-mechanical behavior of a deployable SMP-based hinged structure is modeled by the finite element method using a 3D constitutive model with shape memory effect. The influences of hinge structure parameters on the nonlinear loading process are investigated. The total shape memory of the processes the hinged structure goes through, including loading at high temperature, decreasing temperature with load carrying, unloading at low temperature and recovering the initial shape with increasing temperature, are illustrated. Numerical results show that the present constitutive theory and the finite element method can effectively predict the complicated thermo-mechanical deformation behavior and shape memory effect of SMP-based hinged shell structures. (paper)

  19. Effect of the hinge protein on the heme iron site of cytochrome c1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.; Yencha, A.J.; Bunker, G.; Zhang, G.; Chance, B.; King, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies on cytochrome c 1 from beef heart mitochondria were conducted to identify the effect of the hinge protein on the structure of the heme site in cytochrome c 1 . A comparison of XAS data of highly purified one-band and two-band cytochrome c 1 demonstrates that the hinge protein exerts a rather pronounced effect on the heme environment of the cytochrome c 1 : a conformational change occurs within a radius of approximately 5 angstrom from the heme iron in cytochrome c 1 when the hinge protein is bound to cytochrome c 1 . This result may be correlated with the previous observations that the structure and reactivity of cytochrome c 1 are affected by the hinge protein

  20. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  1. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  2. Functionalisation of the hinge region in receptor molecules for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2003-01-01

    The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The functionalisation of the hinge region in a molecular tweezer molecule showing a strong binding to explosives is presented. Two versatile functional groups are introduced, a carboxylic acid and a bromine atom. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Design of Hierarchically Cut Hinges for Highly Stretchable and Reconfigurable Metamaterials with Enhanced Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yichao; Lin, Gaojian; Han, Lin; Qiu, Songgang; Yang, Shu; Yin, Jie

    2015-11-25

    Applying hierarchical cuts to thin sheets of elastomer generates super-stretchable and reconfigurable metamaterials, exhibiting highly nonlinear stress-strain behaviors and tunable phononic bandgaps. The cut concept fails on brittle thin sheets due to severe stress concentration in the rotating hinges. By engineering the local hinge shapes and global hierarchical structure, cut-based reconfigurable metamaterials with largely enhanced strength are realized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Alzheimer’s disease: oral manifestations, treatment and preventive measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ortega-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with dementia types such as Alzheimer’s, non-current and tough situations are faced. Treatment should be tailored to each stage of the disease and for each patient. In this type of disease, it is very important to involve families and caregivers to improve the patients´ quality of life. The main goal with these patients is prevention. All oral manifestations caused by the lack of inadequate oral hygiene, xerostomia and manifestations derived from taking drugs should be controlled. The aim of this review is to describe the main oral manifestations which can result from this disease and the best treatment options taking into account the patients’ clinical stages.

  5. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  6. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  7. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  8. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  10. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  11. Using Cognitive Interviews to Enhance Measurement in Empirical Bioethics: Developing a Measure of the Preventive Misconception in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Seils, Damon M; Watson-Ormond, J Kemp; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants. Two main problems emerged during initial interviews. First, the phrase "reduce your risk," used to elicit beliefs about risk reduction from the use of study medications, was interpreted as relating to a reduction of risky behaviors. Second, the phrase "participating in this study," intended to elicit beliefs about trial group assignment, was interpreted as relating to personal behavior changes associated with study participation. Additional interviews using a revised measure were no longer problematic in these ways, and participants felt the response options were appropriate for conveying their answers. These findings underscore the importance of cognitive testing in developing surveys for empirical bioethics.

  12. FlexOracle: predicting flexible hinges by identification of stable domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Samuel C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein motions play an essential role in catalysis and protein-ligand interactions, but are difficult to observe directly. A substantial fraction of protein motions involve hinge bending. For these proteins, the accurate identification of flexible hinges connecting rigid domains would provide significant insight into motion. Programs such as GNM and FIRST have made global flexibility predictions available at low computational cost, but are not designed specifically for finding hinge points. Results Here we present the novel FlexOracle hinge prediction approach based on the ideas that energetic interactions are stronger within structural domains than between them, and that fragments generated by cleaving the protein at the hinge site are independently stable. We implement this as a tool within the Database of Macromolecular Motions, MolMovDB.org. For a given structure, we generate pairs of fragments based on scanning all possible cleavage points on the protein chain, compute the energy of the fragments compared with the undivided protein, and predict hinges where this quantity is minimal. We present three specific implementations of this approach. In the first, we consider only pairs of fragments generated by cutting at a single location on the protein chain and then use a standard molecular mechanics force field to calculate the enthalpies of the two fragments. In the second, we generate fragments in the same way but instead compute their free energies using a knowledge based force field. In the third, we generate fragment pairs by cutting at two points on the protein chain and then calculate their free energies. Conclusion Quantitative results demonstrate our method's ability to predict known hinges from the Database of Macromolecular Motions.

  13. Rotating hinge prosthesis for complex revision total knee arthroplasty: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouk, Shalen; Rathod, Parthiv A; Maheshwari, Aditya V; Deshmukh, Ajit J

    2018-01-01

    The rotating hinge prosthesis was originally used and designed as a primary total knee arthroplasty implant, but was hampered due to poor outcomes and catastrophic failures. Newer rotating hinge implants can be utilized in complex revision total knee arthroplasties when appropriately indicated, but their outcome data is very difficult to interpret due to the strict and varied indications for use and subsequently small number of procedures performed. The goal of this review is to evaluate the current evidence on large cohort, rotating hinge knee prostheses used in the revision setting, in order to provide a clearer understanding of the indications, outcomes and complications. The PubMed database was utilized to search the available literature regarding "hinged knee," or "rotating hinge" devices. Exclusion criteria included papers focusing on primary arthroplasty, revision for oncologic issues, one-stage revision for infection or studies with less than fifty cases. Review of 115 abstracts after initial search, led to ten studies in the literature that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data shows that rotating hinge knee implants have good survivorship ranging from 51% to 92.5% at 10 years post-operatively. Complication rates range from 9.2% to 63% with infection and aseptic loosening as the most common complications. Rotating hinge knee prostheses are most commonly indicated for infection, aseptic loosening, instability and bone loss in the literature. They have good outcome scores and survivorship, but continue to have high complication and revision rates. The implant is a good option when utilized appropriately for patients that are not candidates for less constrained devices.

  14. Measuring endoscopic performance for colorectal cancer prevention quality improvement in a gastroenterology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    A gastroenterology practice lacked quality measures to evaluate the practice's colorectal cancer prevention efforts. Colonoscopy performance data were gathered from a retrospective review of 90 charts using a modified Colorectal Cancer Prevention Data Collection Form. Practice stakeholders and project leader reviewed the data, identified practice deficiencies, conducted root cause analysis, and developed practice changes. Implementing the prioritized recommendations and routinely benchmarking care were warranted to ensure effective practice to improve outcomes for colorectal cancer prevention. Achieving higher-value care has led to increased efforts to improve systems for measuring care, using these measures for quality improvement and directly linking quality outcomes to reimbursement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  16. [Economic class syndrome: epidemiological features and preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Trabacchi, Valeria; Carreri, Vittorio; Blangiardi, Francesco; Fara, Gaetano Maria

    2011-01-01

    The term "economic class syndrome" is generally used to describe the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in travelers after long-distance airline travel in economic class. However, cases of VTE have also been reported in business class travelers and in subjects exposed to prolonged periods of immobilization while using other forms of transportation such as automobile, train, and bus. VTE manifests with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism but may also present with less severe, reversible manifestations such as headache, vertigo, and respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of VTE doubles following airline travel lasting longer than four hours. The risk of VTE increases with increased duration of air travel even in the presence of multiple stop-overs. In subjects with known risk factors, incidence of VTE depends on the degree of risk (low, medium, high) and on the duration of the flight. The main factor leading to VTE is prolonged immobilization and the pathogenesis is based on Virchow's triad: venous stasis, vessel wall injury, and hypercoagulability of blood. Specific characteristics of airline travel such as jet lag, low air quality and dehydration may increase the risk of VTE with respect to other forms of travel. This article discusses epidemiological aspects and pathogenesis of travel-related VTE and prophylactic measures that should be undertaken.

  17. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  19. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  20. Preventive measures and lifestyle habits against exertional heat illness in radiation decontamination workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shota; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Sato, Sei; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to reveal the current state of preventive measures and lifestyle habits against heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and to examine whether young radiation decontamination workers take less preventive measures and have worse lifestyle habits than the elder workers. This was a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers in Fukushima, Japan. Five hundred fifty-eight men who replied and answered all questions were included in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire included age, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, lifestyle habit, and preventive measures for heat illness. We classified age of the respondents into five groups: decontamination workers are more likely to have worse lifestyle habits and take insufficient preventive measures for heat illness. This may be the cause of higher incidence of heat illness among young workers.

  1. Antibiotics or probiotics as preventive measures against ventilator-associated pneumonia: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M.J.; Haas, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanically ventilated critically ill patients frequently develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a life-threatening complication. Proposed preventive measures against VAP include, but are not restricted to, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), selective oropharyngeal

  2. The effect of hinged ankle-foot orthosis on gait and energy expenditure in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Birol; Yasar, Evren; Dal, Ugur; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2007-01-30

    To assess the effectiveness of a hinged ankle-foot orthoses on gait impairments and energy expenditure in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) whom orthoses were indicated to control equines. Eleven children (seven males, four females) who had a diagnosis of hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included in the study. Each child underwent gait analysis and energy consumption studies with and without ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). The AFOs were all custom-made for the individual child and had plantarflexion stop at 0 degrees with no dorsoflexion stop. The Vicon 512 Motion analysis system was used for gait analysis. Walking energy expenditure measurements were done with breath by breath method using an open-circuit indirect calorimeter (Vmax 29c, Sensormedics, USA). All tests were carried out on the same day with enough resting period. AFO application, as compared with the barefoot condition improved walking speed, stride length and single support time. Double support time was decreased significantly with AFOs and no change in cadance. Ankle dorsiflexion at initial contact, midstance and midswing showed significiant increase. Knee flexion at initial contact was decreased and no significant change in maximum knee extension at stance and maximum knee flexion at swing was obtained. The oxygen consumption was significantly reduced during AFO walking. The hinged AFO is useful in controlling dynamic equinus deformity and reducing the energy expenditure of gait in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy.

  3. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  4. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    He Wenlong; Meng Lingbo; Wang Yaogang

    2015-01-01

    Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  5. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  7. Intensive mutagenesis of the nisin hinge leads to the rational design of enhanced derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Healy

    Full Text Available Nisin A is the most extensively studied lantibiotic and has been used as a preservative by the food industry since 1953. This 34 amino acid peptide contains three dehydrated amino acids and five thioether rings. These rings, resulting from one lanthionine and four methyllanthionine bridges, confer the peptide with its unique structure. Nisin A has two mechanisms of action, with the N-terminal domain of the peptide inhibiting cell wall synthesis through lipid II binding and the C-terminal domain responsible for pore-formation. The focus of this study is the three amino acid 'hinge' region (N 20, M 21 and K 22 which separates these two domains and allows for conformational flexibility. As all lantibiotics are gene encoded, novel variants can be generated through manipulation of the corresponding gene. A number of derivatives in which the hinge region was altered have previously been shown to possess enhanced antimicrobial activity. Here we take this approach further by employing simultaneous, indiscriminate site-saturation mutagenesis of all three hinge residues to create a novel bank of nisin derivative producers. Screening of this bank revealed that producers of peptides with hinge regions consisting of AAK, NAI and SLS displayed enhanced bioactivity against a variety of targets. These and other results suggested a preference for small, chiral amino acids within the hinge region, leading to the design and creation of producers of peptides with hinges consisting of AAA and SAA. These producers, and the corresponding peptides, exhibited enhanced bioactivity against Lactococcus lactis HP, Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2155 and Staphylococcus aureus RF122 and thus represent the first example of nisin derivatives that possess enhanced activity as a consequence of rational design.

  8. Hinged and sectional complete dentures for restricted mouth opening: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening is a definite prosthodontic hindrance to carry out treatment successfully. Restricted mouth opening can be due to many reasons such as microstomia, oral submucous fibrosis, some genetic disorder, and as a result of some surgical treatment. In the past, various techniques for prosthetic rehabilitation of limited oral opening have been tried such as surgeries, use of dynamic opening devices, magnetic devices, and modification of denture design. Here we present; a simplified technique and simple design for fabrication of maxillary hinged and mandibular hinged and sectional complete denture for a patient with restricted mouth opening due to oral submucous fibrosis.

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  10. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  11. Comparison of hinge microflow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves implanted in different sinus shape and downstream geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yee Han; Kabinejadian, Foad; Nguyen, Vinh-Tan; Su, Boyang; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) hinge microflow fields is a crucial step in heart valve engineering. Earlier in vitro studies of BMHV hinge flow at the aorta position in idealized straight pipes have shown that the aortic sinus shapes and sizes may have a direct impact on hinge microflow fields. In this paper, we used a numerical study to look at how different aortic sinus shapes, the downstream aortic arch geometry, and the location of the hinge recess can influence the flow fields in the hinge regions. Two geometric models for sinus were investigated: a simplified axisymmetric sinus and an idealized three-sinus aortic root model, with two different downstream geometries: a straight pipe and a simplified curved aortic arch. The flow fields of a 29-mm St Jude Medical BMHV with its four hinges were investigated. The simulations were performed throughout the entire cardiac cycle. At peak systole, recirculating flows were observed in curved downsteam aortic arch unlike in straight downstream pipe. Highly complex three-dimensional leakage flow through the hinge gap was observed in the simulation results during early diastole with the highest velocity at 4.7 m/s, whose intensity decreased toward late diastole. Also, elevated wall shear stresses were observed in the ventricular regions of the hinge recess with the highest recorded at 1.65 kPa. Different flow patterns were observed between the hinge regions in straight pipe and curved aortic arch models. We compared the four hinge regions at peak systole in an aortic arch downstream model and found that each individual hinge did not vary much in terms of the leakage flow rate through the valves.

  12. Defining the mechanical properties of a spring-hinged ankle foot orthosis to assess its potential use in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap

    2014-12-01

    A rigid ventral shelf ankle foot orthosis (AFO) may improve gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) whose gait is characterized by excessive knee flexion in stance. However, these AFOs can also impede ankle range of motion (ROM) and thereby inhibit push-off power. A more spring-like AFO can enhance push-off and may potentially reduce walking energy cost. The recent development of an adjustable spring-hinged AFO now allows adjustment of AFO stiffness, enabling tuning toward optimal gait performance. This study aims to quantify the mechanical properties of this spring-hinged AFO for each of its springs and settings. Using an AFO stiffness tester, two AFO hinges and their accompanying springs were measured. The springs showed a stiffness range of 0.01-1.82 N · m · deg(-1). The moment-threshold increased with increasing stiffness (1.13-12.1 N · m), while ROM decreased (4.91-16.5°). Energy was returned by all springs (11.5-116.3 J). These results suggest that the two stiffest available springs should improve joint kinematics and enhance push-off in children with SCP walking with excessive knee flexion.

  13. Comparison of platelet activation through hinge vs bulk flow in mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Mohammadali; Borazjani, Iman

    2017-11-01

    Bileaflet mechanical heart valves increase the risk of thrombus formation in patients which is believed to be initiated by platelet activation. Platelets can be activated by the elevated shear stresses in the bulk flow during the systole phase or the flow through the hinge during the diastole. However, the importance of platelet activation by the bulk flow vs the hinge in MHVs has yet to be studied. Here, we investigate the contribution of each of the above mechanisms to the activation of platelets in MHs by performing simulation of the flow through a 25mm St. Jude Medical valve placed in a straight aorta. Two different gap sizes (250 and 150 micrometer) are used in this study. The simulations are done using a sharp interface curvilinear immersed boundary method along with a strong-coupling algorithm for FSI solver on overset grids. The platelet activation through the hinge for different gap sizes is compared to the activation in the bulk flow using two platelet activation models to ensure the consistency of the results. Our results for all gap sizes using different activation models show that the integration of platelet activation caused by the bulk flow is several times higher in comparison to the activation through the hinge. This work is supported by the American Heart Association Grant 13SDG17220022, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.

  14. Delta-n Hinge: rotation-invariant features for writer identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method for extracting rotation-invariant features from images of handwriting samples that can be used to perform writer identification. The proposed features are based on the Hinge feature [1], but incorporating the derivative between several points along the ink contours.

  15. Basic properties and application of shape memory polymer composite to deployable hinge for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned about the basic properties of deployment of shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) and its application to deployable hinge for solar arrays. Shape memory polymer (SMP) used in this study is a thermoset styrene-based shape memory resin in contrast to normal thermoplastic SMPs. Carbon fiber fabric reinforced SMPC is discussed here. In order to investigate the basic performances of deployment for SMPC hinge, the experimental methods are used as follows: dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), three point bending test and deployment tests. Results indicate that the glass transition temperature (T g) of SMPC is approximate 63°C. SMPC shows typical linear elasticity and high bending modulus before glass transition in SMP, while exhibits apparent nonlinear viscoelasticity and low bending modulus within the range of glass transition in SMP. The shape recovery ratio of SMPC is above 90% at/above T g, while drops sharply at below T g. The deployment properties of SMPC depend strongly on the number of thermomechanical cycles, which become relatively stable after some packaging/deployment cycles. Moreover, deployment velocity and shape recovery ratio rise remarkably with the increase of temperature of SMPC. In the end, a prototype of solar array actuated by SMPC hinge, which is heated by passing an electrical current, deploys from about 180° to 0° in one minute. This SMPC hinge performs good deployment performances during numerous thermomechanical cycles.

  16. Angular motion equations for a satellite with hinged flexible solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Tkachev, S. S.; Roldugin, D. S.; Nuralieva, A. B.; Mashtakov, Y. V.

    2016-11-01

    Non-linear mathematical model for the satellite with hinged flexible solar panel is presented. Normal modes of flexible elements are used for motion description. Motion equations are derived using virtual work principle. A comparison of normal modes calculation between finite element method and developed model is presented.

  17. Effect of plate thickness on bending radius and energy dissipation at the subduction zone hinge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, D. N.; Schellart, W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the thickness of subducting oceanic plates being identified as a control on slab and hinge behavior during subduction, there have been few attempts to quantify its effect with fully dynamic models. This paper presents a series of dynamic laboratory experiments of progressive subduction of a

  18. Capillary origami of micro-machined micro-objects: Bi-layer conductive hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrain, A.B.H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated controllable 3D self-folding by means of capillary forces of silicon-nitride micro-objects made of rigid plates connected to each other by flexible hinges (Legrain et al., 2014). In this paper, we introduce platinum electrodes running from the substrate to the plates over

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive.

  2. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  3. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  4. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas to...

  5. The effects of suicide prevention measures reported through a psychoeducational video: a practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Eriko; Kameyama, Akiko; Takizawa, Tohru; Takizawa, Shiho; Fujishima, Satoko; Nara, Mieko; Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    As the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, various suicide prevention measures have been implemented in Japanese local communities. To report our findings on the effect of a psychoeducational video as a suicide prevention measure in a Japanese rural town. Questionnaires were randomly mailed to 2,000 residents aged between 30 and 79 years. Within 4 weeks, volunteers in the town visited the residents individually and collected the questionnaires. The variables reported in this study are demographics, awareness of suicide prevention measures available in the town, whether the residents watched the video, help-seeking from advisers regarding suicidal ideation and financial problems and attitudes towards suicide. We analysed data collected from 1,118 people who reported their demographics (i.e. sex, age, and job) and whether they had watched the video. By conducting a series of logistic regression and multiple regression analyses and controlling for demographic variables, we found that watching the video had substantial psychoeducational effects. Despite conducting a cross-sectional study, our new suicide prevention measures were considered effective for psychoeducation. However, further studies using a longitudinal design are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Knowledge Of HIV/AIDS And Preventive Measures Use By City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of the drivers and conductors on HIV/AIDS epidemic and its preventive measures. Methods: This descriptive study was prospectively conducted among randomly selected city commuter-bus drivers and conductors from. December 2006 to April 2007 in Dar Es ...

  7. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  8. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  9. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  10. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  11. Psychological and Pedagogical Measures of Preventing Conflicts of Interest Among Employees of Law Enforcement Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk N.V.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significant characteristics of the phenomenon of corruption resistance of employees of internal affairs agencies as civil servants. The outlined problem of preventing corruption manifestations and conflicts of interests in operational and service activities is characterized by the fact that it exceeds the limits of legal regulation. The possible solution in this case might be the selection of relevant psychological and pedagogical measures of preventing the conflict of interests and the formation of corruption resistance in the personnel of the internal affairs bodies. The article describes the value basis of law enforcement service and personal meanings in the profession.

  12. Method for identification of rigid domains and hinge residues in proteins based on exhaustive enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jaehyun; Sim, Jun; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Julian

    2015-06-01

    Many proteins undergo large-scale motions where relatively rigid domains move against each other. The identification of rigid domains, as well as the hinge residues important for their relative movements, is important for various applications including flexible docking simulations. In this work, we develop a method for protein rigid domain identification based on an exhaustive enumeration of maximal rigid domains, the rigid domains not fully contained within other domains. The computation is performed by mapping the problem to that of finding maximal cliques in a graph. A minimal set of rigid domains are then selected, which cover most of the protein with minimal overlap. In contrast to the results of existing methods that partition a protein into non-overlapping domains using approximate algorithms, the rigid domains obtained from exact enumeration naturally contain overlapping regions, which correspond to the hinges of the inter-domain bending motion. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on several proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthetic study on derivatives of dimeric peptide from human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Maloň, Petr; Slaninová, Jiřina; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, Supplement (2006), s. 110 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /29./. 03.09.2006-08.09.2006, Gdansk] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * PEG syntheses * vaccination study Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  15. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  17. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  18. The problems of the late implementation of the legal prevention measures for flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseverino-Godfrin Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.

  19. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  20. Modeling and preventive measures of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-03-13

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time.

  1. Awareness of Causes, Consequences and Preventive Measures of Obesity among Adolescents in India

    OpenAIRE

    kansra, pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with wide range of diseases, including cardio respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the adolescents towards the causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Methods: The present study was based on primary data. The study included 200 adolescents surveyed as per convenience sampling. The an...

  2. The school counsellor's role in recognizing eating disorders and implementing preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Berčnik, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses eating disorders. Eating disorders are defined as a serious health threat due to an abnormal relation to food which has become a way of coping with stress. They are also often linked to personality disorders. We have focused mainly on the three most common types of eating disorder – anorexia, bulimia, and compulsive (binge) eating – their recognizable features, the causes that lead to eating disorders, and on preventive measures practiced in ...

  3. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  4. Influence of the subducting plate velocity on the geometry of the slab and migration of the subduction hinge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.

    2005-01-01

    Geological observations indicate that along two active continental margins (East Asia and Mediterranean) major phases of overriding plate extension, resulting from subduction hinge-retreat, occurred synchronously with a reduction in subducting plate velocity. In this paper, results of fluid

  5. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  6. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  7. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  10. Comparison of SEC and CE-SDS methods for monitoring hinge fragmentation in IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Rao, Romesh; Jones, Natalie; Jaya, Nomalie; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2017-10-25

    Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute routinely monitored to assess the purity and integrity of the product from development to commercialization. Cleavage in the upper hinge region of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies is a common fragmentation pattern widely studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Capillary electrophoresis with sodium dodecylsulfate (CE-SDS) is a well-established technique commonly used for monitoring antibody fragments as well, but its comparability to SEC in monitoring hinge fragments has not been established until now. We report a characterization strategy that establishes the correlation between hinge region fragments analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. Monoclonal antibodies with elevated hinge fragments were generated under low pH stress conditions and analyzed by SEC and CE-SDS. The masses of the fragments generated were determined by LC-MS. Electrophoretic migration of the hinge fragmentation products in CE-SDS were determined based on their mass values. Comparative assessment of fragments by SEC, and CE-SDS showed similar correlation with incubation time. This study demonstrates that CE-SDS can be employed as a surrogate technique to SEC for monitoring hinge region fragments. Most importantly, combination of these techniques can be used to obtain comprehensive understanding of fragment related characteristics of therapeutic protein products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of hinged ankle-foot orthoses on sit-to-stand transfer in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Park, Chang Il; Chang, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jong Eun; Lee, Don Shin

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on sit-to-stand (STS) transfers in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Before-after trial. University-affiliated hospital. Nineteen spastic diplegic children (age range, 2-6 y). Not applicable. The transitional movement of STS was tested in random order with children while wearing the barefoot and hinged AFOs. The temporal, kinematic, and kinetic data during the task were collected by using a motion analyzer (with 6 infrared cameras). Statistical comparison between barefoot and hinged AFO was done with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Total duration of STS transfer was significantly shortened with the hinged AFO (P AFO, compared with when barefoot (P AFO. The maximal moment and power of hip and knee joints were significantly increased with the AFO (P AFO. Although proximal compensatory strategy of increased pelvic tilt and hip flexion did not change with the hinged AFO, some improvements of temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were identified during the task. These findings suggest that a hinged AFO is beneficial for STS transfer activity for children with spastic diplegia.

  12. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  13. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  14. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Brouwer

    Full Text Available Healthcare Workers (HCWs have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures.Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method.Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers, nurses and TB program staff.HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures.HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  15. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors’ wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  16. Measuring the quality of pressure ulcer prevention: A systematic mapping review of quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Büscher, Andreas

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to provide a systematic overview of available pressure ulcer prevention quality indicators and to evaluate the underlying empirical evidence. A systematic mapping review was conducted with combined searches in Embase and Medline, and websites of relevant institutions and organisations. The eligibility criteria were clear use of the term "quality indicator" regarding pressure ulcer prevention; English or German language; and all settings, populations, and types of resources, including articles, brochures, and online material. In total, n = 146 quality indicators were identified. Most indicators were published in the United States (n = 50). The majority of indicators was developed for the hospital setting (n = 102). Process indicators were the most common (n = 71), followed by outcome indicators (n = 49). Less than half of identified indicators appeared to be practically used. Evidence supporting the validity and reliability were reported for n = 25 and n = 30 indicators respectively. The high number of indicators demonstrate the importance of measuring pressure ulcer prevention quality. This is not an indicator of our ability to accurately measure and evaluate this construct. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based and internationally comparable indicators to help improve patient care and safety worldwide. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  18. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  19. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  20. Electric multipole moments, topological multipole moment pumping, and chiral hinge states in crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-12-01

    We extend the theory of dipole moments in crystalline insulators to higher multipole moments. As first formulated in Benalcazar et al. [Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442], we show that bulk quadrupole and octupole moments can be realized in crystalline insulators. In this paper, we expand in great detail the theory presented previously [Benalcazar et al., Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442] and extend it to cover associated topological pumping phenomena, and a class of three-dimensional (3D) insulator with chiral hinge states. We start by deriving the boundary properties of continuous classical dielectrics hosting only bulk dipole, quadrupole, or octupole moments. In quantum mechanical crystalline insulators, these higher multipole bulk moments manifest themselves by the presence of boundary-localized moments of lower dimension, in exact correspondence with the electromagnetic theory of classical continuous dielectrics. In the presence of certain symmetries, these moments are quantized, and their boundary signatures are fractionalized. These multipole moments then correspond to new symmetry-protected topological phases. The topological structure of these phases is described by "nested" Wilson loops, which we define. These Wilson loops reflect the bulk-boundary correspondence in a way that makes evident a hierarchical classification of the multipole moments. Just as a varying dipole generates charge pumping, a varying quadrupole generates dipole pumping, and a varying octupole generates quadrupole pumping. For nontrivial adiabatic cycles, the transport of these moments is quantized. An analysis of these interconnected phenomena leads to the conclusion that a new kind of Chern-type insulator exists, which has chiral, hinge-localized modes in 3D. We provide the minimal models for the quantized multipole moments, the nontrivial pumping processes, and the hinge Chern insulator, and describe the topological invariants that protect them.

  1. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  2. Cohesive cracked-hinge model for simulation of fracture in one-way slabs on grade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Olesen, John Forbes

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis of slab on grade structures subjected to mechanical loads is a complex matter often requiring computationally expensive models. In order to develop a simplified and general concept for non-linear analysis of slab on grade structures, this paper presents a cohesive cracked......-hinge model aimed at the analysis of the bending fracture of the cemented material. The model is based on the fracture mechanics concepts of the fictitious crack model with a linear stress–crack opening relationship. Moreover, the paper presents a two-parameter spring foundation model applied to realistically...

  3. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  4. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  5. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  7. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxi Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  8. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  10. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram) or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Dennis, Jessica; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Harris, M Anne

    2016-07-22

    Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails), often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some crashes, though there are other considerations that lead many

  11. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Teschke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. Methods We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. Results In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails, often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Conclusions Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some

  12. Adherence to vector preventive measures decrease cases of acute Dengue among Abuja residents, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abdullahi Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria is one of the dengue hyper-endemic nations. This study investigated the level of knowledge about dengue and vector preventive practices and their impacts on acute dengue among febrile patients at Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on febrile patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Blood samples were individually collected from 171 febrile patients residing at Gwagwalada suburb. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to assess subjects’ knowledge about preventive measures against vector breeding and bites. Blood samples were tested for dengue virus Nonstructural glycoprotein-1antigen using enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Fifteen out of 171 febrile persons (8.8% were Dengue NS1 positive. Sixty percent of the subjects do not know about dengue, while 33% knew about dengue virus infection through television/ radio programs, 5% through healthcare professionals and 2% from friends/families. Those who persistently use indoor residual spraying and long sleeves/trousers during daytime had less cases of DENV NS1 than those who do not. There was statistical association between DENV NS1 and residence in proximity to waste dumpsites (P<0.0001 and frequent use of long sleeve clothing and trousers (P=0.005. However, there was no statistical association between DENV NS1 antigenemia and persistent use of indoor residual spraying and presence of in-door water containers (P>0.05. Conclusions: Findings from this study imply that proper education and adherence to preventive measures minimize people from being susceptible to Dengue virus infections.

  13. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  14. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease and irradiated blood products as its preventive measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the outline of TA-GVHD is presented and its preventive measures, especially the effects of radiation exposure of transfusion blood, is reported. TA-GVHD is a transfusion complication with the highest mortality. In Japan, 1 of 659 patients who underwent cardiac surgery suffers this disease. If this is caused by on way matching of HLA antigen type, 1 of 312 patients are to be observed in Japanese (Europe, 1/1024; North America, 1/797). Furthermore, the primary diseases of 171 patients whose definitive diagnosis was TA-GVHD were chest vascular surgery diseases in 67, malignant tumors in 61, and pediatric diseases in 14. The relative risk rates of cardiac surgery patients are 3 times higher than that of cancer patients. The current most effective preventive therapy for TA-GVHD is radiotherapy. The ions produced by H 2 O decomposition due to radiation destroy cells. Since TA-GVHD often appears in the case of using fresh blood, authors always use irradiated blood for infusion when blood was collected within 72 hours regardless of the subject diseases. In the authors' hospitals, there have been no report of TA-GVHD between December 1993 and August 1995. Radiological effects on lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes were also studied. As the other preventive measures, lymphocytes eliminating filter, MAP-erythrocytes, and ultraviolet irradiation are also reported. The current most safe blood is therefore considered the blood of which lymphocytes were eliminated within 24 hours after collection and exposured to irradiation. (S.Y.). 57 refs

  15. Phlebotomy as a preventive measure for crocidolite-induced mesothelioma in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yuuki; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Shibata, Takahiro; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Yamashita, Kyoko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2018-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare but socially important neoplasm due to its association with asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose at an early stage, yet there are no particularly effective treatments available at the advanced stage, thus necessitating efficient strategies to prevent MM in individuals already exposed to asbestos. We previously showed that persistent oxidative damage caused by foreign body reaction and affinity of asbestos both to hemoglobin and histones is one of the major pathogeneses. Accordingly, as an effective strategy to prevent asbestos-induced MM, we undertook the use of an iron chelator, deferasirox, which decreased the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a crocidolite-induced rat MM model. However, this agent may show adverse effects. Here, we studied the effects of iron removal by phlebotomy as a realistic measure on the same rat model. We injected a total of 5 mg crocidolite i.p. to F1 hybrid rats between the Fischer-344 and Brown-Norway strains at the age of 6 weeks. We repeated weekly or biweekly phlebotomy of 6-8 mL/kg/time from 10 to 60 weeks of age. The animals were observed until 120 weeks. In male rats, phlebotomy significantly decreased the weight and nuclear grade of MM, and modestly reduced the associated ascites and the fraction of more malignant sarcomatoid subtype. Weekly phlebotomy prolonged long-term survival. Our results indicate that appropriate phlebotomy may be a practical preventive measure to attenuate the initiation and promotion capacity of asbestos towards MM by reducing iron in individuals exposed to asbestos. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  17. Integrin activation dynamics between the RGD-binding site and the headpiece hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Vogel, Viola

    2009-12-25

    Integrins form mechanical links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Although integrin activation is known to be regulated by an allosteric conformational change, which can be induced from the extracellular or intracellular end of the molecule, little is known regarding the sequence of structural events by which signals propagate between distant sites. Here, we reveal with molecular dynamics simulations of the FnIII(10)-bound alpha(V)beta(3) integrin headpiece how the binding pocket and interdomain betaA/hybrid domain hinge on the distal end of the betaA domain are allosterically linked via a hydrophobic T-junction between the middle of the alpha1 helix and top of the alpha7 helix. The key results of this study are: 1) that this T-junction is induced by ligand binding and hinge opening, and thus displays bidirectionality; 2) that formation of this junction can be accelerated by ligand-mediated force; and 3) how formation of this junction is inhibited by Ca(2+) in place of Mg(2+) at the site adjacent to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site ("ADMIDAS"). Together with recent experimental evidence that integrin complexes can form catch bonds (i.e. become strengthened under force), as well as earlier evidence that Ca(2+) at the ADMIDAS results in lower binding affinity, these simulations provide a common structural model for the dynamic process by which integrins become activated.

  18. Integrin Activation Dynamics between the RGD-binding Site and the Headpiece Hinge*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Vogel, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Integrins form mechanical links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Although integrin activation is known to be regulated by an allosteric conformational change, which can be induced from the extracellular or intracellular end of the molecule, little is known regarding the sequence of structural events by which signals propagate between distant sites. Here, we reveal with molecular dynamics simulations of the FnIII10-bound αVβ3 integrin headpiece how the binding pocket and interdomain βA/hybrid domain hinge on the distal end of the βA domain are allosterically linked via a hydrophobic T-junction between the middle of the α1 helix and top of the α7 helix. The key results of this study are: 1) that this T-junction is induced by ligand binding and hinge opening, and thus displays bidirectionality; 2) that formation of this junction can be accelerated by ligand-mediated force; and 3) how formation of this junction is inhibited by Ca2+ in place of Mg2+ at the site adjacent to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (“ADMIDAS”). Together with recent experimental evidence that integrin complexes can form catch bonds (i.e. become strengthened under force), as well as earlier evidence that Ca2+ at the ADMIDAS results in lower binding affinity, these simulations provide a common structural model for the dynamic process by which integrins become activated. PMID:19762919

  19. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Rotors Using Hinged Structures and Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping

    2018-03-01

    Light weight and high stiffness are key design factors in ensuring cost effectiveness and reliability of wind turbines, especially for the inboard region of the rotor blades. In this study, several novel designs were developed to improve the mechanical performance of the rotor. Experiments were performed on an isolated blade incorporating the new features of a hinged structure and rods. The results validated the effectiveness of these features at alleviating the root-bending moment of the blade under varying wind loads and enhancing the stiffness of the blade. A numerical investigation was carried out to further examine the bending moment distribution, shear and axial force, and rod tension of these novel rotor designs under uniform loads. Longitudinal geometrical variations of the blade were considered in the model. Results showed that two designs realized a favorable bending moment distribution and improved the modal frequencies of the edgewise modes: bisymmetrical rods on a single-hinged structure and interveined symmetrical rods on a cantilevered structure. However, these designs have different deformation mechanisms. In addition, the first group of edgewise modal frequencies of these two designs were improved compared with the traditional rotor design. Their potential values in the application to the design of a lightweight, high-stiffness, and reliable wind turbine rotor were discussed.

  20. A hinged plate equation and iterated Dirichlet Laplace operator on domains with concave corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Sergueï A.; Sweers, Guido

    Fourth order hinged plate type problems are usually solved via a system of two second order equations. For smooth domains such an approach can be justified. However, when the domain has a concave corner the bi-Laplace problem with Navier boundary conditions may have two different types of solutions, namely u with u,Δu∈H and u∈H∩H. We will compare these two solutions. A striking difference is that in general only the first solution, obtained by decoupling into a system, preserves positivity, that is, a positive source implies that the solution is positive. The other type of solution is more relevant in the context of the hinged plate. We will also address the higher-dimensional case. Our main analytical tools will be the weighted Sobolev spaces that originate from Kondratiev. In two dimensions we will show an alternative that uses conformal transformation. Next to rigorous proofs the results are illustrated by some numerical experiments for planar domains.

  1. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  2. Mid-term results after implantation of rotating-hinge knee prostheses: primary versus revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Efe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical results and survivorship of a rotating-hinge knee prosthesis (LINK® Endo-Model in difficult primary and complex revision situations. Results after primary implantation were compared with those of revision procedures. Forty-nine prostheses in 45 patients were reviewed clinically during follow up. Twenty-one of these were implanted in primary and 28 in revision situations. Outcome was evaluated using commonly used scores (Knee Society, UCLA Activity, Lequesne and a visual analog scale after a mean follow up of 56±37 months for 49 prostheses. Implant survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were no significant differences in clinical examination and evaluation scores between the two groups (P>0.05. Survival rates at final follow up were 95% after primary implantation and 76% in revision procedures. The risk of prosthesis loss (odds ratio 5.7 was significantly higher after revision procedures (P=0.004. These data suggest that rotating-hinge knee prostheses provided good clinical and functional results in selected cases of advanced primary gonarthrosis associated with severe bone loss, ligamentous instability or comminuted fractures. They also provide good results in revision situations. However, the failure rate was significantly higher in cases of revision surgery.

  3. Deployment Analysis of a Simple Tape-Spring Hinge Using Probabilistic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of new deployable structures architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation flight testing. Deployable concepts for large lightweight spacecraft include booms, antennae, and masts. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the design process for the deployment of a strain-energy mechanism, specifically a simple tape-spring hinge. Strain-energy mechanisms are attractive for deployment in very lightweight systems because they do not require the added mass and complexity associated with motors and controllers. However, designers are hesitant to include free deployment, strain-energy mechanisms because of the potential for uncontrolled behavior. In the example presented here, the tapespring cross-sectional dimensions have been varied and a target displacement during deployment has been selected as the design metric. Specifically, the tape-spring should reach the final position in the shortest time with the minimal amount of overshoot and oscillations. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense. Parameter values to achieve the target response have been computed and used to demonstrate the approach. Based on these results, the application of probabilistic methods for design of a tape-spring hinge has shown promise as a means of designing strain-energy components for more complex space concepts.

  4. Free Vibrations of a Trapezoidal Plate with an Internal Line Hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Quintana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a general variational formulation for the determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes of free vibrations of laminated thin plates of trapezoidal shape with an internal line hinge restrained against rotation. The analysis was carried out by using the kinematics corresponding to the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT. The eigenvalue problem is obtained by employing a combination of the Ritz method and the Lagrange multipliers method. The domain of the plate is transformed into a rectangular domain in the computational space by using nonorthogonal triangular coordinates and the transverse displacements are approximated with a set of simple polynomials automatically generated and expressed in the triangular coordinates. The developed algorithm allows obtaining approximate analytical solutions for mentioned plate with different geometries, aspect ratio, position of the line hinge, and boundary conditions including translational and rotational elastically restrained edges. It allows studying the influence of the mentioned line on the vibration frequencies and respective mode shapes. The algorithm can easily be programmed and it is numerically stable. Additionally, as a particular case, the results of triangular plates can be easily generated.

  5. Determination of Elevator and Rudder Hinge Forces on the Learjet Model 55 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, R. R.; Padmanabhan, V.

    1983-01-01

    The empennage structure on the Learjet 55 aircraft was quite similar to the empennage structure on earlier Learjet models. However, due to an important structural change in the vertical fin along with the new loads environment on the 50 series aircraft, a structural test was required on the vertical fin, but the horizontal tail was substantiated by a comparative analysis with previous tests. NASTRAN analysis was used to investigate empennage deflections, stress levels, and control surface hinge forces. The hinge force calculations were made with the control surfaces in the deflected as well as undeflected configurations. A skin panel buckling analysis was also performed, and the non-linear effects of buckling were simulated in the NASTRAN model to more accurately define internal loads and stress levels. Comparisons were then made between the Model 55 and the Model 35/36 stresses and internal forces to determine which components were qualified by previous tests. Some of the methods and techniques used in this analysis are described.

  6. Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambugu, SN; Towett, PK; Kiama, SG

    2010-01-01

    by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant......Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced...... decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control...

  7. Formation of vortex pairs with hinged rigid flaps at the nozzle exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prashant; Govardhan, Raghuraman; Arakeri, Jaywant

    2013-11-01

    Biological flows related to aquatic propulsion using pulsed jets, or flow through the valves in a human heart, have received considerable attention in the last two decades. Both these flows are associated with starting jets that occur through biological tissue/membranes that are flexible. Motivated by these flows, we explore in the present work, the effect of passive flexibility of the nozzle exit on vortex generation from a starting jet. The starting jet is generated using a two-dimensional piston cylinder mechanism, the cross-section of the cylinder being rectangular with large aspect ratio. The fluid is pushed out of this cylinder or channel using a computer controlled piston. We introduce flexibility at the channel exit by hinging rigid flaps, which are initially parallel to the channel. The hinge used is such that it provides negligible stiffness or damping, thus allowing for the maximum opening of the flaps due to fluid forces. Using this system, we study both the flap kinematics and the vorticity dynamics downstream of the channel exit. Visualizations show large flap motions as the piston starts and this dramatically changes the vorticity distribution downstream of the flaps, with the formation of up to three different kinds of vortex pairs. This idealized configuration opens new opportunities to look at the effect of flexibility in such biological flows.

  8. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  10. Ebola outbreak preparedness and preventive measures among healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M; Alodhayani, Abdulaziz Alhomaidi; Moussa, Mahaman; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Tumala, Regie B; Vinluan, Jason M

    2016-08-31

    As medical professionals on the front lines in the outbreaks of infectious disease like Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and best practices to protect themselves and the public from the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of awareness, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD. A total of 177 physicians and 545 nurses participated in a descriptive cross-sectional study from a tertiary government hospital in Saudi Arabia. All subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire focusing on their level of awareness, concerns, and clinical practice related to EVD. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about the etiology, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and treatment of EVD. All of the participants had high levels of concern about EVD (p=0.001) and about the implementation of strict standard infection control precautionary measures. The study found that greater infection control measures were taken by the participants including frequent hand washing, use of personal protective equipment, and avoiding normal activities such as going to work, school, travel, etc. if fever symptoms appear. A combination of evidence based knowledge about EVD and high levels of concern of healthcare providers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD are the main factors leading to strict compliance with the infection control measures recommended in this study. Additionally, healthcare providers must be trained in infection control and adhere to the universal infection control standard guidelines to facilitate prevention and precaution.

  11. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2014-07-15

    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pressure ulcers in intensive care: assessment of risk and prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte Pegenaute, Eva; García de Galdiano Fernández, Ana; Zugazagoitia Ciarrusta, Nerea; Margall Coscojuela, María Angeles; Asiain Erro, María Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU) are associated to greater patient morbidity and mortality. Thus, all prevention measures are very important. In order to establish the appropriate care early, the first measure is the identification of patients at risk of developing PU, using specific scales. 1) to assess the risk of developing PU in the patients admitted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using the Waterlow scale; 2) to identify patients with PU and to analyse the possible relationship between them and the measured risk; 3) to analyse the preventive care received by patients for its prevention. This descriptive study analysed the risk of developing PU in 91 critical patients with a stay greater than 3 days. To measure the risk the Waterlow scale (modified by Weststrate in 1998), that included 14 risk factors, was used. Sociodemographic data, cause of admission, patients with PU, its location and grade and care applied were also collected. Risk grade obtained on the Waterlow scale was: without risk (ulcer, in 10 of them it was present on admission. Their score obtained on the scale was risk in 2 patients, high risk in 5 and very high risk in the remaining 6. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean score of risk of the 13 patients who had ulcer and the remaining sample (21.85-16.83; p = 0.005). When the risk factors included in the scale and its relationship with the presence of ulcer were analysed, statistically significant difference was only found in the "heart failure" factor (vasoconstrictor treatment), p = 0.045. No association was found between age, gender, diagnosis and presence of ulcer. Regarding the daily care applied to patients, the following results were obtained: skin hydration and hygiene were done in 100% of the patients, patient repositioning were done every 2 hours or more frequently in 80% of the patients, every 3 hours in 10% and in the remaining 10%, with a frequency greater than 4 hours. Heel protection was applied in 57% of the

  14. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  15. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-04-26

    The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. ©Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2017.

  16. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  17. Diabetes Prevention: 5 Tips for Taking Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items in the ingredient list. If you're overweight, diabetes prevention may hinge on weight loss. Every pound ... Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(suppl):S61. Overweight. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at- ...

  18. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  19. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  1. Modification of Baksi sloppy hinge elbow to minimize the stresses at the humeral bone cement interface- An early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baksi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Baksi sloppy hinge elbow is an all metal prosthesis having 7 0 - 10 0 varus - valgus inherent laxity at the hinge section with minimal motion bearing contact area. Due to the presence of laxity at it′s hinge section, any strain on the prosthesis dissipates primarily to the surrounding soft tissues thus protecting the cement bone interfaces. However, from our long term clinical experiences on the use of our sloppy hinge design since 1984 and the knowledge of literature review of the results of using other semi-constrained (sloppy or unconstrained designs, it was observed that radiolucency or loosening at the bone-cement interface occurred mainly around the humeral stem in the long run due to the continued effect of rotational torque of forearm and hand. Hence, an attempt in the improvement of the design concept is being made. Methods : In this respect one flange each of one cm height and breadth and three mm thickness has been incorporated on either sides of the shank of humeral stem of the sloppy hinge at medio-lateral (coronal plane which will be seated in the corresponding longitudinal groove cut on either side of humeral shaft extending from its transverse cut end to become single assembly during the rotation of humerus. Results : The preliminary results of clinical application of the modified sloppy hinge elbow in ten cases are found satisfactory. Conclusion : The cyclical compression and distraction forces during flexion and extension of the elbow will be distributed over the larger bony area of lower end of humerus where flanges of the humeral shank being seated. The rotational torque effect of forearm and hand particularly with the arm in abduction will be minimised at the humeral bone cement interface as the humerus and the prosthetic stem act as a single assembly by the snugly fitting of the prosthetic flange in the humural shaft

  2. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  3. Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: Definitions, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, and Management—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Oneil Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the “Achilles heel” of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  4. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  5. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  6. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  7. Adjoint-based optimization of flapping plates hinged with a trailing-edge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the impact of wing-morphing on aerodynamic performance in the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects. We use a flapping plate hinged with a trailing-edge flap as a simplified model for flexible/morphing wings in hovering. The trailing-edge flapping motion is optimized by an adjoint-based approach. The optimized configuration suggests that the trailing-edge flap can substantially enhance the overall lift. Further analysis indicates that the lift enhancement by the trailing-edge flapping is from the change of circulation in two ways: the local circulation change by the rotational motion of the flap, and the modification of vortex shedding process by the relative location between the trailing-edge flap and leading-edge main plate.

  8. K-B microfocusing system using monolithic flexure-hinge mirrors for synchrotron X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Tseng, P C; Kuan, C K; Wang, D J; Chen, C T

    2001-01-01

    A Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirror system is designed while considering gain, efficiency, and focal spot size to theoretically achieve a spot size of 6.7x2.9 mu m sup 2 and a gain of 6.2x10 sup 3 in the elliptical polarization undulator (EPU) soft X-ray beamline. This mirror system, which contains two high order polynomial corrected cylindrical mirrors (i.e., horizontal microfocusing mirror, HMFM, and vertical microfocusing mirror, VMFM) with a monolithic flexure-hinge design, can collect and microfocus the undulator source into a nearly perfect point image. To ensure that the mirrors are easily mounted and adjusted, a modular system on a rotatable CF flange is designed to independently motorize each mirror with four degrees of freedom.

  9. Optimization of bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter for a specific wave rose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hamed; Panahi, Roozbeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we conducted a numerical analysis on the bottom-hinged flap-type Wave Energy Convertor (WEC). The basic model, implemented through the study using ANSYS-AQWA, has been validated by a three-dimensional physical model of a pitching vertical cylinder. Then, a systematic parametric assessment has been performed on stiffness, damping, and WEC direction against an incoming wave rose, resulting in an optimized flap-type WEC for a specific spot in the Persian Gulf. Here, stiffness is tuned to have a near-resonance condition considering the wave rose, while damping is modified to capture the highest energy for each device direction. Moreover, such sets of specifications have been checked at different directions to present the best combination of stiffness, damping, and device heading. It has been shown that for a real condition, including different wave heights, periods, and directions, it is very important to implement the methodology introduced here to guarantee device performance.

  10. Design of a Shape Memory Alloy deployment hinge for reflector facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, W. S.; Rogers, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A design concept for a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuated hinge mechanism for deploying segmented facet-type reflector surfaces on antenna truss structures is presented. The mechanism uses nitinol, a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy, as a displacement-force micro-actuator. An electrical current is used to resistively heat a 'plastically' elongated SMA actuator wire, causing it to contract in response to a thermally-induced phase transformation. The resulting tension creates a moment, imparting rotary motion between two adjacent panels. Mechanical stops are designed into the device to limit its range of motion and to establish positioning accuracy at the termination of deployment. The concept and its operation are discussed in detail, and an analytical dynamic simulation model is presented. The model has been used to perform nondimensionalized parametric design studies.

  11. Large Negative Linear Compressibility in InH(BDC)₂ from Framework Hinging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingxin; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo

    2017-11-08

    Materials with negative linear compressibility (NLC) counterintuitively expand along one specific direction coupled to the volume reduction when compressed uniformly. NLC with a large value is desired for compression and materials science. However, NLC is generally smaller than -20 TPa -1 . High-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that the β-quartz-like InH(BDC) 2 generates an extreme NLC (-62.4 TPa -1 ) by framework hinging. InH(BDC) 2 is much safer and lower-cost than Au + /Ag + and CN - -containing materials that dominated the fields of large NLC. This work reconfirms that a negative thermal expansion flexible framework could likely exhibit large NLC. Moreover, a large NLC could be anticipated to arise from β-quartz-like or related frameworks composed of rigid linear ligands and flexible framework angles.

  12. A Radial Return Algorithm Application in Elastoplastic Frame Analysis Using Plastic Hinge Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Taylor Matias Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for first-order elastoplastic analysis of framed structures using a radial return predictor/corrector solution strategy. The proposed method assumes plastic hinge formation coupled with a yield surface. The yield surface is defined as a general function of axial force, shear forces, twisting, and biaxial bending moments on the cross-section of the frame. The material is regarded as linear and elastic-perfect plastic. The plastic deformations are governed by the normality criterion. Combining the Newton-Raphson method and the radial return algorithm, a consistent tangent modular matrix is proposed and fast and converging algorithms are presented. Examples demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD. KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks.

  16. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  17. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  18. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  19. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  20. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  1. Preventive measures for radioactive contamination in iron and steel used as construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi Huo-Wang; Wu Ching-Hwa; Chou Kei-Den; Yeh Chin-Shiun

    2000-01-01

    At the end of July 1992, Atomic Energy Council (AEC) received tips-off from Taipei local residents, saying some buildings in Taipei had their rebar been contaminated by radioactive materials. Regarding causes and sources of those radioactively contaminated rebar, views from every aspects were pointing toward that scraps mixed with radioactive source smelting in the steel mill as the most possible reason. After investigating houses and constructors, AEC found that most contaminated buildings were constructed during the period of 1982 and 1984. For protection of public rights, AEC then actively undertook nation-wide survey of more than forty thousand buildings constructed between 1982 and 1984. Thermal Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) and house by house surveying were major methods to investigate houses contamination. Finally, it was found that radiation contaminated houses are concentrated in Taipei City, Taipei County, Tauoyen County, Keelung County. According to data collected up to December 31, 1999, there were 180 cases, with a total of 1601 contaminated housing units. Based on information data of dose assessment, distribution of annual dose are as the following: higher than 15 mSv -143 housing units (9.21%), 5-15 mSv -117 housing units (7.53%), less than 5 mSv -1293 housing units (83.26%). Except actively conducting remodeling of contaminated houses and granting compensation to house owners, AEC has established following measures to prevent rebars from being radioactively contaminated. (1) Radiation detection training of iron and steel detectors (2) Strengthening controls over radioactive sources (3) Enforcing examination of radioactive levels for imported rebars (4) Requesting domestic steel companies establish radiation detection capability (5) Promoting installation of portal type radiation detectors for steel companies having smelting furnace (6) Enforcing no-radioactive contamination certificate system. The radiation detection training of iron and steel

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  3. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  4. Computational study of the Risø-B1-18 airfoil with a hinged flap providing variable trailing edge geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should...... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....

  5. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ehlert

    2014-11-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients. Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study. Results: The majority (84%; n = 42 of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38 making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30 of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area. Conclusions: Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  6. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  7. Preventive or punitive disciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows a major paradigm shift towards preventive and positive rather than punitive disciplinary measures. Since the essence of learner discipline is correctional and educational rather than punitive, this approach seems to be the correct one – especially after the abolition of corporal punishment in South African schools. However, the question remains: is there still room for punitive and reactive learner discipline in our schools? And if so, which is the better approach, and where should the emphasis be? This article endeavours to evaluate the two approaches by means of a normative framework. Rather than ruling which approach is the more successful one, the authors argue that it is not the one or the other, but rather a combination of the two approaches. One of the guiding determinants for correct decision-making is vested in maintaining a safe, harmonious and orderly environment conducive to education and learning. The decision regarding the most effective form of discipline in a particular instance should therefore be determined by the context of the situation. For example, it depends on the seriousness of the misconduct, the attitude of the learners (e.g. was it as a result of intent or negligence?, the age of the learner, the influence it had on the teaching-learning environment, et cetera.

  8. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. [Assessment of job stress after implementation of prevention measures in a pension fund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa-Rodriguez, Emilio; Le Clesiau, Hervé; Dubois, Gérard; Izard, Jean-Luc; Bonin, Michel; Bordron, Julien; Neveu, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Work stress and its impact on health have been widely studied. However, very few studies have examined the effect of implementing measures designed to reduce work stress, a risk factor for psychological health problems. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Two surveys were conducted in October 2009 and October 2011. 150 employees participated in the first trial, while 108 took part in the second trial. Among them, 74 employees participated in both surveys and were matched. Participation in the two surveys was anonymous and the participants were asked to complete three questionnaires. The intervention was not effective in reducing perceived poor health, accidents, hospitalizations, sick leaves, medication use, musculoskeletal disorders, psychosocial distress and job stress. However, there wasa significant decrease in iso-strain and an increase in social support. Iso-strain decreased, especially among women (p < 0.002) and employees (p < 0.001). The increased support provided by supervisors and colleagues benefited women and employees, while improved emotional support from supervisors and colleagues mainly benefited employees. These trends were associated with psychological and musculoskeletal disorders. The significant decrease of iso-strain through improved social support suggests that efforts to prevent work-related stress need to be pursued.

  10. An additional measurement of glycated albumin can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Ying, Lingwen; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Su, Hang; Peng, Jiahui; Wang, Yufei; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    In subjects who present a first fasting plasma glucose (FPG 1 ) ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, diagnosis of diabetes will likely be missed without an additional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Chinese population. Recent studies have shown that glycated albumin (GA) has advantages in reflecting postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether additional measurement of GA could reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of diabetes. A total of 1287 participants (711 men, 576 women) with a FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes were enrolled and underwent a 75-g OGTT. Serum GA was measured by a liquid enzyme method. Diabetes was diagnosed based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. A total of 992 (77.08%) participants were diagnosed diabetes by OGTT and glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ). The diagnostic validity of 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) was superior to other glycemic index (the diagnostic sensitivity of 2hPG, HbA 1c , the second FPG (FPG 2 ) was 87.50%, 73.99%, 63.21%, respectively). Without 2hPG after OGTT, repeat testing of FPG 2 alone would result in missed diagnosis of 36.79% of diabetic participants, whereas testing FPG 2 with HbA 1c was associated with a missed diagnosis rate of 14.31%. While using the combined criteria of FPG 2 ≥7.0mmol/l and/or HbA 1c ≥6.5% and/or GA≥17.1%, the rate of missed diagnosis was merely 9.48%. That is, the rate of missed diagnosis was reduced by 33.75% with the addition of GA measurement. The k value reflecting the consistency of diagnosis between the FPG 2 and/or HbA 1c and/or GA criteria and the 2010 ADA criteria was 0.788. For subjects with FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, additional measurement of GA can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  12. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  13. The venous hinge - an objective sign for the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment in patients with intracranial hypotension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Jai Jai Shiva; Chakraborty, Santanu; Lum, Cheemun

    2009-01-01

    In patients with Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome (IHS), we observed reduction of the angle between vein of the Galen (VOG) and internal cerebral vein (ICV), which returns to the baseline after treatment. We coin the term ''venous hinge'' to describe this dynamic process and discuss its importance in IHS. A midsagittal T1W image showing both VOG and ICV in the same plane was reterospectively analyzed by three different neuroradiologists in 17 patients with IHS. The angle between the lines drawn along the main axis of VOG and ICV (venous hinge angle (VHA)) was measured and documented. This angle measured from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the 50 normal controls was also recorded. Paired t tests were used to compare the VHA between male and female controls and between patients of IHS and normal controls. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. The VHA was also calculated after treatment of these patients and paired t test was done to look for significant change in the VHA after treatment. The mean VHA formed by the veins in the IHS and control groups were 65 (35-98 ) and 91 (76-124 ) respectively (P < 0.0001). At a VHA of 79 , the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for diagnosis of IHS were 88.24%, 92%, 78.95%, and 95.83% respectively. In ten patients, follow-up MRI demonstrated normalization of the collapsing angle following appropriate treatment (p = 0.003). We report a previously undescribed imaging finding in patients with IHS. Recognition of this sign may aid in the diagnosis of IHS. (orig.)

  14. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  15. Cost effective measures to prevent obesity: epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J.C.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  16. Cost-effective measures to prevent obesity : epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C; Nooyens, Astrid J; Visscher, Tommy L S

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  17. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  18. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  19. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  20. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  1. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: measures and proposal for prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  2. Outcomes of Varus Valgus Constrained Versus Rotating-Hinge Implants in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Tennison L; Bederman, S Samuel; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a total knee arthroplasty is determined by the ability of the prosthesis components in concert with supportive bone and soft tissue structures to sufficiently resist deforming forces transmitted across the knee joint. Constrained prostheses are used in unstable knees due to their ability to resist varus and valgus transformative forces across the knee. Constraint requires inherent rigidity, which can facilitate early implant failure. The purpose of this study was to describe the comparative indications for surgery and postoperative outcomes of varus valgus constrained knee (VVK) and rotating-hinge knee (RHK) total knee arthroplasty prostheses. Seven retrospective observational studies describing 544 VVK and 254 RHK patients with an average follow-up of 66 months (range, 7-197 months) were evaluated. Patients in both groups experienced similar failure rates (P=.74), ranges of motion (P=.81), and Knee Society function scores (P=.29). Average Knee Society knee scores were 4.2 points higher in VVK patients compared with RHK patients, indicating minimal mid-term clinical differences may exist (Pknee, and, when performed, similar postoperative outcomes can be achieved with VVK and RHK prostheses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Custom rotating hinge total knee arthroplasty in patients with poliomyelitis affected limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Jeeshan; Hanna, Sammy A; Kayani, Babar; Miles, Jonathan; Pollock, Robin C; Skinner, John A; Briggs, Timothy W; Carrington, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in limbs affected by poliomyelitis is a technically challenging procedure. These patients often demonstrate acquired articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, bone loss, narrowness of the intramedullary canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures and ligamentous laxity producing painful hyperextension. Thus, using condylar knee designs in these patients will likely result in early failure because of instability and abnormal load distribution. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes associated with use of the customised (SMILES) rotating-hinge knee system at our institution for TKA in poliomyelitis-affected limbs. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 14 TKAs using the (SMILES) prosthesis in 13 patients with limbs affected by poliomyelitis. All patients had painful unstable knees with hyperextension. There were ten females and three males with a mean age of 66 years (range 51-84) at time of surgery. Patients were followed up clinically, radiologically and functionally with the Oxford knee score (OKS). Mean follow-up was 72 months (16-156). There were no immediate or early complications. One patient fell and sustained a peri-prosthetic fracture at seven months requiring revision to a longer stem. Radiological evaluation showed satisfactory alignment with no signs of loosening in all cases. Mean OKS improved from 11.6 (4-18) to 31.5 (18-40) postoperatively (p poliomyelitis. The device compensates well for ligamentous insufficiency as well as for any associated bony deformity.

  4. Infection prevention and control measures and tools for the prevention of entry of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae into healthcare settings: guidance from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Magiorakos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are “at-risk” may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E. The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the “at-risk” patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE. Methods The guidance was created by a group of experts who were functioning independently of their organisations, during two meetings hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. A list of epidemiological risk factors placing patients “at-risk” for carriage with CRE was created by the experts. The conclusions of a systematic review on the prevention of spread of CRE, with the addition of expert opinion, were used to construct lists of core and supplemental infection prevention and control measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients upon admission to healthcare settings. Results Individuals with the following profile are “at-risk” for carriage of CRE: a a history of an overnight stay in a healthcare setting in the last 12 months, b dialysis-dependent or cancer chemotherapy in the last 12 months, c known previous carriage of CRE in the last 12 months and d epidemiological linkage to a known carrier of a CRE. Core infection prevention and control measures that should be considered for all patients in healthcare settings were compiled. Preliminary supplemental measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients on admission are: pre-emptive isolation, active screening for CRE, and contact precautions. Patients who are confirmed positive for CRE will need additional supplemental measures. Conclusions Strengthening the microbiological

  5. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  6. Preventive Measures Taken by Islam to Avoid Bloodshed and War with Non-Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Ahangaran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to prevent bloodshed and war to the extent that it is proper to pay maximum attention to prevention of conflict in comparison with trying to extinguish the flames of war. Although trying to achieve reconciliation between conflict parties is in itself important, it is less important than prevention of conflict. Since the followers of any religion or sect, regard themselves right and others wrong and on the other hand there is some thing seen in many religions or sects concerning the killing of other religions or sects’ followers, these two may cause religious or doctrinal motivated- or otherwise but with doctrinal or religious color- conflict and war between the followers of religions or sects. Islam has taken preventive measures to avoid many conflicts and bloodshed between Muslims with the followers of other religions. Compared with other religions in this regard it will be clear that how much Islam seeks peaceful and safe environment. دین مقدس اسلام از همان آغاز جهت برقراری صلح و آرامش و آنچه که امروزه بشر به اهمیت آن بیشتر پی برده یعنی تدابیر پیشگیرانه، توجه داشته و بر اساس آن سعی نموده تا از بسیاری از نزاع‌های میان مسلمانان و غیرمسلمانان ممانعت ورزد. تدابیری چون توجه به ترک جدال و بحث‌های غیر منطقی، ایجاد انگیزه درونی از طریق ترس از عذاب اُخروی، وضع مجازات نسبت به متجاوزگر، ایجاد محدودیت در جنگ با هدف جلوگیری از شعله‌ورتر شدن آتش آن و تقویت احساس نوع دوستی و دادن چهره مقدس دینی به آن، محورهای بحث در مقاله حاضر است که سعی گردید در قالب جدید به یکی دیگر از جوانب صلح‌طلبانه بودن

  7. Human Rights, Positive Obligations, and Measures to Prevent Human Trafficking in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ian David

    2015-01-01

    Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights is freedom from slavery. A key feature of this right is the obligation it imposes on states such as the UK to prevent violations of the freedom, such as the trafficking in human beings, by third parties. This piece finds that the UK’s response to its duties in preventing human trafficking is patchy but concludes that this will be much improved with its new Modern Slavery Bill 2014-15.

  8. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  9. [Flu symptoms and preventive measures practiced by the inhabitants of Mexico City during the AH1N1 influenza epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Licea, Verónica; González-Domínguez, Fernando; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2013-01-01

    To know the frequency of flu symptoms and describe preventive measures practiced by the inhabitants of Mexico City during the AH1N1 epidemic. A cross-sectional design was used and a survey containing demographic and health information was conducted in August and September 2009 in a sample of 4003 randomly selected people living in Mexico City. Referred flu symptoms were: 29% running nose, 25% cough, 25% throat infection, 17% muscle and joint pain, 10% respiratory problems, and 7% fever. Also 16% said having hypertension, 10% diabetes, and 2% morbid obesity. Among the preventive measures, 74% washed hands, 32% covered the nose and mouth with the forearm when coughing or sneezing, 28% used sanitizer gel five times a day in average, and 47% did not greet with a kiss or handshake. Almost all the population followed preventive measures and did not show high percentages of influenza symptoms. Useful elements for prevention were identified, such as the frequency of seasonal influenza vaccination, self-medication, and living with a person diagnosed with AH1N1. It is important to continue with mass communication to strengthen adequate hygiene and health measures.

  10. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  11. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting

  12. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippitzi, M. E.; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Postma, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different...... European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative...... on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used...

  13. Reasons for slagging during stemwood pellet combustion and some measures for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M.; Nordin, A. [Umeaa Univ., Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Hedman, H. [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden); Jirjis, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Bioenergy, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Ash related problems have more than occasionally been observed in pellet burners during the last years. These problems lead to reduced accessibility of the appliances and also bad publicity for the pellet market. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (i) determine the critical levels of the problematic ash components in stemwood pellets regarding slagging, (ii) document the variations of these problematic elements in the outgoing pellets from two pellet-mills during one operational season, (iii) determine how frequently these elements exceed the critical levels, (iv) determine how different sub-processes in the pelletising process (especially the dryer) effect the slagging properties of the pellet, and if possible (v) suggest some measures for prevention. A significant number of wood pellets reported to be problematic and problem-free, regarding slagging in ordinary residential pellet burners, were collected from the Swedish market. The ash compositions of these fuels were analysed and the results compiled in a database. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and F-tests were used to statistically identify both the critical ash components and the critical levels of these components that separated the two reported classes. In addition, chemical equilibrium model calculations were used to interpret the findings. The variations of these elements in the in-going raw material and in the produced pellets were determined during one season in two pellet mills equipped with exhaust gas dryers. The results showed that the problematic wood-pellets had a significantly higher amount of Si, but also Al and Fe, in the fuel ash. The critical level of Si (given as SiO{sub 2} was about 20-25 wt% of the fuel ash, i.e. pellets with levels in or over this range resulted in slagging problems in residential burners. This critical Si content was exceeded once and twice for the analysed samples in the two studied pellet mills. In one of the studied mills, this

  14. Second hand smoke (SHS exposure in children. An evaluation of a preventative measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Precioso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the preventative programme “Smoke-free Homes” undertaken in 4th year children and their parents or guardians, aiming to reduce children's exposure to second hand smoke (SHS in the home. Material and methods: This was a pre-and post-test pre-experimental study, in students from 32 Braga district primary schools 2007/08. A self-administered and structured questionnaire was given out to 795 students in the classroom before and after the programme. In analysing data, we used the chi-squared test for the categorical variables. Results: The rate of children exposed to regular or occasional SHS due to living with at least one smoker dropped from 42.2% to 32.6% (p = 0.001. The percentage of students, children of smokers who stated that their father smoked regularly or occasionally at home, dropped from 68.0% pre-test to 51.6% posttest (p = 0.000. No significant reduction was seen in mothers. Conclusion: Based on the data, we can conclude that the “Smoke-free Homes” programme was effective in preventing smoking in the home, and therefore reducing the rate of children exposed to SHS by about 10%. However, it appears that about a third of children are still exposed, which highlights the need for further measures in this area. Healthcare professionals, particularly those working in Paediatrics, should advise parents to quit smoking, especially in the home. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliar a eficácia de uma intervenção preventiva, dirigida a alunos do 4.° ano de escolaridade e aos seus pais/encarregados de educação, com a finalidade de reduzir a exposição das crianças ao fumo ambiental do tabaco (FAT no domicílio. Material e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo pré-experimental, do tipo pré-teste e pós-teste, com alunos pertencentes a 32 escolas do 1.° ciclo do ensino básico, de cinco agrupamentos de escolas do concelho de Braga, no ano lectivo 2007

  15. Interaction of the S6 Proline Hinge with N-Type and C-Type Inactivation in Kv1.4 Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, Glenna C.L.; Lis, Agnieszka; Guo, Hong; Liu, MiMi; Zhou, Qinlian; Rasmusson, Randall L.

    2012-01-01

    Several voltage-gated channels share a proline-valine-proline (proline hinge) sequence motif at the intracellular side of S6. We studied the proline hinge in Kv1.4 channels, which inactivate via two mechanisms: N- and C-type. We mutated the second proline to glycine or alanine: P558A, P558G. These mutations were studied in the presence/absence of the N-terminal to separate the effects of the interaction between the proline hinge and N- and C-type inactivation. Both S6 mutations slowed or remo...

  16. Synthetic study on cystinyl peptides using solution and solid phase metodology: human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Ježek, Jan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kašička, Václav; Wünsch, Erich; Hlaváček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 641-650 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * immunoglobulin * prion protein * solution synthesis * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.106, year: 2010

  17. [Preventing transmission of infection in endoscopy: hygienic maintainance of flexible endoscopes and measures for personal protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, O; Exner, M; Niebel, J

    1995-12-01

    For prevention of transfer of infective agents by the contaminated endoscope the importance of thorough mechanical cleaning of the endoscope and adequate disinfection is stressed. Mode of action and side effects of liquid disinfectants as well as resistance of microorganisms (spores and some mycobacteria) to germicidal chemicals are mentioned. The different steps of disinfection procedures and potential causes of failure are discussed. Automatic disinfection systems are required for a higher degree of security of both patient and staff of the endoscopic unit. A regular control of the efficacy of the disinfection process is recommended and models for implementation are discussed. For prevention of occupationally acquired infection general precaution guidelines (use of gloves, prevention of needle-stick injuries) and vaccination programs are stressed.

  18. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  19. Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Moment Characteristics Generated by the ONERA-M6 Wing with an Aileron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hinge moment characteristics for ONERA-M6 wing with aileron configuration have been investigated numerically based on the different gaps and deflecting angles. The results show that the effects on the wing made by the deflecting aileron are notable. Comparing with the nonaileron case, the chordwise pressure coefficient distribution for the wing with aileron has shown the totally different trends. The small gap can force the air flow through and form the extremely strong spraying flow. It can directly destroy the previously formed leading edge vortex (LEV. Due to the presence of the positive deflecting angle, the trailing edge vortex (TEV will begin to generate at the trailing edge of the aileron. The induced secondary LEV will be mixed with the developing TEVs and form the stronger TEVs at the downstream position. Comparing with the subsonic flow, the curve for the supersonic flow has shown a good linear. The corresponding hinge moments are also extremely sensitive to the changing angle of attack, and the slope of curves is also bigger than that of the subsonic flow. The bigger gap and deflecting angle can result in the curve of hinge moment bending upward at high angle of attack. The corresponding pressure cloud and streamlines have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in detail.

  20. Single-pedicle hinge flap performed by shelter medicine team resolves chronic antebrachial wound in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Richardson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary An approximately 3-year-old, male domestic longhair cat was presented to a mobile veterinary unit for routine neuter. Preoperative physical examination revealed an approximately 5 cm × 2 cm scab on the craniolateral portion of the left antebrachium. The cat was anesthetized for the neuter using an injectable anesthesia protocol. After castration, the wound area on the antebrachium was clipped, copiously lavaged and the wound edges were surgically debrided. Injectable antibiotics and analgesic management were instituted. The wound was conservatively managed using sugar bandaging and antibiotic dressings until the progression of healing plateaued. Procedures for closing the defect were explored, and it was decided that a single-pedicle hinge flap would be ideal. The procedure was performed on the mobile veterinary unit and managed postoperatively with pain control and biweekly bandage changes. After 3 weeks, the single-pedicle hinge flap was released to create a skin graft, which successfully filled the defect. Relevance and novel information Single-pedicle hinge flaps performed in feline patients have been minimally reported. This case report serves to provide detailed information on the surgical procedure and aftercare required for a successful outcome. Furthermore, this procedure was performed by a shelter medicine team in a mobile veterinary unit with no specialty equipment or instruments. This report documents an alternative procedure that may be used in a shelter environment for distal forelimb wounds rather than amputation or euthanasia.

  1. Amino acid changes within the E protein hinge region that affect dengue virus type 2 infectivity and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butrapet, Siritorn; Childers, Thomas; Moss, Kelley J.; Erb, Steven M.; Luy, Betty E.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen mutant dengue viruses were engineered and used to identify AAs in the molecular hinge of the envelope protein that are critical to viral infection. Substitutions at Q52, A54, or E133 reduced infectivity in mammalian cells and altered the pH threshold of fusion. Mutations at F193, G266, I270, or G281 affected viral replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, but only I270W had reduced fusion activity. T280Y affected the pH threshold for fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells. Three different mutations at L135 were lethal in mammalian cells. Among them, L135G abrogated fusion and reduced replication in C6/36 cells, but only slightly reduced the mosquito infection rate. Conversely, L135W replicated well in C6/36 cells, but had the lowest mosquito infection rate. Possible interactions between hinge residues 52 and 277, or among 53, 135, 170, 186, 265, and 276 required for hinge function were discovered by sequence analysis to identify compensatory mutations.

  2. Rolling Hinge Formation of S and Overlying Crustal Blocks at the Galicia Rifted Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pappano, P.; Henning, A. T.

    2003-12-01

    The last stage of continental breakup in the Galicia Bank Basin and Iberia Abyssal Plain appears to have involved "rolling hinge" style extension in forming the S detachment and the allocthonous continental blocks that overly S. We support this assertion using seismic examples from the Iberia Seismic Experiment, conducted in 1997 by U.S., German, Portuguese, and Spanish scientists, using the R/V Ewing's 4 km streamer and deep penetration airgun array. Profile ISE-5 is a north/south strike line across the Galicia Bank basin and over the area where S is well developed and studied. S is clearly seen, but is not the relatively simple, laterally continuous, reflector seen in dip lines. It is offset by one or more north-dipping mantle-penetrating faults and its reflection character changes at several points along the profile. Fault bounded blocks interpreted to consist of continental crust, prerift sediments, and postrift sediments overly S. In one location it appears that S may be directly overlain by postrift sediment. In strike cross-section, the continental blocks have a "pod-like" shape, thick (1-3 km) in the center and pinching out to both sides. The continental crustal section over S varies laterally and consists of a stack of one to three of these overlapping pods. In dip-section these blocks are bounded top and bottom by down-to-the-west normal faults that sole into S. We suggest that this geometry is consistent with margin formation as a rolling hinge detachment. The detachment had two major parts. To the west, the detachment fault dipped at high angle to the west into the upper mantle. The roughly horizontal detachment, imaged as the reflector S, is the continuation of this fault to the east. The upper mantle rocks forming the footwall of the detachment fault were pulled to the east, out from under the hanging wall along the high angle portion of the fault. They were then flexed and rotated so that the detachment became roughly horizontal. As substantial

  3. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in The Netherlands is considered in detail. Attention is paid to relations between c.p.f. and c.c., the corrosion costs, possible cost savings and the applied corrosion protection scheme on farms. It ...

  4. PREVENTION AND POSSIBLE PRIORITY MEASURES IN TREATING THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM DIABETES KETOACIDOSIS IN THE HEALTH CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aca Spasic

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevention measures and possible priority measures in treating the patients suffering from diabetes ketoacidosis at the Health Center are defined. A retrospective analysis of the patients suffering from diabetes in the Health Center of Bela Palanka for the period from January, 1,1995 to December, 31,1991 is used. The series numbers 461 patients while the newly-detected ones is 134. The registered number of the patients with ketoacidosis is 17. The priority measures in treating the patients suffering from ketoacidosis in the health centers have a multi - functional character.

  5. An approach for optimal allocation of safety resources: using the knapsack problem to take aggregated cost-efficient preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Measurement of movement patterns to enhance ACL injury prevention – A dead end?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Ming Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical drop jump has been suggested to be an effective movement screening task for ACL injury risk, but recent studies have questioned the ability of such tasks to accurately identify players with increased risk of injury. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of movement screening tests from an injury prevention perspective.

  7. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  8. Flow measurement in turbine bearings. A measure to prevent damage; Durchflussmessung an Turbinenlagern. Eine Massnahme zur Verhuetung von Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, T. [STEAG AG, Heizkraftwerk Herne (Germany); Schenk, K. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The temperature of sliding bearings for turbines, pumps, compressors, blowers and motors is normally continually monitored. Depending on the type of construction and size of the aggregates, it has been common practice since the beginning of 1960 to measure the temperature of the bearing metal directly instead of the outflowing oil. Provided measurements are made also in areas of the highest surface compression, any deficiency, i.e. overload due to increasing bearing metal temperatues, are noticed at an early stage. In case of other design types, however, serious damage might result. But also serious maintenance errors due to the closure of bearing oil flow have forced us to implement more suitable measuring measures, one of them being an ultrasonic quantity measurement, that can be refurbished without great expenditure during operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gleitlager fuer Turbinen, Pumpen, Verdichter, Geblaese, Getriebe und Motoren werden ueblicherweise kontinuierlich temperaturmaessig ueberwacht. Seit Anfang 1960 werden je nach Bauart und Groesse der Aggregate Temperaturen nicht mehr des ablaufendes Oeles, sondern des Weissmetalls direkt gemessen. Vorausgesetzt, es wird auch im Bereich der hoechsten Flaechenpressung gemessen, werden Maengel, d.h. Ueberbelastung durch ansteigende Weissmetalltemperaturen, schnell erkannt. Bei anderen Konstruktionen hingegen kann es zu schweren Schaeden kommen. Aber auch gravierende Wartungsfehler durch Verschluss der Lageroelzufuhr haben uns gezwungen, geeignetere Messmethoden anzuwenden. Hierzu gehoert eine Mengenmessung mittels Ultraschall, die ohne viel Aufwand waehrend des Betriebes nachgeruestet werden kann. (orig.)

  9. Floating Characteristics of Rudders and Elevators in Spinning Attitudes as Determined From Hinge-Moment-Coefficient Data With Application to Personal-Owner-Type Airplanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bihrle, William

    1950-01-01

    A study was made of available rudder and elevator hinge-moment-coefficient-coefficient data in order to determine the floating characteristics of various types of rudders and elevators in spinning attitudes...

  10. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...

  11. Assessing prevention measures and Sin Nombre hantavirus seroprevalence among workers at Yosemite National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Jackson, Rebecca; Materna, Barbara L; Windham, Gayle C; Enge, Barryett; Messenger, Sharon; Xia, Dongxiang; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Roisman, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    During 2012, a total of 10 overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park (Yosemite) became infected with a hantavirus (Sin Nombre virus [SNV]); three died. SNV infections have been identified among persons with occupational exposure to deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). We assessed SNV infection prevalence, work and living environments, mice exposures, and SNV prevention training, knowledge, and practices among workers of two major employers at Yosemite during September-October, 2012 by voluntary blood testing and a questionnaire. One of 526 participants had evidence of previous SNV infection. Participants reported frequently observing rodent infestations at work and home and not always following prescribed safety practices for tasks, including infestation cleanup. Although participants had multiple exposures to deer mice, we did not find evidence of widespread SNV infections. Nevertheless, employees working around deer mice should receive appropriate training and consistently follow prevention policies for high-risk activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Research on the Structure, Quality and Measures to Prevent and Combat Soil Erosion in the Village Stejaru from Teleorman County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project on the influence of agro-livestock activities on surface water quality inTeleorman County. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soil erosion in relationto agro-livestock activities in this area. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soilerosion in relation to agro-livestock activities in this area. The research has been done in the whole locality, and tooksoil samples to determine the type and soil texture and soil supply status with major nutrients (N, P, K. Based onthese results and knowing the types of main crops and livestock structure, at Stejaru level, recommendations weremade about avoiding the risks of pollution of surface water by nitrates from agricultural and livestock activities.

  13. Approaches to measuring the extent and impact of environmental change in three California community-level obesity prevention initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Samuels, Sarah E; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C; Schwartz, Pamela M; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-11-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions.

  14. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  15. Preventive and Prophylactic Measures in Intensive Salmonid Fish Breeding – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Palíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture represents the fastest growing animal husbandry in many countries word-wide. Intensive fish production has increased the risk of infectious diseases all over the world. Bacterial pathogens probably cause most disease problems in aquaculture. Most infectious bacterial diseases in commercial fish species continue to be controlled by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents although they represent a potential environmental hazard and could also have negative effects on the quality of the final product. The most important problem of antibiotic treatment is the increase in resistant bacteria, the presence of their residues in aquaculture products and the resulting threat to human health. Therefore, it is most effective to prevent the introduction or onset of the disease. Beside preventing the introduction of pathogens, good water quality, reduction of environmental stressors, adequate nutrition and immunization, many substances improving the health status of fish, such as immunostimulants, probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics and so on, are used in fish breeding. The present review gives an overview of preventive and prophylactic substances which can be used in salmonid fish breeding to improve the health status of fish.

  16. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must an operator take? 192.935 Section 192.935 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... measures must an operator take? (a) General requirements. An operator must take additional measures beyond... consequence area and enhance public safety. Such additional measures include, but are not limited to...

  17. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  18. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor M Bolger

    Full Text Available The purposes of the current study were to 1 test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2 investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA. Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05. The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants.

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of Air Escape through a Hospital Isolation Room Single Hinged Doorway--Validation by Using Tracer Gases and Simulated Smoke Videos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka E Saarinen

    Full Text Available The use of hospital isolation rooms has increased considerably in recent years due to the worldwide outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases. However, the passage of staff through isolation room doors is suspected to be a cause of containment failure, especially in case of hinged doors. It is therefore important to minimize inadvertent contaminant airflow leakage across the doorway during such movements. To this end, it is essential to investigate the behavior of such airflows, especially the overall volume of air that can potentially leak across the doorway during door-opening and human passage. Experimental measurements using full-scale mock-ups are expensive and labour intensive. A useful alternative approach is the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling using a time-resolved Large Eddy Simulation (LES method. In this study simulated air flow patterns are qualitatively compared with experimental ones, and the simulated total volume of air that escapes is compared with the experimentally measured volume. It is shown that the LES method is able to reproduce, at room scale, the complex transient airflows generated during door-opening/closing motions and the passage of a human figure through the doorway between two rooms. This was a basic test case that was performed in an isothermal environment without ventilation. However, the advantage of the CFD approach is that the addition of ventilation airflows and a temperature difference between the rooms is, in principle, a relatively simple task. A standard method to observe flow structures is dosing smoke into the flow. In this paper we introduce graphical methods to simulate smoke experiments by LES, making it very easy to compare the CFD simulation to the experiments. The results demonstrate that the transient CFD simulation is a promising tool to compare different isolation room scenarios without the need to construct full-scale experimental models. The CFD model is

  20. Tectonic origin for polygonal normal faults in pelagic limestones of the Cingoli anticline hinge (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Lorenzo; Antonellini, Marco; Billi, Andrea; Scrocca, Davide

    2016-04-01

    Polygonal faults are a relatively-recent new class of normal faults which are thought to be formed during early burial and diagenesis as a consequence of heterogeneous lateral volume changes. Polygonal faults are non-systematically oriented and, in map view, they form rhombus-, pentagon-, or hexagon-like pattern, suggesting a non-tectonic origin. Furthermore, polygonal faults are layer bound and they are restricted to particular stratigraphic level. Predicting the pattern of polygonal normal fault results crucial for geofluid exploration and exploitation, but, despite the large number of studies, the origin of these faults remains still largely controversial. One of the main reason for this uncertainty is that they are poorly known in outcrops. Polygonal faults have been identified in few localities within Mesozoic chalk (United Kingdom, France, and Egypt), in Paleogene claystone (Belgium), and in the Cretaceous Khoman Formation (Egypt) where polygonal faults have been observed in an extensive exposure of chalk. In this study, we describe an outcrop in the Cingoli anticline hinge, which is located at external front of the northern Apennines fold-thrust belt (Italy), showing normal faults that we interpreted as syn-tectonically (syn-thrusting) polygonal faults. The outcrop shows three vertical exposures of sub-horizontal fine-grained marly limestones with chert interlayers of Albian-Turonian age. Intraformational short normal faults affect the carbonate and chert beds. These faults are poorly-systematic and they cut through the carbonate beds whereas usually stop against the chert layers. The fault surfaces are often characterized by slickolites, clayey residue, and micro-breccias including clasts of chert and carbonate. Fault displacement is partly or largely accommodated by pressure solution. At the fault tips, the displacement is generally transferred, via a lateral step, to an adjacent similar fault segment. The aim of our study is to understand the nucleation

  1. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support - sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures - creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence - real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research along these three pathways will

  2. [Needle exchange programs are a cost-effective preventative measure against HIV in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Elías Sæbjorn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Gottfređsson, Magnús

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 there was a sudden increase in HIV cases among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Iceland. In 2007 - 2011 there were 34 new HIV cases among IDUs compared to four in the previous four year period. The purpose of this study was to assess whether needle exchange programs (NEPs) were cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland. Cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Costs are presented at the 2011 price level and values were discounted using a 3% discount rate. A ten year period, 2011 - 2020 was compared with and without NEPs. The Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated as societal cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Sensitivity analysis was performed on study assumptions. The estimated societal costs associated with HIV infections among IDUs from 2011 - 2020 was 914.369.621 ISK without NEP and 947.653.758 ISK with NEP. Excess societal cost due to NEP was 33.284.137 ISK. Societal utility from NEP was 7,39 QALYs. Additionally, NEP prevented 4-5 HIV infections. The ICUR of providing NEP was 4.506.720 ISK. According to WHO an intervention is considered cost-effective if the ICUR is less than three-fold national GDP per capita. In 2011 the GDP per capita in Iceland was 15.315.000 ISK. Sensitivity analysis on study assumptions yielded a societal cost within the WHO limit. Therefore, the results indicate that NEPs are cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland.

  3. Measuring progress in tobacco prevention and control: the role of surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu B Ahluwalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nearly six million people worldwide die from tobacco-attributable causes every year, making tobacco the leading cause of preventable disease and death. If current trends continue, tobacco use is expected to result in one billion deaths by the end of the century, most of these in low- and middle-income countries. Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers try their first cigarette before the age of 18...

  4. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2012-02-03

    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  5. [Preventive measures against human error based on the classification of the adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to entirely eliminate human error; however, systematic attempts have been made to comprehensively minimize accidents originating in human error. It appears that the "work classification" we proposed previously is not able to reduce adverse events, fifty percent of which were duty confirmation failures. We have therefore reviewed and classified the causes of human error from the perspective of working conditions to create a simpler and more preventative strategy. Text-mining analysis was applied to speech part classification to reveal areas with room for improvement. In an objective approach, a conduct code was created and put into practice, based on the common features revealed from a classification of human error in the examples investigated. The average number of accidents per year was reduced from 36 to 24, and those due to human error per year were reduced from 17.6 to 11. This objective approach appears to achieve a reduction of adverse events, including those caused by human error. However, these results were obtained over only one year, in a single-center analysis, and thus, widespread and continuous enforcement would be needed to demonstrate the validity of this objective approach to the prevention of human error.

  6. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies.

  7. Measurements for reduction and prevention of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Becker, W.

    1987-01-01

    After incorporation of radioiodine the thyroid gland is the organ with the highest radiation exposure. The most important methods for reduction or prevention of radioiodine incorporation by inhalation, ingestion or cutaneous resorption are the prevention of contamination and incorporation. The protection against external radiation and the prophylaxis with iodine are also very useful. The maximum of radioiodine exposure is reached within the first few days after exposure due to the short physical half-life of I-131. In addition to non-specific methods of protection for contamination and incorporation, thyroid blockage by iodine is of major importance. With 100 mg potassium iodide, taken in intervalls of eight hours, the radioiodine uptake of the thyroid gland can be reduced to 1%, provided that administration takes place before, or simultaneously with the exposure. The most important side effect, especially in endemic goiter areas, is the induction of thyrotoxicosis. In newborns and infants myxedema and the induction of an iodide-goiter may occur. Alternatively to iodide prophylaxis, the competitive restriction of the radioiodine uptake into the thyroid gland may be achieved using perchlorate. However, perchlorate shall not be preferred to iodide because of its potential side-effects. High doses of iodide should only be given, if the calculated thyroid radiation exposure is more than 0.25 Sv, because only at this dose level benefit is higher than risk. (orig.) [de

  8. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Brinch Kruse, A; Postma, M; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Dewulf, J

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent™, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent™ questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms. © 2017 Blackwell

  9. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  10. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  11. The effects of disease awareness on lifestyle changes and the use of preventive measures in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilski, Adam J; Lusawa, Adam; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Barbara; Raciborski, Filip; Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in asthma incidences and mortality, as well as improved quality of life, can be achieved via a wide use of prevention methods. A number of randomized cohort studies demonstrated the effectiveness of such management and the need for multiple treatments. Here, we evaluate whether asthma awareness influences the lifestyle and the use of prevention, as well as the effects of age, sex, economic status, and education on the use of prophylaxis. A total of 18,617 (53.8% female; 24.2% 6-7 years old, 25.4% 13-14 years old, and 50.4% 20-44 years old) were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method in eight cities and one rural area, each over 150,000 citizens. The sample was selected based on the methods and questionnaires of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Patients aware of asthma significantly less often (p owning asthma-inducing items and significantly more often reported behaviors minimizing the number of allergens (p < 0.05). Patients aware of asthma took all actions reducing their exposure to in-house allergens significantly more often than the healthy (p < 0.05) and individuals with symptoms only (p < 0.05). Allergy prevention was used more often in children (p < 0.0005), responders aware of diseases (p < 0.05), higher levels of education (p < 0.05), and higher household income (p < 0.05). The most common type of prophylaxis used is prophylactic actions, which are undertaken by patients diagnosed with asthma and who are aware of their disease. Adults do not use preventive measures as often as children or adolescents do. Higher rates of prevention-oriented behavior were observed in groups characterized by higher levels of education and higher household income.

  12. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Gadani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at P96 h was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66% as compared to the early-onset type (20%. The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk of VAP and utmost importance must be given to prevent VAP.

  13. “Capacitive sensor” to measure flow electrification and prevent electrostatic hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillat, Thierry; Touchard, Gerard; Bertrand, Yves

    2012-10-25

    At a solid/liquid interface, physico-chemical phenomena occur that lead to the separation of electrical charges, establishing a zone called electrical double layer. The convection of one part of these charges by the liquid flow is the cause of the flow electrification phenomenon which is suspected of being responsible of incidents in the industry. The P’ Institute of Poitiers University and CNRS has developed an original sensor called “capacitive sensor” that allows the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the generation, accumulation and transfer of charges. As an example, this sensor included in the design of high power transformers, could easily show the evolution of electrostatic charge generation developed during the operating time of the transformer and, therefore, point out the operations leading to electrostatic hazards and, then, monitor the transformer to prevent such risks.

  14. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  15. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Schöffmann, Christine

    2010-03-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]). Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital?How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance?Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies?Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff?What kind of liability problems exist? Based on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The internal and external validity of the studies is too weak to evaluate single interventions

  16. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]. Objectives: * Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital? * How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance? * Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies? * Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff? * What kind of liability problems exist?MethodsBased on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. Results: 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. Discussion: It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The

  17. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Noohu, Majumi M.; Dey, Aparajit B.; Hussain, Mohammed E.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  18. Identification of a regulatory phosphorylation site in the hinge 1 region of nitrate reductase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Morrice, N; MacKintosh, C

    1995-12-18

    Purified nitrate reductase (NR) from spinach leaves was phosphorylated in vitro by NR-inactivating kinase on Ser-543 which is located in the hinge 1 region between the molybdenum-cofactor and haem-binding domains. Phosphorylation of Ser-543 allowed NR to be inhibited by the inhibitor, NIP. Degraded NR preparations in which a proportion of the subunits had lost 45 amino acids from the N-terminus during purification could be phosphorylated by NR kinase on Ser-543, but could not subsequently be fully inhibited by NIP, suggesting a role for the N-terminal tail of NR in NIP binding.

  19. A survey of preventive measures used and their impact on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (SPIN-BACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Milagros; Rocher, Isabelle; Fortin, Elise; Fontela, Patricia; Kaouache, Mohammed; Tremblay, Claude; Frenette, Charles; Quach, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    The Quebec central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) Surveillance Program saw a decrease in CLABSI rates in most ICUs. Given the surveillance trends observed in recent years, we aimed to determine what preventive measures have been implemented, if compliance to measures was monitored and its impact on CLABSI incidence rates. All hospitals participating in the Quebec healthcare-associated infections surveillance program (SPIN-BACC - n = 48) received a 77-question survey about preventive measures implemented and monitored in their ICU. The questionnaire was validated for construct, content, face validity, and reliability. We used Poisson regression to measure the association between compliance monitoring to preventive measures and CLABSI rates. Forty-two (88%) eligible hospitals completed the survey. Two components from the maximum barrier precautions were used less optimally: cap (88%) and full sterile body drape (71%). Preventive measures reported included daily review of catheter need (79%) and evaluation of insertion site for the presence of inflammation (90%). Two hospitals rewired lines even if an infection was suspected or documented.In adult ICUs, there was a statistically significant greater decrease in CLABSI rates in ICUs that monitored compliance to preventive insertion measures, after adjusting for teaching status and the number of hospital beds (p = 0.036). Hospitals participating to the SPIN-BACC program follow recommendations for CLABSI prevention, but only a minority locally monitor their application. Compliance monitoring of preventive measures for catheter insertion was associated with a decrease in CLABSI incidence rates.

  20. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  1. Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP. Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC and Body Mass Index (BMI from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%. Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%. These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = −0.226, p-value  Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

  2. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  3. Cypermethrin induced toxicities in fish and adverse health outcomes: Its prevention and control measure adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Zuberi, Amina; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Farag, Mayada Ragab; Dadar, Maryam; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-01-15

    Pesticides are being widely employed in the modern agriculture, though in different quantities, across the globe. Although it is useful for crops yield enhancement, however, there are the serious environment, health and safety related concerns for aquatic and terrestrial living biomes that include humans, animals, and plants. Various in practice and emerging pesticides adversely affect the survival, development and biological systems stability. Several research efforts have been made to highlight the bio-safety and toxicological features of toxicants through risk assessment studies using different animal models, e.g., different fish species. Among several pesticides, cypermethrin is extensively used in agriculture and households, and the reported concentrations of this pesticide in different water bodies including rivers and streams, soil and even in rainwater are threatening. Consequently, cypermethrin is considered for risk assessment studies to know about its deep and different level of toxicological effects subject to its dose, exposure time and route. The cypermethrin existence/persistence in the environment is posing a severe threat to humans as well as another non-target terrestrial and aquatic organism. Herein, the toxic effects of pesticides, with special reference to cypermethrin, on fish, the mode of toxicity, concerns regarding public health and harmful impacts on human beings are comprehensively reviewed. The information is also given on their appropriate control and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Measure for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Sawilowksy, Shlomo S.

    2002-01-01

    The Teen Attitude Pregnancy Scale (TAPS) was developed to measure teen attitudes and intentions regarding teenage pregnancy. The model demonstrated good internal consistency and concurrent validity for the samples in this study. Analysis revealed evidence of validity for this model. (JDM)

  5. Preventing School Bullying: Should Schools Prioritize an Authoritative School Discipline Approach over Security Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…

  6. Adoption of Preventive Measures and Attitudes toward the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Rodríguez, Tània; López, Maria José; Continente, Xavier; Nebot, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes the perceived impact of H1N1 influenza and the adoption of the recommended measures to address the pandemic in schools. Methods: A cross-sectional self-reported survey was conducted in 433 schools in Barcelona addressed to the school principal or the H1N1 influenza designated person. A descriptive analysis was…

  7. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  8. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim...... by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis...

  9. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was u...

  10. Survey of HBsAg-positive pregnant women and their infants regarding measures to prevent maternal-infantile transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrauterine infection is the main contributor to maternal-infantile transmission of HBV. This is a retrospective study of 158 HBsAg-positive pregnant women who delivered children from Jan 1st, 2004 to Dec.31th, 2006 in Wuhan City, China. We investigated the measures taken to prevent maternal-infantile transmission of hepatitis B virus and the infection status of children. Methods HBsAg-positive pregnant women were selected by a random sampling method when they accepted prenatal care in district-level Maternal and Child Health Hospitals. On a voluntary basis, these women completed questionnaires by face-to-face or phone interviews. The collected data were used to evaluate the immunization programs that pregnant women had received for preventing hepatitis B maternal-infantile transmission. Results Among the 158 women, 143(90.5% received Hepatitis B immune globulin during pregnancy, and 86.0% of their children were given Hepatitis B immune globulin and Hepatitis B vaccine. The rate of cesarean section was 82.3%, and 28.5% of these were aimed at preventing HBV infection. The rate of bottle feeding was 51.9%, and 89.0% of bottle feeding cases were for the purpose of preventing HBV infection. There were 71 cases of participants who were HBeAg-positive. Compared with the HBsAg+ HBeAg- group (only HBsAg-positive, the HBsAg + HBeAg+ group (HBsAg-positive and HBeAg-positive had significantly higher rates of the caesarean section and bottle feeding resulting from hepatitis B (P Conclusion Most HBsAg positive pregnant women have a growing awareness of maternal-infantile transmission of Hepatitis B virus and are receiving some form of preventative treatment, like combined immunization. Caesarean and bottle feeding are very common, often primarily to prevent transmission. Relatively few intrauterine infections were identified in this sample, but many infants did not appear to seroconvert after vaccination.

  11. Ritual buffoonery: a social preventive measure against childhood mortality in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, D; Badji, I

    1986-01-18

    adoptive village -- usually where the woman has relatives and which has a reputation for effectiveness in Preventing infant death or miscarriage or restoring fertility -- is made by village consensus. A common situation is described in which a woman goes to her adoptive village with her newborn baby. During the years of "kanaalen," she becomes the community buffoon who always has to play the clown. Also, she must do any ridiculous task requested of her. The group also has obligations towards her: she is the guest in every house and her child is under their protection. She is punished for all wrongdoing. If the villagers fail to respect the social code, by not using her new name or by reminding her of her indignity, they have to perform a reparative ritual, at which a goat is sacrificed. When the child is ill, he is treated with herbal remedies and a ceremony is held to ward off the evil forces. When the mother is ill, there is no protecting ritual. After the child is weaned, between ages 3-5, a final ceremony is held, a final ceremony is held to untie the threads symbolizing her attachment to the altar and now symbolizing her return to a normal life. She will maintain some constraints all her life. Knowledge of how these societies try to prevent and cure illness and misfortune would be a preliminary condition for public health programs.

  12. Three-dimensional micro assembly of a hinged nickel micro device by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Wensyang

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional micro assembly of hinged nickel micro devices by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding is proposed here. By an electroplating-based surface machining process, the released nickel structure with the hinge mechanism can be fabricated. Lifting of the released micro structure to different tilted angles is accomplished by controlling the positions of a magnet beneath the device. An in situ electro-thermal actuator is used here to provide the pressing force in micro resistance welding for immobilizing the tilted structure. The proposed technique is shown to immobilize micro devices at controlled angles ranging from 14° to 90° with respect to the substrate. Design parameters such as the electro-thermal actuator and welding beam width are also investigated. It is found that there is a trade-off in beam width design between large contact pressure and low thermal deformation. Different dominated effects from resistivity enhancement and contact area enlargement during the welding process are also observed in the dynamic resistance curves. Finally, a lifted and immobilized electro-thermal bent-beam actuator is shown to displace upward about 27.7 µm with 0.56 W power input to demonstrate the capability of electrical transmission at welded joints by the proposed 3D micro assembly technique

  13. A bridge column with superelastic NiTi SMA and replaceable rubber hinge for earthquake damage mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; ‘Saiid' Saiidi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports a unique concept for resilient bridge columns that can undergo intense earthquake loading and remain functional with minimal damage and residual drift. In this concept, the column is designed so that its components can be easily disassembled and reassembled to facilitate material recycling and component reuse. This is meant to foster sustainability of bridge systems while minimizing monetary losses from earthquakes. Self-centering and energy dissipation in the column were provided by unbonded superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy bars placed inside a plastic hinge element made of rubber. This replaceable plastic hinge was in turn attached to a concrete-filled carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tube and a precast concrete footing that were designed to behave elastically. The proposed concept was evaluated experimentally by testing a ¼-scale column model under simulated near-fault earthquake motions on a shake table. After testing, the model was disassembled, reassembled and tested again. The seismic performance of the reassembled model was found to be comparable to that of the ‘virgin’ model. A relatively simple computational model of the column tested that was developed in OpenSees was able to match some of the key experimental response parameters.

  14. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  15. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  16. A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Karrari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers,and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been amajor of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea,Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted andindustrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studiesevaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  17. PR Toxin - Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S

    2018-01-01

    , toxicological aspects, control and prevention strategies, and other management aspects of PR toxin with paying special attention on economic impacts with intended legislations for avoiding PR toxin contamination with respect to food security and other biosafety purposes.

  18. PR Toxin – Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation, Toxicological Potential, Prevention and Control Measures: Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manish K.; Aamir, Mohd; Kaushik, Manish S.; Khare, Saumya; Meena, Mukesh; Singh, Surendra; Upadhyay, Ram S.

    2018-01-01

    , toxicological aspects, control and prevention strategies, and other management aspects of PR toxin with paying special attention on economic impacts with intended legislations for avoiding PR toxin contamination with respect to food security and other biosafety purposes. PMID:29651243

  19. The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S; Fenton, D; Cremin, M; Morgan, A

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Irish homes have radon concentrations above the reference level of 200 Bq m −3 . To minimise the number of new homes with this problem, building regulations require that all new homes built since July 1998 in high radon areas are installed with radon barriers during construction. Measurements on local authority homes in a number of high radon areas have allowed the impact of these new regulations to be assessed. In County Cork a reduction of up to 70% in the mean radon concentration was observed in homes built since 1998 relative to those built before this date. A reduction in both the number of homes exceeding the reference level and the maximum concentration measured in homes was also measured. Homes exceeding the reference level were remediated with the use of an active sump. The results of this remedial work are also presented and show that the mean reduction in radon concentration achieved was 92%. (paper)

  20. Awareness of rabies prevention and control measures among public health workers in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A K T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2015-12-01

    To assess and compare rabies related knowledge and awareness of public health workers at provincial and district levels in the seven provinces with the highest number of deaths from human rabies in northern Vietnam. A cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of public health workers attending four workshops on rabies disease, control and prevention between 16 October and 21 November, 2012. Total knowledge scores (maximum 38 points) were categorized into: 'high' (>30 points) 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (level compared with 24% who worked at provincial level; and 45% had worked in rabies control for 5 years. Overall knowledge was patchy and ranked as 'moderate'. Important gaps in knowledge were identified particularly in relation to indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, and routes of exposure to rabies virus. One in ten respondents did not know that rabies virus could be transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. When examining the overall mean knowledge scores, marginally significant differences were identified. The average scores for district level health workers (DLHW) and provincial level health workers (PLHW) were 28 ± 3 and 29 ± 3 points respectively (p = 0.098), which fell within the study definition of 'moderate' knowledge. In contrast, when 'high' knowledge scores were compared, a significantly greater proportion of PLHW achieved >30 points compared to DLHW (44.0% vs 22.5%, p = 0.044). Important gaps in knowledge and awareness of public health workers were identified particularly in relation to routes of exposure to rabies virus and indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Overall, comparison of knowledge scores revealed significant differences between district and provincial public health workers. The results obtained suggest that in order for rabies control programmes to succeed public health workers at all levels need to have accurate and evidence-based knowledge. This may be

  1. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. [Concrete pain prevention measures regarding hospital internal transport in a cancer center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbak, Jean-Marie; Vignozzi, Annick; Bussy, Catherine; Charleux, Diane; Laplanche, Agnès; Mathivon, Delphine; Di Palma, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic pain is a common problem for cancer patients, including those due to hospital internal transport. An original prospective study conducted in 2006 allowed risk factor identification, and from 2007, a pluri-annual progress plan was implemented. Its actions were systematically evaluated and all phases of transportation reconsidered: preparation, patient transport to and care in medicotechnical units. Measures applied to anticipate these pains help improve the quality of hospital care. All professionals involved in the patient transportation system need to be made aware of this and not only hospital porters.

  3. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-09-01

    to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. identificar evidências de cuidados para prevenção de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateter venoso central em pacientes adultos em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. revisão Sistemática realizada por meio de busca nas bases de dados Pubmed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf e Cochrane. Foram buscadas pesquisas com cuidados com a cateterização e manutenção do cateter venoso central, publicados de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014. Os 34 estudos incluídos foram organizados em um instrumento e avaliados por meio da classificação do The Joanna Briggs Institute. os estudos apresentaram bundles de cuidados com elementos como a higiene das mãos e precauções máximas de barreira; programas multidimensionais e estratégias como cateteres e curativos impregnados e o envolvimento da instituição e engajamento da equipe nos esforços para prevenção de infecção. os cuidados no formato de bundles aliados com a educação e engajamento da equipe e

  4. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  5. Spatial mapping of temporal risk to improve prevention measures: A case study of dengue epidemic in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Sidrah; Amin, Muhammad; Munir, Bilal Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Dengue is identified as serious vector born infectious disease by WHO, threating around 2.5 billion people around the globe. Pakistan is facing dengue epidemic since 1994 but 2010 and 2011 dengue outbreaks were worst. During 2011 dengue outbreak 22,562 cases were reported and 363 died due to this fatal infection in Pakistan. In this study, Lahore District was chosen as it was severely affected in 2011 dengue outbreak with 14,000 reported cases and 300 deaths. There is no vaccine developed yet for the disease control, so only effective early warning, prevention and control measures can reduce the potential disease risk. This study proposes a method for detecting spatial autocorrelation of temporal dynamics of disease using Local Index of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA) using three temporal indices: (a) how often the dengue cases occur, frequency index; (b) how long the epidemic wave prevails, duration index; (c) how significant dengue cases occur in successive periods, severity index. Overlay analysis of LISA value for each temporal index resulted in eight risk types. The mapping of spatio-temporal risk indices and their overlay analysis identified that 10.6% area of Lahore (184.3km 2 and population density 119,110persons/km 2 ) had high values for frequency, duration, and severity index (pSpatial risk identification by using local spatial-autocorrelation helps in identifying other possible causes of disease risk and further strategic planning for prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compliance of an elderly hip fracture population with secondary preventative measures. Efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, John

    2012-02-03

    Secondary pharmaceutical measures are effective in all age groups for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This prospective study determines the demographics of 566 consecutive osteoporotic hip fractures presenting to a Level 1 Trauma Center. We examine the efficacy of simple treatment recommendations for pharmaceutical treatment of osteoporosis and the factors determining general practitioner and patient compliance with these recommendations in a community setting. One out of four patients (24.5%) had sustained a previous fragility fracture. Mean age was 80 years. Twenty five percent were resident in a nursing home and only 10% were taking anti-resorptive therapy preoperatively. In hospital mortality was 6%, and 39% of recruited patients were dead at 12 months. By this time more than half the survivors were resident in a nursing home. The compliance with anti-resorptive therapy had increased to over 70% consequent to our simple recommendations. Significant differences in GP and patient compliance were observed between nursing home and own residence dwellers. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention in increasing patient and GP compliance with secondary fracture prevention measures. We also discuss many of the confounding issues determining this compliance.

  7. Promoting adoption of fall prevention measures among Latino workers and residential contractors: formative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Suzanne; Blecker, Hillary; Scruggs, Kelsie; García Hernández, Javier; Rahke, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Falls from heights remain a concern in construction, particularly for foreign-born Latino construction workers employed by small residential contractors. The social ecological model provides a framework to assess the individual and contextual factors influencing the risk for falls. Five focus groups and thirteen in-depth interviews with workers, small residential contractors, and key informants were conducted in 2012 in San Francisco and Philadelphia. Data were analyzed with qualitative methods. Economic conditions in residential construction, coupled with a lack of enforcement and vulnerabilities of the foreign-born workforce, are principal contributors to risk for falls. Small contractors perceive strong economic disincentives for implementation of fall protection and foreign-born Latino workers experience a variety of social, cultural and occupational pressures impeding its use. Increased adoption of fall protection cannot be accomplished solely by targeting Latino construction workers. Research is needed on incentives to influence contractor behavior and facilitate adoption of fall protection measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Durability investigation of Calvaria Bridge and electrochemical realkalinisation as a preventive measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meda NEDELCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of reinforced concrete structures during their service life. Environmental attacks, such as the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the deicing chloride salts ingression, may seriously affect both the concrete section and the embedded reinforcement and may lead to failure, if immediate measures are not taken. Therefore, a case study of a real structure, the Calvaria Bridge, an intense traffic node in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was performed, with emphasis on the effects of durability aspects on the structural performance of the elements, namely in terms of deflection. A modern repair method, electrochemical realkalinisation, was also tested in the laboratory, in order to provide a proper intervention solution to the structure, for the concrete elements affected by the ingress of carbon dioxide and thus, by carbonation.

  9. Measures to prevent foam formation in the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet in biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Moeller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of persistent foaming is observed in many anaerobic digesters that have sugar beet as their feedstock. The formation of foam entails a significant risk of damage to biogas plants, as gas pipes can become blocked. For this reason, foaming tests have been conducted to investigate which measures lead to reductions in foam development. It was found that generally available fertilizers such as urea, ammonium nitrate and calcium cyanamide have a foam-reducing effect. However, batch fermentation tests showed inhibition of biogas production at higher concentrations of these substances, which means that they should be used with care. Calcium cyanamide was found to be very unsuitable, as this substance inhibited biogas production even at low concentrations and caused the fermentation process to come to a complete stop at higher concentrations.

  10. The experience of some European Countries in the implementation of preventive measures against the phenomenon of violence and aggression at football stadiums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Uhrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sets forward the experience of the Slovak Republic in the field of prevention of violence and aggression in football stadiums. The text discusses initiatives aiming at dimnishing this alarming and increasing in size phenomenon. The experiences stemming from preventive measures which have been taken in this regard in other European countries, have also been brought closer in the text.

  11. Prevalence of malaria, prevention measures, and main clinical features in febrile children admitted to the Franceville Regional Hospital, Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghendji-Nzondo Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760; among them 19 (21.4% had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738, after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738. Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months (p = 0.0013. Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001. Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17, followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17. The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162, followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162. Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936 and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001. Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001. The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced.

  12. Low-dimensional, hinged bar-code metal oxide layers and free-standing, ordered organic nanostructures from turbostratic vanadium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Colm; Lavayen, Vladimir; Fuenzalida, David; Lozano, Harold; Santa Ana, Maria A; Benavente, Eglantina; González, Guillermo; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2008-07-01

    Both low-dimensional bar-coded metal oxide layers, which exhibit molecular hinging, and free-standing organic nanostructures can be obtained from unique nanofibers of vanadium oxide (VO(x)). The nanofibers are successfully synthesized by a simple chemical route using an ethanolic solution of vanadium pentoxide xerogel and dodecanethiol resulting in a double bilayered laminar turbostratic structure. The formation of vanadium oxide nanofibers is observed after hydrothermal treatment of the thiol-intercalated xerogel, resulting in typical lengths in the range 2-6 microm and widths of about 50-500 nm. We observe concomitant hinging of the flexible nanofiber lamina at periodic hinge points in the final product on both the nanoscale and molecular level. Bar-coded nanofibers comprise alternating segments of organic-inorganic (thiols-VO(x)) material and are amenable to segmented, localized metal nanoparticle docking. Under certain conditions free-standing bilayered organic nanostructures are realized.

  13. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  14. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  15. The use of epidemiological measures to estimate the impact of primary prevention interventions on CHD, stroke and cancer outcomes: Experiences from Herefordshire, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Syed

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological measures used in this study proved to be excellent tools in providing evidence-based public health information. Their use is strongly recommended to support prioritization of primary prevention interventions.

  16. The influence of forces of viscous resistance on the efficiency of damping in hinges with large gaps in the crane-manipulator installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers regularities of the influence of forces of viscous resistance generated by the damper device in the cylindrical hinges of the nodes connect the links of the crane-manipulator units mobile transport-technological ma-chines. The specified effect is considered on the efficiency of the damping of oscillations of the metal in the process of operation, due to the presence of increased clearances due to wear of the holes of the hinge eyes. It is shown that the force of viscous resistance should be considered in addition to the generated damping devices forces of elastic resis-tance, as the latter determine the effectiveness of damping in general. The main role of forces of viscous resistance is the dissipation of energy of an oscillatory turning movement of the mating parts of the metal structures due to oscilla-tory displacement of the hinge pin within the hinge gap until the complete decay of oscillations. Considered in relation to the crane-manipulator installing mobile transport-technological machines AST-4-A the effect of the action of forces of viscous resistance is almost not observed when the coefficient of viscous damping less than 0.01 MN∙s/m, in the range 0,01...0,05 MN∙s/m this influence begins to manifest itself more and more noticeable, in the range of 0,05...0,4 MN∙s/m has a lot of damping vibrational displacement of the hinge pin within the gap, while the coefficient of viscous damping more than 0.4 MN∙s/m oscillatory process becomes aperiodic with an almost complete attenuation in the range of one oscillation of the hinged finger.

  17. The Impact of the ‘Austrian’ Mutation of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Transmembrane Helix is Communicated to the Hinge Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelzer, Walter; Scharnagl, Christina; Leurs, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane helix of the amyloid precursor protein is subject to proteolytic cleavages by γ-secretase at different sites resulting in Aβ peptides of different length and toxicity. A number of point mutations within this transmembrane helix alter the cleavage pattern thus enhancing production...... destabilizes amide hydrogen bonds in the hinge which connects dimerization and cleavage regions. Weaker intrahelical hydrogen bonds at the hinge may enhance helix bending and thereby affect recognition of the transmembrane substrate by the enzyme and/or presentation of its cleavage sites to the catalytic cleft....

  18. Systematic review of the use of Statistical Process Control methods to measure the success of pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Young, Trudie; Fallon, Maureen

    2018-02-15

    Successful prevention of pressure ulcers is the end product of a complex series of care processes including, but not limited to, the assessment of vulnerability to pressure damage; skin assessment and care; nutritional support; repositioning; and the use of beds, mattresses, and cushions to manage mechanical loads on the skin and soft tissues. The purpose of this review was to examine where and how Statistical Process Control (SPC) measures have been used to assess the success of quality improvement initiatives intended to improve pressure ulcer prevention. A search of 7 electronic bibliographic databases was performed on May 17th, 2017, for studies that met the inclusion criteria. SPC methods have been reported in 9 publications since 2010 to interpret changes in the incidence of pressure ulcers over time. While these methods offer rapid interpretation of changes in incidence than is gained from a comparison of 2 arbitrarily selected time points pre- and post-implementation of change, more work is required to ensure that the clinical and scientific communities adopt the most appropriate SPC methods. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Drug testing in Australian schools: policy implications and considerations of punitive, deterrence and/or prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann M; Bywood, Petra; Pidd, Ken; Freeman, Toby; Steenson, Tania

    2009-11-01

    There have been increasing national and international calls for the introduction of drug testing as a policy measure to address harmful drug use. Such strategies have been applied in workplaces, sporting arenas, prisons and more latterly school settings. They are predicated on a belief in their efficacy in reducing drug-related harm, a need to 'send the right' message to potential users and to reassure the community at large that 'something is being done.' Rigorous examination is required of purported benefits of drug testing in schools. A comprehensive examination was made of testing efficacy and accuracy. Australian legal and ethical issues, encompassing duty of care, rights of the child and privacy determinations, were juxtaposed with that of the United States of America. Evidence examined indicates no compelling case for the application of drug testing and that caution should be applied when considering drug testing as a drug detection and prevention strategy in the school setting. While this review did not support school drug testing, there are alternative evidence-based strategies that schools can implement to prevent drug-related problems among student populations.

  20. Evaluation of preventive measures for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Lígia Mara Dolce de; Rocha, Thaísa Fonseca Siqueira; Conceição, Marcos Vinícius da; Silva, Eduardo de Lemos; Santos, Alessandro Henrique da Silva; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2012-12-01

    The main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is from mother to child. The preventive measures established for the Aids Clinical Trial Group protocol 076 (ACTG 076) significantly reduces HIV vertical transmission rates. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the ACTG 076 protocol in the maternity units of State of Sergipe, Brazilian northeast. This is a descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative approach, with HIV positive women and children exposed, attending a Maternity reference for high-risk pregnancies. Data were obtained from patient records registered in the years 1994 to 2010. Amongst the 110 pregnant women and exposed newborns, the ACTG 076 protocol was fully utilized in only 31.8% of the participants. During the prenatal period, zidovudine (ZDV) was taken by 79.1% of the pregnant women. Only 49.1% of HIV seropositive patients used ZDV during delivery. Two (1.8%) children were considered infected and 50 (45.5%) do not have a conclusive diagnosis to date. There were significant deficiencies in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, including lack of compliance with the three phases of the ACTG 076 protocol; inadequacies in prenatal care; inappropriate mode of delivery and lack of adequate follow up of exposed children.

  1. Evaluation of preventive measures for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Mara Dolce de Lemos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in children is from mother to child. The preventive measures established for the Aids Clinical Trial Group protocol 076 (ACTG 076 significantly reduces HIV vertical transmission rates. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the ACTG 076 protocol in the maternity units of State of Sergipe, Brazilian northeast. METHODS: This is a descriptive, retrospective study with a quantitative approach, with HIV positive women and children exposed, attending a Maternity reference for high-risk pregnancies. Data were obtained from patient records registered in the years 1994 to 2010. RESULTS: Amongst the 110 pregnant women and exposed newborns, the ACTG 076 protocol was fully utilized in only 31.8% of the participants. During the prenatal period, zidovudine (ZDV was taken by 79.1% of the pregnant women. Only 49.1% of HIV seropositive patients used ZDV during delivery. Two (1.8% children were considered infected and 50 (45.5% do not have a conclusive diagnosis to date. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant deficiencies in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, including lack of compliance with the three phases of the ACTG 076 protocol; inadequacies in prenatal care; inappropriate mode of delivery and lack of adequate follow up of exposed children.

  2. AB034. The application of comprehensive nursing measures to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection in urological patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Section 1: definition of CAUTI & Introduction of epidemiology of CAUTI: catheter-associated urinary tract infection means after patients with indwelling catheter or occurred within 48 hours of urinary tract infection when pull out urethral catheter. UTI is one of the most common nosocomial infection. The 70–80% caused by indwelling catheter. There are 12–16% inpatients of adult hospital need to use indwelling catheter sometime after admission. Section 2: which harm can be caused by CAUTI: (I) prolong hospital stay; (II) increase hospitalization costs; (III) aggravate the disease. Section 3: diagnostic criteria of CAUTI: (I) clinical manifestation: the urge to urinate frequently, urgency to urinate and painful urination; (II) laboratory examination: routine urinalysis and bacterial cultivation. Section 4: risk factors of CAUTI: (I) the time of indwelling catheter; (II) high risk group; (III) susceptible link; (IV) hand hygiene. Section 5: prevention strategy of CAUTI: take comprehensive nursing measures to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection in urological patients. Section 6: summary.

  3. Failure of preventive measures against radon penetration from the ground in a new-built family house - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.; Jiranek, M.; Fronka, A.

    2006-01-01

    A system of preventive protection of houses against radon penetration from the ground [1] has been in operation for more than 15 years in the Czech Republic. The determination of a so-called radon index of the building site represents the first step. The assessment is based on measurements of soil gas radon concentration and on the determination of soil permeability. During the years, the method was modified several times, especially the recommendation dealing with the classification of soil permeability, but the base remains stable: The soil characteristics are measured in-situ and protective measures are designed with respect to the measured properties of the soil and to the dwelling design. The site-specific, individual approach should enable to propose an optimal preventive strategy corresponding to local conditions. If the radon index is other than low (i.e. medium, or high), the building must be protected against radon in accordance with the Czech Atomic Law. Protective measures should be designed and installed according to the Czech National Standard [2]. Basic principles of the protection can be summarized in the following way: If the radon index of a building site is low, no special provisions are required. Normal damp-proofing that is designed in accordance with hydro-geological conditions provides sufficient building protection. Nevertheless, the insulation has to be installed over the whole ground area of the building. It is also recommended that the corridor with stairs leading from the underground floor to the upper floors should be separated by the door. In case of medium radon index of a building site, each high-quality and long life damp-proofing, with the measured radon diffusion coefficient, may be considered as radon-proof insulation in compliance with C.S.N. 73 06 01. A required insulation thickness is calculated using the known value of radon diffusion coefficient. The insulation must be laid down continuously on the whole area of the

  4. Temperature and velocity conditions of air flow in vertical channel of hinged ventilated facade of a multistory building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsenko, Elena; Ostrovaia, Anastasia; Pigurin, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the influence of the building's tallness and the presence of mounting grooved lines on the parameters of heat transfer in the gap of a hinged ventilated facade. A numerical description of the processes occurring in a heat-gravitational flow is given. The average velocity and temperature of the heat-gravitational flow of a structure with open and sealed rusts are determined with unchanged geometric parameters of the gap. The dependence of the parameters influencing the thermomechanical characteristics of the enclosing structure is derived depending on the internal parameters of the system. Physical modeling of real multistory structures is performed by projecting actual parameters onto a reduced laboratory model (scaling).

  5. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour...... reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor...... in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species....

  6. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P < .001). Older adolescents were also more likely to report receiving HIV test education and promotion (42.7% vs 29.5%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.02) and a condom demonstration with condoms to take home (16.8% vs 4.4%; aPR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.30-4.58). No significant age differences appeared in reports of explanations of VMMC risks and benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires

  7. A Brief Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States: Nature, Correlates, and Proposed Preventative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela C. Regan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggression and violence are themes which characterize a significant proportion of many close romantic relationships. Both women and men may find themselves caught in a web of intimate terror – controlled, manipulated, and hurt by a coercive and violent partner. In this brief review article, we summarize existing literature on the form of intimate partner violence known as coercive controlling violence (CCV, domestic abuse, or intimate terrorism. We begin by discussing the nature and consequences of CCV relationships. Personal or individual (e.g., biological sex, age, immigrant status, socioeconomic status, attitudes and beliefs, mental health and psychopathology, relational or interpersonal (e.g., relationship type, relationship satisfaction, and environmental (e.g., economic strain, social isolation risk factors associated with the occurrence of domestic abuse are identified. Finally, potential preventative measures at the individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural level that may serve to reduce the likelihood of this pernicious interpersonal phenomenon are considered.

  8. Effect of glycosylation on cis/trans isomerization of prolines in IgA1-hinge peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Kubota, Tomomi; Furukawa, Sanae; Morii, Hisayuki; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko

    2010-04-28

    The hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), connecting the Fab and Fc regions, is mostly composed of Ser, Thr, and Pro (VPSTPPTPSPSTPPTPSPS); hinge peptide (HP). O-Glycans are naturally attached on only particular five Ser/Thr residues in this region. NMR was employed for analysis of the structural changes in HP upon the glycosylation, especially focusing on the cis/trans isomerization of Pro residues. A series of HP containing (13)C,(15)N-labeled Pro residues were chemically synthesized and enzymatically glycosylated. The signals from cis and trans forms of the labeled Pro were identified by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Cis/trans ratios of the Pro residues at the C-terminal side of the glycosylated Ser/Thr were reduced from 9-10% to 2-3% by the glycosylation. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that the decrease in the cis/trans ratio was enthalpy-driven. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and NOE-based structure determination revealed that the intraresidue hydrogen bonds between the amide group of GalNAc and carbonyl oxygen of the peptide backbone of GalNAc-Thr are formed in the major trans conformers, which is consistent with the thermodynamic parameters. These hydrogen bonds largely restrict the psi angle of the peptide backbone and, thereby, should make the trans conformation of the C-terminal Pro residue more stable than the cis conformation. Namely, it is predicted that the restricted psi angle causes interresidue steric hindrance for the cis conformation. The appropriate glycosylation of HP probably contributes to the decrease in the unfavorable variety of relative orientations between Fab and Fc in IgA1, through stabilizing the conformation of HP.

  9. Multi-functional hinge equipped with a magneto-rheological rotary damper for solar array deployment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingfu; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Wu, Zhengzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the design and simulation of a novel multi-functional hinge equipped with a rotary magnetorheological damper for solar array deployment system, which is comprised of a hinge, an angular sensor, a positioning and locking mechanism and a rotary damper. In order to achieve the compact design in structure, some components were reused in different function modules. It's the first to use magnet-rheological fluid (MRF) to dissipate the energy in solar array deployment system. The main advantage in using MR rotary damper instead of a viscous fluid rotary damper is that the damping force of MR damper can be adjusted according to the external magnetic field environment excited. A mechanic model was built and the structure design was focused on the MR rotary damper, a damping force model of this damper is deduced based on hydromechanics with Bingham plastic constitutive model. A simulation of deployment motion was taken to validate the motion sequence of various components during the unfolding and locking process. It can be obtained that a constant damping coefficient can hardly balance the different performance of solar deployment system, then a simulation of the proposed deployment system equipped with rotary MR damper was carried out. According to the simulation, it can be obtained that the terminal velocity decreased by 75.81% and the deployment time decreased by 72.37% compared with a given constant damping coefficients. Therefore, the proposed new type of rotary damper can reach a compromise with different performance utilizing an on-off control strategy.

  10. Stroke care challenges in rural India: Awareness of causes, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke among the rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaga Lakshmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.

  11. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  12. A new approach of the surface temperature measurement for a preventive conservation of the work of arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tuccio, Maria Concetta; De Grandi, Sandro; Vivarelli, Arianna; Becherini, Francesca; Pockelé, Luc; Bernardi, Adriana

    2015-04-01

    To conserve the work of arts (paintings, sculptures, etc..) in a preventive mode, a careful monitoring of the environment around these artifacts, as well as of their surface temperature, is necessary. The latter is the only physical variable which can be measured in a non-invasive way, following directly the thermal conditions and variations of the work of arts due to the dynamics of the microclimate. Considering that the works of art are often untouchable, an automated and accurate remote sensing could be very useful to prevent dangerous processes of deterioration. For these reasons a new sensor has been developed by a spin-off of the ISAC - CNR. This sensor allows to check in real-time the surface temperature changes of the artifacts both over time and at different predefined points. This automated sensor is a radiometer sensible to wavelengths ranging from 7,5 µm to 13,4 µm. A system rotating over three dimension "pan and tilt" allows to make multiple measures on a grid of points previously defined on the surface of the work of arts. The accuracy, obtained by means of a carefull calibration process, is  0,5 °C, more precise than the usual remote sensing (thermal camera and commercial radiometers), characterized by an accuracy value of  2°C. In order to obtain accurate measures of the surface temperature for a real body, the correct emissivity values need to be integrated in the calculation. Hence, an easy to use management software has been developed allowing to set the emissivity value in each point of the grid. For rejoinable points of the surface, the exact emissivity value could be determined comparing the measurements recorded by the new infrared sensor with the ones obtained by a very sensitive sensor (0,02 - 0,03)°C manually placed on the surface for a short time. In case of work of arts placed at great distance from the sersor, the emissivity values must be determined previously. The emissivity depends on a lot of variables and one of them is

  13. CHICKEN-POX PREVENTION BY THE SPECIFIC PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN BELARUS, KAZAKHSTAN, RUSSIA AND UKRAINE (STATEMENT OF EAST EUROPEAN VACCINE ADVISORY GROUP — EEVAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this announcement, a group of the leading world experts in the sphere of the vaccination are proud to present a strategic vision of the chicken-pox immuno prevention trends in the partner countries, as well as the basic recommendations for the vaccination in the partner countries.Key words: chicken-pox, vaccination, children.

  14. The Causes and Prevention Measures of Stuck Pump Phenomenon of Rod-pumped Well in CBM Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonggui, Mei

    2018-02-01

    In the process of CBM field exploitation, in order to realize the drainage equipment to work continuous stably, the article pays attention to study and solve the stuck pump problem, and aim of reducing reservoir damage and lowing production costs. Through coal particles stuck pump experiment and sediment composition analysis, we find out five primary cause of stuck pump phenomenon: sand from coal seam, sediment from ground, iron corrosion, iron scrap caused by eccentric wear, coal cake. According to stuck pump mechanism, the article puts forward 8 measures to prevent stuck pump phenomenon, and the measures are focused on technology optimization, operation management and drainage process control. After 7 years production practice, the yearly stuck pump rate has dropped from 8.9% to 1.2%, and the pump inspection period has prolonged 2 times. The experiment result shows that pure coal particles cannot cause stuck pump, but sand, scrap iron, and iron corrosion are the primary cause of stuck pump. The article study and design the new pipe string structure that the bottom of the pipe string is open. This kind of pipe string applied the sedimentation terminal velocity theory to solve the stuck pump phenomenon, and it can be widely used in CBM drainage development.

  15. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Triantafyllopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added.

  16. Transporditöötajate ametiühing ärkas pärast blokaadiähvardust / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Gazeta 2. sept. lk. 7. Transporditöötajate ametiühing kavatseb pöörduda Eesti-Vene piiripunktides valitsevate ülipikkade järjekordade pärast välisministeeriumi ja Vene saatkonna poole, kaaludes ühtlasi ka Euroopa Komisjonilt abi palumist

  17. Esophageal lesions following button-battery ingestion in children: Analysis of causes and proposals for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, J; Célérier, C; Garabédian, E N; Couloigner, V; Leboulanger, N; Denoyelle, F

    2017-10-17

    To study recent cases of esophageal injury due to button-battery ingestion in children presenting in pediatric ENT emergency departments of the Paris area of France (Île-de-France region), in order to propose appropriate preventive measures. A retrospective descriptive single-center study included all children under 15 years of age, presenting in pediatric ENT emergency departments between January 2008 and April 2014 for button-battery ingestion with esophageal impaction requiring emergency removal. Twenty-two boys and 4 girls, with a median age of 25 months, were included. Twenty-five of the 26 batteries had diameters of 20mm or more. Median esophageal impaction time was 7 hours 30 minutes (range, 2 to 72 hours). The complications rate was 23%. Mean hospital stay cost was €38,751 (range, €5130-119,737). The origin of the battery was known in 23 of the 26 cases: remote control without screw-secured compartment (42.3%), open battery pack (15.4%), children's toy (15.3%), camera (7.7%), watch (1 case) and hearing aid without screw-secured compartment (1 case). Esophageal lesions due to ingestion of button-batteries in children are almost always due to batteries larger than 20mm in diameter, mostly from devices with a poorly protected compartment, or batteries that are not individually packaged. These lesions cause serious complications in a quarter of cases and their management entails high health costs. Legislation requiring screw-secured compartments and individual blisters for batteries could have prevented 69.2% of the ingestions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of hypoglycin A binding adsorbents as potential preventive measures in co-grazers of atypical myopathy affected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh, T; Cavalleri, J M V; Ziegler, J; Sander, J; Terhardt, M; Breves, G; Cehak, A

    2018-03-01

    Intestinal absorption of hypoglycin A (HGA) and its metabolism are considered major prerequisites for atypical myopathy (AM). The increasing incidence and the high mortality rate of AM urgently necessitate new therapeutic and/or preventative approaches. To identify a substance for oral administration capable of binding HGA in the intestinal lumen and effectively reducing the intestinal absorption of the toxin. Experimental in vitro study. Substances commonly used in equine practice (activated charcoal composition, di-tri-octahedral smectite, mineral oil and activated charcoal) were tested for their binding capacity for HGA using an in vitro incubation method. The substance most effective in binding HGA was subsequently tested for its potential to reduce intestinal HGA absorption. Jejunal tissues of 6 horses were incubated in Ussing chambers to determine mucosal uptake, tissue accumulation, and serosal release of HGA in the presence and absence of the target substance. Potential intestinal metabolism in methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA)-conjugates was investigated by analysing their concentrations in samples from the Ussing chambers. Activated charcoal composition and activated charcoal were identified as potent HGA binding substances with dose and pH dependent binding capacity. There was no evidence of intestinal HGA metabolism. Binding capacity of adsorbents was tested in vitro using aqueous solutions, and in vivo factors such as transit time and composition of intestinal content, may affect adsorption capacity after oral administration. For the first time, this study identifies substances capable of reducing HGA intestinal absorption. This might have major implications as a preventive measure in cograzers of AM affected horses but also in horses at an early stage of intoxication. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  1. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor's Extracellular Hinge Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge

  2. Differences in Signal Activation by LH and hCG are Mediated by the LH/CG Receptor’s Extracellular Hinge Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Kreuchwig, Annika; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schuelein, Ralf; Kleinau, Gunnar; Gromoll, Joerg; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The human lutropin (hLH)/choriogonadotropin (hCG) receptor (LHCGR) can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG) – secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH) – produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor’s leucine-rich-repeat domain (LRRD), as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting) mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone-induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10-deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the

  3. Prevention of microbial species introductions to the Arctic: The efficacy of footwear disinfection measures on cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine B. Rumpf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity measures are commonly used to prevent the introduction of non-native species to natural environments globally, yet the efficacy of practices is rarely tested under operational conditions. A voluntary biosecurity measure was trialled in the Norwegian high Arctic following concern that non-native species might be transferred to the region on the footwear of travellers. Passengers aboard an expedition cruise ship disinfected their footwear with the broad spectrum disinfectant Virkon S prior to and in-between landing at sites around the remote Svalbard archipelago. The authors evaluated the efficacy of simply stepping through a disinfectant foot bath, which is the most common practice of footwear disinfection aboard expedition cruise ships in the Arctic. This was compared to a more time consuming and little-used method involving drying disinfected footwear, as proposed by other studies. The two practices were evaluated by measuring microbial growth on paired footwear samples before and after disinfection under both conditions. Step-through disinfection did not substantially reduce microbial growth on the footwear. Allowing disinfected footwear to dry, however, reduced the microbial burden significantly to lower levels. Thus, the currently adopted procedures used aboard ships are ineffective at removing microbial burden and are only effective when footwear is given more time to dry than currently granted under operational conditions. These findings underscore results from empirical research performed elsewhere and suggest the need to better relay this information to practitioners. It is suggested that footwear should minimally be wiped dry after step-through disinfection as a reasonable compromise between biosecurity and practicability.

  4. Outcome of strict implementation of infection prevention control measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bushra, Hassan E; Al Arbash, Hussain A; Mohammed, Mutaz; Abdalla, Osman; Abdallah, Mohamed N; Al-Mayahi, Zayid K; Assiri, Abdallah M; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the impact of implementation of different levels of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in a large tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. The setting was an emergency room (ER) in a large tertiary hospital and included primary and secondary MERS patients. Rapid response teams conducted repeated assessments of IPC and monitored implementation of corrective measures using a detailed structured checklist. We ascertained the epidemiologic link between patients and calculated the secondary attack rate per 10,000 patients visiting the ER (SAR/10,000) in 3 phases of the outbreak. In phase I, 6 primary cases gave rise to 48 secondary cases over 4 generations, including a case that resulted in 9 cases in the first generation of secondary cases and 21 cases over a chain of 4 generations. During the second and third phases, the number of secondary cases sharply dropped to 18 cases and 1 case, respectively, from a comparable number of primary cases. The SAR/10,000 dropped from 75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 55-99) in phase I to 29 (95% CI, 17-46) and 3 (95% CI, 0-17) in phases II and III, respectively. The study demonstrated salient evidence that proper institution of IPC measures during management of an outbreak of MERS could remarkably change the course of the outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Results of an investigation elevon hinge moments and dual panel elevon effectiveness using an .0405-scale model (16-0) of the configuration 140C space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL low speed wind tunnel (OA119B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel during the time period from August 22, 1974 to September 6, 1974. The primary test objectives were to define dual panel elevon/aileron effectiveness and to investigate elevon hinge-moments for the 140C orbiter configuration with wing/elevon upper hingeline sealing flapper doors. The elevon parametric variations, consisting of the basic elevons with 6 inch gaps and flapper doors, elevons with no flapper doors and completely open upper hingeline gap, and an entirely sealed solid elevon, were tested with elevon deflections from +20 to -35 deg at various aileron deflections. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by a 2.5 inch task type internal strain gage balance.

  6. The importance of oral hygiene on adults with the focus on preventive measures resulting in the reduction of oral cavity diseases frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    KÁPLOVÁ, Hana

    2015-01-01

    The Dissertation work presented herein monitors the significance of oral hygiene in adults, while aiming at preventive measures leading to lowering mouth cavity illness occurrences. Within the theoretical part, I focus on the delineation of important terms relating to preventive care for oral cavity, information concerning anatomy, physiology of oral cavity, influence of foods and other problems within the oral cavity, among which there are tooth cavities and diseases of gingiva. In the pract...

  7. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods

  8. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  9. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  10. Hinge and chromoshadow of HP1α participate in recognition of K9 methylated histone H3 in nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawakami, Toru; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Otani, Junji; Kikugawa, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Aimoto, Saburo; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2013-01-09

    The majority of the genome in eukaryotes is packaged into transcriptionally inactive chromatin. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major player in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. HP1 specifically recognizes a methylated lysine residue at position 9 in histone H3 through its N-terminal chromo domain (CD). To elucidate the binding properties of HP1α to nucleosomes in vitro, we reconstituted nucleosomes containing histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9. HP1α exhibited high-affinity binding to nucleosomes containing methylated histone H3 in a nucleosome core-number-dependent manner. The hinge region (HR) connecting the CD and C-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD), and the CSD contributed to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 with trimethylated lysine 9 through weak DNA binding and by suppressing the DNA binding, respectively. We propose that not only the specific recognition of lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 by the CD but also the HR and the CSD cooperatively contribute to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 lysine 9 methylated nucleosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A method for producing uniform dose distributions in the junction regions of large hinge angle electrol fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavgorodni, S.F.; Beckham, W.A.; Roos, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The planning problems presented by abutting electron fields are well recognised. Junctioning electron fields with large hinge angle compounds the problems because of the creation of closely situated 'hot' and 'cold' spots. The technique involving a compensated superficial x-ray (SXR) field to treat the junction region between electron fields was developed and used in a particular clinical case (treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead/scalp). The SXR beam parameters were chosen and the compensator was designed to make the SXR field complementary to the electron fields. Application of a compensated SXR field eliminated 'cold' spots in the junction region and minimised 'hot' spots to (110%). In the clinical case discusses the 'hot' spots due to the SXR field would not appear because of increased attenuation of the soft x-rays in bone. The technique proposed produces uniform dose distribution up to 3 cm deep and can be considered as an additional tool for dealing with electron fields junctioning problems. (author)

  12. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P; Kanui, T I

    2017-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (hindlimb withdrawal) that lasted for a mean time of 19.28 min (monophasic response). Intrathecal administration of clonidine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor agonist) and yohimbine (α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) at a dose of 40 μg/kg and 37.5 μg/kg or 50 μg/kg, respectively, caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of the formalin-induced pain-related behaviour. The effect of clonidine was reversed by intrathecal administration of yohimbine at a dose of 26.7 μg/kg. The effect of yohimbine at a dose of 50 μg/kg was reversed by intrathecal injection of 20 μg/kg of the serotonergic receptor antagonist methysergide maleate. When performing antagonistic reactions, the administration of the antagonist was followed immediately by that of the agonist. The study indicates that for experimental purposes, intrathecal route of drug administration through the atlanto-occipital joint is effective in tortoises. The data also suggest that testudines have noradrenergic and serotonergic systems that appear to play a role in the modulation of pain in this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The structure of gene product 6 of bacteriophage T4, the hinge-pin of the baseplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Leiman, Petr G; Shneider, Mikhail M; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Rossmann, Michael G

    2009-06-10

    The baseplate of bacteriophage T4 is a multicomponent protein complex, which controls phage attachment to the host. It assembles from six wedges and a central hub. During infection the baseplate undergoes a large conformational change from a dome-shaped to a flat, star-shaped structure. We report the crystal structure of the C-terminal half of gene product (gp) 6 and investigate its motion with respect to the other proteins during the baseplate rearrangement. Six gp6 dimers interdigitate, forming a ring that maintains the integrity of the baseplate in both conformations. One baseplate wedge contains an N-terminal dimer of gp6, whereas neighboring wedges are tied together through the C-terminal dimer of gp6. The dimeric interactions are preserved throughout the rearrangement of the baseplate. However, the hinge angle between the N- and C-terminal parts of gp6 changes by approximately 15 degrees , accounting for a 10 A radial increase in the diameter of the gp6 ring.

  14. WATCH: Warwick Assessment insTrument for Clinical teacHing: Development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sonia Ijaz; Johnson, Neil; Thistlethwaite, Jill Elizabeth; Fagan, Gay; Bari, Muhammad Furqan

    2015-03-01

    Medical education and teaching skills are core competencies included in the generic curriculum for specialty training. To support the development of these skills, there is need for a validated instrument. This study aims to develop and test an instrument to measure the attributes of specialty trainees as effective teachers. The study was conducted in two phases. In first phase, the content of the instrument was generated from the literature and tested using the Delphi technique. In second phase, the instrument was field tested for validity and reliability using factor analysis and generalizability study. Feasibility was calculated by the time taken to complete the instrument. Acceptability and educational impact were determined by qualitative analysis of written feedback. Attributes of specialty trainees were assessed by clinical supervisors, peers, and students. The Delphi study produced consensus on 15 statements which formed the basis of the instrument. In field study, a total of 415 instruments were completed. Factor analysis demonstrated a three-factor solution ('learning-teaching milieu', 'teaching skills', and 'learner-orientated'). A generalizability coefficient was 0.92. Mean time to complete the instrument was five minutes. Feedback indicated that it was an acceptable and useful method of assessment. This new instrument provides valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable assessment of clinical teaching.

  15. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  16. A survey of Preventive Measures Used and their Impact on Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) in Intensive Care Units (SPIN-BACC)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Milagros; Rocher, Isabelle; Fortin, Élise; Fontela, Patricia; Kaouache, Mohammed; Tremblay, Claude; Frenette, Charles; Quach, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background The Quebec central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) Surveillance Program saw a decrease in CLABSI rates in most ICUs. Given the surveillance trends observed in recent years, we aimed to determine what preventive measures have been implemented, if compliance to measures was monitored and its impact on CLABSI incidence rates. Methods All hospitals participating in the Quebec healthcare-associated infections surveillance program (SPIN-BACC...

  17. "Until people start dying in droves, no actions will be taken": perception and experience of HIV-preventive measures among people who inject drugs in northwestern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakhs, Peter; Aasland, Aadne; Grønningsæter, Arne

    2017-06-05

    The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions. The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: "personal fatalism" - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; "prevention-related fatalism" - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; "state-related fatalism" - the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are "really working" with risk groups. As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in

  18. Co-ownership and Collaboration: Insights into the Measurement of Impact and Change from Evidence-Based Community and State Violence Prevention Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariro Mutongwizo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective partnerships in community crime and violence prevention interventions are challenging to foster. While this may be the case, their merits cannot be denied, thus it is necessary to involve diverse stakeholders in processes that aim to address violence and crime prevention in order to better approach the causes of crime. However practical experiences have identified the challenges of crime prevention partnerships, particularly in developing indicators that appropriately measure and work to monitor and evaluate progress. It has also been noted that it is difficult to discern which interventions yield success, particularly in partnerships with various stakeholders. This article therefore encourages joint assessments from the onset of crime prevention projects with the development of indicators that are relatable to all partners. The paper will draw on three violence and crime prevention pilot projects, conducted in South Africa. The discussion will focus on the processes of developing performance measurement frameworks and the challenges and successes experienced throughout the monitoring, evaluation and learning process.

  19. Negative density dependence of sympatric Hinge-back Tortoises (Kinixys erosa and K. homeana in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Luiselli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of 59 transect surveys was conducted in selected wet forest habitats, along the coast of West Africa, to estimate the density distribution of African Hinge-back tortoises (Kinixys homeana and K. erosa. Line transect data were fed into a simple model to derive a detection function. The parameters estimated by the model produced an elaborate characterisation of tortoise distribution, which proved to be useful in the formulation of hypotheses about tortoise densities. Line transect data were analysed by DISTANCE, with a series of key and the series adjustment: the uniform function, the 1-parameter half-normal function, and the 2-parameter hazard-rate function were considered as key functions; the cosine series, simple polynomials, and Hermite polynomials were considered as series expansions. The detection function was estimated separately for Kinixys homeana and K. erosa, and for transects grouped for each study area by considering all the combinations of the above key functions and series expansions. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC was computed for each candidate model and used for model selection. The best model of the detection function, for both the tortoise species was the uniform function with no series expansion. Model results indicated that the density of the two species was inversely related at the local scale, and complementary across the region; such that the density of one species increases from West to East while the other one declines. Overall, the comparison of density estimates between the two tortoises is consistent with a former hypothesis suggesting inter-specific competition and consequent resource partitioning. Other causes may contribute to explain the observed patterns, including the low productivity of rainforest habitats and long-term human perturbation.

  20. Influence of the hinge region and its adjacent domains on binding and signaling patterns of the thyrotropin and follitropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHR have a large extracellular domain (ECD divided into the leucine rich repeat (LRR domain for binding of the glycoprotein hormones and the hinge region (HinR, which connects the LRR domain with the transmembrane domain (TMD. Understanding of the activation mechanism of GPHRs is hindered by the unknown interaction of the ECD with the TMD and the structural changes upon ligand binding responsible for receptor activation. Recently, our group showed that the HinR of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR can be replaced by those of the follitropin (FSHR and lutropin receptor (LHCGR without effects on surface expression and hTSH signaling. However, differences in binding characteristics for bovine TSH at the various HinRs were obvious. To gain further insights into the interplay between LRR domain, HinR and TMD we generated chimeras between the TSHR and FSHR. Our results obtained by the determination of cell surface expression, ligand binding and G protein activation confirm the similar characteristics of GPHR HinRs but they also demonstrate an involvement of the HinR in ligand selectivity indicated by the observed promiscuity of some chimeras. While the TSHR HinR contributes to specific binding of TSH and its variants, no such contribution is observed for FSH and its analog TR4401 at the HinR of the FSHR. Furthermore, the charge distribution at the poorly characterized LRR domain/HinR transition affected ligand binding and signaling even though this area is not in direct contact with the ligand. In addition our results also demonstrate the importance of the TMD/HinR interface. Especially the combination of the TSHR HinR with the FSHR-TMD resulted in a loss of cell surface expression of the respective chimeras. In conclusion, the HinRs of GPHRs do not only share similar characteristics but also behave as ligand specific structural and functional entities.

  1. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  2. God and Hinge Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Fronda, Earl Stanley

    2003-01-01

    The issues in traditional Western philosophy of religion revolve around theism and its counterview. At the heart of theism is a belief in God, a personal being and creator of but organically different from the universe. And this God is believed to be knowable through revelation, or reason, or both. A counterview of theism would be the position that denies that there is such a being as God, and that the universe came to be by means other than what is narrated by theism....

  3. Generation and Measurement of Chlorine Dioxide Gas at Extremely Low Concentrations in a Living Room: Implications for Preventing Airborne Microbial Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio; Sogawa, Koushirou; Takigawa, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible. ClO2 gas was released from a gas generator and its concentration was measured by a novel highly sensitive gas analyzer. We compared its data with those from ion chromatography. We demonstrate that the gas concentrations measured in a room using the gas analyzer are accurate and reproducible after comparing the results with those from ion chromatography. However, the temperature dependence of the gas analyzer was found. Therefore, data correction is required for each temperature at which gas concentration is measured. A theoretical analysis of the gas concentrations predicted by the rate of ClO2 gas released from the ClO2 generator was also performed. Our results advance progress toward using low concentration ClO2 gas to prevent airborne infectious diseases such as influenza. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Katharina; Becker, Christian

    2017-10-02

    Determining what constitutes "good practice" in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic) evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents' thought that determinants of a program's success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators' unfamiliarity with a program's contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive approach of evaluation targeting measures in children and adolescents.

  5. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Korber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining what constitutes “good practice” in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Methods Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. Results The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents’ thought that determinants of a program’s success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators’ unfamiliarity with a program’s contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. Conclusion While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive

  6. A Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Prevalence Data to Determine the Use of Pressure Ulcer Preventive Measures in Dutch Nursing Homes, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leen, Martin Wf; Schols, Joseph Mga; Hovius, Steven Er; Halfens, Ruud Jg

    2017-09-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are an important and distressing problem in Dutch nursing homes. A secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the Dutch National Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems (LPZ) - an annual, multicenter, point-prevalence survey - was conducted for the years 2005-2014 to determine the use of specific recommended PU preventive measures from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 1998, the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel/European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel 2009, and the 2002 and 2011 Dutch PU guidelines. Preventive care was investigated among nursing home residents at risk for PUs and included skin care (moisturization); nutritional and hydration status assessment and optimization; and pressure redistribution involving mattresses, cushions, and heel pressure-relieving strategies and devices. Following abstraction from the study database, data for 3 at-risk groups were distinguished: 1) residents with a Braden score of 17, 18, or 19; 2) residents with a Braden score below 17; and 3) residents with a PU. Data were aggregated at the institutional level. Differences were tested with multiple regression analyses. The mean number of residents over the study period was 5435, the mean age was 82.8 years, and the mean Braden score was 15.3. None of the recommended preventive measures from the guidelines consulted was applied 100% of the time: preventive skin care measures were used in 25.1% to 63.8% of cases and dehydration and/or malnutrition were identified and managed in 27.8% to 65.6% of patients. Pressure redistribution with special types of mattresses was used in 85.2% of patients, cushions in (wheel)chairs were used in 64.8% of patients, and heels were offloaded in 57.8% of patients. The results regarding repositioning for the 3 groups, respectively, showed a maximum use of 9.7%, 30.3%, and 65.6%; the higher the PU risk, the more preventive measures were used. Although the results show a decrease in the percent of category 2 through

  7. The treatment of intra-articular calcaneus fractures with severe soft tissue damage with a hinged external fixator or internal stabilization: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besch, Lutz; Waldschmidt, Jan Soeren; Daniels-Wredenhagen, Mark; Varoga, Deike; Mueller, Michael; Hilgert, Ralf-Erik; Mathiak, Guenther; Oestern, Stefanie; Lippross, Sebastian; Seekamp, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We developed a hinged external fixator for the treatment of dislocated intra-articular calcaneus fractures with severe soft tissue damage. The external fixation was performed with a known external fixator system. The screw insertion points were biomechanically tested by defining a virtual rotation axis through the center of the talus to allow early active motion in the ankle joint. Long-term follow-up was performed after an average of 7.3 years. Results were graded with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographs were reviewed according to Sanders classification. Four open fractures and 33 cases with extremely swollen soft tissue, blisters, or compartment syndromes were treated. In 24 cases (64.9%), the hinged fixator was the final method of treatment (group I). A change to open reduction with internal fixation was performed in 13 fractures (35.1%) when soft tissue problems were minimal (group II). There were no late amputations, osteomyelitis, or malunions. According to Sanders classification, group I consisted of 14 type II, 8 type III, and 2 type IV fractures. Pin loosening or pin infection was seen in 4 cases, but there was no redislocation. The Böhler's angle improved in 43%, gaps in the posterior facet were closed in 41%, and any shortening or deviation of the axis was corrected in 82% of the cases. The AOFAS score for the group averaged 66.5. According to Sanders classification, group II consisted of 8 type II and 5 type III fractures. The Böhler's angle improved in 88%, and gaps in the posterior facet were closed in 87%. Any shortening or deviation of the axis was corrected in 95%, and the AOFAS score averaged 61.3. Significant differences in patient outcome scores between open reduction with internal fixation and hinged fixator were not found. P value was > .05. The hinged external fixator frame can be used in all calcaneus fracture types without soft tissue limitation. The hinged fixator allows early movement in the ankle

  8. The use of osteochondral allograft with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and hinge joint distraction in the treatment of post-collapse stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagala, J; Tarczynska, M; Gaweda, K; Matuszewski, L

    2014-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an entity which occurs mainly in young and active patients aged between 20 and 50. The success of hip joint preserving treatments ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the stage and amount of osteonecrotic lesion. Total hip replacement is indicated in late post-collapse hips but it has unsatisfactory survival because of the wear and osteolysis in young and active patients. Osteochondral allografts have been reported in the treatment of large articular lesions with defects in underlying bone in knee, talus and shoulder. By combining osteoconductive properties of osteochondral allograft with osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells it has a potential to be an alternative to an autologous graft. The adjunct of hinged joint distraction should minimize stresses in subchondral bone to promote creeping substitution and prevent femoral head collapse. Unlike current treatment modalities, it would provide both structural support and allow bony and articular substitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

  10. Trend analysis of human error events and assessment of their proactive prevention measure at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Satoru; Tanaka, Izumi; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A trend analysis of human error events is important for preventing the recurrence of human error events. We propose a new method for identifying the common characteristics from results of trend analysis, such as the latent weakness of organization, and a management process for strategic error prevention. In this paper, we describe a trend analysis method for human error events that have been accumulated in the organization and the utilization of the results of trend analysis to prevent accidents proactively. Although the systematic analysis of human error events, the monitoring of their overall trend, and the utilization of the analyzed results have been examined for the plant operation, such information has never been utilized completely. Sharing information on human error events and analyzing their causes lead to the clarification of problems in the management and human factors. This new method was applied to the human error events that occurred in the Rokkasho reprocessing plant from 2010 October. Results revealed that the output of this method is effective in judging the error prevention plan and that the number of human error events is reduced to about 50% those observed in 2009 and 2010. (author)

  11. The Underlying Mechanism of Preventing Facial Nerve Stimulation by Triphasic Pulse Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Users Assessed With Objective Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Andreas; Baumann, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from facial nerve stimulation (FNS) because of a different electromyographic input-output function compared with biphasic pulse stimulation. FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant users as an unwanted side effect of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. The common stimulation applied in current cochlear implant consists of biphasic pulse patterns. Two common clinical remedies to prevent unpleasant FNS caused by activation of certain electrodes are to expand their pulse phase duration or simply deactivate them. Unfortunately, in some patients these methods do not provide sufficient FNS prevention. In these patients triphasic pulse can prevent from FNS. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of muscles innervated by the facial nerve (musculi orbicularis ori and oculi) were applied to quantitatively assess the effects on FNS. Triphasic and biphasic fitting maps were compared in four subjects with severe FNS. Based on the recordings, a model is presented which intends to explain the beneficial effects of triphasic pulse application. Triphasic stimulation provided by fitting of an OPUS 2 speech processor device. For three patients, EMG was successfully recorded depending on stimulation level up to uncomfortable and intolerable FNS stimulation as upper boarder. The obtained EMG recordings demonstrated high individual variability. However, a difference between the input-output function for biphasic and triphasic pulse stimulation was visually observable. Compared with standard biphasic stimulation, triphasic pulses require higher stimulation levels to elicit an equal amount of FNS, as reflected by EMG amplitudes. In addition, we assume a steeper slope of the input-output function for biphasic pulse stimulation compared with triphasic pulse stimulation. Triphasic pulse stimulation prevents from FNS because of a smaller gradient of EMG input-output function compared with biphasic pulse

  12. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project: Longitudinal Outcome of Behavioral Measures as Predictors of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results: The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≥0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions: The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time.

  13. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  14. Blows to the head during development can predispose to violent criminal behaviour: rehabilitation of consequences of head injury is a measure for crime prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Carrión, José; Ramos, Francisco Javier Chacartegui

    2003-03-01

    Criminal behaviour and violence may be the consequence of head injuries acquired during childhood and youth (gang fights, domestic violence, small blows to the head while driving, falls and so forth). In this study, a comparison was made of the school and head injury histories of violent and non-violent prisoners. It was found that the delinquent subjects in both groups had a history of academic difficulties. However, what differentiated the violent from the non-violent group was a history of having suffered head injuries that were never treated. Problems at school are not enough themselves to predict violent behaviour. A history of discrete neurological damage as a consequence to blows received to the head must also be present. The results suggest to the authors that the treatment of the cognitive, behavioural and emotional consequences of brain injury could be a measure for crime prevention. Measures both for prevention and rehabilitation are discussed.

  15. Helminth infections and practice of prevention and control measures among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Anbesame health center, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2017-07-12

    Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.

  16. Standing Height as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing: A Kinematic and Kinetic Study of Giant Slalom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2018-01-01

    In alpine ski racing, typical loading patterns of the back include a combined occurrence of spinal bending, torsion, and high peak loads. These factors are known to be associated with high spinal disc loading and have been suggested to be attributable to different types of spine deterioration. However, little is known about the effect of standing height (ie, the distance between the bottom of the running surface of the ski and the ski boot sole) on the aforementioned back loading patterns. To investigate the effect of reduced standing height on the skier's overall trunk kinematics and the acting ground-reaction forces in giant slalom (GS) from an overuse injury prevention perspective. Controlled laboratory study. Seven European Cup-level athletes skied a total of 224 GS turns with 2 different pairs of skis varying in standing height. Their overall trunk movement (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angles) was measured based on 2 inertial measurement units located at the sacrum and sternum. Pressure insoles were used to determine the total ground-reaction force. During the turn phase in which the greatest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, significantly lower total ground-reaction forces were observed for skis with a decreased standing height. Simultaneously, the skier's overall trunk movement (ie, frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angles) remained unwaveringly high. Standing height is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier's overall back loading in GS. Yet, when compared with the effects achievable by increased gate offsets in slalom, for instance, the preventative benefits of decreased standing height seem to be rather small. To reduce the magnitude of overall back loading in GS and to prevent overuse injuries of the back, decreasing standing height might be an efficient approach. Nevertheless, the clinical relevance of the current findings, as well as the effectiveness of the measure "reduced standing height," must be verified by

  17. Vloga svetovalnega delavca pri prepoznavanju motenj hranjenja in preventivnem delovanju: The school counsellor's role in recognizing eating disorders and implementing preventive measures:

    OpenAIRE

    Berčnik, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses eating disorders. Eating disorders are defined as a serious health threat due to an abnormal relation to food which has become a way of coping with stress. They are also often linked to personality disorders. We have focused mainly on the three most common types of eating disorder – anorexia, bulimia, and compulsive (binge) eating – their recognizable features, the causes that lead to eating disorders, and on preventive measures practiced in ...

  18. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  19. The combined effect of complex mixes of poisons on the organism of white rats in 30-day round-the-clock inhalation and measures of biological prevention

    OpenAIRE

    MIRZAKARIMOVA MALOKHAT ABDUVAKHIDOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The direction of “biological prevention” in the field of hygiene of the environment, which is understood as the complex of measures directed to the increase in resistance of individual person and population to exposure of harmful factors of the industrial and ambient environment, are increasingly being developed over the last years. For biopreventive maintenance only the means are used harmless at long application in preventive effective dosage. In this context in the industrial towns for res...

  20. Role of nondrug methods in a package of measures for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Badalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.

  1. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanly Fon Tebug

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers’ awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers’ general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1% knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%. The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0% and meat (56.0%. Almost all survey participants (96.4% practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0% and consumption (34.0% of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%, whilst one animal (1.1% reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease

  2. Risk, knowledge and preventive measures of smallholder dairy farmers in northern Malawi with regard to zoonotic brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Njunga, Gilson R; Chagunda, Mizeck G G; Mapemba, Jacob P; Awah-Ndukum, Julius; Wiedemann, Steffi

    2014-02-28

    Milk production using local cattle breed-types is an age-old practice in Malawi. Although dairy farming is becoming more common as a result of the increasing population and demand for milk and milk products, there is limited knowledge of the farmers' awareness of zoonotic disease risks, their preventative practices and the disease burden in animals. This study determined dairy farmers' general knowledge of zoonoses, assessed their risks for infection with zoonotic bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and brucellosis, and evaluated farm practices to prevent disease transmission. A questionnaire was drawn up and administered by the authors. It was used to collect information about the knowledge and preventive practices of 140 out of 684 registered dairy farmers at Mzuzu Agricultural Development Division, northern Malawi. During a second visit to 60 out of the 140 farms, a total of 156 and 95 cattle were tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. Most farmers (77.1%) knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whilst 75.0% correctly named at least one zoonotic disease. More survey participants named tuberculosis as a zoonotic disease compared to brucellosis (74.3% versus 2.9%). The most commonly named means of transmission were milk (67.0%) and meat (56.0%). Almost all survey participants (96.4%) practised at least one farm activity that could lead to potential transmission of brucellosis or bTB, including sale (67.0%) and consumption (34.0%) of unpasteurised milk. Antibodies against brucellosis were found in 12 cattle (7.7%), whilst one animal (1.1%) reacted to the tuberculin skin test. General knowledge about possible transmission of diseases between humans and animals was high, although most farmers practised risk behaviours that could potentially expose the public to milk-borne zoonotic diseases such as brucellosis and bTB. Furthermore, some animals had positive results for brucellosis and tuberculosis tests. Therefore, improvement of zoonotic disease prevention

  3. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  4. Evidence on How a Conserved Glycine in the Hinge Region of HapR Regulates Its DNA Binding Ability: LESSONS FROM A NATURAL VARIANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Dongre; N Singh; C Dureja; N Peddada; A Solanki; F Ashish; S Raychaudhuri

    2011-12-31

    HapR has been recognized as a quorum-sensing master regulator in Vibrio cholerae. Because it controls a plethora of disparate cellular events, the absence of a functional HapR affects the physiology of V. cholerae to a great extent. In the current study, we pursued an understanding of an observation of a natural protease-deficient non-O1, non-O139 variant V. cholerae strain V2. Intriguingly, a nonfunctional HapR (henceforth designated as HapRV2) harboring a substitution of glycine to aspartate at position 39 of the N-terminal hinge region has been identified. An in vitro gel shift assay clearly suggested the inability of HapRV2 to interact with various cognate promoters. Reinstatement of glycine at position 39 restores DNA binding ability of HapRV2 (HapRV2G), thereby rescuing the protease-negative phenotype of this strain. The elution profile of HapRV2 and HapRV2G proteins in size-exclusion chromatography and their circular dichroism spectra did not reflect any significant differences to explain the functional discrepancies between the two proteins. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of these two proteins, we acquired small/wide angle x-ray scattering data from samples of the native and G39D mutant. Although Guinier analysis and indirect Fourier transformation of scattering indicated only a slight difference in the shape parameters, structure reconstruction using dummy amino acids concluded that although HapR adopts a 'Y' shape similar to its crystal structure, the G39D mutation in hinge drastically altered the DNA binding domains by bringing them in close proximity. This altered spatial orientation of the helix-turn-helix domains in this natural variant provides the first structural evidence on the functional role of the hinge region in quorum sensing-related DNA-binding regulatory proteins of Vibrio spp.

  5. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Measuring Perceptions of Engagement in Teamwork in Youth Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…

  7. Exclusive occurrence of an extracellular protease capable of cleaving the hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 in strains of Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, M; Freundt, E A

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to further investigate the occurrence of a specific immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease among mycoplasmas of various origin. Fifty-two strains representing the genera Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Acholeplasma and Spiroplasma were examined. The ability to cause specific cleavage of human IgA1 in the hinge region resulting in intact Fab and Fc fragments was exclusively associated with strains of U. urealyticum. Thus, this trait may be used as a valuable differential characteristic of U. urealyticum. A more pronounced proteolytic activity capable of causing extensive degradation of both human and bovine IgA was demonstrated in the type strain of U. diversum.

  8. Conclusive experimental study of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition. Run-F9-1, Run-F9-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)

  9. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  10. [The risk for illegal behaviour and corruption in the healthcare sector: what preventive measures can be taken?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoiro, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    In the healthcare sector risk factors for illegal behavior and corruption are peculiar and greater than in other social areas, as it plays a crucial role in the community's economical, political and cultural life. The healthcare services is a complex network that require interaction between may people, constant contacts with the industry, safety and adequate facilities that require regular maintenance, upgrade and replacement of medical technology, connection with local and regional policy makers. This provides the opportunity of being exposed to improper influence. However, illegal behaviors can be prevented: first of all supporting all professionals that everyday work to protect our health with ethics and expertise; then with all instruments that anti-corruption action plans, such as the one introduced in Italy in 2012, aim to identify and target those areas most at risk of corruption phenomena.

  11. The Measurement of Health Belief Model (HBM constructs in the prevention of accidents and injuries in children in horramabd 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Sheikhi M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Accidents and injuries one of the main causes of death and disability in the world and the most significant causes in children referred to hospital. So, this study aimed to assess the health belief model constructs and function of the mothers referred to health centers in the city of Khorramabad in the preventive behaviors of accidents and injuries in children. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional and analytical study was done on 261 mothers with children aged less than 5 years are referred to health centers in the city of Khorramabad in 2014. Data was collected with a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model. The data collected were analyzed by software SPSS-20. Results: In this study the mean and standard deviation of age of mothers was 28.98±5.37 years and the mean score of function and self-efficacy were 59.1±14.74 and 69.1±11.07 respectively. Moreover, the mean scores of the other health belief model constructs such as perceived sensitivity, severity, benefits and barriers was higher than average. There was significant negative correlation between self-efficacy and perceived barriers(r=-0.256, p<001, and also between the perceived barriers and function(r=-0.391, p<001. Conclusion: According to the score of the function of mothers and the other constructs of health belief model, training programs based on the model directly and indirectly in the form of multimedia training package recommended to promote preventive behaviors of accidents occur in children.

  12. Electrocardiographic measures of left ventricular hypertrophy in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E; Davis, Barry R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J; Okin, Peter M; Ghosh, Alokananda; Cushman, William C; Einhorn, Paula T; Oparil, Suzanne; Grimm, Richard H

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We analyzed baseline/follow-up electrocardiographies in 26,376 Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial participants randomized to amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or chlorthalidone (C). Prevalent/incident LVH was examined using continuous and categorical classifications of Cornell voltage. At 2 and 4 years, prevalence of LVH in the C group (5.57%; 6.14%) was not statistically different from A group (2 years: 5.47%; P = .806, 4 years: 6.54%; P = .857) or L group (2 years: 5.64%; P = .857, 4 years: 6.50%; P = .430). Incident LVH followed similarly, with no difference at 2 years for C (2.99%) compared to A (2.57%; P = .173) or L (3.16%; P = .605) and at 4 years (C = 3.52%, A = 3.29%, L = 3.71%; P = .521 C vs. A, P = .618 C vs. L). Mean Cornell voltage decreased comparably across treatment groups (Δ baseline, 2 years = +3 to -27 μV, analysis of variance P = .8612; 4 years = +10 to -17 μV, analysis of variance P = .9692). We conclude that risk reductions associated with C treatment in secondary end points of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial cannot be attributed to differential improvements in electrocardiography LVH. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved.

  13. [Vasa praevia diagnosis during transvaginal measurement of cervical length as preventing preterm delivery in the second quarter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte-Andújar, L I; Fuentes-Rozalén, A M; Soler-Garcia, R M

    2016-03-01

    Vasa praevia is a rare pregnancy complication with a high fetal mortality when not diagnosed in the prenatal period. two cases of vasa praevia diagnosed during the second trimester ultrasound cervical measurement. We propose carry out further investigation about cost effectiveness of double vaginal screening (cervical length measurement and vasa praevia) during the second trimester morphology ultrasound. This implementation could allow to reduce the high mortality associated to this obstetric complication.

  14. [Informatics support for risk assessment and identification of preventive measures in small and micro-enterprises: occupational hazard datasheets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Merich, D; Forte, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is the fundamental process of an enterprise's prevention system and is the principal mandatory provision contained in the Health and Safety Law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) amended by Legislative Decree 106/2009. In order to properly comply with this obligation also in small-sized enterprises, the appropriate regulatory bodies should provide the enterprises with standardized tools and methods for identifying, assessing and managing risks. To assist in particular small and micro-enterprises (SMEs) with risk assessment, by providing a flexible tool that can also be standardized in the form of a datasheet, that can be updated with more detailed information on the various work contexts in Italy. Official efforts to provide Italian SMEs with information may initially make use of the findings of research conducted by ISPESL over the past 20 years, thanks in part to cooperation with other institutions (Regions, INAIL-National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents and Diseases), which have led to the creation of an information system on prevention consisting of numerous databases, both statistical and documental ("National System of Surveillance on fatal and serious accidents", "National System of Surveillance on work-related diseases", "Sector hazard profiles" database, "Solutions and Best Practices" database, "Technical Guidelines" database, "Training packages for prevention professionals in enterprises" database). With regard to evaluation criteria applicable within the enterprise, the possibility of combining traditional and uniform areas of assessment (by sector or by risk factor) with assessments by job/occupation has become possible thanks to the cooperation agreement made in 2009 by ISPESL, the ILO (International Labour Organisation) of Geneva and IIOSH (Israel Institute for Occupational Health and Hygiene) regarding the creation of an international Database (HDODB) based on risk datasheets per occupation. The project sets out to assist in

  15. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-03-17

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Ago's but rigid for eukaryotic Ago's.

  16. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-02-24

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Agos but rigid for eukaryotic Agos. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to

  18. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing: A Kinematic and Kinetic Study of Giant Slalom and Slalom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-02-01

    A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier's overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Controlled laboratory study. Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier's overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might particularly need to control and/or reduce the magnitude of frontal and lateral bending in

  19. An international comparative overview on the rehabilitation of offenders and effective measures for the prevention of recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someda, Kei

    2009-04-01

    The prevention of recidivism has long been a central issue in criminal justice policy. This is justified because an offender who repeatedly commits crime inflicts far greater damage on society than an offender who commits a crime just once in his/her lifetime. For instance, research by the Ministry of Justice of Japan (2007) reveals that only approximately 30% of repeat offenders were responsible for around 60% of the crime committed in Japan from 1948 to 2006. It has been proven that the realization of the rehabilitation of offenders contributes to the reduction of recidivism. The successful rehabilitation of offenders depends in large part upon the effectiveness of the community-based treatment given to offenders based upon an appropriate assessment of multidimensional risk factors and a multidisciplinary approach. In exploring effective community-based treatment of offenders using a multidisciplinary approach, the author touches upon several effective programs from an international comparative view, including: intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP), Drug Court, cognitive behavioral treatment programs and some recent developments related to this field in Japan.

  20. Measuring success in obesity prevention: a synthesis of Health Promotion Switzerland's long-term monitoring and evaluation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Günter; Kirschner, Michael; Guggenbühl, Lisa; Abel, Bettina; Klohn, Axel; Mattig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC), a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts. The results presented in this article emphasize both content and methods. The national program successfully achieved outcomes on many different levels within complex societal structures. The evaluation system built around the SMOC enabled assessment of program progress and the development of key indicators. However, it is not possible to determine definitively to what extent the national program helped stabilize the prevalence of obesity in Switzerland. The model has shown its utility in providing a basis for evaluation and monitoring of the national program. Continuous analysis of data from evaluation and monitoring has made it possible to check the plausibility of suspected causal relationships as well as to establish an overall perspective and assessment of effectiveness supported by a growing body of evidence. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  2. 75 FR 29768 - Guidance for Industry: Revised Preventive Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) by... Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) by Blood and Blood Products... Measures to Reduce the Possible Risk of Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and Variant...

  3. Guidelines for preventing common medical complications of catatonia: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinebell, Kimberly; Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya; Haskett, Roger

    2014-06-01

    Comprehensive hospital-based care for individuals with catatonia relies on preventive approaches to reduce medical morbidity and mortality. Without syndrome-specific guidelines, psychiatrists must draw from measures used for general medical and surgical inpatients. We employ a prototypical case to highlight medical complications of catatonia and review preventive guidelines for implementation in the inpatient setting. Searches of the PubMed and Ovid databases were conducted from September-November 2013 using keywords relevant to 4 medical complications of catatonia: deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, pressure ulcers, muscle contractures, and nutritional deficiencies. A complementary general web-browser search was performed to help ensure that unpublished guidelines were considered. A search for deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism guidelines yielded 478 articles that were appraised for relevance, and 6 were chosen for review; the pressure ulcer guideline search yielded 5,665 articles, and 5 were chosen; the muscle contractures guideline search yielded 1,481 articles, and 3 were chosen; and the nutritional deficiencies guideline search yielded 16,937 articles, and 4 were chosen. Guidelines were reviewed for content and summarized in a manner relevant to the audience. No quantitative analyses were conducted. Guidelines for deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism prophylaxis support use of anticoagulant therapies for patients with catatonia who are at lower risk for acute bleeding. Pressure ulcer prevention hinges on frequent skin evaluation, use of support surfaces, and repositioning. Muscle contracture data are less clear and must be extrapolated from studies of patients with neurologic injuries. Early initiation of enteral nutrition should be considered in patients with prolonged immobility. As medical complications are common with catatonia, implementation of preventive measures is imperative. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  5. THE REFLECTION OF PROCEDURAL GUILT IN THE CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PROVISIONS. LIABILITY FOR UNJUST CONDEMNATION OR FOR TAKING PREVENTIVE MEASURES UNLAWFULLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA EMANUELA OPREA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the criminal proceedings of some law states the wrongful sentencing of individuals is very rare, having a comprehensive system of procedural safeguards which prevent such a situation. The purpose of the criminal proceedings is to punish only the culprits, the Criminal Procedure code frontispiece being stated the idea that no innocent person should be held criminally liable. By achieving this aspect of purpose is ensured observance of legality and the rule of law. All the basic rules and the whole organization of the criminal trial are polarized around this major goal of justice. Also the professional qualification level of those summoned to administer criminal justice in the modern state to minimizes the risk of judiciar miscarriages. The deep humanism of our law requires though the regulation of those procedural arrangements, through which in the event of an act of injustice, the wrongly convicted is able to obtain prompt repairs that society owes them. A very important aspect related to the evolution over time of the regulation of this institution, is that in its doctrine of integration in the European Union, Romania has adopted a series of laws and regulations designed to ensure our legislation’s alignment with the relevant legislation of the countries from the European community and to ensure the compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights. This process is still ongoing, therefore the establishment and the subsequent modification of the special procedure concerning the remedies for the material or moral damage in the event of unjust sentence or unlawful deprivation of liberty was based on the desire to avoid the conviction situation of the Romanian state by the international courts for failure to comply with the Art. 5 paragraph 5 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms that 'any individual who is the victim of arrest or detention in conditions contrary to the provisions of this article

  6. Medical Care or Disciplinary Discourses? Preventive Measures against the Black Death in Late Medieval Paris: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Jin; Park, Sam Hun

    2017-03-01

    This paper examined the political and social implications of the Compendium de epidemia prescription written by the Masters of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris in the mid-14th century during the Black Death. This study aimed to examine how the effects of power as a discourse owned by medical knowledge are revealed. This paper outlines the composition of the contents based on the 1888 edition edited and translated by Émile H. Rébouis and notes the features of the prescription examined by the existing study of medical history rather than the causes of diseases. Compendium de epidemia seems to have been written primarily for the royal family and nobles who ordered them when looking at prescription-related technologies. At the same time, under the influence of Islamic-Arabic academia, it clearly distinguishes the world of faith and the world of academia (intelligence), explaining the pathogenesis and infection pathways based on causality. The onset substrate is due to heat and humidity, and the prescription is to prevent the two from overdoing in the body. In particular, issues related to heat are criticized in connection with the value of life of knight-noblesse . This is in response to political criticism of the ineffectual French royal family and nobility at the beginning of the Hundred Years' War and shows why this tract sets the utilitas publica at the forefront as an important purpose. The conclusion has shown how medical knowledge produced on the Black Death pandemic how they function as discourses that have a sort of power effect on the value of life of knight-noblesse. It is necessary to conduct if these phenomena can be found in other contemporary medical writings.

  7. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. HAMLIN; Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and ...

  8. The New Rule of the Preventing Measures in the Brazilian Criminal Procedure Law: Judicial Subjectivity and Constitutional Criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton da Cunha Iribure Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This approach is summarized in particular in a substantial analysis of some of the main innovations incorporated into the Criminal Procedure Code by Law n. 12.403/11 and its consequences in view of the new constitutional order. The problem is centered in the new procedural devices that add up to a microsystem application specific procedural measures, authorizing of the application of a range of alternatives precautionary measures to procedural prison. One of the start-up propositions of the current Brazilian Constitutional Law is that the State must promote and respect the existence worthy of human beings valuing it both in its individual dimension as a context of social justice. The plea guides a plurality of key elements, which, though heterogeneous, maintain a concatenation each other, justifying the existence of the democratic state. Not only as a Republican foundation, but mainly as a guiding rule creation and interpretation of legal standards, human dignity establishing a new concrete constitutional order making it a fundamental rights application base that, in turn, lining up as the primary core of existence and justification of the state body, his biggest reason. The method employed is the direct, document analysis, inference about the system that currently governs the measures that matter to a lesser restriction on individual freedom by aligning the current thinking of the higher courts in Brazil.

  9. [Preventive measures of food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly--current status and problems in food poisoning by noroviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kumiko; Nagatomi, Hideki; Imaizumi, Iwao

    2012-08-01

    Food poisoning at care facilities for the elderly has been breaking out approximately ten cases per year nationwide from 2001 to 2010. Especially, it reflected the characteristics of food poisoning caused by noroviruses at a high rate. Usually we have been preventing from food poisoning by noroviruses working on existing measures such as temperature control of food materials, sanitary handlings of cooking tools and table wares, and so on. Additionally, the most effective measures to avoid secondary pollution at care facilities for the elderly is that all members at these facilities have to have a sense of crisis about food poisoning by noroviruses and managers at these facilities must take care of health control for all staff.

  10. Preliminary study of the effects of preventive measures on the prevalence of Canine Leishmaniosis in a recently established focus in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Cassini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine Leishmaniosis is endemic in Mediterranean areas, with a well-documented northward spread. The mass use of preventive measures against sandfly bites (collar and spot-on formulations was tested in a small focus recently established in an isolated hilly area of north-eastern Italy (Colli Euganei. In 2006 and 2007, a total of 449 dogs living in the southern part of Colli Euganei were screened against Leishmania infantum using an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT, and 31 (6.9% were seropositive. A risk factor analysis clearly described the focus as limited to a small village named Calaone. In 2010, 63 animals from Calaone were sampled and their owners interviewed to verify the effectiveness of the preventive measures. According to what reported by owners, dogs started to be protected in 2006 (66.7% dogs protected, and protection rate incremented (around 90% during the subsequent years. The seroprevalence value (4.2% of the youngest age class (<5 years was significantly lower than other classes, demonstrating that animals born after 2006 had low probabilities of getting infected. Besides, seroprevalence value referred only to dogs living in Calaone was 32.4% (23/71 in 2006-2007 and 20.6% (13/63 in 2010, showing a decreasing trend. Although still preliminary, the results show high sensitization of dog owners and suggest that the mass use of collars and spot-on acts positively in reducing the circulation of L. infantum.

  11. [Pulmonary rehabilitation as an effective method for optimizing therapeutic and preventive measures in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnevsky, A V; Isaeva, Ya V; Malysh, E Yu; Kozhevnikova, S A

    to evaluate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) cycle based on patient education, smoking cessation, physical exercises, and balanced nutrition in addition to standard therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD in patients with this condition. 70 patients (27 (38.6%) women and 43 (61.4%) men) aged 18 to 60 years (mean age, 48.31±0.64 years) with moderate COPD in remission concurrent with MS were examined. The comprehensive examination of the patients encompassed assessment of clinical, instrumental, and laboratory findings at baseline and 12 months. The patients were randomized into two groups: 1) 35 patients who underwent a RH cycle in addition to standard therapy for COPD; 2) 35 patients who received standard COPD treatment only. Group 1 was found to have significant differences in reducing the number of patients with COPD exacerbations, emergency calls, hospitalizations, severity of clinical symptoms of COPD and their impact on the physical activity and health of the patients, as well as better quality of life and exercise tolerance. The therapeutic and preventive measures for patients with COPD and MS should involve educational programs and physical trainings, which are developed, by taking into account of a comorbidity in order to optimize therapeutic and preventive measures and to improve quality of life in this category of patients.

  12. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Maike; Groen, Leon; Geraats-Peters, Kathelijn; Lutgens, Suzanne; Rietveld, Ariene; Jira, Petr; Kluytmans, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C; Hermans, Mirjam; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2012-11-20

    We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI), caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW) with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ET)A-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  13. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koningstein Maike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI, caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. Methods We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Results Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ETA-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. Conclusions We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  14. Measuring pathways towards a healthier lifestyle in the Hoorn Prevention Study: the Determinants of Lifestyle Behavior Questionnaire (DLBQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Knol, Dirk L; de Vet, Henrica C W; Nijpels, Giel

    2011-11-01

    We developed the Determinants of Lifestyle Behavior Questionnaire (DLBQ) to measure determinants of lifestyle behavioral change according to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in adults at high risk of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of the current study was to test the validity of the DLBQ. From February to September 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the region West-Friesland (The Netherlands) among 622 adults, aged 30-50 years at high risk of T2DM or CVD participating in a lifestyle intervention trial. Structural equation modeling techniques were used for confirmatory factor analysis and to test correlations between the TPB constructs. The results demonstrate the factorial validity of the DLBQ in this population. The theoretical factor structure of the DLBQ is supported, and 41-56% of the variance in intentions to improve lifestyle behaviors is explained. The DLBQ proves to be a valid instrument for measuring important determinants of the intention to change three lifestyle behaviors in adults at high risk of T2DM and CVD. The identified 'key-determinants' of the TPB that seem to contribute to an increased intention to change behavior could be of value in designing future lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at preventing pollution by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Howley, Peter; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has been held up as a potential threat to ecosystem and human health. Using a custom-designed survey of residents living in Xiamen, China, this paper examines individuals' disposal practices, awareness of the environmental impact of PPCPs, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of PPCPs being released into the environment. The vast majority of respondents report that they dispose of PPCPs through the thrash. The results of a contingent valuation experiment suggest a substantial willingness to pay (WTP) for policy measures aimed at reducing PPCP pollution. Income as well as subjective perceptions relating to overall financial health, expenditure on PPCPs, and overall concern with environmental issues emerged as significant predictors of respondents' WTP. Our results should be of interest to policymakers looking for ways to mitigate the introduction of PPCPs in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:793-800. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures in designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China: are we doing enough to prevent nosocomial tuberculosis infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin

    2016-03-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764-7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154-459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79-426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission rates of patients with TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  17. An outbreak of gastroenteritis in a holiday resort in Italy: epidemiological survey, implementation and application of preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Savini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A major gastroenteritis outbreak was reported in a vacation resort in Central Italy in 2003. A total of 183 cases were identified. The case-control study identified a statistically significant correlation between the disease and sea bathing, use of sanitary facilities in bungalows and of common showers. Stool samples taken from people affected were found positive for Norovirus (68%, 13 of 19 samples, Rotavirus (38%, 1 of 14 samples and Campylobacter (7%, 3 of 8 samples. Environmental investigations revealed serious faecal contamination of the groundwater and the presence of Norovirus in the seawater near the resort. The mixing of groundwater and seawater with the non-drinking water system - which was also found to be connected to the drinking water system - had a primary role in the onset and spread of infection within the village. The complete absence of any gastroenteritis epidemics among the site guests since 2006 demonstrates the effectiveness of the environmental corrective measures taken.

  18. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  19. Measuring the Benefits of Healthcare: DALYs and QALYs – Does the Choice of Measure Matter? A Case Study of Two Preventive Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Augustovski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The measurement of health benefits is a key issue in health economic evaluations. There is very scarce empirical literature exploring the differences of using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs as benefit metrics and their potential impact in decision-making. Methods Two previously published models delivering outputs in QALYs, were adapted to estimate DALYs: a Markov model for human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination, and a pneumococcal vaccination deterministic model (PNEUMO. Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom studies were used, where local EQ-5D social value weights were available to provide local QALY weights. A primary study with descriptive vignettes was done (n = 73 to obtain EQ-5D data for all health states included in both models. Several scenario analyses were carried-out to evaluate the relative importance of using different metrics (DALYS or QALYs to estimate health benefits on these economic evaluations. Results QALY gains were larger than DALYs avoided in all countries for HPV, leading to more favorable decisions using the former. With discounting and age-weighting – scenario with greatest differences in all countries – incremental DALYs avoided represented the 75%, 68%, and 43% of the QALYs gained in Argentina, Chile, and United Kingdom respectively. Differences using QALYs or DALYs were less consistent and sometimes in the opposite direction for PNEUMO. These differences, similar to other widely used assumptions, could directly influence decision-making using usual gross domestic products (GDPs per capita per DALY or QALY thresholds. Conclusion We did not find evidence that contradicts current practice of many researchers and decision-makers of using QALYs or DALYs interchangeably. Differences attributed to the choice of metric could influence final decisions, but similarly to other frequently used assumptions.

  20. Measuring the Benefits of Healthcare: DALYs and QALYs – Does the Choice of Measure Matter? A Case Study of Two Preventive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustovski, Federico; Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Galante, Julieta; Bardach, Ariel; Caporale, Joaquín E.; Zárate, Víctor; Chuang, Ling Hsiang; Riviere, Andres Pichon; Kind, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background: The measurement of health benefits is a key issue in health economic evaluations. There is very scarce empirical literature exploring the differences of using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as benefit metrics and their potential impact in decision-making. Methods: Two previously published models delivering outputs in QALYs, were adapted to estimate DALYs: a Markov model for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, and a pneumococcal vaccination deterministic model (PNEUMO). Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom studies were used, where local EQ-5D social value weights were available to provide local QALY weights. A primary study with descriptive vignettes was done (n = 73) to obtain EQ-5D data for all health states included in both models. Several scenario analyses were carried-out to evaluate the relative importance of using different metrics (DALYS or QALYs) to estimate health benefits on these economic evaluations. Results: QALY gains were larger than DALYs avoided in all countries for HPV, leading to more favorable decisions using the former. With discounting and age-weighting – scenario with greatest differences in all countries – incremental DALYs avoided represented the 75%, 68%, and 43% of the QALYs gained in Argentina, Chile, and United Kingdom respectively. Differences using QALYs or DALYs were less consistent and sometimes in the opposite direction for PNEUMO. These differences, similar to other widely used assumptions, could directly influence decision-making using usual gross domestic products (GDPs) per capita per DALY or QALY thresholds. Conclusion: We did not find evidence that contradicts current practice of many researchers and decision-makers of using QALYs or DALYs interchangeably. Differences attributed to the choice of metric could influence final decisions, but similarly to other frequently used assumptions. PMID:29524936

  1. Measurement properties of a novel survey to assess stages of organizational readiness for evidence-based interventions in community chronic disease prevention settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatakis Katherine A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great deal of variation in the existing capacity of primary prevention programs and policies addressing chronic disease to deliver evidence-based interventions (EBIs. In order to develop and evaluate implementation strategies that are tailored to the appropriate level of capacity, there is a need for an easy-to-administer tool to stage organizational readiness for EBIs. Methods Based on theoretical frameworks, including Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations, we developed a survey instrument to measure four domains representing stages of readiness for EBI: awareness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. A separate scale representing organizational climate as a potential mediator of readiness for EBIs was also included in the survey. Twenty-three questions comprised the four domains, with four to nine items each, using a seven-point response scale. Representatives from obesity, asthma, diabetes, and tobacco prevention programs serving diverse populations in the United States were surveyed (N = 243; test-retest reliability was assessed with 92 respondents. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test and refine readiness scales. Test-retest reliability of the readiness scales, as measured by intraclass correlation, ranged from 0.47–0.71. CFA found good fit for the five-item adoption and implementation scales and resulted in revisions of the awareness and maintenance scales. The awareness scale was split into two two-item scales, representing community and agency awareness. The maintenance scale was split into five- and four-item scales, representing infrastructural maintenance and evaluation maintenance, respectively. Internal reliability of scales (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.66–0.78. The model for the final revised scales approached good fit, with most factor loadings >0.6 and all >0.4. Conclusions The lack of adequate measurement tools hinders progress in dissemination and implementation

  2. Use of Gypsum as a Preventive Measure for Strength Deterioration during Curing in Class F Fly Ash Geopolymer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yubin; Oh, Jae Eun

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses strength deterioration during the curing process of fly ash geopolymer and the use of CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) as a deterioration remedy when the ash was synthesized using a 10M NaOH and Na-silicate solution. The strength decline was mainly due to the widespread formation of nanometer-sized cracks that were related to excessive Na and Si concentrations at an early age. Use of 2 wt% CaSO4·2H2O resulted in the best measured strength by temporarily reducing Na and Si concentrations; Na was absorbed by SO42−, up to 11% in the matrix within one day, and formed Na2SO4 (thenardite), which gradually dissolved over time, slowly releasing Na ions. However, more than 4% gypsum suppressed overall strength development because too many Na ions were locked into Na2SO4 and could not participate in geopolymerization. The addition of gypsum impeded glass dissolution and even halted the process when more than 4% gypsum was used.

  3. Environmental and safety education in Brazil: preventive measures to avoid contamination with U and Th in small mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Valeria da; Pastura, Silvia; Wieland, Patricia; Campos, Thomas F. da C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Environmental and Safety Educational Campaign on the care in the small mining 'garimpo' with radioactive ore of uranium and thorium. These radionuclides are the major source of radioactive material present in certain mineral from rocks for example, tantalite / columbite, granites with cassiterite coal, phosphates, zirconate and rare-earth elements. The occurrence of radioactive ores in some sites has risen especial attention from CNEN such as in Borborema Mountain, where Uranium and Thorium are found scattered in pegmatite bodies from Serido region between Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba states, and in Amapa state, in the Amazonian forest region, where thorianite was being illegally mined. Besides work accident risks inherent to this activity, there are radiological risks, showing the need to adapt measures and actions aiming at the health and safety of the small miners and population in general. The campaign involves cooperatives, trade unions, schools, non-governmental organization, entities involved in national security and others take part. The objective is to foment actions of radiological safety, in order to guarantee the protection and safety of the workers, their families and population. (author)

  4. Risk of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection and effectiveness of control measures to prevent transmission events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Clare E; McKenzie, Bruce C; Coope, Caroline; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Paranthaman, Karthik; Pebody, Richard; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Higgins, Julian P T; Beck, Charles R

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a significant public health burden, and outbreaks among vulnerable patients in hospital settings are of particular concern. We reviewed published and unpublished literature from hospital settings to assess: (i) nosocomial RSV transmission risk (attack rate) during outbreaks, (ii) effectiveness of infection control measures. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, together with key websites, journals and grey literature, to end of 2012. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Forty studies were included (19 addressing research question one, 21 addressing question two). RSV transmission risk varied by hospital setting; 6-56% (median: 28·5%) in neonatal/paediatric settings (n = 14), 6-12% (median: 7%) in adult haematology and transplant units (n = 3), and 30-32% in other adult settings (n = 2). For question two, most studies (n = 13) employed multi-component interventions (e.g. cohort nursing, personal protective equipment (PPE), isolation), and these were largely reported to be effective in reducing nosocomial transmission. Four studies examined staff PPE; eye protection appeared more effective than gowns and masks. One study reported on RSV prophylaxis for patients (RSV-Ig/palivizumab); there was no statistical evidence of effectiveness although the sample size was small. Overall, risk of bias for included studies tended to be high. We conclude that RSV transmission risk varies widely during hospital outbreaks. Although multi-component control strategies appear broadly successful, further research is required to disaggregate the effectiveness of individual components including the potential role of palivizumab prophylaxis. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M

    2008-10-01

    Nail guns are responsible for a significant injury burden in residential construction. Risk, based on hours of work, is particularly high among apprentice carpenters due in part to more frequent exposure to tool use. Nail gun injuries were evaluated over 3 years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million residential work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard change calling for safer sequential triggers on framing nailers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent (AR%) and population attributable risk (PAR%) were calculated yearly for modifiable independent risk factors for injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both. Although injury rates changed over the observation period, the relative risk comparing trigger mechanisms did not; contact trip triggers consistently carried a twofold risk. Although training and safer trigger use both increased, because of the relative prevalence of training and trigger exposures in this population, the engineering solution consistently had the potential to make more difference in population risk. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observational methods including measures of population-based risk in monitoring intervention effectiveness and making recommendations that lead to injury reduction. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Bone-prosthesis composite with rotating hinged-knee prosthesis in limb salvage surgery for high-grade sarcoma around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Shun; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Bone prosthesis composite (BPC) had been widely-used in reconstruction after wide excision of malignant tumors around the knee. However, implant selection for BPC remains a dilemma. Forty-one patients with high-grade malignant bone tumors around the knee who underwent excision and reconstruction with BPC and rotating hinged knee (RHK) prosthesis were included. The mean follow-up time was 54 months (range, 31-78 months). The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating score was 93.4% (range, 73-100%). The mean range of motion was 125°. Complications included 2 local recurrences, 2 nonunions, and 1 peri-prosthetic fracture. The reconstruction with BPC using the RHK prosthesis provided consistently good functional results with a low complication rate. The RHK prosthesis is a promising choice for BPC reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L. Brennan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission. Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  8. Improving older adults' knowledge and practice of preventive measures through a telephone health education during the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S C; So, Winnie K W; Wong, David C N; Lee, Angel C K; Tiwari, Agnes

    2007-09-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong posed many challenges for health promotion activities among a group of older adults with low socio-economic status (SES). With concerns that this vulnerable group could be at higher risk of contracting the disease or spreading it to others, the implementation of health promotion activities appropriate to this group was considered to be essential during the epidemic. To assess the effectiveness of delivering a telephone health education programme dealing with anxiety levels, and knowledge and practice of measures to prevent transmission of SARS among a group of older adults with low SES. Pretest/posttest design. Subjects were recruited from registered members of a government subsidized social service center in Hong Kong and living in low-cost housing estates. The eligibility criteria were: (1) aged 55 or above; (2) able to speak Cantonese; (3) no hearing impairment, and (4) reachable by telephone. Of the 295 eligible subjects, 122 older adults completed the whole study. The interviewers approached all eligible subjects by telephone during the period of 15-25 May 2003. After obtaining the participants' verbal consent, the interviewer collected baseline data by use of a questionnaire and implemented a health education programme. A follow-up telephone call was made a week later using the same questionnaire. The level of anxiety was lowered (t=3.28, p<0.001), and knowledge regarding the transmission routes of droplets (p<0.001) and urine and feces (p<0.01) were improved after the intervention. Although statistical significant difference was found in the practice of identified preventive measures before and after intervention, influence on behavioral changes needed further exploration. The telephone health education seemed to be effective in relieving anxiety and improving knowledge of the main transmission routes of SARS in this group, but not the practice of preventing SARS. Telephone contact appears

  9. Roles of the β subunit hinge domain in ATP synthase F1 sector: Hydrophobic network formed by introduced βPhe174 inhibits subunit rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Kashiwagi, Sachiko; Kojima, Masaki; Nonaka, Takamasa; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    The ATP synthase β subunit hinge domain (βPhe148 ∼ βGly186, P-loop/α-helixB/loop/β-sheet4, Escherichia coli residue numbering) dramatically changes in conformation upon nucleotide binding. We previously reported that F 1 with the βSer174 to Phe mutation in the domain lowered the γ subunit rotation speed, and thus decreased the ATPase activity [M. Nakanishi-Matsui, S. Kashiwagi, T. Ubukata, A. Iwamoto-Kihara, Y. Wada, M. Futai, Rotational catalysis of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F 1 sector. Stochastic fluctuation and a key domain of the β subunit, J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 20698-20704.]. Homology modeling indicates that the amino acid replacement induces a hydrophobic network, in which the βMet159, βIle163, and βAla167 residues of the β subunit are involved together with the mutant βPhe174. The network is expected to stabilize the conformation of β DP (nucleotide-bound form of the β subunit), resulting in increased activation energy for transition to β E (empty β subunit). The modeling further predicts that replacement of βMet159 with Ala or Ile weakens the hydrophobic network. As expected, these two mutations experimentally suppressed the ATPase activities as well as subunit rotation of βS174F. Furthermore, the rotation rate decreased with the increase of the strength in the hydrophobic network. These results indicate that the smooth conformational change of the β subunit hinge domain is pertinent for the rotational catalysis.

  10. Surgical treatment of choanal atresia with transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique: 5 year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Saraniti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Choanal atresia is a rare congenital malformation of the nasal cavity characterized by the complete obliteration of the posterior choanae. In 67% of cases choanal atresia is unilateral, affecting mainly (71% the right nasal cavity. In contrast to the unilateral form, bilateral choanal atresia is a life-threatening condition often associated with respiratory distress with feeding and intermittent cyanosis exacerbated by crying. Surgical treatment remains the only therapeutic option. Objective: To report our experience in the use of a transnasal endoscopic approach with stentless single side-hinged flap technique for the surgical management of choanal atresia. Methods: A 5 year retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes of 18 patients treated for choanal atresia with a transnasal technique employing a single side-hinged flap without stent placement. All subjects were assessed preoperatively with a nasal endoscopy and a Maxillofacial computed tomography scan. Results: Ten males and eight females with a mean age at the time of surgery of 20.05 ± 11.32 years, underwent surgery for choanal atresia. Fifteen subjects (83.33% had a bony while 3 (26.77% a mixed bony-membranous atretic plate. Two and sixteen cases suffered from bilateral and unilateral choanal atresia respectively. No intra- and/or early postoperative complications were observed. Between 2 and 3 months after surgery two cases (11.11% of partial restenosis were found. Only one of these presented a relapse of the nasal obstruction and was subsequently successfully repaired with a second endoscopic procedure. Conclusion: The surgical technique described follows the basic requirements of corrective surgery and allows good visualization, evaluation and treatment of the atretic plate and the posterior third of the septum, in order to create the new choanal opening. We believe that the use of a stent is not necessary, as recommended in case of other surgical techniques

  11. ‘Do not eat those apples; they’ve been on the ground!’: polio epidemics and preventive measures, Sweden 1880s-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will address how Swedish scientists, physicians and public health officers tried to combat the polio epidemics in the pre-vaccine era. It shows that once polio was considered as an epidemic disease the preventive measures used were based on the hindrance of other infectious diseases. It also illustrates how epidemiological and laboratory studies to some degree affected the thoughts of how polio should be prevented, and that Swedish ideas and experiences differed from those put forward in the USA.

    Este artículo trata sobre cómo los científicos, médicos y funcionarios de la sanidad pública de Suecia intentaron combatir la epidemia de la polio en la era anterior a la vacuna y expone que en cuanto la polio fue considerada como una epidemia, las medidas preventivas que se aplicaron se basaban en las de otras enfermedades contagiosas. También ilustra en qué medida los estudios epidemiológicos y los análisis de laboratorio influyeron en la manera de prevenir la polio y también demuestra que las opiniones y experiencias en Suecia eran diferentes a las de los Estados Unidos.

  12. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety profile of iodixanol in the outpatient CT setting. A prospective, multicenter, observational study of patient risk factors, adverse reactions and preventive measures in 9953 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Frank Hugo Heinz [Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Center, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Non-interventional study in outpatient, contrast-enhanced CT: 1. to determine the extent of preventive measures for risk reduction of adverse drug reactions after contrast-enhanced CT examinations. 2. to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions occurring after administration of the iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol. 3. to determine a possible influence of preventive measures on the incidence/severity of adverse drug reactions. Evaluable documentation was provided for 9953 patients from 66 radiology centers across Germany. Patient characteristics, aspects of iodixanol administration, and adverse events with an at least 'possible' relationship were documented on a standardized case report form (CRF) and were evaluated up to seven days after contrast medium administration. About 55.5% of patients showed one or more risk factors (e.g. impaired renal function 4.4%, diabetes mellitus 8.5%, hypertension 20.6%). One third of the sites did not implement any preventive measures. Patients with a known risk for an allergy-like reaction were more likely to receive pharmacologic preventive treatment (0.5-50.5%). Oral hydration was the main preventive measure in patients with renal risk factors (<8%) followed by intravenous hydration (1%). Adverse drug reactions, mainly hypersensitivity reactions, occurred in 77 patients (0.74%), but were classified as serious in only 3 patients (0.03%). No statistically significant correlation between risk factors, preventive measures, and adverse reactions could be found. The use of preventive measures for CT examinations in this outpatient setting was generally low with risk patients being pre-medicated more often, depending on their history. In the routine outpatient setting, iso-osmolar iodixanol was very well tolerated in almost 10 000 patients undergoing diagnostic CT. The rate of acute and delayed adverse reactions was low. No correlation could be found between risk factors, preventive

  13. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  14. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  15. Patient outcomes and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Wilborn, Doris

    2011-01-01

    National as well as international, the occurrence of pressure ulcers is regarded as a serious problem of the health service of patients and residents in health care facilities. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in European hospitals varies from 23% to 8.3% (Vanderwee et al. 2007); in Germany the prevalence of pressure ulcers in hospitals is about 7.1% (Dassen et al. 2009). In German nursing homes the prevalence is about 4.3% (Dassen et al. 2009). International projects like the European Press...

  16. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  17. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  18. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  19. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety profile of iodixanol in the outpatient CT setting: a prospective, multicenter, observational study of patient risk factors, adverse reactions and preventive measures in 9953 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F H H

    2014-11-01

    Non-interventional study in outpatient, contrast-enhanced CT; 1. to determine the extent of preventive measures for risk reduction of adverse drug reactions after contrast-enhanced CT examinations. 2. to prospectively determine the incidence and severity of adverse drug reactions occurring after administration of the iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol. 3. to determine a possible influence of preventive measures on the incidence/severity of adverse drug reactions.. Evaluable documentation was provided for 9953 patients from 66 radiology centers across Germany. Patient characteristics, aspects of iodixanol administration, and adverse events with an at least "possible" relationship were documented on a standardized case report form (CRF) and were evaluated up to seven days after contrast medium administration. About 55.5 % of patients showed one or more risk factors (e. g. impaired renal function 4.4 %, diabetes mellitus 8.5 %, hypertension 20.6 %). One third of the sites did not implement any preventive measures. Patients with a known risk for an allergy-like reaction were more likely to receive pharmacologic preventive treatment (0.5 - 50.5 %). Oral hydration was the main preventive measure in patients with renal risk factors (Adverse drug reactions, mainly hypersensitivity reactions, occurred in 77 patients (0.74 %), but were classified as serious in only 3 patients (0.03 %). No statistically significant correlation between risk factors, preventive measures, and adverse reactions could be found. The use of preventive measures for CT examinations in this outpatient setting was generally low with risk patients being pre-medicated more often, depending on their history. In the routine outpatient setting, iso-osmolar iodixanol was very well tolerated in almost 10,000 patients undergoing diagnostic CT. The rate of acute and delayed adverse reactions was low. No correlation could be found between risk factors, preventive measures and the incidence

  20. Measuring University-Level L2 Learners' Implicit and Explicit Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhan

    2015-01-01

    Although many theoretical issues revolving around implicit and explicit knowledge in second language (L2) acquisition hinge on the ability to measure these two types of knowledge, few empirical studies have attempted to do so. However, R. Ellis (2005) did develop a battery of tests intended to provide relatively separate measures. This study aims…

  1. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of

  2. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  3. Study of the heat island phenomenon in large cities and the measures to prevent it; Daitoshi ni okeru heat island gensho to sono taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    The paper made an analysis of the heat island phenomenon in the Kanto area using 3-D numerical analysis models and a study on the effectiveness of the measures to prevent it. The models are composed of advection/diffusion models of heat/steam in the wind-velocity field and atmospheric air, heat diffusion models in the underground and undersea, and heat balance models on the ground surface and sea surface. In the calculation, a simulation was conducted of the case of taking the following three measures: the case where the exhaust heat was reduced 30% in the assumed typical day of summer; the case where the heat volume of buildings/trunk roads was reduced; the case where the evaporation efficiency of buildings/trunk roads was raised. The result of the study was as follows: The reduction effect of the exhaust heat is totally large, but precisely observing, some meshes contrarily showed rises in temperature in the suburbs. Also in the case of reducing the heat volume, the same phenomenon occurred, but the effect was large in the center of a city. It was found that the effect was unexpectedly large in the case of increasing the evaporation efficiency. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mechanical eye injuries in children aged 0-15 years treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade: Frequency, causes and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eye injuries represent a significant problem in children. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of the eye injury and to propose measures of the eye injury prevention in children up to 15 years of age. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 552 children with the eye injuries treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade during the period March 1999 to February 2010. Gender and age of the children, time of injury, the type and site of injuries, visual acuity upon admission and at discharge, as well as the time of surgery in relation to time of injury were analyzed. Results. The ratio between the injured boys and girls was 3.6:1. The highest percentage of injured children was in the group 6-10 years old (39.7%; the injuries were almost evenly distributed according to months during the year and days during the week. The percentages of severe closed and open injuries of the eyeball were almost equal. Visual acuity upon discharge and subsequent follow-up examinations were significantly improved after the applied treatment in comparison with the visual acuity upon admission. Conclusion. Eye injuries in children still represent a severe health problem. Regarding the youngest age group of children, adults are mainly responsible for these injuries due to their lack of attention, while in older children these injuries are the result of the production and distribution of inappropriate toys and a failure to implement the legal traffic regulations applicable to children. The prevention of eye injuries is essential.

  5. Follow-up care, surveillance protocol, and secondary prevention measures for survivors of colorectal cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Mangu, Pamela B; Flynn, Patrick J; Korde, Larissa; Loprinzi, Charles L; Minsky, Bruce D; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Ryan, Kim; Schrag, Deborah H; Wong, Sandra L; Benson, Al B

    2013-12-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing recent clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Follow-up Care, Surveillance Protocol, and Secondary Prevention Measures for Survivors of Colorectal Cancer was reviewed by ASCO for methodologic rigor and considered for endorsement. The ASCO Panel concurred with the CCO recommendations and recommended endorsement, with the addition of several qualifying statements. Surveillance should be guided by presumed risk of recurrence and functional status of the patient (important within the first 2 to 4 years). Medical history, physical examination, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing should be performed every 3 to 6 months for 5 years. Patients at higher risk of recurrence should be considered for testing in the more frequent end of the range. A computed tomography scan (abdominal and chest) is recommended annually for 3 years, in most cases. Positron emission tomography scans should not be used for surveillance outside of a clinical trial. A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed 1 year after the initial surgery and then every 5 years, dictated by the findings of the previous one. If a colonoscopy was not preformed before diagnosis, it should be done after completion of adjuvant therapy (before 1 year). Secondary prevention (maintaining a healthy body weight and active lifestyle) is recommended. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery or systemic therapy because of severe comorbid conditions, surveillance tests should not be performed. A treatment plan from the specialist should have clear directions on appropriate follow-up by a nonspecialist.

  6. Distribution and dynamics of soil contamination with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in Poland and prevention measures proposed after 20 years of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-30

    The studies conducted in the years 1994-2013 allowed to determine the distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in the soil of different types of urban and rural areas in Poland and to establish seasonal and multi-year dynamics of soil contamination with T. cati and T. canis eggs. Out of 3309 soil samples examined, 14.9% contained the eggs and the average density was 3.43 eggs/100g of soil. The level of soil contamination was the highest in cities, lower in villages, and lowest in small towns. In urban areas eggs of T. cati were found more frequently than of T. canis, while in rural areas the opposite was true. Both, in urban and rural areas, the sites most heavily contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs were household surroundings (backyards). Recreation areas (parks, playgrounds, lake beaches) were significantly less contaminated. In older parts of Poznań, in backyards, soil contamination with the eggs was generally high each month, being lowest in July and highest in December and the prevalence of T. cati eggs was much higher than of T. canis. The prevention policy introduced in the city thus far - paying great attention to dog faeces but not to cats was unsatisfactory. After 18 years of such policy, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs dropped significantly but it was not a linear phenomenon - the intensity of soil contamination fluctuated. To be more effective, preventive measures should be preceded with discrimination of T. canis and T. cati eggs recovered in the soil and for this purpose the new molecular techniques should be applied. A survey conducted in the population in 2010 showed that people's awareness on the significance of pets in the transmission of dangerous zoonoses to humans was unsatisfactory. We recommend to expand the knowledge of the subject among the populace. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tapia-Conyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM, or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL. However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should

  8. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Saucedo-Martínez, Rodrigo; Mújica-Rosales, Ricardo; Gallardo-Rincón, Héctor; Lee, Evan; Waugh, Craig; Guajardo, Lucía; Torres-Beltrán, Braulio; Quijano-González, Úrsula; López-Mendez, Mauricio; Atkinson, Elena Rose

    2017-02-20

    Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM), or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals-about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL), and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL). However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should consider the need for

  9. [Working and health conditions and preventive measures in a random sample of 5000 workers in the Veneto Region examined by telephone interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Perticaroli, S; Camipo, G; Priolo, G; Leva, A; de Merich, D; Marangi, G; Fedeli, U; Fadda, Emanuela; Scoizzato, L; Marchiori, L

    2008-01-01

    A survey was carried out in 2000 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions in a random sample of workers from 15 countries of the European Union in order to obtain information on occupational exposure, health problems and preventive measures taken at the workplaces. To obtain similar information in workers in the Veneto Region and compare the results with those of the third European Survey on Working Conditions (ESWC). The results of the survey on Veneto Region workers were further analyzed, investigating the distribution by risk factors in each work sector, and the association between risk factors and reported health problems. The ESWC questionnaire was adapted to the requirements of a telephone interview and a sample of 5000 workers (size based on the budget) between 15 and 64 years of age was randomly extracted from the regional list of telephone subscribers. The questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. No statistical tests were used in the comparison between ESWC and Veneto Region results due to the lack of a priori hypotheses. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated in estimating the association between risk factors and symptoms; and p-value for OR trend across the increasing level of exposure was also obtained. Workers reported to be exposed for more than a quarter of their work time to: vibrations (20%), noise (19%), dusts, fumes vapours, chemicals (18%), repetitive hand/arm movements (50%), tiring/painful positions (46%); working at very high speed or tight deadlines (60%). 54.4% of the subjects reported working with computers. Taking as a reference the third ESWC in 2000, among Veneto Region workers in 2005 exposure was lower as regards physical, chemical and ergonomic risk factors, and similar as regards working at very high speed. The more frequently reported work-related health problems were: stress (26.9%), backache (17.8%), overall fatigue (11.9%), muscular pains in upper limbs (6.8%), headache (6.1%), sight

  10. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bochenek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating

  11. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  12. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2 or sulphuric acid (H2SO4 aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3° angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the

  13. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of factors influencing knowledge and attitudes