WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive maintenance types

  1. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  2. Preventive maintenance study : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This interim report details the performance of 69 test sites treated with various preventive maintenance treatments. The maintenance treatments applied included crack sealing, full lane chip sealing, wheel path chip sealing, dig outs (mill and fill),...

  3. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  4. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  5. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  6. Design of Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintenance has gained in importance as a support function for ensuring equipment availability. Adoption of effective preventive maintenance culture in an industry can drastically reduce the cost of premature or over delayed maintenance, while accurate maintenance action can sustain continuous and reliable operation of ...

  7. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  8. Assessing maintenance contracts when preventive maintenance is outsourced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2012-01-01

    In some companies, corrective maintenance is conducted in-house but preventive maintenance might be outsourced. This raises a need to optimise some parameters such as the number of contracts from a perspective of the equipment owner. This paper considers a maintenance policy for such a situation, analyses the roles of the parameters in a PM model, proposes approaches to defining bonus functions, and finally discusses special cases of both the PM policy and the bonus function. Numerical examples are also given to explore the impact of parameters on the expected lifecycle cost rate.

  9. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  10. Operation feedback analysis applied to preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, J.L.; Havart, J.; Jacquot, J.P.; Lannoy, A.; Vasseur, D.

    1992-03-01

    The paper presents the contribution of operation feedback data bases and their analysis for the optimization of a preventive maintenance program. The RCM approach (Reliability Centered Maintenance) is based on a functional breakdown of systems and components. There are four major stages: analysis of equipment criticality, critical failure analysis for each critical component, selection of maintenance tasks, and operation feedback analysis. The in-depth knowledge of the failure and degradation mechanisms is only available through operation feedback, its analysis and experts judgements. The validation of the information collected in the various feedback files, and its statistical processing coupled with reliability calculations, enables : - the definition of the causes of failure and degradation noted, - the estimation of the associated failure rate and the calculation of the evolution of this failure rate as the age of the component increases. The paper presents the approach used and the results obtained for the pilot study of the chemical and volumetric control system CVCS of 900 MW PWR nuclear power plants. About 2 500 sheets, concerning a lot of equipment types (pumps, sensors, valves, ...) have been expertised and the statistical processing provided basic reliability parameters for RCM (rates, modes, causes, subcomponents, ...). (authors). 5 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs

  11. An integral part of an integrated preventive maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of the Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program from the Reliability Centered Maintenance pilot program at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) 'A.' The Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program provides the means for taking control of the Bruce NGS 'A' Preventive Maintenance Program. In addition, the development of the Bruce NGS 'A' Air-Operated Valve Preventive Maintenance is reviewed

  12. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  13. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  14. design of preventive maintenance scheduling model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    connected in parallel, Rj(ti) is the reliability of the jth unit at ith time interval, n is the to- tal number of systems (components or units) connected in parallel. Equations (3) and (4) enable us to deter- mine the reliability of all components, units or sub-systems in an industry. 5. System Reliability with Preventive. Maintenance. Fig.

  15. Preventive maintenance for computer systems - concepts & issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performing preventive maintenance activities for the computer is not optional. The computer is a sensitive and delicate device that needs adequate time and attention to make it work properly. In this paper, the concept and issues on how to prolong the life span of the system, that is, the way to make the system last long and ...

  16. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  17. Reliability theory with applications to preventive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2000-01-01

    The material in this book was first presented as a one-semester course in Relia­ bility Theory and Preventive Maintenance for M.Sc. students of the Industrial Engineering Department of Ben Gurion University in the 1997/98 and 1998/99 academic years. Engineering students are mainly interested in the applied part of this theory. The value of preventive maintenance theory lies in the possibility of its imple­ mentation, which crucially depends on how we handle statistical reliability data. The very nature of the object of reliability theory - system lifetime - makes it extremely difficult to collect large amounts of data. The data available are usu­ ally incomplete, e.g. heavily censored. Thus, the desire to make the course material more applicable led me to include in the course topics such as mod­ eling system lifetime distributions (Chaps. 1,2) and the maximum likelihood techniques for lifetime data processing (Chap. 3). A course in the theory of statistics is aprerequisite for these lectures. Stan­ dard...

  18. 14 CFR 43.3 - Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., are listed in appendix A. (b) The holder of a mechanic certificate may perform maintenance, preventive... is no certificated mechanic available to perform preventive maintenance; (4) The certificate holder... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to perform maintenance...

  19. Complete guide to preventive and predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This book shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Unlike other books that only focus on the engineering issues (task lists) or management issues (CMMS), this in-depth resource is the first to give true emphasize to the four aspects of success in preventive maintenance systems - engineering, management, economic, and psychological - thereby enabling readers to have a balanced view and understanding of what is happening in their organizations. Additionally, it blends concrete actionable steps and structures with the theory behind the steps. It includes check sheets, history of PM, stories, photographs, and case histories. It contains a glossary of terms. It provides sample task lists for a variety of equipment with some of the logic behind each task. It offers templates for developing your own tasking. It includes protocols for detailed economic analysis with examples.

  20. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  1. Preventive Maintenance for Local Government Buildings: A Best Practices Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Jody; Bombach, Valerie; Mohr, Caryn; Masse, Ann

    This report identifies seven strategic practices for effectively managing preventive maintenance of Minnesota school district, city, and county buildings; and profiles local jurisdictions currently using them. The following best practices for preventive maintenance are recommended: (1) inventory building components and assess their conditions; (2)…

  2. Preventive Maintenance. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Louis

    This text is intended to provide students with basic information on conducting preventive maintenance on agricultural machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: the importance of preventive maintenance and recommended service intervals; engine intake and exhaust systems (air cleaners, turbochargers, intake and exhaust…

  3. Comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision.

  4. Joint optimization of production scheduling and machine group preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Lei; Song, Sanling; Chen, Xiaohui; Coit, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Joint optimization models were developed combining group preventive maintenance of a series system and production scheduling. In this paper, we propose a joint optimization model to minimize the total cost including production cost, preventive maintenance cost, minimal repair cost for unexpected failures and tardiness cost. The total cost depends on both the production process and the machine maintenance plan associated with reliability. For the problems addressed in this research, any machine unavailability leads to system downtime. Therefore, it is important to optimize the preventive maintenance of machines because their performance impacts the collective production processing associated with all machines. Too lengthy preventive maintenance intervals may be associated with low scheduled machine maintenance cost, but may incur expensive costs for unplanned failure due to low machine reliability. Alternatively, too frequent preventive maintenance activities may achieve the desired high reliability machines, but unacceptably high scheduled maintenance cost. Additionally, product scheduling plans affect tardiness and maintenance cost. Two results are obtained when solving the problem; the optimal group preventive maintenance interval for machines, and the assignment of each job, including the corresponding start time and completion time. To solve this non-deterministic polynomial-time problem, random keys genetic algorithms are used, and a numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed model. - Highlights: • Group preventive maintenance (PM) planning and production scheduling are jointed. • Maintenance interval and assignment of jobs are decided by minimizing total cost. • Relationships among system age, PM, job processing time are quantified. • Random keys genetic algorithms (GA) are used to solve the NP-hard problem. • Random keys GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are compared.

  5. Maintenance operation by divers on a swimming-pool type reactor (Osiris, CEN Saclay). Technical and medical prevention: an example of multidisciplinary ergonomic step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, C.; Martin, L.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance works in a swimming-pool reactor was performed by a team of divers. A multidisciplinary ergonomic study had previously defined the working procedure. The ergonomic approach is analysed. The divers' working techniques are described. After work, medical tests showed that previsions were verified and proved the methods as safe. This technique by divers' interventions should open new possibilities in nuclear industry [fr

  6. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the process of a parquet enterprise's transition to preventive maintenance which has been implementing maintenance technique in case of breakdown was investigated. During that transition process, follow up forms for maintenance–repair, breakdown and spare parts were prepared and the implementation ...

  7. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  8. The economy of preventive maintenance of concrete bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The most economical approach to maintain existing concrete bridges is by adopting an active preventive maintenance : approach. An in-depth investigation of the combined deterioration effects of various deterioration mechanisms is needed : to establis...

  9. Best practices and performance assessment for preventive maintenance treatments for Virginia pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Preventive maintenance has the potential to improve network condition by retarding future pavement deterioration. This : report outlines guidelines for implementing a preventive maintenance policy for bituminous pavements. : Preventive maintenance tr...

  10. Integrated preventive maintenance and production decisions for imperfect processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil; Ben-Daya, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates production, maintenance, and quality for an imperfect process in a multi-period multi-product capacitated lot-sizing context. The production system is modeled as an imperfect machine, whose the status is considered to be either in-control or out-of-control. When the machine is out of control, it produces a fraction of nonconforming items. During each period, this machine is inspected and imperfect preventive maintenance activities are simultaneously performed to reduce its age, proportional to the preventive maintenance level. The objective is to minimize the total cost, while satisfying the demand for all products. Our optimization model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values of production plan, and the maintenance policy, while taking into account quality related costs. A solution algorithm is developed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. It is found that the increase in PM level leads to reductions in quality control costs. Furthermore, if the cost of performing PM is high to the point where it is not compensated for by reductions in the quality related costs, then performing PM is not justifiable. Finally, using non-periodic preventive maintenance with the possibility of different preventive maintenance levels may result in an improvement of the total cost. - Highlights: • We integrate production, maintenance, and quality. • We evaluate all the expected costs. • Our model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values. • A solution algorithm is developed. • Increasing PM level will decrease quality control costs.

  11. Reusable rocket engine preventive maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jiawen; Jin, Ping; Cai, Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the preventive maintenance (PM) scheduling problem of reusable rocket engine (RRE), which is different from the ordinary repairable systems, by genetic algorithm. Three types of PM activities for RRE are considered and modeled by introducing the concept of effective age. The impacts of PM on all subsystems' aging processes are evaluated based on improvement factor model. Then the reliability of engine is formulated by considering the accumulated time effect. After that, optimization model subjected to reliability constraint is developed for RRE PM scheduling at fixed interval. The optimal PM combination is obtained by minimizing the total cost in the whole life cycle for a supposed engine. Numerical investigations indicate that the subsystem's intrinsic reliability characteristic and the improvement factor of maintain operations are the most important parameters in RRE's PM scheduling management

  12. Preventative maintenance plan for emergency pumping trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose/goal of this document is to identify the maintenance requirements and resources available to properly maintain the readiness and condition of the Emergency Pumping Equipment controlled by the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Farms Plant Engineering and Tank Stabilization Operations. This equipment is intended to pump a single-shell tank (SST) that has been identified as an assumed leaking tank. The goal is to commence pumping (submersible or jet) as soon as safely possible after identifying a SST as an assumed leaking tank. Important information pertaining to the Emergency Pumping Equipment, Over-Ground Piping installation, and procedures is found in WHC-SD-WM-AP-005, ''Single Shell Tank Leak Emergency Pumping Guide.''

  13. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proposing New Heuristic Approaches for Preventive Maintenance Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid Esmailian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preventive maintenance management is to perform a series of tasks that prevent or minimize production breakdowns and improve reliability of production facilities. An important objective of preventive maintenance management is to minimize downtime of production facilities. In order to accomplish this objective, personnel should efficiently allocate resources and determine an effective maintenance schedule. Gopalakrishnan (1997 developed a mathematical model and four heuristic approaches to solve the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of assigning skilled personnel to work with tasks that require a set of corresponding skills. However, there are several limitations in the prior work in this area of research. The craft combination problem has not been solved because the craft combination is assumed as given. The craft combination problem concerns the computation of all combinations of assigning multi skilled workers to accomplishment of a particular task. In fact, determining craft combinations is difficult because of the exponential number of craft combinations that are possible. This research provides a heuristic approach for determining the craft combination and four new heuristic approach solution for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem with multi skilled workforce constraints. In order to examine the new heuristic approach and to compare the new heuristic approach with heuristic approach of Gopalakrishnan (1997, 81 standard problems have been generated based on the criterion suggested by from Gopalakrishnan (1997. The average solution quality (SQ of the new heuristic approaches is 1.86% and in old heuristic approaches is 8.32%. The solution time of new heuristic approaches are shorter than old heuristic approaches. The solution time of new heuristic approaches is 0.78 second and old heuristic approaches is 6.43 second, but the solution time of mathematical model provided by Gopalakrishnan (1997 is 152 second.

  15. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE USING RELIABILITY CENTRED MAINTENANCE (RCM: A CASE STUDY OF A FERROCHROME MANUFACTURING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: High productivity in industry requires high equipment reliability and plant availability. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the management of preventive maintenance by application of the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM, targeting a ferrochrome processing plant. The research points out that preventive maintenance is often neglected, affecting process continuity, and thus compromising product quality due to drops and fluctuations in operating temperature. These breakdowns tend to be frequent and longer, thus affecting production targets. Start-up failures are also experienced after carrying out maintenance. The maintenance department is affected by the unpredictability of the equipment’s operational patterns, and faces challenges in coming up with an effective spare part inventory management regime. This leads to crisis management, thereby increasing the direct cost of maintenance. RCM is used to create a cost-effective preventive maintenance strategy to address the dominant causes of equipment failure. The result is a maintenance programme that focuses scarce economic resources on those items that would cause the most disruption if they were to fail, and thereby increases production.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Industriële produktiwiteit word ten nouste beïnvloed deur uitnemende betroubaarheid en beskikbaarheid van aanlegtoerusting en vervaardigingstelsels. Hierdie navorsing is toegespits op die bestuur van voorkomende instandhouding (VI met betroubaarheidsgedrewe instandhouding (BGI by ‘n ferrochroomaanleg. Klem word daarop gelê dat VI dikwels geïgnoreer word wat daartoe lei dat produkgehalte verswak. Soos produksieonderbrekings toeneem, word vervaardigingsdoelwitte nie bereik nie vir verskeie redes. Die onderneming se instandhoudingsafdeling is gevolglik nie daartoe instaat om instandhouding doelmatig te verrig nie. Instandhoudingskoste neem ook toe.
    BGI voorsien ‘n koste

  16. Development of laser preventive maintenance technology and application for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, M.; Saeki, R.; Kato, H.; Chida, I.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a laser peening technology to prevent the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on nuclear reactor in-core components. Since 2004, we started to apply it to PWRs and have practiced it three times successfully for Ikata-1,2 of Shikoku Electric Power Company as the SCC preventive maintenance technology for Alloy 600 materials. It is expected the laser peening technology will be applied to many other plants. (author)

  17. The cost function for the preventive - maintenance replacement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Jose Perez

    1994-01-01

    Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...

  18. Preventive maintenance - An important element in the `risk management` philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullev, Lars [VEKS (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    The contents of the paper is a presentation of the company VEKS with particular focus on the connection between preventive maintenance and the `Risk Management` philosophy. Implementation of Risk Management was preferred instead of an ISO-9000 certification of the company. The experience is that the responsibility in the organisation has been increased. (au)

  19. Strategy and Management Guideline on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...

  20. Condition monitoring a key component in the preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, C.

    2006-01-01

    The preventive maintenance programs are necessary to ensure that nuclear safety significant equipment will function when it is supposed to. Diesel generator, pumps, motor operated valves and air operated control valves are typically operated every three months. When you drive a car, you depend on lot of sounds, the feel of the steering wheel and gauges to determine if the car is running correctly. Similarly with operating equipment for a power plant - sounds or vibration of the equipment or the gauges and test equipment indicate a problem or degradation, actions are taken to correct the deficiency. Due to safety and economical reason diagnostic and monitoring systems are of growing interest in all complex industrial production. Diagnostic systems are requested to detect, diagnose and localize faulty operating conditions at an early stage in order to prevent severe failures and to enable predictive and condition oriented maintenance. In this context it is a need for using various on-line and off-line condition monitoring and diagnostics, non-destructive inspection techniques and surveillance. The condition monitoring technique used in nuclear power plant Cernavoda are presented in this paper. The selection of components and parameters to be monitored, monitoring and diagnostics techniques used are incorporated into a preventive maintenance program. Modern measurement technique in combination with advanced computerized data processing and acquisition show new ways in the field of machine surveillance. The diagnostic capabilities of predictive maintenance technologies have increased recently year with advances made in sensor technologies. The paper will focus on the following condition monitoring technique: - oil analysis - acoustic leakage monitoring - thermography - valve diagnostics: motor operated valve, air operated valve and check valve - motor current signature - vibration monitoring and rotating machine monitoring and diagnostics For each condition monitoring

  1. Status on system inspection and preventive maintenance of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kwag, Byung-Ho

    1999-01-01

    The HANARO is a 30 MW open pool type multi-purpose research reactor with forced light water coolant/moderator flows and heavy water annular reflector. The relatively small reactor core uses a low enriched fuel and is designed to maximize the power density, thus providing the required neutron flux for various research activities. It is mainly used for radioisotope production, nuclear material testing and neutron physics experiments. The initial criticality was achieved February 1995. Considering the importance of their functionality from the safety point of view, some components and equipment are categorized into a nuclear safety grade. There are three different inspection activities for the various reactor systems and components - a Surveillance Inspection(SI) for the safety grades and a Periodic Inspection (PI) for the non-safety grades and In-Service Inspection (ISI) for the ASME Sec.III components. All of the SIs are specified and required by the safety analysis report. The SI also differs from the PI in such a point that all kinds of activities for the SIs should be accompanied by an appropriate quality assurance, while for the PIs it is not necessarily mandatory. In addition, the inspection results for the SIs should go through an examination from regulatory body every two years and specific functions of the critical components or systems are demonstrated under the witness by the governmental inspector. The ISI is required and carried out as per international codes and standards as well as Korean atomic energy regulations. There are 54 SIs, 25 PIs and 4 ISIs for the HANARO. This paper concentrates on the managing strategy and its practices for the SIs and ISIs of the safety-related components, currently being done at HANARO. Most parts of the inspections fall into a group for the periodic performance testing and/or equipment calibration. Some mechanical inspections like a torque measurement are grouped into a preventive maintenance. Lastly the ASME Sec

  2. A PSO approach for preventive maintenance scheduling optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.N.A.; Lapa, C.M.F.; Mol, A.C.A.; Luz, A.F. da

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for preventive maintenance policy optimization, focused in reliability and cost. The probabilistic model for reliability and cost evaluation is developed in such a way that flexible intervals between maintenance are allowed. As PSO is skilled for realcoded continuous spaces, a non-conventional codification has been developed in order to allow PSO to solve scheduling problems (which is discrete) with variable number of maintenance interventions. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop PWR has been considered. Results demonstrate ability in finding optimal solutions, for which expert knowledge had to be automatically discovered by PSO. (author)

  3. Design of preventive maintenance system using the reliability engineering and maintenance value stream mapping methods in PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Angelita, S.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a company owned by non-governmental organizations engaged in the field of production of rubber processing becoming crumb rubber. Part of the production is supported by some of machines and interacting equipment to achieve optimal productivity. Types of the machine that are used in the production process are Conveyor Breaker, Breaker, Rolling Pin, Hammer Mill, Mill Roll, Conveyor, Shredder Crumb, and Dryer. Maintenance system in PT. XYZ is corrective maintenance i.e. repairing or replacing the engine components after the crash on the machine. Replacement of engine components on corrective maintenance causes the machine to stop operating during the production process is in progress. The result is in the loss of production time due to the operator must replace the damaged engine components. The loss of production time can impact on the production targets which were not reached and lead to high loss costs. The cost for all components is Rp. 4.088.514.505. This cost is really high just for maintaining a Mill Roll Machine. Therefore PT. XYZ is needed to do preventive maintenance i.e. scheduling engine components and improving maintenance efficiency. The used methods are Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping (MVSM). The needed data in this research are the interval of time damage to engine components, opportunity cost, labor cost, component cost, corrective repair time, preventive repair time, Mean Time To Opportunity (MTTO), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), and Mean Time To Yield (MTTY). In this research, the critical components of Mill Roll machine are Spier, Bushing, Bearing, Coupling and Roll. Determination of damage distribution, reliability, MTTF, cost of failure, cost of preventive, current state map, and future state map are done so that the replacement time for each critical component with the lowest maintenance cost and preparation of Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) are developed. For the critical component that has been

  4. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older technology devices and predictive maintenance for newer high-tech devices. For preventive maintenance development, 589 older technology devices were subjected to performance verification and safety testing (PVST). For predictive maintenance development, the manufacturers' recommendations were used for 134 high-tech devices. These strategies were evaluated in terms of device reliability. This study recommends the use of two different maintenance strategies for old and new devices at hospitals in developing countries. Thus, older technology devices that applied only corrective maintenance will be included in maintenance like high-tech devices. PMID:27195666

  5. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older technology devices and predictive maintenance for newer high-tech devices. For preventive maintenance development, 589 older technology devices were subjected to performance verification and safety testing (PVST). For predictive maintenance development, the manufacturers' recommendations were used for 134 high-tech devices. These strategies were evaluated in terms of device reliability. This study recommends the use of two different maintenance strategies for old and new devices at hospitals in developing countries. Thus, older technology devices that applied only corrective maintenance will be included in maintenance like high-tech devices.

  6. Group decision making applied to preventive maintenance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zanazzi, José Luis; Gomes, Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro; Dimitroff, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an application in group decision making, aimed at developing a procedure to help define priorities in preventive maintenance activities. The method applied is called DRV Processes (Decision with Reduction of Variability) and it combines both statistical techniques and multicriteria decision aid procedures. Among its advantages, we may highlight the possibility of reducing the noise affecting information in group decision making and of reaching a consensual decision. This ...

  7. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  8. Optimizing preventive maintenance policy : A data-driven application for a light rail braking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Kraijema, S.; Godjevac, M.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study determining the optimal preventive maintenance policy for a light rail rolling stock system in terms of reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. The maintenance policy defines one of the three predefined preventive maintenance actions at fixed time-based

  9. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  10. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  11. After reliability centred maintenance. Preventive maintenance living program implementation at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, Michael L.; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial preventive maintenance (PM) programs represent a large part of plant O and M costs. PM Optimization (PMO) projects represent an effective mechanism for identifying unnecessary PM, extending PM intervals and infusing predictive maintenance (PdM) methods. However, once optimized, what process prevents the PM program from returning to a state of disarray? This is the function of a PM living program (PMLP). In 1997, an independent performance assessment identified concerns with the applicability and effectiveness of all Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (OPGI) PM programs. In response, OPGI instituted an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and a PMLP. It should be noted that the PMLP was developed for the 3 OPGI nuclear Sites (i.e. Bruce, Pickering, and Darlington). Effective 1 May 2001, the Bruce Site has been leased to a group of investors lead by British Energy. This paper is written in historical context and therefore refers to the Bruce Site as part of OPGI. The PMLP is made up of five elements: 1) process control, 2) change control, 3) worker feedback, 4) program performance metrics, and 5) deferral module. A PMLP software tool, originally applied to Duke Energy nuclear plants, was enhanced and customized specifically for the OPGI PMLP, and then implemented at all three of OPGI's nuclear sites. The objective of the OPGI PMLP was to: Provide processes/procedures for continual optimization of all site PM tasks, Ensure effective and timely revision of PM tasks in the work management system, Ensure PM tasks remain applicable/effective at all times, Maintain and enhance PM consistency on a component, system and Site basis, Ensure that new predictive maintenance techniques are applied and integrated with the PM program, Ensure that mandated PM tasks are identified and executed, Provide a mechanism for craft feedback, Meet regulatory requirements for PM program effectiveness, and Provide PM task deferral

  12. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  13. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Florian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair and replacement activities as well as large revenue losses, mainly in the case of offshore wind farms. The recent development and evolution of condition monitoring techniques, as well as the fact that an increasing number of installed turbines are equipped with online monitoring systems, offers a large amount of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law approach. The model is used within a risk-based maintenance decision framework to optimize maintenance planning for the blades lifetime.

  14. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older tec...

  15. JIT single machine scheduling problem with periodic preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza; Shoja, Naghi; Zade, Amir Ebrahimi; Barak, Sasan; Sharifi, Mani

    2016-09-01

    This article investigates a JIT single machine scheduling problem with a periodic preventive maintenance. Also to maintain the quality of the products, there is a limitation on the maximum number of allowable jobs in each period. The proposed bi-objective mixed integer model minimizes total earliness-tardiness and makespan simultaneously. Due to the computational complexity of the problem, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is implemented. Also, as well as MOPSO, two other optimization algorithms are used for comparing the results. Eventually, Taguchi method with metrics analysis is presented to tune the algorithms' parameters and a multiple criterion decision making technique based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution is applied to choose the best algorithm. Comparison results confirmed the supremacy of MOPSO to the other algorithms.

  16. Group decision making applied to preventive maintenance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Zanazzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application in group decision making, aimed at developing a procedure to help define priorities in preventive maintenance activities. The method applied is called DRV Processes (Decision with Reduction of Variability and it combines both statistical techniques and multicriteria decision aid procedures. Among its advantages, we may highlight the possibility of reducing the noise affecting information in group decision making and of reaching a consensual decision. This approach generally improves the level of shared knowledge and helps to avoid conflict within the group. The application was carried out in a major pharmaceutical production plant. The experience showed an eighty per cent reduction in the original amount of process noise. Moreover, the paper describes evidence of improvement in interpersonal relationships.

  17. Preventive maintenance technique by temper bead welding for reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Ryuichi; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Moritatsu; Nakamura, Yasuo; Hirano, Shinro

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant has some dissimilar weld joint between main components which are made of Low Alloy Steel and piping which is made of Stainless Steel. Previous plants' dissimilar weld joints are made of Alloy 600 which is low resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). It is reported that PWSCC is occurred in some plants. The preventive maintenance technique against PWSCC is needed immediately. One solution is the improvement of the material, for example, the inner surface of Alloy 600 is replaced by welding Alloy 690 which is high resistance to PWSCC. Generally, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of low alloy steel after welding is required Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), but it is so hard that this operation has to be accomplished in site. So it is necessary to attempt the improvement of HAZ by temper bead welding which isn't needed PWHT. Temper bead welding is that HAZ of 1st weld layer is appropriately covered with heat of after 2nd weld layer, then the mechanical performance of HAZ is improved as well as PWHT. Conventional temper bead welding is required pre-heat and post-heat treatment. However it is impossible to set up the heater due to environment around the dissimilar weld joint in some plants, the development of ambient temperature temper bead welding technique which isn't needed pre-heat and post-heat treatment is expected. It is confirmed that the mechanical performance and the material texture are improved by setting the appropriate welding condition with many welding test pieces. Then, the preventive maintenances called INLAY method are completed in some actual plants. (author)

  18. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  19. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo; Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion; Nieva, Marcelino Curiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  20. Maintenance of systemic immune functions prevents accelerated presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Baba, Susumu; Omae, Mariko; Lee, Shinryu; Yamashita, Toshio; Ikehara, Susumu

    2008-05-07

    There is no effective therapy for progressive hearing loss such as presbycusis, the causes of which remain poorly understood because of the difficulty of separating genetic and environmental contributions. In the present study, we show that the age-related dysfunctions of the systemic immune system in an animal model of accelerated presbycusis (SAMP1, senescence-accelerated mouse P1) can be corrected by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We also demonstrate that this presbycusis can be prevented; BMT protects the recipients from age-related hearing impairment and the degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) as well as the dysfunctions of T lymphocytes, which have a close relation to immune senescence. No donor cells are infiltrated to the spiral ganglia, confirming that this experimental system using BMT is connected to the systemic immune system and does not contribute to transdifferentiation or fusion by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), or to the direct maintenance of ganglion cells by locally infiltrated donor immunocompetent cells. Therefore, another procedure which attempts to prevent the age-related dysfunctions of the recipient immune system is the inoculation of syngeneic splenocytes from young donors. These mice show no development of hearing loss, compared with the recipient mice with inoculation of saline or splenocytes from old donors. Our studies on the relationship between age-related systemic immune dysfunctions and neurodegeneration mechanisms open up new avenues of treatment for presbycusis, for which there is no effective therapy.

  1. Balancing preventive and corrective maintenance in Cernavoda Unit 1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.; Marinescu, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a short reminder of Romania's Cernavoda NPP entering commercial operation and a brief description of the CANDU-6 project on which Unit 1 is based. The short term objectives of the maintenance management, the status of the existing maintenance programmes as well as future predictable maintenance programmes are outlined together with the Government plan to complete the balance of NPP. (author)

  2. RCM optimization of a system under both preventive and corrective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bris, R.; Cepin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Testing and maintenance activities of power electrical equipment are an important potential for both risk and cost reduction. A multi-objective maintenance optimization method is presented based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) technique. The method determines the optimal schedule of preventive maintenance actions based on minimization both selected risk measure and cost. Applied cost model takes into account both preventive and corrective maintenance. This paper also presents application of the methodology to optimize maintenance of a real distribution network 22 kV. Conclusions and recommendations for practice are made on the basis of obtained results. (author)

  3. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  4. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SYSTEM DENGAN MODULARITY DESIGN SEBAGAI SOLUSI PENURUNAN BIAYA MAINTAINANCE (Studi Kasus di Perusahaan Tepung Ikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianingsih Julianingsih

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mofularity design has been applied in many European countries, especially in industrial assembling and manufacturing. Modularity design cause manufacture process and assembly process easier and cheaper. Many industries in Indonesia usually doing corrective maintenance or preventive maintenance. So, in this research, modularity design will be applied in preventive maintenance in fish mill Indonesian factory. In this research, corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance cost will be compared to preventive maintenance cost using modularity design. From the research, the application of preventive maintenance using modularity design reduces cost up to 35.98% from the initial condition (corrective maintenance Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Modularity design telah banyak diterapkan di negara-negara Eropa terutama dalam hal perakitan dan manufaktur di bidang industri. Modularity design menyebabkan proses manufaktur dan perakitannya lebih sederhana dan murah. Perusahaan-perusahaan di Indonesia biasanya lebih banyak melakukan kegiatan corrective maintenance atau preventive mainternance. Dalam penelitian ini, modularity design dicoba diterapkan dalam kegiatan preventive maintenance di perusahaan tepung ikan di Indonesia. Pada penelitian ini dibandingkan biaya yang diperlukan untuk kegiatan corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance dan preventive maintenance dengan modularity design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan penerapan preventive maintenance dengan modularity design dapat menurunkan biaya sebesar 35,98% dari keadaan awal (corrective maintenance. Kata kunci: corrective maintenance, preventive maintenance, modularity design.

  5. Preventive maintenance for mechanical components; Vorbeugende Instandhaltung fuer mechanische Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Schuler, X. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA); Schoeckle, F. [AMTEC Messtechnischer Service GmbH, Lauffen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear power stations as in other industrial plants, there are active and passive components whose failure is permissible only in exceptional cases both from a safety and/or economic view. Failure in this context means loss of integrity of a supporting wall, insufficient function and/or unstoppable leakage. A systematic defect must be excluded as cause of failure; the consequences of failure must be manageable. During operation, measures must be taken to maintain the required quality and detect consequences of damage mechanisms at an early stage, prior to failure. This is achieved by preventive maintenance in accordance with the latest state of knowledge. To exclude systematic errors, the quality standard of components must be re-checked every once in a while as the effects of damage mechanisms and the state of knowledge are time-dependent parameters. This requires an integrated concept, e.g. for life and ageing management, in whose context a comprehensive knowledge base is developed and regularly updated. (orig.)

  6. Preventive maintenance: optimization of time - based discard decisions at the bruce nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.K.; Jardine, A.K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, several innovative practices reduced Reliability Centered Maintenance costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is in place where an Expert Panel consisting of all players/experts proceed through each system in a disciplined fashion and reach agreement on all items under a rigorous time frame. It is well known that there are essentially 3 maintenance based actions that can flow from a Maintenance Optimization Analysis: condition based maintenance, time based maintenance and time based discard. The present effort deals with time based discard decisions. Maintenance data from the Remote On-Power Fuel Changing System was used. (author)

  7. Wind turbine blade life-time assessment model for preventive planning of operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O......&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law...

  8. Optimizing preventive maintenance policy: A data-driven application for a light rail braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Francesco; Kraijema, Sander; Godjevac, Milinko; Lodewijks, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a case study determining the optimal preventive maintenance policy for a light rail rolling stock system in terms of reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. The maintenance policy defines one of the three predefined preventive maintenance actions at fixed time-based intervals for each of the subsystems of the braking system. Based on work, maintenance, and failure data, we model the reliability degradation of the system and its subsystems under the current maintenance policy by a Weibull distribution. We then analytically determine the relation between reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. We validate the model against recorded reliability and availability and get further insights by a dedicated sensitivity analysis. The model is then used in a sequential optimization framework determining preventive maintenance intervals to improve on the key performance indicators. We show the potential of data-driven modelling to determine optimal maintenance policy: same system availability and reliability can be achieved with 30% maintenance cost reduction, by prolonging the intervals and re-grouping maintenance actions.

  9. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  10. An Optimal Number-Dependent Preventive Maintenance Strategy for Offshore Wind Turbine Blades Considering Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shafiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In offshore wind turbines, the blades are among the most critical and expensive components that suffer from different types of damage due to the harsh maritime environment and high load. The blade damages can be categorized into two types: the minor damage, which only causes a loss in wind capture without resulting in any turbine stoppage, and the major (catastrophic damage, which stops the wind turbine and can only be corrected by replacement. In this paper, we propose an optimal number-dependent preventive maintenance (NDPM strategy, in which a maintenance team is transported with an ordinary or expedited lead time to the offshore platform at the occurrence of the Nth minor damage or the first major damage, whichever comes first. The long-run expected cost of the maintenance strategy is derived, and the necessary conditions for an optimal solution are obtained. Finally, the proposed model is tested on real data collected from an offshore wind farm database. Also, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of changes in the model parameters on the optimal solution.

  11. Preventive maintenance optimization for a multi-component system under changing job shop schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojun; Lu Zhiqiang; Xi Lifeng

    2012-01-01

    Variability and small lot size is a common feature for many discrete manufacturing processes designed to meet a wide array of customer needs. Because of this, job shop schedule often has to be continuously updated in reaction to changes in production plan. Generally, the aim of preventive maintenance is to ensure production effectiveness and therefore the preventive maintenance models must have the ability to be adaptive to changes in job shop schedule. In this paper, a dynamic opportunistic preventive maintenance model is developed for a multi-component system with considering changes in job shop schedule. Whenever a job is completed, preventive maintenance opportunities arise for all the components in the system. An optimal maintenance practice is dynamically determined by maximizing the short-term cumulative opportunistic maintenance cost savings for the system. The numerical example shows that the scheme obtained by the proposed model can effectively address the preventive maintenance scheduling problem caused by the changes in job shop schedule and is more efficient than the ones based on two other commonly used preventive maintenance models.

  12. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  13. Preventive and corrective maintenance for MINT EPS 3000 electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Shaari Jahar

    2005-01-01

    Preventive and corrective maintenance of a high energy electron is to ensure that the machine would not fail during operation. MINT's EPS 3000 electron beam machine has been in operation for almost 12 years. Throughout those years, events relating to scheduled overhauls and unscheduled corrective maintenance had provided invaluable experience in the form of informal maintenance training to the operators. With the implementation of ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System at the facility, the preventive and corrective maintenance program is becoming more structured and orderly. Collected maintenance data shall be used to initiate continual improvement activities in the facility.This paper describes MINT-ALURTRON's 12 years experience in providing maintenance work for the EPS 3000. (Author)

  14. Diagnostics of heavy mining equipment during the scheduled preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, M. Yu; Kuryshkin, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Intensification of production, economic globalization and dramatic downgrade of the workers’ professional skills lead to unacceptable technical state of heavy mining equipment. Equipment maintenance outage reaches 84 % of the total downtime, of which emergency maintenance takes up to 36 % of time, that excesses 429 hours per year fr one excavator. It is shown that yearly diagnostics using methods of non-destructive check allows to reduce emergency downtime by 47 %, and 55 % of revealed defects can be eliminated without breaking the technological cycle of the equipment.

  15. A methodology based in particle swarm optimization algorithm for preventive maintenance focused in reliability and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, Andre Ferreira da

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO) is developed for preventive maintenance optimization. The proposed methodology, which allows the use flexible intervals between maintenance interventions, instead of considering fixed periods (as usual), allows a better adaptation of scheduling in order to deal with the failure rates of components under aging. Moreover, because of this flexibility, the planning of preventive maintenance becomes a difficult task. Motivated by the fact that the PSO has proved to be very competitive compared to other optimization tools, this work investigates the use of PSO as an alternative tool of optimization. Considering that PSO works in a real and continuous space, it is a challenge to use it for discrete optimization, in which scheduling may comprise variable number of maintenance interventions. The PSO model developed in this work overcome such difficulty. The proposed PSO searches for the best policy for maintaining and considers several aspects, such as: probability of needing repair (corrective maintenance), the cost of such repairs, typical outage times, costs of preventive maintenance, the impact of maintaining the reliability of systems as a whole, and the probability of imperfect maintenance. To evaluate the proposed methodology, we investigate an electro-mechanical system consisting of three pumps and four valves, High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a PWR. Results show that PSO is quite efficient in finding the optimum preventive maintenance policies for the HPIS. (author)

  16. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... extend the equipment life are lubrication, cleaning, ad- justing, and minor component replacement (Tomlingson,. 1993). This is realized based on a plan drawn up so as to decrease breakdown frequency (Karaoglan et al., 2007). In which maintenance times the machines will be maintained by pausing them ...

  17. Identification of Optimal Preventive Maintenance Decisions for Composite Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laks, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Gherman, B.; Porumbel, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a decision support tool which identifies cost-optimal maintenance decisions for a given planning period. Simultaneously, the reliability state of the component is kept at or below a given reliability threshold: a failure limit policy applies. The tool is developed to support

  18. Effect of Preventive Maintenance on Performance of Air Heater in a Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Hyung; Hong, Eun Kee; Hwang, Kwang Won; Yun, Rin

    2010-01-01

    Air heater used in power plant helps increase the thermal efficiency of the boiler by recovering the heat from the boiler flue gas and thus preventing the loss of useful heat. This study investigates the effect of preventive maintenance on the performance of the air heater in a power plant. Performance indexes for the air heater are calculated to observe the changes in the performance and operation status of the air heater before and after preventive maintenance. The major performance indexes considered are temperature efficiency of the flue gas side, air leakage rate, heat recovery rate, heat transmission rate, and heat capacity ratio. The performance of the air heater is evaluated before and after preventive maintenance; our results show that all the above mentioned performance indexes are improved after the maintenance

  19. Preventive maintenance and the interval availability distribution of an unreliable production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen, G.C.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, the optimal preventive maintenance interval for an unreliable production system has been determined by maximizing its limiting availability. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that this performance measure does not always provide relevant information for practical purposes. This is

  20. PVA fiber reinforced shotcrete for rehabilitation and preventative maintenance of aging culverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the potential for using PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber : reinforced mortar for the rehabilitation and preventative maintenance of aging metal highway : drainage culverts using a spray-on liner application ap...

  1. Preventative and predictive maintenance as a function of spare part management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRose, R.; Sloski, P.

    2006-01-01

    Preventive and predictive maintenance has many aspects, such as vibration monitoring, lubricating oil analysis, thermography etc. This presentation focuses on the material and design application of sealing devices. (author)

  2. Application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan alzahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Alikhani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Survey of application and preventive maintenance of neurology medical equipment in Isfahan Alzahra hospital show there is no P.M system. Implementing a complete P.M system for this medical center is crucial to preventing cause problems for these medical equipment and decreasing maintenance costs and gaining uptime. Researchers of this article have tried to provide PM, use of texts, web and experts.

  3. Optimum policies for a system with general imperfect maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Liao, G.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers periodic preventive maintenance policies, which maximizes the availability of a repairable system with major repair at failure. Three types of preventive maintenance are performed, namely: imperfect preventive maintenance (IPM), perfect preventive maintenance (PPM) and failed preventive maintenance (FPM). The probability that preventive maintenance is perfect depends on the number of imperfect maintenances conducted since the previous renewal cycle, and the probability that preventive maintenance remains imperfect is not increasing. The optimum preventive maintenance time that maximizes availability is derived. Various special cases are considered. A numerical example is given

  4. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR OPTIMAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE POLICY IN A STEEL INDUSTRY : SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. R. Naidu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a critical evaluation of the Preventive Maintenance system in steel industry. This study helps in implementing Six Sigma solutions to reduce the down time of two critical machines i.e., Electric Arc Furnace (EAF and Billet Casting Machine (BCM. It is clear from the analysis of EAF and BCM respectively that, variations in output are quite possible because the machines output not only depend on maintenance time but also on several other variables. Further, the objective is to design a preventive maintenance programme on the same equipment situated in the plant using Six Sigma. The breakdown of these equipments could very well affect the production rate. For this, the mathematical models have been developed and these models are used to obtain the optimum preventive maintenance frequency for minimizing the down time and maximizing the profits.

  6. Maintenance of nuclear power plant equipment (WWER Type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghayan, Ali.

    1995-08-01

    Basic principals of nuclear power plant equipment and system maintenance is followed by maintenance strategies as basic principals for maintenance organization. The third chapter is about nuclear power operational occurrence due to maintenance. The fourth chapter discusses guide rule's of technical maintenance of nuclear power plant equipment and repair organization which is divided to three subsections: Equipment maintenance and repair system; procedure of equipment repair planning; and equipment repair preparation. The last chapter is about steam generator concept which is presented at the following subsections; overall sizing of steam generator/tube; selection of steam generator material; fracture toughness; fretting and vibration; corrosion related steam generator problem; design features to minimize corrosion; tube to tube sheet joints; The time of manufacturing cycle of steam generator; in service inspection of steam generator tube and tube plugging; Horizontal steam generator; Technical limits and safety rules; Repair work of steam generator; Overhaul repair steam generator

  7. Extended great deluge algorithm for the imperfect preventive maintenance optimization of multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahas, Nabil; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Ait-Kadi, Daoud; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with preventive maintenance optimization problem for multi-state systems (MSS). This problem was initially addressed and solved by Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. It consists on finding an optimal sequence of maintenance actions which minimizes maintenance cost while providing the desired system reliability level. This paper proposes an approach which improves the results obtained by genetic algorithm (GENITOR) in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. The considered MSS have a range of performance levels and their reliability is defined to be the ability to meet a given demand. This reliability is evaluated by using the universal generating function technique. An optimization method based on the extended great deluge algorithm is proposed. This method has the advantage over other methods to be simple and requires less effort for its implementation. The developed algorithm is compared to than in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203] by using a reference example and two newly generated examples. This comparison shows that the extended great deluge gives the best solutions (i.e. those with minimal costs) for 8 instances among 10

  8. Floating Train Data Systems for Preventive Maintenance: A Data Mining Approach

    OpenAIRE

    SAMMOURI, Wissam; COME, Etienne; OUKHELLOU, Latifa; AKNIN, Patrice; FONLLADOSA, Charles Eric

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand on railway transportation due to social, economic and demographic factors has triggered an evolution in preventive maintenance strategies towards more optimized and cost-effective processes. Within this context related to the increasing interest in predictive maintenance strategies, commercial trains are being equipped with both positioning and communication systems as well as onboard intelligent sensors monitoring various subsystems all over the train, thus providing...

  9. Preventive maintenance and load testing of fixed position cranes in support of major operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrick, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper will address load testing and preventive maintenance of fixed in-place cranes in general, and maintenance and load testing of the 200 ton Polar Gantry Crane at the FFTF in particular. This paper also covers the installation of a 100-ton bridge crane in the FFTF's Reactor Service Building, as well as use of these cranes in making important lifts of FFTF equipment

  10. Using risk-informed asset management for feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Ernest; Sun, Alice; Richards, Andrew; Grantom, Rick; Liming, James; Salter, James

    2004-01-01

    The initial development of a South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company process for supporting preventative maintenance optimization by applying the Balance-Of-Plant model and Risk-Informed Asset Management alpha-level software applications is presented. Preventative maintenance activities are evaluated in the South Texas Project Risk-Informed Asset Management software while the plant maintains or improves upon high levels of nuclear safety. In the Balance-Of-Plant availability application, the level of detail in the feedwater system is enhanced to support plant decision-making at the component failure mode and human error mode level of indenture by elaborating on the current model at the super-component level of indenture. The enhanced model and modeling techniques are presented. Results of case studies in feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization sing plant-specific data are also presented. (author)

  11. Preventive maintenance prosthodontics telescopic overdenture (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardiansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Missing of permanent teeth in adult patient without replacing them may lead to thedisturbance of such functions of mastication, aesthetics and phonetics. Besides, masticationorgans imbalance may happen, Missing of permanent teeth causing the more demand for replacing them that providesmore perfect elements which cannot be achieved by removable or fixed denture. Removable dentures attached by means of telescopic anchors are regarded to be a good clinical solution. This kind of restorations in patients with reduced and residual dentition gives an opportunity to reduce destructive rotational and horizontal occlusal forces by directing them more axially. It can also increase the stability of abutment teeth and protect them from pathologic migration, and, thus may enhance the functional effect of the prosthetic treatment.In addition to the Overdenture, can prevent alveolar bone resorption so that the denture does not quickly loose. This can be considered as a preventive treatment prosthodontics. This paper is expected to provide important information to save the remaining natural teeth, giving information retain natural teeth even with periodontal disorders and esthetics. Eventually provide an alternative solution in addition to conventional denture care. The conclusion is Overdenture treatment denture with telescopic been to improve the aesthetic, tooth retention, stabilization, and maintain the remaining teeth.

  12. Opportunities and supporting activities to promote preventive maintenance of NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, A.; Shinkawa, T.; Sakurada, M.

    1998-01-01

    With increase of the number of NPPs and operation history, enhancement of the safety regulation is becoming important for such long-operated NPPs. Centering on the comprehensive preventive maintenance, periodic safety reviews by utilities and its review and evaluation by MITI are in progress. The first reviews have not revealed essential and critical indications to be newly implemented. This means that the most of activities to secure reliability and safety have been done steadily. The present paper addresses the mechanism of on-going preventive maintenance and its essential elements: opportunities to identify issues and problems, and supporting activities to promote decision-makings on feedback, upgrading and modernization of NPPs. (author)

  13. Development of a Preventive Maintenance Program for Tooling Used in Powder Slush Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL

    2016-07-19

    ORNL collaborated with Faurecia Interior Systems to investigate the feasibility of developing a thermomagnetic preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling used in powder slush molding. It was found that thermal treatments at temperatures greater than 500°C can anneal strain hardening in nickel tooling and a range of temperatures and times for effective thermal annealing were identified. It was also observed that magnetic fields applied during thermal annealing do not alter the kinetics of strain hardening annealing. The results obtained in this investigation provide a foundation for establishing a preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling.

  14. Building Maintenance, Management, and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawsey, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Australian methods and formulas for funding building maintenance and management are outlined and found to be haphazard. Discussed are: ultimate costs of deferred maintenance, major plant replacements, life cycle costing, types of maintenance programs (including full preventive maintenance), use of computer programs for planning, and organization…

  15. Where does “whichever occurs first” hold for preventive maintenance modelings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Liu, Hu-Chen; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe where the classical assumption “whichever occurs first” holds for preventive maintenance (PM) modelings. We firstly take up a bivariate maintenance policy where “whichever occurs first” and the newly proposed “whichever occurs last” are respectively used. Modification of PM performance is introduced into modelings to avoid interruptions of job executions, that is, PMs are done only at the end of working cycles. From the points of performability and maintenance cost, we secondly compare the optimized “first” and “last” policies in detail and find two critical points of comparisons analytically. Further, by comparing the “first” and “last” policies with the standard maintenance, modified PM costs are obtained to observe whether it is easy to save PM cost for “whichever occurs first”. For a trivariate maintenance policy, we thirdly propose an entirely new assumption “whichever occurs middle” and give another one model that considers both assumptions of “first” and “last”. We analyze maintenance probabilities for each model and then obtain directly their expected maintenance cost rates for further studies. - Highlights: • A bivariate maintenance policy based on “whichever occurs first” is improved. • Two comparisons of “whichever occurs first and last” are made. • Modified maintenance costs are obtained to observe which policy could save more costs. • New assumption “whichever occurs middle” for the trivariate maintenances is proposed. • One policy is modeled by considering both assumptions of “first” and “last”

  16. A preventive maintenance policy based on dependent two-stage deterioration and external shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Peng, Rui; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a preventive maintenance policy for a single-unit system whose failure has two competing and dependent causes, i.e., internal deterioration and sudden shocks. The internal failure process is divided into two stages, i.e. normal and defective. Shocks arrive according to a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), leading to the failure of the system immediately. The occurrence rate of a shock is affected by the state of the system. Both an age-based replacement and finite number of periodic inspections are schemed simultaneously to deal with the competing failures. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal preventive replacement interval, inspection interval and number of inspections such that the expected cost per unit time is minimized. A case study on oil pipeline maintenance is presented to illustrate the maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A maintenance model based on two-stage deterioration and sudden shocks is developed. • The impact of internal system state on external shock process is studied. • A new preventive maintenance strategy combining age-based replacements and periodic inspections is proposed. • Postponed replacement of a defective system is provided by restricting the number of inspections.

  17. A two-stage preventive maintenance optimization model incorporating two-dimensional extended warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    In practice, customers can decide whether to buy an extended warranty or not, at the time of item sale or at the end of the basic warranty. In this paper, by taking into account the moments of customers purchasing two-dimensional extended warranty, the optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for repairable items is investigated from the manufacturer's perspective. A two-dimensional preventive maintenance strategy is proposed, under which the item is preventively maintained according to a specified age interval or usage interval, whichever occurs first. It is highlighted that when the extended warranty is purchased upon the expiration of the basic warranty, the manufacturer faces a two-stage preventive maintenance optimization problem. Moreover, in the second stage, the possibility of reducing the servicing cost over the extended warranty period is explored by classifying customers on the basis of their usage rates and then providing them with customized preventive maintenance programs. Numerical examples show that offering customized preventive maintenance programs can reduce the manufacturer's warranty cost, while a larger saving in warranty cost comes from encouraging customers to buy the extended warranty at the time of item sale. - Highlights: • A two-dimensional PM strategy is investigated. • Imperfect PM strategy is optimized by considering both two-dimensional BW and EW. • Customers are categorized based on their usage rates throughout the BW period. • Servicing cost of the EW is reduced by offering customized PM programs. • Customers buying the EW at the time of sale is preferred for the manufacturer.

  18. Hitachi advanced operating nuclear power plant total preventive maintenance management and service system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masamitsu; Jibu, Noboru; Abe, Kazuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The recent rate of operation of Japanese nuclear power stations attained the result exceeding 70 %, but in order to improve it further and maintain the high reliability, the preventive maintenance program of more elaborate and systematic must be planned and executed. However, in order to establish the plan for maintaining efficiently and with high accuracy the enormous machinery and equipment exceeding 60000 in a nuclear power station, the high advance by mechanization is indispensable. Therefore, Hitachi Ltd. has developed the total preventive maintenance system, and it has partially begun operation. This system has the function of the life diagnosis of machinery and equipment, in addition, it constructs the data base with the specifications of machinery and equipment, the history of checkup, the information on reliability in Japan and foreign countries and so on, and based on these information, the recommendation of checkup, the proposal of improving facilities and other items are to be summarized and offered to electric power companies. The preventive maintenance activities in Hitachi Ltd., the concept and the outline of the total preventive maintenance system are reported. (K.I.)

  19. An Enhanced Preventive Maintenance Optimization Model Based on a Three-Stage Failure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants are highly complex systems and the issues related to their safety are of primary importance. Probabilistic safety assessment is regarded as the most widespread methodology for studying the safety of nuclear power plants. As maintenance is one of the most important factors for affecting the reliability and safety, an enhanced preventive maintenance optimization model based on a three-stage failure process is proposed. Preventive maintenance is still a dominant maintenance policy due to its easy implementation. In order to correspond to the three-color scheme commonly used in practice, the lifetime of system before failure is divided into three stages, namely, normal, minor defective, and severe defective stages. When the minor defective stage is identified, two measures are considered for comparison: one is that halving the inspection interval only when the minor defective stage is identified at the first time; the other one is that if only identifying the minor defective stage, the subsequent inspection interval is halved. Maintenance is implemented immediately once the severe defective stage is identified. Minimizing the expected cost per unit time is our objective function to optimize the inspection interval. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  20. Presenting a model of repair and preventing maintenance of Bushehr nuclear power plants analyzing the data of similar nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikhan, Hammidreza

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increase application of nuclear energy for producing electricity, special attention must be paid to their maintenance activities in general and preventive maintenance in particular. It has been shown that a well established preventive maintenance programme will enhance the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. A model of preventive maintenance for Buhehr nuclear power plant which is due to be completed by 2001 is developed. The prescribed model is based on past experiences of VVER nuclear power plants around the world. The utilized data is provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. The data and past experiences reveal such important information as availability, energy loss, types of failures, duration of failure, etc. A strategy for designing a database is established. These data are then analyzed by statistical methods such as Pareto analysis, t-test, K-S test, analysis of variance, etc. The results of our analysis reveal important information in regard to establishment of a well-defined preventive maintenance programme in Buhshehr nuclear power plant. The results show that certain equipment such turbo-generator and control-rods play an important role in the maintenance of a VVER nuclear power plant. Other findings are discussed in great detail

  1. Development of a monitoring scheme for preventive maintenance of the cement machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajjaji, Malek; Boubeker, Brahim; Eljoumani, Safia; Zamma, Abdellah; Idiri, Mohamed; Atik, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    It was underscored that the optimization of policies of preventive maintenance has become a subject of much research. This article proposes a new optimal policy of preventive maintenance for the roller shaft system. It is divided into two main sections. The first proposes a new design of the shaft where the effect of preventive maintenance is integrated, and the second is developing a new control technique adapted to the new design. In this regard, we are interested in the shaft of rollers of the rotary kilns of cement. We have noted the stresses imposed to the axis of the roller. These constraints that have stemmed from the contact between tire and its support rollers. Currently the ultrasonic inspection method of the solid shaft in this situation poses disadvantages, for example, the obligation to stop the rotary Kiln and the difficulty of detecting and sizing defects (fatigue cracks). We propose in this study another approach, we recommend opting for a hollow shaft instead of a solid shaft with a minimum diameter that allows the control system to enter hollow shaft to show for inspection purposes. This will allow preventive control, in operation by the non-destructive technique of ultrasound. The analysis shows the different results of comparison between the axis of full and hollow cylinders, having the same dimensions and the same material and ultimately the most interesting is the same operation.

  2. Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.

  3. University of Tennessee - Industry collaborative research and development in preventive maintenance technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Preventive Maintenance Engineering Laboratory (PMEL) was inaugurated at the University of Tennessee Nuclear Engineering Department in September 1989. The startup funding was provided by Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc. The purpose of PMEL is to identify maintenance-related problems in the power and process industries and to find their solutions through the development and application of emerging technologies. These include advanced digital signal processing, applied artificial intelligence (AI), artificial neural networks, and reliability based methods. The Laboratory activities are being expanded by the formation of an industrial consortium within the Measurement and Control Engineering Center at the University of Tennessee. Several research and development projects in preventive maintenance are being carried out. These include condition monitoring of air operated valves, automated diagnostics of motor operated valves, instrument calibration, verification, and estimation of expected residual life of electric motors using applied AI technology and reliability-based methods. The new methodology will be applied to other industrial subsystems. A long-term research and development project is being sponsored by the T.V.A. Nuclear Maintenance Department. The overall objective of the research program is to develop and apply advanced artificial intelligence and information processing methods to the problems of plant performance monitoring and preventive maintenance. The program includes the development of a workstation/PC-based, networking of plant information for easy access to operational and management personnel, implementation of a sensor verification system, monitoring of feedwater flow venturi fouling and heat rate balance, and integration of signal validation, command validation, and fault-tolerant control strategies

  4. Joint Optimization of Preventive Maintenance and Spare Parts Inventory with Appointment Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of the wide application of condition-based maintenance (CBM in maintenance practice, the joint optimization of maintenance and spare parts inventory is becoming a hot research to take full advantage of CBM and reduce the operational cost. In order to avoid both the high inventory level and the shortage of spare parts, an appointment policy of spare parts is first proposed based on the prediction of remaining useful lifetime, and then a corresponding joint optimization model of preventive maintenance and spare parts inventory is established. Due to the complexity of the model, the combination method of genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo is presented to get the optimal maximum inventory level, safety inventory level, potential failure threshold, and appointment threshold to minimize the cost rate. Finally, the proposed model is studied through a case study and compared with both the separate optimization and the joint optimization without appointment policy, and the results show that the proposed model is more effective. In addition, the sensitivity analysis shows that the proposed model is consistent with the actual situation of maintenance practices and inventory management.

  5. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter J.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a

  6. The Nordic maintenance care program: the clinical use of identified indications for preventive care

    OpenAIRE

    Ax?n, Iben; Bodin, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and has been found to be recurrent and persistent in a majority of cases. Chiropractors have a preventive strategy, maintenance care (MC), aimed towards minimizing recurrence and progression of such conditions. The indications for recommending MC have been identified in the Nordic countries from hypothetical cases. This study aims to investigate whether these indications are indeed used in the clinical encounter. Methods Data were collec...

  7. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 8 -- Low voltage electric motors (600 V and below). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 8 of the report provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to low voltage (600 V and below) electric motors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  8. A comprehensive approach to RCM-based preventive maintenance program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.E.; Davis, T.; Pennington, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In late 1986, Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G) concluded that to support its vision and strategic planning it would be necessary to develop a consistent approach to maintenance for all nuclear units at the artificial island. General Physics Corporation was selected to lead a consultant team to support full-scale development of a preventive maintenance (PM) program for Salem and Hope Creek generating stations based on a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approach. RCM was selected because it represents a systematic approach to developing a PM program that provides a logical, consistent, and traceable methodology and produces a well-documented engineering basis for the program. Early in 1987, primary objectives for the PM program were defined. The Phase I tasks addressed key programmatic areas such as maintenance philosophy, procedures, condition monitoring, performance trending, equipment failure data base, ogranization, PM program effectiveness evaluation, RCM process, reliability/availability modeling, information management, training, spare parts, software/hardware, and commitments. Phase I of the PM program development project was completed in January 1988. Highlights of the Phase I work and the PM program manual are described

  9. The Nordic Maintenance Care Program: when do chiropractors recommend secondary and tertiary preventive care for low back pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Lange Fredrik; Lövgren Peter W; Jørgensen Kristian; Halasz Laszlo; Eklund Andreas; Jensen Irene B; Axén Iben; Rosenbaum Annika; Leboeuf-Yde Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Among chiropractors the use of long-term treatment is common, often referred to as "maintenance care". Although no generally accepted definition exists, the term has a self-explanatory meaning to chiropractic clinicians. In public health terms, maintenance care can be considered as both secondary and tertiary preventive care. The objective of this study was to explore what factors chiropractors consider before recommending maintenance care to patients with low back pain (L...

  10. Determining optimal preventive maintenance interval for component of Well Barrier Element in an Oil & Gas Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, A.; Kurniati, N.

    2018-04-01

    An oil and gas company has 2,268 oil and gas wells. Well Barrier Element (WBE) is installed in a well to protect human, prevent asset damage and minimize harm to the environment. The primary WBE component is Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV). The secondary WBE component is Christmas Tree Valves that consist of four valves i.e. Lower Master Valve (LMV), Upper Master Valve (UMV), Swab Valve (SV) and Wing Valve (WV). Current practice on WBE Preventive Maintenance (PM) program is conducted by considering the suggested schedule as stated on manual. Corrective Maintenance (CM) program is conducted when the component fails unexpectedly. Both PM and CM need cost and may cause production loss. This paper attempts to analyze the failure data and reliability based on historical data. Optimal PM interval is determined in order to minimize the total cost of maintenance per unit time. The optimal PM interval for SCSSV is 730 days, LMV is 985 days, UMV is 910 days, SV is 900 days and WV is 780 days. In average of all components, the cost reduction by implementing the suggested interval is 52%, while the reliability is improved by 4% and the availability is increased by 5%.

  11. Costs of Development and Maintenance of an Internet Program for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret; Liberti, Lauren; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty completing self-management tasks within the context of their social environments. Group-based approaches to psycho-educational support have been shown to prevent declines in glucose control, but are challenging to implement due to youths’ many activities and costs. A novel solution is providing psycho-educational support via the internet. The purpose of this study is to describe the cost of developing and maintaining two internet psycho-educational programs, both of which have been shown to improve health outcomes in adolescents with T1D. We calculated actual costs of personnel and programming in the development of TEENCOPE™ and Managing Diabetes, two highly interactive programs that were evaluated in a multi-site clinical trial (n=320). Cost calculations were set at U.S. dollars and converted to value for 2013 as expenses were incurred over 6 years. Development costs over 1.5 years totaled $324,609, with the majority of costs being for personnel to develop and write content in a creative and engaging format, to get feedback from teens on content and a prototype, and IT programming. Maintenance of the program, including IT support, a part-time moderator to assure safety of the discussion board (0.5–1 hour/week), and yearly update of content was $43,845/year, or $137.00 per youth over 4.5 years. Overall, program and site development were relatively expensive, but the program reach was high, including non-white youth from 4 geographically distinct regions. Once developed, maintenance was minimal. With greater dissemination, cost-per-youth would decrease markedly, beginning to offset the high development expense. PMID:26213677

  12. PWSCC Preventive Maintenance Activities for Alloy 600 in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Onishi, K.; Okimura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Because many nuclear plants have been in operation for ages, the importance of preventive maintenance technologies is getting higher. One conspicuous problem found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) observed in Alloy 600 (a kind of high nickel based alloy) parts. Alloy 600 was used for butt welds between low alloy steel and stainless steel of nozzles of Reactor Vessel (RV), Steam Generator (SG), and Pressurizer (Pz). As PWSCC occurred at these parts may cause Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), preventive maintenance is necessary. PWSCC is considered to be caused by a mixture of three elements: high residual tensile stress on surface, material (Alloy 600) and environment. PWSCC can be prevented by improving one of the elements. MHI has been developing stress improvement methods, for example, Water Jet Peening (WJP), Shot Peening by Ultrasonic vibration (USP), and Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP). According to the situation, appropriate method is applied for each part. WJP has been applied for RV nozzles of a lot of plants in Japan. However PWSCC was observed in RV nozzles during the inspection before WJP in recent years, MHI developed the Advanced INLAY system to improve the material from Alloy 600 to Alloy 690. Alloy 600 on the inner surface of the nozzles is removed and welding with Alloy 690 is performed. In addition, heat treatments for the nozzles are difficult for its structural situation, so ambient temperature temper bead welding technique for RV nozzles was developed to make the heat treatments unnecessary. This paper describes countermeasures against PWSCC and introduces the maintenance activities performed in Japan. (author)

  13. Prevention of type 2 diabetes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, V V; Hurley, J S

    1998-02-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the past decade in Pima (Akimel O'odham) children, aged 5-17 years, living in the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC). As a result, a diabetes primary prevention program called Quest was implemented in 1996 at an elementary school in the GRIC for students in kindergarten and grades 1-2. The Quest program has four components: (1) biochemical and anthropometric assessments, (2) classroom instruction about diabetes, (3) increased daily physical activity at school, and (4) a structured school breakfast and lunch program. Preliminary results of the program indicate that the school provides a stable environment for behavior change and interventions that slow weight gain in early childhood.

  14. The impact of preventive maintenance practices on manufacturing performance: A proposed model for SMEs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Halim Mad; Taib, Che Azlan; Lamsali, Hendrik; Saleh, Mohamed Najib; Subramaniam, Chandrakantan

    2016-08-01

    Preventive maintenance (PM) plays important role to avoid or mitigate potential stoppages and disruptions of equipment or machinery from occurring in daily operations. PM emphasized total employee involvement and it is important for companies as well as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). SME sectors contribution to the Malaysian economy makes up 95% of the total manufacturers, however PM remain relatively lacking. The ability, reliability and effective maintenance management is highly important in order to achieve desired manufacturing performance. Therefore, organizational capability in planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring PM activities is important. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the potential impact of PM practices towards manufacturing performance with organizational capability as a moderating effect is still limited and indecisive. Henceforth, this paper aims to explore and investigate potential relationships between PM practices and manufacturing performance moderated by organizational capability in the contact of Malaysian SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Correspondently, the study intends to propose a new research framework and hypotheses to examine the abovementioned relationships. The proposed framework includes PM team, PM strategy and planned maintenance as the determinants, while organizational capability serves as the moderating variable. Manufacturing performance will be viewed in terms of innovation and financial factors. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed at the end of the study.

  15. Service contract with periodic preventive maintenance for a dump truck sold with a two-dimensional warranty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrum, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Husniah, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with maintenance service contract for a dump truck sold with a two-dimensional warranties. We consider a situation where an agent offers two maintenance contract options and the owner of the equipment has to select the optimal option either the OEM carried out all repairs and preventive maintenance activities (option one) or the OEM only carries out failure while the costumer undertakes preventive maintenance action in-house (option two). As the number of preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance that occurs in the area of servicing contracts is very influential in determining the value of the contract, we have to determine the optimal time between preventive maintenance that can minimize the cost of repair in the contract area. Moreover, we also study the maintenance service contract considering reduction of the intensity function after preventive maintenance from both the owner and OEM point of views. In this paper, we use a Weibull intensity function to consider a product with increasing failure intensity. We use a non-cooperative game formulation to determine the optimal price structure (i.e., the contract price and repair cost) for the OEM and the owner. A numerical example derived from the model has shown that if the owner choose option one then the owner obtain a higher profit compared with the profit resulted from option two. The result agree with earlier work which uses the accelerated failure time (AFT) for the failure modeling, while here we model the failure of the dump truck without the use of the AFT.

  16. Joint redundancy and imperfect preventive maintenance optimization for series–parallel multi-state degraded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Châtelet, Eric; Nahas, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    This paper formulates a joint redundancy and imperfect preventive maintenance planning optimization model for series–parallel multi-state degraded systems. Non identical multi-state components can be used in parallel to improve the system availability by providing redundancy in subsystems. Multiple component choices are available in the market for each subsystem. The status of each component is considered to degrade with use. The objective is to determine jointly the maximal-availability series–parallel system structure and the appropriate preventive maintenance actions, subject to a budget constraint. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand that is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A procedure is used, based on Markov processes and universal moment generating function, to evaluate the multi-state system availability and the cost function. A heuristic approach is also proposed to solve the formulated problem. This heuristic is based on a combination of space partitioning, genetic algorithms (GA) and tabu search (TS). After dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, this approach uses GA to select the subspaces, and applies TS to each selected sub-space.

  17. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  18. The Effects of Relationship Type, Partner Intent, and Gender on the Selection of Relationship Maintenance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, B. Christine; Pearson, Judy C.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that relationship type did not affect the maintenance strategies that partners chose; however, the partners' relationship intent and the sex-composition of the dyad had a significant impact on the selection of directness strategies. Suggests that individuals are not necessarily more likely to select directness strategies than balance or…

  19. Preventative maintenance cycle of contact switches for nuclear power plants based on lifetime assessment and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    An approach to determine the preventive maintenance cycle was proposed in consideration of the lifetime, optimal cost and economy. Two parameters Weibull distribution was used to calculate the lifetime of contact switch. The block replacement model and age replacement model were built with the objective of optimal cost, and the preventive replacement cycle was accounted. Eight proposals for preventive replacement cycle were given. Economy model was applied to assess those proposals and the optimal proposal was confirmed. (authors)

  20. Hyperalgesic priming (type II) induced by repeated opioid exposure: maintenance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, Dioneia; Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2017-07-01

    We previously developed a model of opioid-induced neuroplasticity in the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that could contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, type II hyperalgesic priming. Repeated administration of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists, such as DAMGO, at the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor, induces long-lasting plasticity expressed, prototypically as opioid-induced hyperalgesia and prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of type II priming. Opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, induced hyperalgesia in DAMGO-primed paws. When repeatedly injected, naloxone-induced hyperalgesia, and hyperalgesic priming, supporting the suggestion that maintenance of priming involves changes in MOR signaling. However, the knockdown of MOR with oligodeoxynucleotide antisense did not reverse priming. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase, which are involved in the Src signaling pathway, previously implicated in type II priming, also inhibited the expression, but not maintenance of priming. However, when Src and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors were coadministered, type II priming was reversed, in male rats. A second model of priming, latent sensitization, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant was also reversed, in males. In females, the inhibitor combination was only able to inhibit the expression and maintenance of DAMGO-induced priming when knockdown of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) in the nociceptor was performed. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of DAMGO-induced type II priming, and latent sensitization is mediated by an interaction between, Src and MAP kinases, which in females is GPR30 dependent.

  1. 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message tailored for African Americans.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/18/2007.

  2. A two-stage preventive maintenance policy for a multi-state deterioration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-C.; Yuan, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to propose a two-stage preventive maintenance (PM) policy for the multi-state deterioration system under periodic inspection and with multiple candidate actions for PM. Such policy is mainly to schedule PM optimally and also on how to choose the action optimally for each PM. The scheduling includes two tasks: to determine after completing each PM when to make the decision and then at it to schedule the next PM optimally. We assume that: (1) such actions except replacement are imperfect, (2) the inspection and action times can be ignored, (3) the system can be modeled by a multi-state discrete time Markov chain whose transition probabilities will change and be updated only at the instant after completing each PM, and (4) the risks of such imperfect actions will be updated only at the instant after completing each PM. Finally, an example through simulation is presented to illustrate how such policy can be carried out.

  3. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, D.R. [DynCorp of Colorado, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    1995-12-31

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations.

  4. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations

  5. Study on the methodology for predicting and preventing errors to improve reliability of maintenance task in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Iwaki, Toshio; Embrey, D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and effective methodology for predicting and preventing errors in nuclear power plant maintenance tasks. A method was established by which chief maintenance personnel can predict and reduce errors when reviewing the maintenance procedures and while referring to maintenance supporting systems and methods in other industries including aviation and chemical plant industries. The method involves the following seven steps: 1. Identification of maintenance tasks. 2. Specification of important tasks affecting safety. 3. Assessment of human errors occurring during important tasks. 4. Identification of Performance Degrading Factors. 5. Dividing important tasks into sub-tasks. 6. Extraction of errors using Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA). 7. Development of strategies for reducing errors and for recovering from errors. By way of a trial, this method was applied to the pump maintenance procedure in nuclear power plants. This method is believed to be capable of identifying the expected errors in important tasks and supporting the development of error reduction measures. By applying this method, the number of accidents resulting form human errors during maintenance can be reduced. Moreover, the maintenance support base using computers was developed. (author)

  6. Systematic analysis and prevention of human originated common cause failures in relation to maintenance activities at Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.

    2006-12-01

    The focus in human reliability analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, human maintenance failures and design deficiencies, remained latent in the system, have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. by disabling safety-related equipment on demand. Especially common cause failures (CCFs) of safety related systems can affect the core damage risk to a significant extent. The topic has been addressed in Finnish studies, where experiences of latent human errors have been searched and analysed systematically from the maintenance history stored in the the power plant information systems of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. Both the single and multiple errors (CCFs) were classified in detail and documented as error and event reports. The human CCFs involved human, organisational and technical factors. The review of the analysed single and multiple errors showed that instrumentation and control and electrical equipment are more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance objects. The review of the analysed experience showed that most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage periods. More than half of the multiple errors from the outages remained latent to the power operating periods. The review of the analysed multiple errors showed that difficulties with small plant modifications and planning of maintenance and operability were significant sources of common cause failures. The most dependent human errors originating from small modifications could be reduced by a more tailored planning and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by identifying better in work planning from the operating experiences those complex or intrusive repair and preventive maintenance work tasks and actions which are prone to errors. Such uncertain cases in important equipment require a more tailored work planning of the installation

  7. Are green building features safe for preventive maintenance workers? Examining the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed Shamun; Quinn, Margaret M; Buchholz, Bryan; Geiser, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Many newly constructed green buildings (GB) are certified using the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for new construction and major renovation which focuses on architectural and mechanical design to conserve energy, reduce environmental harm, and enhance indoor quality for occupants. This study evaluated the preventive maintenance (PM) worker occupational safety and health (OSH) risks related to the design of GB. PM job hazard analyses (JHA) were performed on the tasks required to operate and maintain five GB features selected from 13 LEED certified GB. A 22-item JHA and OSH risk scoring system were developed. Potentially serious OSH hazards included: green roofs made of slippery material without fall protection; energy recovery wheels and storm water harvesting systems in confined spaces; skylights without guard rails; and tight geothermal well mechanical rooms constraining safe preventive practices. GB can present PM OSH risks and these should be eliminated in the building design phase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Money-back guarantee warranty policy with preventive maintenance strategy for sensor-embedded remanufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ammar Y.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2018-01-01

    In today's global environment, technology is constantly evolving. Being able to stay up-to-date with the very latest technological advances can be extremely hard to accomplish. As a result of these changes and developments in technology, which often come unexpectedly, consumers are frequently tempted to update their devices to the very latest model. The result is that the life cycle of a product is becoming shorter and shorter than before. Manufacturers attempt to respond to consumers' concerns involving environmental issues as well as the more governmentally stringent environmental legislations by establishing facilities which include the minimization of the totality of waste relocated to landfills by recovering materials and components from returned, or End-Of-Life products and reuse them to build a remanufactured product, and/or novel components. With the rapid growth of interest in remanufactured products' market, offering warranty for remanufactured products and components is becoming a necessity for remanufacturer in order to meet customers' requirement and as a marketing mechanism. During that process, maintenance policies are of great importance in order to reduce the warranty cost on the remanufacturer. In this paper, an optimization simulation model for remanufactured items sold with one-dimensional non-renewing money-back guarantee (MBG) warranty policy is proposed from the view of remanufacturer, in which, an End-Of-Life product is subjected to upgrade action at the end of its past life and during the warranty period, preventive maintenance actions are carried out when the remaining life of the product reaches a pre-specified value so that the remanufacturer's expected profit can be maximized. Finally, a numerical example and design of experiment analysis are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  9. 42 CFR 2.34 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. 2.34 Section 2.34 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... detoxification and maintenance treatment programs. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: Central... information about individuals applying for maintenance treatment or detoxification treatment for the purpose...

  10. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  11. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures of maintenance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization, in which human refers to the individual factors, mainly including psychological quality, physiological characteristic, state of health, knowledge, skill level, and interpersonal relationship. Technology includes the maintenance technology, maintenance strategy, maintenance tool, maintenance interface, maintenance regulation, and work environment. Organization includes task arrangement, information communication, training, personnel external environment, team construction, and leadership. The analysis also reveals that the organization factors, which can indirectly influence personnel performance, are the primary initiators of human error. Based on these, some countermeasures are brought forward in order to reduce human errors. (authors)

  12. Development of preventive maintenance and repair technology by laser for nuclear reactor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masataka, Tamura; Wataru, Kono; Syouhei, Kawano; Seiichiro, Kimura; Akira, Sudo; Hidenori, Takahashi; Seishi, Shima; Yuuichi, Motora

    2001-01-01

    As one of preventive maintenance technologies, Laser De-sensitization Treatment (LDT) was developed, which was realized by irradiating high power Nd:YAG laser onto the sensitized Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) surface. The LDT layer was formed both a molten layer of approximately 0.2 mm depth and a solution heat treatment layer. As mock-up test, the LDT process was applied in the vicinity of welding joints on the inside surface of pipes, and the tensile residual stress of outside surface of pipes was decreased. LDT processing on the inside surface of a pipe can be expected to prevent the occurrence of IGSCC owing to the phenomena of both metallurgical improvement and decrease of the residual stress on the outside surface of the pipe. The LDT processing was applied on the pipes of some actual nuclear power plants. As one of repair technologies at site in case that crack might occur, Under water Laser Seal Welding (ULSW) developed, in which welding layer isolates cracks from water in reactor in order to stop a growth of IGSCC cracks. This welding layer will be formed by means of feeding an appropriate welding wire at the position irradiating high power Nd:YAG laser. In experiments of bead on plate, laser power is fixed at 1 kw and welding speed is changed between 0.3 and 1.2 m/min. We investigated welding beads in the conditions that apparent heat input was between 0.5 and 2.0 kJ/cm. We confirmed that suitable welding condition range was more limited with lower apparent heat input. An artificial crack with opening width of 0.5 mm can be sealed by process of ULSW at 0.5 kJ/cm

  13. The Nordic maintenance care program: the clinical use of identified indications for preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart

    2013-03-06

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and has been found to be recurrent and persistent in a majority of cases. Chiropractors have a preventive strategy, maintenance care (MC), aimed towards minimizing recurrence and progression of such conditions. The indications for recommending MC have been identified in the Nordic countries from hypothetical cases. This study aims to investigate whether these indications are indeed used in the clinical encounter. Data were collected in a multi-center observational study in which patients consulted a chiropractor for their non-specific LBP. Patient baseline information was a) previous duration of the LBP, b) the presence of previous episodes of LBP and c) early improvement with treatment. The chiropractors were asked if they deemed each individual patient an MC candidate. Logistic regression analyses (uni- and multi-level) were used to investigate the association of the patient variables with the chiropractor's decision. The results showed that "previous episodes" with LBP was the strongest predictor for recommending MC, and that the presence of all predictors strengthens the frequency of this recommendation. However, there was considerable heterogeneity among the participating chiropractors concerning the recommendation of MC. The study largely confirms the clinical use of the previously identified indications for recommending MC for recurrent and persistent LBP. Previous episodes of LBP was the strongest indicator.

  14. Development and Field Application Experience of the Reactor Internal Preventive Maintenance Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, A.; Yoshikubo, F.; Morinaka, R.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Hatou, H.

    2012-01-01

    A reactor internal preventive maintenance technology, Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as a stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mitigation technology that has been successfully implemented during refuelling outages at 15 Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and three (3) Advanced BWRs (during the site construction and in the shop fabrication) in Japan. WJP is one of the most successful underwater peening methods, which utilizes the energy generated from the collapsing of bubbles produced by the cavitating water jet nozzle. The energy produced from the cavitations introduces compressive residual stress on the metal surface and subsurface up to a depth of several hundred micrometers. Most recently, we have successfully applied WJP to the bottom head components and to some cracked areas on the shroud support in the Tokai-2 plant. In the case of the bottom head components, we produced inspection and repair tooling as a contingency in the event SCC was identified and would be required to be repaired prior to the implementation of WJP. (author)

  15. On preventive maintenance policy of a critical reliability level for system subject to degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional preventive maintenance (PM) policies generally hold same time interval for PM actions and are often applied with known failure modes. The same time interval will give unavoidably decreasing reliabilities at the PM actions for degradation system with imperfect PM effect and the known failure modes may be inaccurate in practice. Therefore, field managers would prefer policy with an acceptable reliability level to keep system often at a good state. A PM policy with the critical reliability level is presented to address the preference of field managers. Through assuming that system after a PM action starts a new failure process, a parameter so-called degradation ratio is introduced to represent the imperfect effect. The policy holds a law that there is same number of failures in the time intervals of various PM cycles, and same degradation ratio for the system reliability or benefit parameters such as the optimal time intervals and the hazard rates between the neighboring PM cycles. This law is valid to any of the failure modes that could be appropriately referred as a 'general isodegrading model', and the degradation ratio as a 'general isodegrading ratio'. In addition, life cycle availability and cost functions are derived for system with the policy. An analysis of the field data of a loading and unloading machine indicates that the reliability, availability and cost in life cycle might be well modeled by the present theory and approach

  16. PENERAPAN MODEL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SMITH DAN DEKKER DI PD. INDUSTRI UNIT INKABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Adianto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization era along with fast development of technology%2C industries must try to increase the quantity and quality of products that they have produced. The development of industrial products which have been increase continually need support from fluency of production process. In this case the industrial companies want a high availability system. PD Industri Unit Inkaba is one of the companies that moves in sector rubber technique industry. The company wants the production process go smoothly so that the company can keeps the existence and increases the product’s quality with cost efficiency and can competes with foreign markets. The smoothness of production process needs support from machines or production’s tools that have good condition. To keep the machines in good condition so that they will in the optimal condition when used%2C then the machines need to be maintained. M.A.J. Smith dan R. Dekker develop a model that combine availability model and preventive maintenance and consider the expected uptime and downtime of the system. This model is a 1 out of n system model%2C which has one operating machine and support by (n – 1 unit machine reserves. A 1 out of n system is also applicable to replaceable components. Smith and Dekker’s model gives the expected uptime and downtime of the system approximation that can gives good approximation of long term average operating cost. The results from decision of component preventive replacement age and optimal number of component reserve are expected to be able to keep the reliability system and be able to avoid the decease of availability system because of maintenance activity. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era persaingan industri yang semakin global disertai perkembangan teknologi yang pesat%2C industri-industri terus berusaha meningkatkan kuantitas dan kualitas produk yang dihasilkannya. Perkembangan hasil industri yang semakin meningkat secara terus-menerus memerlukan dukungan

  17. Optimizing production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning's integration in failure-prone manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.

  18. Organization and mechanization of maintenance operations at NPPs with the WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of capital investments defining organization and mechanization of maintepance operations at NPPs with the WWER type reactors is analyzed. The trends in development of optimum decisions for organization and mechanization of repair obs at NPPs being designed taking into account the prospects of nuclear powep enginerning development, the system of NPP maintenance servicing, as well as the structure of repair-productive capacities are discussed. On the basis of the analysis of the data obtained in designing the Zaporozhskaya NPP it is shown that the capital investments for organizing and mechanization of maintenance operations at the unified NPP site with four WWER-1000 reactors reach nearly 18 roubles/kW. A conclusion is drawn that at present the design of an NPP with the WWER-1000 reactor totally meets the requirements of realization of periodic maintenance operations. It is advisable to cooperate the NPP management with that of a thermal power station from the viewpoint of using manpower, which would improve the operating conditions and labour productivity of workers engaged in repair and, consequently, reduce the capital investments and repair expenditures

  19. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....

  20. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  1. The Nordic Maintenance Care Program: when do chiropractors recommend secondary and tertiary preventive care for low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axén, Iben; Jensen, Irene B; Eklund, Andreas; Halasz, Laszlo; Jørgensen, Kristian; Lange, Fredrik; Lövgren, Peter W; Rosenbaum, Annika; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2009-01-22

    Among chiropractors the use of long-term treatment is common, often referred to as "maintenance care". Although no generally accepted definition exists, the term has a self-explanatory meaning to chiropractic clinicians. In public health terms, maintenance care can be considered as both secondary and tertiary preventive care. The objective of this study was to explore what factors chiropractors consider before recommending maintenance care to patients with low back pain (LBP). Structured focus group discussions with Swedish chiropractors were used to discuss pre-defined cases. A questionnaire was then designed on the basis of the information obtained. In the questionnaire, respondents were asked to grade the importance of several factors when considering recommending maintenance care to a patient. The grading was done on a straight line ranging from "Very important" to "Not at all important". All members of the Swedish Chiropractors' Association (SCA) were invited to participate in the discussions and in the questionnaire survey. Thirty-six (22%) of SCA members participated in the group discussions and 129 (77%) returned the questionnaires. Ninety-eight percent of the questionnaire respondents claimed to believe that chiropractic care can prevent future relapses of back pain. According to the group discussions tertiary preventive care would be considered appropriate when a patient improves by 75% or more. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, two factors were considered as "very important" by more than 70% of the respondents in recommending secondary preventive care, namely frequency past year and frequency past 10 years of the low back pain problem. Eight other factors were considered "very important" by 50-69% of the respondents, namely duration (over the past year and of the present attack), treatment (effect and durability), lifestyle, work conditions, and psychosocial factors (including attitude). The vast majority of our respondents believe

  2. The Nordic Maintenance Care Program: when do chiropractors recommend secondary and tertiary preventive care for low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among chiropractors the use of long-term treatment is common, often referred to as "maintenance care". Although no generally accepted definition exists, the term has a self-explanatory meaning to chiropractic clinicians. In public health terms, maintenance care can be considered as both secondary and tertiary preventive care. The objective of this study was to explore what factors chiropractors consider before recommending maintenance care to patients with low back pain (LBP. Method Structured focus group discussions with Swedish chiropractors were used to discuss pre-defined cases. A questionnaire was then designed on the basis of the information obtained. In the questionnaire, respondents were asked to grade the importance of several factors when considering recommending maintenance care to a patient. The grading was done on a straight line ranging from "Very important" to "Not at all important". All members of the Swedish Chiropractors' Association (SCA were invited to participate in the discussions and in the questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-six (22% of SCA members participated in the group discussions and 129 (77% returned the questionnaires. Ninety-eight percent of the questionnaire respondents claimed to believe that chiropractic care can prevent future relapses of back pain. According to the group discussions tertiary preventive care would be considered appropriate when a patient improves by 75% or more. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, two factors were considered as "very important" by more than 70% of the respondents in recommending secondary preventive care, namely frequency past year and frequency past 10 years of the low back pain problem. Eight other factors were considered "very important" by 50–69% of the respondents, namely duration (over the past year and of the present attack, treatment (effect and durability, lifestyle, work conditions, and psychosocial factors (including

  3. Improving Legacy Aircraft Systems Through Condition-Based Maintenance: An H-60 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Multifunction Display MMP Monthly Maintenance Plan MOP measure of performance MRC Maintenance Requirement Card MTBM Mean Time Between Maintenance NAE ...Model/Series TD technical directive TM Type Maintenance Code VGA Value Gap Analysis VIB-100 Vibration Analysis Manual (ATABS) xv VIB-200...preventive maintenance. (This includes on-equipment repair, removal, and replacement of defective components.) e. Incorporation of TDs , less SE

  4. A hybrid Constraint Programming/Mixed Integer Programming framework for the preventive signaling maintenance crew scheduling problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher

    2017-01-01

    A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... practical constraints, such as temporal dependencies between crew schedules, the splitting of tasks across multiple days, crew competency requirements and several other managerial constraints. We propose a novel hybrid framework using Constraint Programming (CP) to generate initial feasible solutions...

  5. Developing a theoretical maintenance model for disordered eating in Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, J; Kan, C; Stephenson, L; Warren, E; Smith, E; Heller, S; Ismail, K

    2015-12-01

    According to the literature, eating disorders are an increasing problem for more than a quarter of people with Type 1 diabetes and they are associated with accentuated diabetic complications. The clinical outcomes in this group when given standard eating disorder treatments are disappointing. The Medical Research Council guidelines for developing complex interventions suggest that the first step is to develop a theoretical model. To review existing literature to build a theoretical maintenance model for disordered eating in people with Type 1 diabetes. The literature in diabetes relating to models of eating disorder (Fairburn's transdiagnostic model and the dual pathway model) and food addiction was examined and assimilated. The elements common to all eating disorder models include weight/shape concern and problems with mood regulation. The predisposing traits of perfectionism, low self-esteem and low body esteem and the interpersonal difficulties from the transdiagnostic model are also relevant to diabetes. The differences include the use of insulin mismanagement to compensate for breaking eating rules and the consequential wide variations in plasma glucose that may predispose to 'food addiction'. Eating disorder symptoms elicit emotionally driven reactions and behaviours from others close to the individual affected and these are accentuated in the context of diabetes. The next stage is to test the assumptions within the maintenance model with experimental medicine studies to facilitate the development of new technologies aimed at increasing inhibitory processes and moderating environmental triggers. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  6. Filling machine preventive maintenance using age replacement method in PT Lucas Djaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Fifi Herni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Lucas Djaja is a company engaged in the pharmaceutical industry which produce sterile drugs and non-sterile. Filling machine has a high failure rate and expensive corrective maintenance cost. PT Lucas Djaja has a policy to perform engine maintenance by way of corrective maintenance. The study focused on the critical components, namely bearing R2, bearing 625 and bearing 626. When the replacement of the failure done by the company is currently using the formula mean time to failure with the result of bearing R2 at point 165 days, bearing 625 at a point 205 days, and bearing 626 at a point 182 days. Solutions generated by using age replacement method with minimization of total maintenance cost given on the bearing R2 at a point 60 days, bearing 625 at the point of 80 days and bearing 626 at a point 40 days.

  7. Preventative Maintenance and Reliability Study for the Central Heating and Power Plant at Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavrin, John L; Brown, III, William T; Kemme, Michael R; Westerman, John; Lorand, Robert T; Walden, Charles; Swinehart, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    ... (FWA) (Vavrin et al. 2006) recommended that if the option for a new CHPP were to be pursued, among the tasks suggested for further analysis was to determine predictive maintenance requirements and new technologies for the existing plant...

  8. Preventive Maintenance and Reliability Study for the Central Heating and Power Plant at Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavrin, John L; Brown, III, William T; Kemme, Michael R; Westerman, John; Lorand, Robert; Walden, Charles; Swinehart, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    ... (FWA) (Vavrin et al. 2006) recommended that if the option for a new CHPP were to be pursued, among the tasks suggested for further analysis was to determine predictive maintenance requirements and new technologies for the existing plant...

  9. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2008-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

  10. Strategies for the prevention of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J A; Knip, M; Mathieu, C

    2011-10-01

    European experts on autoimmune Type 1 diabetes met for 2 days in October 2010 in Cambridge, to review the state-of-the-art and to discuss strategies for prevention of Type 1 diabetes (http://www-gene.cimr.cam.ac.uk/todd/sub_pages/T1D_prevention_Cambridge_workshop_20_21Oct2010.pdf). Meeting sessions examined the epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes; possible underlying causes of the continuing and rapid increase in Type 1 diabetes incidence at younger ages; and lessons learned from previous prevention trials. Consensus recommendations from the meeting were: 1. Resources such as national diabetes registries and natural history studies play an essential role in developing and refining assays to be used in screening for risk factors for Type 1 diabetes. 2. It is crucial to dissect out the earliest physiological events after birth, which are controlled by the susceptibility genes now identified in Type 1 diabetes, and the environmental factors that might affect these phenotypes, in order to bring forward a mechanistic approach to designing future prevention trials. 3. Current interventions at later stages of disease, such as in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes, have relied mainly on non-antigen-specific mechanisms. For primary prevention-preventing the onset of autoimmunity-interventions must be based on knowledge of the actual disease process such that: participants in a trial would be stratified according the disease-associated molecular phenotypes; the autoantigen(s) and immune responses to them; and the manipulation of the environment, as early as possible in life. Combinations of interventions should be considered as they may allow targeting different components of disease, thus lowering side effects while increasing efficacy. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  11. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  12. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  13. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  14. Type 2 diabetes: Primary health care approach for prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possible. Patients with high risk pre-diabetic conditions like IGT and IFG have about a 25%–50% lifetime risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and should be targeted for primary prevention.2 A number of well-designed intervention studies using lifestyle (diet and exercise) or drug therapy have been performed to this end.

  15. Review of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention | Titty | Ghana Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased intake of total vitamin E, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, as well as moderate alcohol intake (6-48 g/day) reduce risk. There is no association between intake of vitamin C and and type 2 diabetes. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of glucose lowering-drugs to prevent the disease.

  16. Risk assessment on the preventive maintenance of Ulchin units 3 and 4 during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, See Darl; Jang, Seung Chul; Kim Kil Yoo; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the risk assessments on the change of AOTs and the PM during power operation of major safety systems for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 were performed to identify the possibility of on-line maintenance of them. From a point of vies of risk assessment, the results of this study show that the current AOTs of LPSIS, SCS, and CSS can be increased to 7 days and that of EDG to 10 days. Also, the results show that on-line maintenance of LPSIS< SCS, CSS, EDG, ECWS, ESWS, and CCWS for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 can be performed without increasing the risk greatly. It is expected that the PM at power for the systems mentioned in this study will decrease the shutdown period for refueling more than 2 days. (author)

  17. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

  18. Mobbing prevention and types of assistance to the victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostelić-Martić Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobbing - psychological abuse at workplace is a phenomenon perpetually existing in the work organizations. Exceedingly important is to detect mobbing in the work organizations before it educe wide and severe effects not only on the victim, but also on the work organization itself. In this article, the mobbing prevention at the level of work organization, health and legal system is discussed. The types of victim assistance are also addressed. Moreover, the author’s experience in working with mobbing victims at the Work Clinic in Milan, i.e. in the ‘Center for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of occupational maladjustment, is briefly described. .

  19. Psychological maintenance as an integrated approach to prevention and correction of professional burning out of the medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of professional burning out is a complex of symptoms and signs evidenced in various negative psychic conditions at individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. It is formed owing to a long mismatch between the requirements of the professional environment and the resources of the expert. Analysis of the preventive and correctional programs as a psychological assistance showed insufficiency of such approach. Creation of preventive and correctional programs within psychological maintenance from the position of involution of professional resources, taking into account the theoretical - methodological basis (the concept, the purposes, tasks, system approach, criteria of efficiency and the subjective-personal resources of counteraction directed at activization to burning out at all stages of professional development is progressive.

  20. TRAF6 is essential for maintenance of regulatory T cells that suppress Th2 type autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Muto

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs maintain immune homeostasis by limiting inflammatory responses. TRAF6 plays a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity by mediating signals from various receptors including the T-cell receptor (TCR. T cell-specific deletion of TRAF6 has been shown to induce multiorgan inflammatory disease, but the role of TRAF6 in Tregs remains to be investigated. Here, we generated Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient mice using Foxp3-Cre and TRAF6-flox mice. Treg-specific TRAF6-deficient (cKO mice developed allergic skin diseases, arthritis, lymphadenopathy and hyper IgE phenotypes. Although TRAF6-deficient Tregs possess similar in vitro suppression activity compared to wild-type Tregs, TRAF6-deficient Tregs did not suppress colitis in lymphopenic mice very efficiently due to reduced number of Foxp3-positive cells. In addition, the fraction of TRAF6-deficient Tregs was reduced compared with wild-type Tregs in female cKO mice without inflammation. Moreover, adoptive transfer of Foxp3 (+ Tregs into Rag2(-/- mice revealed that TRAF6-deficient Tregs converted into Foxp3(- cells more rapidly than WT Tregs under lymphopenic conditions. Fate-mapping analysis also revealed that conversion of Tregs from Foxp3(+ to Foxp3(- (exFoxp3 cells was accelerated in TRAF6-deficient Tregs. These data indicate that TRAF6 in Tregs plays important roles in the maintenance of Foxp3 in Tregs and in the suppression of pathogenic Th2 type conversion of Tregs.

  1. Mobbing prevention and types of assistance to the victims

    OpenAIRE

    Kostelić-Martić Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Mobbing - psychological abuse at workplace is a phenomenon perpetually existing in the work organizations. Exceedingly important is to detect mobbing in the work organizations before it educe wide and severe effects not only on the victim, but also on the work organization itself. In this article, the mobbing prevention at the level of work organization, health and legal system is discussed. The types of victim assistance are also addressed. Moreover, the author’s experience in working with m...

  2. The Possibilities of Drug Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there have been several randomized controlled trials that examine the effect of lifestyle modification and pharmacological interventions on the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 in people at high risk. These studies demonstrated that the number of people newly diagnosed with diabetes within 3–6-year period may be considerably reduced. Therefore focus of discussing the tactics to control DM type 2 is shifted from the relatively narrow topic of treatment of the disease at a wide range of issues of its prophylaxis: prevention of development and early treatment of DM, aimed to stabilization or reverse progression of the disease and prevention of its progression. This review discusses the general concept and the evidence base on preventing DM type 2 in the context of the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the attention is paid to the possibilities of the use of the discussed approaches to clinical practice, taking into account pathogenetic features of the disease and and clinical findings.

  3. Will Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Nursing Home Residents Prevent Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylotte, Joseph M

    2018-03-01

    This article is an evaluation of the literature on oral hygiene as a risk factor for nursing home-associated pneumonia (NHAP) and with interventions to improve oral hygiene and reduce the incidence of NHAP. The background for this article is that studies that have evaluated interventions to improve oral hygiene and prevent NHAP have conflicting results. To try to understand the reason for these results, the objective was to examine risk factor and intervention studies and determine their methodological validity. Review of studies evaluating oral hygiene status as a risk factor for NHAP found multiple methodological problems, resulting in limited evidence to support this association. Studies of intervention methods, whether finding benefit or not in preventing NHAP, all had methodological limitations. Therefore, it is unclear whether oral hygiene is a risk factor for NHAP and whether improving oral hygiene decreases the incidence of this infection. A recommendation is made that future studies should carefully define the etiology of suspected NHAP using molecular techniques when evaluating methods to prevent this infection because viral pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis may mimic bacterial pneumonia even though, at times, there may be coinfection with bacteria. In this latter situation, improving oral hygiene may not prevent pneumonia. Therefore, viral infection and pneumonitis with or without bacterial coinfection need to be excluded so that the focus is on prevention of bacterial pneumonia. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Strategic Maintenance Development in Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Industrial maintenance is a substantial financial post. The total value of maintenance budgets in Europe has been estimated to be approximately 1500 billion € per year. At the same time, there are indications that about a third of these costs are wasted due to poor planning, overtime costs, inferior use of preventive maintenance and so forth. However, the diversity between different types of industry is substantial. While the process industry, which is rather vulnerable to disturbances, has a...

  5. Risk-based maintenance modeling. Prioritization of maintenance importances and quantification of maintenance effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W.E.; Rezos, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes methods for prioritizing the risk importances of maintenances using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Approaches then are described for quantifying their reliability and risk effects. Two different PRA importance measures, minimal cutset importances and risk reduction importances, were used to prioritize maintenances; the findings show that both give similar results if appropriate criteria are used. The justifications for the particular importance measures also are developed. The methods developed to quantify the reliability and risk effects of maintenance actions are extensions of the usual reliability models now used in PRAs. These extended models consider degraded states of the component, and quantify the benefits of maintenance in correcting degradations and preventing failures. The negative effects of maintenance, including downtimes, also are included. These models are specific types of Markov models. The data for these models can be obtained from plant maintenance logs and from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). To explore the potential usefulness of these models, the authors analyzed a range of postulated values of input data. These models were used to examine maintenance effects on a components reliability and performance for various maintenance programs and component data. Maintenance schedules were analyzed to optimize the component`s availability. In specific cases, the effects of maintenance were found to be large.

  6. The preventive role of type 2 NKT cells in the development of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jakob Ørskov; Buschard, Karsten; Brogren, Carl-Henrik

    2014-03-01

    In the last two decades, natural killer T (NKT) cells have emerged as an important factor in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) when investigated in the experimental non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. So far, investigations have largely focused on type 1 NKT cells with invariant T-cell receptors, whereas the role of type 2 NKT cells with diverse T-cell receptors is less well understood. However, there have been several findings which indicate that in fact type 2 NKT cells may regulate the progression of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, including a fraction of these cells which recognize β-cell-enriched sulfatide. Therefore, the focus for this review is to present the current evidence of the effect of type 2 NKT cells on the development of T1D. In general, there is still uncertainty surrounding the mechanism of activation and function of NKT cells. Here, we present two models of the effector mechanisms, respectively, Th1/Th2 polarization and the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). In conclusion, this review points to the importance of immunoregulation by type 2 NKT cells in preventing the development of T1D and highlights the induction of tolerogenic DC as a likely mechanism. The possible therapeutic role of type 1 and type 2 NKT cells are evaluated and future experiments concerning type 2 NKT cells and T1D are proposed. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Analysis on the gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products during preventive maintenance period in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Wi Ho

    2006-02-01

    The information on dose distribution inside the containment building is an essential requirement to make a reduction of radiation exposure as well as effective operation and design of nuclear power plant. After reactor shutdown, radiation exposure to workers mainly occurs during preventive maintenance period due to inspection or repair works of major components. During that period, gamma doses are induced by major corrosion products in the primary coolant system. The radiation exposure to workers has been assessed by using the measurements. The measurements are, of course, a basic and reliable assessment. But the measurement has defect such as limitation of detecting area. In order to improve the defect of the measurements, system for assessment of gamma dose distribution during preventive maintenance period by using computational code was suggested in this study. First, activity of major corrosion products was calculated by using modified CRUDSIM code. Original CRUDSIM code was modified to add evaluation of other major corrosion products besides cobalt isotopes. Modeling of containment building for YGN Unit 3 was then performed. Gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products inside the containment building was calculated by using MCNPX code. Finally, the calculations were mapped for whole space inside the containment building and were compared with the measurements. As a result of this study, the defect of the measurement are supplemented by using computational calculation system, and it is expected that workers can make an effective work plan through providing dose distribution inside the containment building in advance. In addition, this study can be applied to technology development to make an effective containment shielding design of the next generation reactor as well as an improvement of the safety for workers in nuclear power plant

  8. Innovation for maintenance technology improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, T. R. (Editor); Willard, W. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A group of 34 submitted entries (32 papers and 2 abstracts) from the 33rd meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group whose subject was maintenance technology improvement through innovation. Areas of special emphasis included maintenance concepts, maintenance analysis systems, improved maintenance processes, innovative maintenance diagnostics and maintenance indicators, and technology improvements for power plant applications.

  9. THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARIES PREVENTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtić, Marija; Pantelinaci, Jelena; Jovanović Ilić, Tatjana; Petrović, Vasa; Grgić, Olja; Blazić, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. EFFECTS OF FOOD ON CARIES DEVELOPMENT: Caries prevention through healthy diet implicates the reduction in frequency and amount of intake of cariogenic food, above all ofrefined carbohydrates, i.e. sugars and sweets. Foods known to have caries-prophylactic effects should predominate in healthy diet plans. They mainly include solid foods, which have mechanical effects on teeth cleaning, as well as foods providing sufficient amounts of vitamins (A, C, D) and a variety of elements and compounds (calcium, phosphates, fluorides) favoring the preservation and remineralization of tooth structures. EDUCATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON HEALHY DEIT: In accomplishing these goals, education and direct positive communication between the educator and the pregnant woman play a crucial role. Educative approach is always individual and determined by the patient's specific cultural and socioeconomic features and status, as well as her habits, motivation and willingness to accept relevant recommendations. Accomplishing the aforementioned goals requires the appropriate organization and professional competence within the preventive dental service and its close cooperation with the relevant medical institutions and social support in the framework of public health protection. Preserving of oral health during pregnancy is predominantly influenced by the following factors: 1) healthy diet, 2) oral hygiene, 3) patients' education, 4) regular control of oral health, 5) appropriate organization of dental services and 6) community engagement.

  10. Optimizing the Primary Prevention of Type-2 Diabetes in Primary Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style

  11. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer.

  12. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  13. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and control surfaces. (xxviii) Repairing, including rebottoming, of removable or integral fuel tanks and oil tanks. (2) Powerplant major repairs. Repairs of the following parts of an engine and repairs... of fuel tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of the aircraft type...

  15. Concept and operational experience of the Areva DMT process for preventive maintenance of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.; Gaspar, J. D.; Potier, P.; Jones, D.

    2015-01-01

    The AREVAs DMT process is a preventive chemical cleaning of the steam generators (SG) that provides the required features to keep the SG in good operative conditions. -Very low carbon steel corrosion -Innocuous towards stainless steel and nickel base alloys -Inherently safe process -Efficient magnetite dissolution -No use of CMR (i.e Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and toxic to Reproduction) Chemicals (e. g. Hydrazine) -No ammonia emissions -Easy decomposition of waste Several applications have been performed world-wide over the last 5 years. The results were fully satisfying in all the above stated points. The removal of up to 800 kg of dry deposits per SG was realized. A positive effect on fouling factor was observed, showing that AREVAs DMT process is a safe, easy and successful way to maintain the steam generators in excellent operative conditions. (Author)

  16. Interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated factors among high-risk drug users enrolled in methadone maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The adoption of mobile technologies for health (mHealth) in healthcare has grown considerably in recent years, but systematic assessment of interest in the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs (PWUD) is lacking. We therefore examined interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated individual-level factors among high-risk PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance program. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors completed a standardized assessment using audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results revealed significant interest in using mHealth-based approaches for specific purposes, including: to receive medication reminders (72.3%), to receive information about HIV risk reduction (65.8%), and to assess HIV risk behaviors (76.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that interest in receiving medication reminders was associated with currently taking medication and being neurocognitively impaired, whereas interest in receiving HIV-risk reduction information was associated with being non-white, married, and perceiving the person was at high-risk for contracting HIV. Similarly, participants' interested in using mHealth for HIV risk behavior assessment was associated with having recently visited a healthcare provider and exhibiting depressive symptoms. Overall, this study demonstrated that high-risk PWUD are interested in using mHealth-based tools as a key part of an HIV prevention approach within a common type of drug treatment settings. Thus, formative research on preferences for design and functionality of mHealth-based HIV prevention tools are now needed, followed by practical development, implementation, and evaluation of these new intervention strategies.

  17. Physical activity and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jason M R; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing at a rapid rate, predominantly because of changes in environmental factors interacting with individual genetic susceptibility to the disease. Data from 20 longitudinal cohort studies present a consistent picture indicating that regular physical activity substantially reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Adjustment for differences in body mass index between active and inactive groups attenuates the magnitude of risk reduction, but even after adjustment, a high level of physical activity is associated with a 20-30% reduction in diabetes risk. The data indicate that protection from diabetes can be conferred by a range of activities of moderate or vigorous intensity, and that regular light-intensity activity may also be sufficient, although the data for this are less consistent. The risk reduction associated with increased physical activity appears to be greatest in those at increased baseline risk of the disease, such as the obese, those with a positive family history and those with impaired glucose regulation. Data from six large-scale diabetes prevention intervention trials in adults with impaired glucose tolerance or at high risk of cardiovascular disease indicate that increasing moderate physical activity by approximately 150 minutes per week reduces risk of progression to diabetes, with this effect being greater if accompanied by weight loss. However, this level of activity did not prevent all diabetes, with 2-13% of participants per annum who underwent lifestyle intervention still developing the disease. Thus, while 150 minutes per week of moderate activity confers benefits, higher levels of activity may be necessary to maximize diabetes risk reduction in those at high baseline risk of the disease. In contrast, those at low baseline risk of type 2 diabetes, e.g. people with a very low body mass index and no family history of diabetes, will remain at low risk of developing diabetes whether they are

  18. Extinction of aversive taste memory homeostatically prevents the maintenance of in vivo insular cortex LTP: Calcineurin participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Gonsebatt, María E; Escobar, Martha L

    2018-04-06

    Accumulating evidence indicates that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strength to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Our previous studies have shown that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) in vivo. We have also reported that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway modifies the CTA extinction. Memoryextinction involves the formation of a new associativememorythat inhibits a previously conditioned association. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of CTA extinction on the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, 48 h after CTA extinction animals received high frequency stimulation in order to induce IC-LTP. Our results show that extinction training allows the induction but not the maintenance of IC-LTP. In addition, with the purpose of exploring part of the mechanisms involved in this process and since a body of evidence suggests that protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks, we analyzed the participation of this phosphatase. The present results show that extinction training increases the CaN expression in the IC, as well as that the inhibition of this phosphatase reverts the effects of the CTA-extinction on the IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA extinction promotes a homeostatic regulation of subsequent IC synaptic plasticity maintenance through increases in CaN levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevention of type 2 diabetes: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, J L; Brindisi, M C; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportion worldwide. Because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, it is becoming a major burden for the health care system. With a better understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, the concept of primary prevention has emerged. A number of studies demonstrated that both lifestyle modification program and pharmacological interventions in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) can prevent or delay the progression to diabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) convincingly showed that an intensive lifestyle modification program is highly effective in decreasing the risk of diabetes in a high risk population (risk reduction of 58%). Four other smaller studies have made similar observations. The DPP study showed that metformin can reduced the risk of diabetes by 31% in subjects with IGT. The STOP-NIDDM trial confirmed the efficacy of acarbose in decreasing the risk of diabetes by 36% in similar high risk population. The TRIPOD study showed that troglitazone can reduce the incidence of diabetes by 55% in Hispanic women with a history of gestational diabetes. And more recently, the XENDOS study showed that in very obese population on intensive lifestyle modification program, xenical treatment was associated with a 37% reduced incidence of diabetes compared to placebo. Three studies suggested that bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects with or without IGT can reduce the incidence of diabetes to near zero. Eight of 10 studies showed that treatment with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system in high risk population for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were associated with a significant reduction in the subsequent development of diabetes as a secondary outcome. The WOSCOPS study and the HERS study examined the effect of pravastatin and estrogen/progestin respectively on cardiovascular events and observed that these

  20. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  1. EPR design for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Preventive maintenance is very important in achieving high plant availability. For the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) preventive maintenance has been carefully addressed in the design stage. This is particularly necessary because of the traditionally different maintenance strategies employed in France and Germany. This paper emphasizes the following features introduced in the ERP design to minimize the duration of the refueling outage: (1) containment accessibility during power operation; (2) overall plant layout to facilitate inspections and maintenances within the containment; and (3) safety system design for enabling preventive maintenance during power operation. (author)

  2. Insulin sensitizer prevents and ameliorates experimental type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitsky, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon; Unterman, Terry; Bar-Tana, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-dependent type-1 diabetes (T1D) is driven by autoimmune β-cell failure, whereas systemic resistance to insulin is considered the hallmark of insulin-independent type-2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast to this canonical dichotomy, insulin resistance appears to precede the overt diabetic stage of T1D and predict its progression, implying that insulin sensitizers may change the course of T1D. However, previous attempts to ameliorate T1D in animal models or patients by insulin sensitizers have largely failed. Sensitization to insulin by MEthyl-substituted long-chain DICArboxylic acid (MEDICA) analogs in T2D animal models surpasses that of current insulin sensitizers, thus prompting our interest in probing MEDICA in the T1D context. MEDICA efficacy in modulating the course of T1D was verified in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats and autoimmune nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. MEDICA treatment normalizes overt diabetes in STZ diabetic rats when added on to subtherapeutic insulin, and prevents/delays autoimmune T1D in NOD mice. MEDICA treatment does not improve β-cell insulin content or insulitis score, but its efficacy is accounted for by pronounced total body sensitization to insulin. In conclusion, potent insulin sensitizers may counteract genetic predisposition to autoimmune T1D and amplify subtherapeutic insulin into an effective therapeutic measure for the treatment of overt T1D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleser S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silke Walleser,1 Joshua Ray,2 Helge Bischoff,3 Alain Vergnenègre,4 Hubertus Rosery,5 Christos Chouaid,6 David Heigener,7 Javier de Castro Carpeño,8 Marcello Tiseo,9 Stefan Walzer21Health Economic Consultancy, Renens, Switzerland; 2F Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Thoracic Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Limoges University Hospital, Limoges, France; 5Assessment-in-Medicine GmbH, Loerrach, Germany; 6Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 7Hospital Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 8University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 9University Hospital of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: First-line maintenance erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has demonstrated significant overall survival and progression-free survival benefits compared with best supportive care plus placebo, irrespective of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR status (SATURN trial. The cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib in the overall SATURN population has been assessed and published recently, but analyses according to EGFR mutation status have not been performed yet, which was the rationale for assessing the cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib specifically in EGFR wild-type metastatic NSCLC.Methods: The incremental cost per life-year gained of first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in patients with EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC was assessed for five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy with an area-under-the-curve model consisting of three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, death. Log-logistic survival functions were fitted to Phase III patient-level data (SATURN to model progression-free survival and overall survival. The first-line maintenance erlotinib therapy cost (modeled for time to treatment cessation, medication cost in later lines, and

  4. A survey of practice patterns and the health promotion and prevention attitudes of US chiropractors. Maintenance care: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, R L

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the primary care, health promotion activities associated with what has historically been called "maintenance care" (MC) as used in the practice of chiropractic in the United States. This includes issues such as investigating the purpose of MC, what conditions and patient populations it best serves, how frequently it is required, what therapeutic interventions constitute MC, how often it is recommended, and what percent of patient visits are for prevention and health promotion services. It also investigates the economic impact of these services. Postal survey of a randomized sample of practicing US chiropractors. The questionnaire was structured with a 5-point ordinal Likert scale (28 questions) and brief fill-in questionnaire (12 questions). The 40-question survey was mailed to 1500 chiropractors selected at random from a pool of chiropractors with active practices in the United States. The National Directory of Chiropractic database was the source of actively practicing chiropractors from which doctor selection was made. The sample was derived by using the last numbers composing the zip codes assigned by the US Postal Service. This sampling method assured potential inclusion of chiropractors from all 50 states, from rural areas and large cities, and assured a sample weighting based on population density that might not have been afforded by a simple random sample. Six hundred and fifty-eight (44%) of the questionnaires were completed and returned. US chiropractors agreed or strongly agreed that the purpose of MC was to optimize health (90%), prevent conditions from developing (88%), provide palliative care (86%), and minimize recurrence or exacerbations (95%). MC was viewed as helpful in preventing both musculoskeletal and visceral health problems. There was strong agreement that the therapeutic composition of MC placed virtually equal weight on exercise (96%) and adjustments/manipulation (97%) and that other interventions, including dietary

  5. Lifestyle interventions for diabetes mellitus type 2 prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F

    2014-03-01

    Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; P<.004). The incremental cost induced by intensive intervention compared with the standard was 106€ per participant in the individual level and 10€ in the group-based intervention representing 746€ and 108€ per averted case of diabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Steven J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including bla CMY and bla NDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a bla NDM-1 -positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of bla NDM -positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this bla NDM -containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Influence of abutment type and esthetic veneering on preload maintenance of abutment screw of implant-supported crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    The effect of veneering materials on screw joint stability remains inconclusive. Thus, this study evaluated the preload maintenance of abutment screws of single crowns fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials. Sixty crowns were divided into five groups (n = 12): UCLA abutment in gold alloy with ceramic (group GC) and resin (group GR) veneering, UCLA abutment in titanium with ceramic (group TiC) and resin (group TiR) veneering, and zirconia abutment with ceramic veneering (group ZiC). Abutment screws made of gold were used with a 35 Ncm insertion torque. Detorque measurements were obtained initially and after mechanical cycling. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5%. For the initial detorque means (in Ncm), group TiC (21.4 ± 1.78) exhibited statistically lower torque maintenance than groups GC (23.9 ± 0.91), GR (24.1 ± 1.34), and TiR (23.2 ± 1.33) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Group ZiC (21.9 ± 2.68) exhibited significantly lower torque maintenance than groups GC, GR, and TiR (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). After mechanical cycling, there was a statistically significant difference between groups TiC (22.1 ± 1.86) and GR (23.8 ± 1.56); between groups ZiC (21.7 ± 2.02) and GR; and also between groups ZiC and TiR (23.6 ± 1.30) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Detorque reduction occurred regardless of abutment type and veneering material. More irregular surfaces in the hexagon area of the castable abutments were observed. The superiority of any veneering material concerning preload maintenance was not established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Whole food approach for type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Pan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2016-08-01

    Diet is intimately associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, attention has focused on the contributions of individual nutrients, food groups and eating patterns to the outcome of T2D. High consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts are each independently associated with the reduced risk of T2D in high risk, glucose intolerant individuals. Experimental and clinical trials have given insight to the diverse mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed protective effects of certain foods on T2D, including nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber, weight control, enhanced satiety and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. Elevated consumption of refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages has shown to significantly elevate the risk of incident T2D. An overall healthy diet primarily comprising whole plant-based foods, together with regular physical activity and weight manage, could significantly reduce the risk of T2D. The present review consolidates current research and delineates major food groups shown to significantly influence risk of T2D. Documenting and quantifying the effects of diet on the outcome of T2D are of great scientific and public health importance as there is urgent need to implement dietary strategies to prevent and manage the outcome of T2D. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The role of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, J; Martinez-González, M Á; Bulló, M; Ros, E

    2011-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important preventable disease and a growing public health problem. Epidemiologic and interventional studies suggest that weight loss is the main driving force to reduce diabetes risk. Landmark clinical trials of lifestyle changes in subjects with prediabetes have shown that diet and exercise leading to weight loss consistently reduce the incidence of diabetes. However, from these studies it cannot be established whether dietary changes alone play a significant role in preventing diabetes. Here we review epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence relating nutrients, foods and dietary patterns to diabetes risk and the possible mechanisms involved. The differential effects of carbohydrate and fat quantity and quality, and those of specific foods and whole diets are discussed. Importantly, most dietary components influencing diabetes risk have similar effects on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and inflammation. The conclusion is that there is no universal dietary strategy to prevent diabetes or delay its onset. Together with the maintenance of ideal body weight, the promotion of the so-called prudent diet (characterized by a higher intake of food groups that are generally recommended for health promotion, particularly plant-based foods, and a lower intake of red meat, meat products, sweets, high-fat dairy and refined grains) or a Mediterranean dietary pattern rich in olive oil, fruits and vegetables, including whole grains, pulses and nuts, low-fat dairy, and moderate alcohol consumption (mainly red wine) appears as the best strategy to decrease diabetes risk, especially if dietary recommendations take into account individual preferences, thus enabling long-time adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance of Fish Health in Aquaculture: Review of Epidemiological Approaches for Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Assefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture. Among the effective prevention and control strategies, vaccination is one of the key practices. Types of vaccines for use in fish include killed vaccines, attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant technology vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines. Administration techniques of vaccines in fish include oral, injection, or immersion methods. Antibiotics are also in use in aquaculture despite their side effects in the development of drug resistance by microorganisms. Biological and chemical disease control strategies such as using probiotics, prebiotics, and medicinal plants are widely in use. Biosecurity measures in aquaculture can keep the safety of a facility from certain disease-causing agents that are absent in particular system. Farm-level biosecurity measures include strict quarantine measures, egg disinfection, traffic control, water treatments, clean feed, and disposal of mortalities. In conclusion, rather than trying to treat every disease case, it advisable to follow a preventive approach before the event of any disease outbreaks.

  11. Bringing Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection Prevention Home: Catheter Maintenance Practices and Beliefs of Pediatric Oncology Patients and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L.; Chen, Allen R.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Hebert, Lindsay C.; Bundy, David G.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Fratino, Lisa; Herpst, Cynthia; Kokoszka, Michelle; Miller, Marlene R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to investigate (1) the extent to which best-practice central line maintenance practices were employed in the homes of pediatric oncology patients and by whom, (2) caregiver beliefs about central line care and central line–associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) risk, (3) barriers to optimal central line care by families, and (4) educational experiences and preferences regarding central line care. Methods Researchers administered a survey to patients and families in a tertiary care pediatric oncology clinic that engaged in rigorous ambulatory and inpatient CLABSI prevention efforts. Results Of 110 invited patients and caregivers, 105 participated (95% response rate) in the survey (March–May 2012). Of the 50 respondents reporting that they or another caregiver change central line dressings, 48% changed a dressing whenever it was soiled as per protocol (many who did not change dressings per protocol also never personally changed dressings); 67% reported the oncology clinic primarily cares for their child’s central line, while 29% reported that an adult caregiver or the patient primarily cares for the central line. Eight patients performed their own line care “always” or “most of the time.” Some 13% of respondents believed that it was “slightly likely” or “not at all likely” that their child will get an infection if caregivers do not perform line care practices perfectly every time. Dressing change practices were the most difficult to comply with at home. Some 18% of respondents wished they learned more about line care, and 12% received contradictory training. Respondents cited a variety of preferences regarding line care teaching, although the majority looked to clinic nurses for modeling line care. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing ambulatory CLABSIs should target appropriate educational experiences for adult caregivers and patients and identify ways to improve compliance with best-practice care

  12. Targeting Innate Immunity for Type 1 Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needell, James C; Zipris, Danny

    2017-09-27

    Despite immense research efforts, type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains an autoimmune disease without a known trigger or approved intervention. Over the last three decades, studies have primarily focused on delineating the role of the adaptive immune system in the mechanism of T1D. The discovery of Toll-like receptors in the 1990s has advanced the knowledge on the role of the innate immune system in host defense as well as mechanisms that regulate adaptive immunity including the function of autoreactive T cells. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation plays a key role in promoting a large number of autoimmune disorders including T1D. Data from the LEW1.WR1 rat model of virus-induced disease and the RIP-B7.1 mouse model of diabetes suggest that innate immune signaling plays a key role in triggering disease progression. There is also evidence that innate immunity may be involved in the course of T1D in humans; however, a small number of clinical trials have shown that interfering with the function of the innate immune system following disease onset exerts only a modest effect on β-cell function. The data implying that innate immune pathways are linked with mechanisms of islet autoimmunity hold great promise for the identification of novel disease pathways that may be harnessed for clinical intervention. Nevertheless, more work needs to be done to better understand mechanisms by which innate immunity triggers β-cell destruction and assess the therapeutic value in blocking innate immunity for diabetes prevention.

  13. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  14. Combined type IIIB with bilateral type I thyroplasty for pitch lowering with maintenance of vocal fold tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Devine, Erin E; Remacle, Marc; Ford, Charles N; Wadium, Elizabeth; Jiang, Jack J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate type IIIB thyroplasty using the excised larynx bench apparatus and determine how altering vocal fold contour by performing bilateral medialization of the inferior vocal fold affects phonation. This procedure could be performed in patients for whom pitch lowering is desirable, such as female-to-male transsexuals or male patients with mutational falsetto in whom intensive voice therapy was insufficient. Aerodynamic, acoustic, and high-speed videokymographic data were collected for nine larynges at three subglottal pressure inputs for each of three conditions: normal; type IIIB thyroplasty; and combined type IIIB with modified bilateral type I thyroplasty intended to create a more rectangular glottal configuration. Each larynx served as its own control. Phonation threshold flow (p = 0.005), phonation threshold power (p = 0.031), and airflow varied across conditions with highest values for type IIIB thyroplasty and lowest for the combined procedure. Fundamental frequency was significantly different (p thyroplasty provided some further decrease in frequency, but mostly served to increase tension, reduce airflow, and produce a vibratory pattern which more closely mirrored control trials. Exploration of this combined procedure in patients may be warranted if not completely satisfied with the results from type IIIB thyroplasty alone.

  15. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, which, during pregnancy, is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mother and foetus. Utilization of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) is advocated to prevent malaria during ...

  16. We Have the Power To Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-04

    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message tailored for American Indians and Alaska Natives.  Created: 10/4/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2007.

  17. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, which, during pregnancy, is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mother and foetus. Utilization of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and. Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) is advocated to prevent malaria during ...

  18. Acupuncture for the prevention of tension-type headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Fei, Yutong; Mehring, Michael; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is often used for prevention of tension-type headache but its effectiveness is still controversial. This is an update of our Cochrane review originally published in Issue 1, 2009 of The Cochrane Library. Objectives To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than ‘sham’ (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as other interventions in reducing headache frequency in adults with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED to 19 January 2016. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to 10 February 2016 for ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria We included randomised trials with a post-randomisation observation period of at least eight weeks, which compared the clinical effects of an acupuncture intervention with a control (treatment of acute headaches only or routine care), a sham acupuncture intervention or another prophylactic intervention in adults with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Data collection and analysis Two review authors checked eligibility; extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results; and assessed study risk of bias and the quality of the acupuncture intervention. The main efficacy outcome measure was response (at least 50% reduction of headache frequency) after completion of treatment (three to four months after randomisation). To assess safety/acceptability we extracted the number of participants dropping out due to adverse effects and the number of participants reporting adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Main results Twelve trials (11 included in the previous version and one newly identified) with 2349 participants (median 56, range 10 to 1265) met the inclusion criteria

  19. Detecting and Preventing Type flaws at Static Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Brodo, Linda; Degano, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    A type flaw attack on a security protocol is an attack where an honest principal is cheated on interpreting a field in a message as the one with a type other than the intended one. In this paper, we shall present an extension of the LYSA calculus to cope with types, by using tags to represent...

  20. Maintenance cost models in deregulated power systems under opportunity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, K.; Dahal, K.; Azaiez, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    In a centralized power system, the operator is responsible for scheduling maintenance. There are different types of maintenance, including corrective maintenance; predictive maintenance; preventive maintenance; and reliability-centred maintenance. The main cause of power failures is poor maintenance. As such, maintenance costs play a significant role in deregulated power systems. They include direct costs associated with material and labor costs as well as indirect costs associated with spare parts inventory, shipment, test equipment, indirect labor, opportunity costs and cost of failure. In maintenance scheduling and planning, the cost function is the only component of the objective function. This paper presented the results of a study in which different components of maintenance costs were modeled. The maintenance models were formulated as an optimization problem with single and multiple objectives and a set of constraints. The maintenance costs models could be used to schedule the maintenance activities of power generators more accurately and to identify the best maintenance strategies over a period of time as they consider failure and opportunity costs in a deregulated environment. 32 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  2. Restoration of lumbopelvic sagittal alignment and its maintenance following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): comparison between straight type versus curvilinear type cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Tae; Shin, Myung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Choi, Du-Yong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate a radiological and clinical difference between the curvilinear type cages compared to the straight type cages for the restoration of lumbopelvic sagittal alignment and its maintenance after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure. 68 patients who underwent single-level TLIF using either the straight type or curvilinear type cage were retrospectively reviewed. Assessment of the lumbopelvic parameters and the height of disc space was performed before surgery as well as 2 days, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Clinical outcome was assessed using VAS and ODI. The curvilinear type cages were positioned more anteriorly than the straight type. Restoration of the segmental lordosis (SL) in the curvilinear group was significantly greater than the straight group and at 12 months of follow-up, the straight group showed greater decrease in the disc height than the curvilinear group. The straight group failed to show improvement of lumbar lordosis (LL), while the curvilinear group showed significant restoration of LL and could maintain it to the 6 months of follow-up. In both groups, pelvic tilt was significantly decreased and it lasted to 6 months in the straight group; whereas in the curvilinear group, it was maintained to the last follow-up of 12 months. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean VAS and ODI score over the follow-up period. This study demonstrates that the curvilinear type cage is superior to the straight type cage in improving the SL and maintaining both the restored lumbopelvic parameters and elevated disc height. These results could be attributable to the anterior position of the curvilinear cage which permits easy restoration of segmental lordosis and less sinking of cages.

  3. Nutrition interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Anastassios G

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Although our current methods for treating type 2 diabetes and its complications have improved, prevention of the disease is preferable, Epidemiologic data suggest that most cases of type 2 diabetes could be attributed to habits and forms of modifiable behavior. Recent evidence from randomized controlled trials has confirmed that lifestyle plays a central role in diabetes prevention. However, the optimal prevention strategy remains to be determined. This review presents the evidence for dietary components that may modify diabetes risk and suggests nutritional interventions that may be of benefit in preventing the disease.

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus : prevention of macrovascular complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwisse-Pasterkamp, Susanne H; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects a rapidly increasing number of patients. Most patients with Type 2 diabetes will develop vascular complications. This may be microvascular disease, such as nephropathy, retinopathy or polyneuropathy, and also macrovascular disease, such as coronary

  5. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  6. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  7. [Types of Care for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Acute and Maintenance Phase Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Oviedo Lugo, Gabriel Fernando; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Castro Díaz, Sergio Mario; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    To assist the clinician in making decisions about the types of care available for adults with schizophrenia. To determine which are the modalities of treatment associated with better outcomes in adults with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. Patients who were in Assertive community treatment had a lower risk of new hospitalizations. For the intensive case management, the results favored this intervention in the outcomes: medium term readmissions, social functioning and satisfaction with services. The crisis resolution teams was associated with better outcomes on outcomes of readmissions, social functioning and service satisfaction in comparison with standard care. The use of different modalities of care leads to the need of a comprehensive approach to patients to reduce the overall disability associated with the disease. Evidence shows overall benefit for most outcomes studied without encountering hazards for health of patients. This evaluation is recommended to use the professional ways of providing health services that are community-based and have a multidisciplinary group. It is not recommended the modality "day hospital" during the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality indicators of preventable adverse drug events in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    interventions against medication errors. Methods: A systematic literature review of the available literature on preventable adverse A systematic literature review of the available literature on preventable adverse drug events was conducted to describe the incidence and characteristics of preventable adverse......Summary Background: Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use process, and are of particular interest when designing interventions to improve the quality of medication therapy. Type 2...... diabetes became the case because a large proportion of patients are undertreated and not monitored as recommended; yet, the epidemiology of preventable adverse drug events in type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. The aims of the studies were to develop quality indicators for preventable adverse drug events...

  9. Exercise interventions to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Physical training is known to markedly increase insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This effect occurs predominantly in skeletal muscle and it has been shown in healthy individuals, people with impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanism/s behind this adaptation in...

  10. Prevention of low back pain: effect, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of maintenance care - study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Andreas; Axén, Iben; Kongsted, Alice; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Jensen, Irene

    2014-04-02

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and a socioeconomic problem in many countries. Due to its recurrent nature, the prevention of further episodes (secondary prevention), seems logical. Furthermore, when the condition is persistent, the minimization of symptoms and prevention of deterioration (tertiary prevention), is equally important. Research has largely focused on treatment methods for symptomatic episodes, and little is known about preventive treatment strategies. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled clinical trial in a multicenter setting investigating the effect and cost-effectiveness of preventive manual care (chiropractic maintenance care) in a population of patients with recurrent or persistent LBP.Four hundred consecutive study subjects with recurrent or persistent LBP will be recruited from chiropractic clinics in Sweden. The primary outcome is the number of days with bothersome pain over 12 months. Secondary measures are self-rated health (EQ-5D), function (the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire), psychological profile (the Multidimensional Pain Inventory), pain intensity (the Numeric Rating Scale), and work absence.The primary utility measure of the study is quality-adjusted life years and will be calculated using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Direct medical costs as well as indirect costs will be considered.Subjects are randomly allocated into two treatment arms: 1) Symptom-guided treatment (patient controlled), receiving care when patients feel a need. 2) Preventive treatment (clinician controlled), receiving care on a regular basis. Eligibility screening takes place in two phases: first, when assessing the primary inclusion/exclusion criteria, and then to only include fast responders, i.e., subjects who respond well to initial treatment. Data are collected at baseline and at follow-up as well as weekly, using SMS text messages. This study investigates a manual strategy (chiropractic maintenance care) for recurrent and

  11. Prevention of low back pain: effect, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of maintenance care - study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Andreas; Axén, Iben; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    of the study is quality-adjusted life years and will be calculated using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Direct medical costs as well as indirect costs will be considered.Subjects are randomly allocated into two treatment arms: 1) Symptom-guided treatment (patient controlled), receiving care when patients feel a need....... 2) Preventive treatment (clinician controlled), receiving care on a regular basis. Eligibility screening takes place in two phases: first, when assessing the primary inclusion/exclusion criteria, and then to only include fast responders, i.e., subjects who respond well to initial treatment. Data...... the effect and cost-effectiveness of preventive manual care (chiropractic maintenance care) in a population of patients with recurrent or persistent LBP.Four hundred consecutive study subjects with recurrent or persistent LBP will be recruited from chiropractic clinics in Sweden. The primary outcome...

  12. JRR-3 maintenance program utilizing accumulated maintenance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Kato, Tomoaki; Kinase, Masami; Torii, Yoshiya; Murayama, Yoji

    2007-07-01

    JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3) has been operated for more than 15 years after the modification, without significant troubles by carrying out maintenance such as the preventive maintenance (mainly time-based maintenance) for the safety-grade equipments and the breakdown maintenance for the non-safety-grade equipments. Unscheduled shutdowns causes by aged non-safety-grade equipments have been increasing, and the resources such as budgets have been decreasing year by year. In this situation, JRR-3 maintenance program was reviewed about safety, reliability and economic efficiency. This report offers the policy of the maintenance review and the future direction of maintenance programs. (author)

  13. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  14. Improvement of a yeast self-excising integrative vector by prevention of expression leakage of the intronated Cre recombinase gene during plasmid maintenance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaphonov, Michael O

    2017-12-01

    The use of plasmids possessing a regulatable gene coding for a site-specific recombinase together with its recognition sequences significantly facilitates genome manipulations since it allows self-excision of the portion of the genetic construct integrated into the host genome. Stable maintenance of such plasmids in Escherichia coli, which is used for plasmid preparation, requires prevention of recombinase synthesis in this host, which can be achieved by interrupting the recombinase gene with an intron. Based on this approach, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha self-excising vectors possessing intronated gene for Cre recombinase and its recognition sites (LoxP) were previously constructed. However, this work shows instability of the H. polymorpha vectors during plasmid maintenance in E. coli cells. This could be due to recombination between the loxP sites caused by residual expression of the cre gene. Prevention of translation reinitiation on an internal methionine codon completely solved this problem. A similar modification was made in a self-excising vector designed for S. cerevisiae. Apart from substantial improvement of yeast self-excising vectors, the obtained results also narrow down the essential part of Cre sequence. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Stress Prevention Training; Sex Differences inTypes of Stressors, Coping, and Training Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in

  16. Nursing assessment: impact on type and cost of interventions to prevent pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G M; Gardner, S; Frantz, R A

    1998-11-01

    To describe pressure ulcer preventive interventions and their cost, and to compare the preventive intervention use and cost with level of risk. Comparative, descriptive design. A large midwestern Veteran's Affairs Medical Center with 260 long-term care beds. Thirty-one chair- or bed-bound residents from 1 long-term care unit comprised the study sample. The outcome variables included demographic information (patient record), Braden Risk Assessment score, institutional risk assessment score (Pressure Ulcer Risk Tool), type and frequency of preventive interventions, and the related costs. Subjects were assessed on a weekly basis for type and frequency of preventive intervention and for the development of a pressure ulcer. Each subject was observed until death, discharge, pressure ulcer formation, or the end of the 3-month study period. The 3-month pressure ulcer incidence rate was 13%. All subjects were at risk for pressure ulcer development according to Braden scores; whereas only 74% were assessed at risk with use of the facility's risk assessment tool. Preventive measures included regular repositioning (87%); 67% were placed on mattress support surfaces. There was no relationship between level of risk (facility risk tool score) and type of prevention used. The total cost of pressure ulcer prevention to the nursing unit was $14,926, representing a mean of $497 per subject, and $5.55 per subject per day. As compared with previous studies, the higher cost of prevention described in this study may be attributed to inadequate linkage of preventive interventions to risk level.

  17. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun

    2007-01-01

    in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels...... by capsaicin prevented adipogenesis and obesity.......We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect...

  18. Alcoholics Anonymous and Relapse Prevention as Maintenance Strategies After Conjoint Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Men: 18-Month Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety men with alcohol problems and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient conjoint treatments: alcohol behavioral couples therapy (ABCT), ABCT with relapse prevention techniques (RP/ABCT), or ABCT with interventions encouraging Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement (AA/ABCT). Couples were followed for 18 months after…

  19. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  20. Rapid vs Maintenance Vitamin D Supplementation in Deficient Children With Asthma to Prevent Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Davidson, Bruce L; Yousef, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamed, Abdel Nasser H; Alattar, Imad

    2017-09-01

    Whether vitamin D reduces clinically important exacerbations of childhood asthma remains uncertain. We compared rapid to maintenance vitamin D repletion analyzed by baseline vitamin D level. Children presenting to the ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations and vitamin D levels ≤ 25 ng/mL underwent masked randomization, and then open dosing to either IM+oral (the latter daily) therapy or daily oral-only therapy, and were followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was patient-initiated unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations, examined two ways: cumulative proportions with an exacerbation, and average exacerbation frequency. As this was a nutrient study, we analyzed treatment groups by quartile of baseline vitamin D level, collecting repeat levels and clinical observations at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. One hundred and sixteen patients in the IM+oral cohort vs 115 in the oral-only cohort had similar mean (SD) baseline levels: 15.1 (5.4) vs 15.8 (5.2) ng/mL (range, 3-25 ng/mL). There was no difference in the primary outcome over the entire 12-month observation period. However, rapid IM+oral supplementation significantly reduced unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations for children with baseline levels of 3 to 11 ng/mL during the initial 3 months: the relative exacerbation rate for the IM+oral cohort compared with the oral-only cohort at 3 months was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.28-0.89; P = .008); average exacerbation frequency per child analysis, relative rate 0.36 (95% CI, 0.13-0.87; P = .017). Otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups. Rapid compared to maintenance vitamin D supplementation for children with the lowest levels resulted in short- but not long-term reduction in asthma exacerbations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Targeting Type 2: Linguistic Agency Assignment in Diabetes Prevention Policy Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effects of linguistic agency assignment on the persuasive impact of a fictitious medical journal editorial about Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 422) read 1 of 4 versions of an editorial that differed in the language used to describe the health threat posed by the disease (threat agency) and to outline a program for preventing it (prevention agency). Threat agency was assigned either to the disease (e.g., diabetes puts individuals' lives at risk) or to humans (e.g., individuals who acquire diabetes put their lives at risk). Prevention agency was assigned either to the recommended prevention behaviors (e.g., a healthy diet and regular exercise protect children from Type 2) or to humans (e.g., children who eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly protect themselves from Type 2). Respondents' perceptions of disease severity were higher when threat agency was assigned to diabetes rather than humans. However, attitudes toward the proposed prevention program were higher when prevention agency was assigned to humans rather than to the recommended behaviors. The latter finding contrasts with agency effects observed in previous research on a viral threat, suggesting that the optimal pattern of agency assignment in prevention messaging may be different for acute and chronic lifestyle diseases.

  2. Condition based maintenance in the context of opportunistic maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, Javid; Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Wortmann, Hans; Klingenberg, Warse

    2012-01-01

    Condition based maintenance (CBM) uses the operating condition of a component to predict a failure event. Compared to age based replacement (ABR), CBM usually results in higher availability and lower maintenance costs, since it tries to prevent unplanned downtime and avoid unnecessary preventive

  3. Predictors of long term weight loss maintenance in patients at high risk of type 2 diabetes participating in a lifestyle intervention program in primary health care: The DE-PLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Barengo, Noël C; Lindström, Jaana; Wójtowicz, Ewa; Acosta, Tania; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Piwońska-Solska, Beata; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Windak, Adam; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions in type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention implementation studies can be effective and lasting. Long-term weight loss maintenance enhances the intervention effect through a significant decrease in diabetes incidence over time. Our objective was to identify factors predicting long-term successful weight reduction maintenance achieved during a DM2 prevention program in patients with high DM2 risk in primary health care. Study participants (n = 263), middle-aged, slightly obese with baseline increased DM2 risk (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)>14), but no diabetes were invited to receive 11 lifestyle counselling sessions, guided physical activity sessions and motivational support during 10-months. The study participants had three clinical examinations during the study (baseline, one and three years). Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of weight reduction maintenance two years after the discontinuation of the intervention. Out of 105 patients who completed all three examinations (baseline age 56.6 (standard deviation (SD) = 10.7), body mass index 31.1 kg/m2 (SD = 4.9), FINDRISC 18.6 (SD = 3.1)), 73 patients (70%) showed weight loss during the intervention (mean weight loss 4.2 kg, SD = 5.1). The total weight loss achieved in the maintainers (27 of 73 study participants) two years after the intervention had finished was 6.54 kg (4.47 kg+2.0 kg). The non-maintainers, on the other hand, returned to their initial weight at the start of the intervention (+0.21 kg). In multivariable analysis baseline history of increased glucose (odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-13.6) and reduction of total fat in diet during follow-up (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 1.5-12.2) were independent predictors of successful weight loss. Further studies exploring predictors of weight loss maintenance in diabetes prevention are needed to help health care providers to redesign interventions and improve

  4. Tempo ótimo entre manutenções preventivas para sistemas sujeitos a mais de um tipo de evento aleatório Optimal maintenance time for repairable systems in more than one type of failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Baracho dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um sistema reparável opera sob uma política de manutenção que especifica reparos preventivos em tempos pré-determinados e reparos mínimos quando ocorre uma falha. O processo de Poisson não-homogêneo é um modelo adequado para as falhas aleatórias que são tratadas por reparo mínimo. Assumindo um único tipo de falha e uma forma paramétrica para a função de intensidade deste processo, pode-se encontrar uma política ótima de manutenção preventiva que minimiza o custo médio por unidade de tempo. Este artigo foi motivado por uma situação envolvendo chaves seccionadoras de uma empresa de energia elétrica. Neste sistema existem dois tipos diferentes de eventos aleatórios, caracterizados por distintas causas de falhas. Uma política ótima de manutenção preventiva é obtida estendendo-se os resultados da situação envolvendo um único evento aleatório.A repairable system operates under a maintenance strategy that calls for complete preventive repair actions at pre-scheduled times and minimal repair actions whenever a failure occurs. Under minimal repair, failures are modeled according to a non-homogeneous Poisson process. When the intensity function is assumed to grow proportional to a power of time, this process is called the Power Law Process. The motivation for this paper was a maintenance data set related to power switch disconnectors. Two different types of failures could be observed for these systems according to their causes. The major differences between these types of failures are their costs. Assuming that the system will be in operation for an infinite time, we found the expected cost per unit of time for each preventive maintenance policy and hence obtained the optimal strategy as a function of the intensity function of the process. Large sample procedures to estimate the optimal maintenance check points for the Power Law Process are also discussed. The results are applied in the power switch disconnector data set.

  5. Angiotensin II type 1-receptor antagonism prevents type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2)-dependent lipid peroxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtefeld, Maren; Bandlow, Nele; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Grote, Karsten; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Kaszkin, Marietta; Beck, Sabine; Drexler, Helmut; Schieffer, Bernhard

    Accumulation and modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) within the vessel wall represent key events in atherogenesis. Secretory phospholipase A(2) type IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA) modulates the enzymatic process of LDL- modification and was recently identified as an independent predictor of coronary

  6. Roadside maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Roadside Maintenance is a unique element within the highway maintenance program because much of the work involves caring for and/or controlling vegetation. Roadside vegetation, if managed properly, can become more naturally self-sustaining over time ...

  7. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  8. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes directed at the family context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Nielsen, K; Grunnet, L Groth; Maindal, H Terkildsen

    2018-01-01

    for future research. A narrative review of the symposium presentations and related literature is given. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term adverse outcomes including Type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring. Interestingly, women's partners are also at higher risk of Type 2 diabetes....... Thus, although GDM is diagnosed in pregnant women, the implications seem to affect the whole family. Structured lifestyle intervention can prevent or delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes. In this review, we show how numerous challenges are present in the target group, when such interventions are sought......In this review, we aim to summarize knowledge about gestational diabetes (GDM) after delivery; with special focus on the potential of preventing Type 2 diabetes in a family context. The review expands on the key messages from a symposium held in Copenhagen in May 2017 and highlights avenues...

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections: Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-30

    continuous virus replication. On the other hand. HIV -2 infected asymptomatic individuals carry slow/low type of HIV -2. These viruses replicate in cell...immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) correlates with T4 expression in a parental monocytoid cell line and its subclones . Virology 157:359-365. 14. McDougal, J.S...AD-A237 815 AD_____ HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ( HIV ) INFECTIONS: STRAIN AND TYPE VARIATIONS; DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION MIDTERM REPORT ERLING NORRBY

  10. Maintenance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.

    1990-01-01

    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr

  11. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented.

  12. Quality indicators of preventable adverse drug events in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    population receiving oral antihyperglycaemic treatment (9,791 persons) was set up, and indicator positives identified (Articles no. 2 and 3). The third step in the model consisted of a risk assessment of preventable adverse drug events, including an assessment of clinical areas that need quality improvement...... events are common in primary care, with many resulting in hospitalisation. Projected to a Danish setting, 216,000 patients will experience a preventable adverse drug event each year, and 162,000 of these patients will need hospital admission. Quality improvement interventions should target errors......Summary Background: Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use process, and are of particular interest when designing interventions to improve the quality of medication therapy. Type 2...

  13. How to prevent echocardiographic misinterpretation of Gerbode type defect as pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Faramarz; Movahed, Mohammad-Reza

    2007-12-01

    We present a rare case of left ventricular to right atrial communication, a Gerbode type defect discovered in an adult female, originally misinterpreted as pulmonary arterial hypertension. The case report will be followed by the review of the literature and a discussion about how to prevent echocardiographic misinterpretation of this defect as pulmonary arterial hypertension using careful echocardiographic examination.

  14. Interval of Routine Maintenance and Maintenance Performance: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au-Yong Cheong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-rise residential buildings, the quality of facilities management services is significant to the normal operation of the facilities. Unfortunately, lack of concern towards building maintenance, especially preventive maintenance, happens in domestic housing industry in Malaysia. Majority of the maintenance operations of condominiums suffer from lack of planning, lack of proactive maintenance plan, and lack of proper implementation. Thus, this paper reviews the implementation of preventive maintenance strategy, routine maintenance in specific. An extensive review of literature published in 1987 to 2014 is performed for the purpose of this research. The publications are sourced from journal articles, conference proceedings and books. The literature analysis confirms that the routine maintenance of facilities and building services is vital and it can be influential towards the maintenance performance. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is developed, which shows the relationship between routine maintenance of building facilities & services and maintenance performance. The building facilities & services are divided into two categories. They are essential facilities & services that ensure the safety, health, habitability, and operability of buildings; while value-added facilities & services deal with property value, return on investment, and quality living of buildings. Based on the findings, a future research is proposed, which aims to identify the appropriate routine of maintenance for the facilities and services in high-rise residential buildings to improve the maintenance performance.

  15. Building and integrating reliability models in a Reliability-Centered-Maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, B.; Villain, B.; Venturini, V.; Hugonnard, S.; Bryla, P.

    1998-03-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) has recently developed its OMF-Structures method, designed to optimize preventive maintenance of passive structures such as pipes and support, based on risk. In particular, reliability performances of components need to be determined; it is a two-step process, consisting of a qualitative sort followed by a quantitative evaluation, involving two types of models. Initially, degradation models are widely used to exclude some components from the field of preventive maintenance. The reliability of the remaining components is then evaluated by means of quantitative reliability models. The results are then included in a risk indicator that is used to directly optimize preventive maintenance tasks. (author)

  16. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Which diet for prevention of type 2 diabetes? A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-09-01

    No specific diet is recommended to prevent type 2 diabetes. We did a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to assess the association between different diets and prevention of type 2 diabetes. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, and ISI web of knowledge) until August 2013 using predefined criteria. We included prospective cohort studies that evaluated the role of different diets in type 2 diabetes prevention. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. We did random-effects meta-analyses to determine the relative risk (RR) of incident diabetes associated with healthful dietary patterns. A total of 21,372 cases of incident diabetes, from 18 prospective studies, with 20 cohorts, in 4 world regions were identified. In the random-effect meta-analysis of the 20 cohorts, RR was 0.80 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.86, P diabetes did not appreciably change considering the geography (USA, Europe, and Asia), the duration of follow-up (≤10 and >10 years), and type of diets (Mediterranean and DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, diets). There was a difference between at risk and general population (P = 0.0487), but the evidence was limited to two studies only. The results of our study demonstrate that several healthy diets are equally and consistently associated with a 20 % reduced risk of future type 2 diabetes.

  18. Workplace Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Allison; Moran, Margaret; O’Brien, Matthew; Ackermann, Ronald; Kullgren, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This study aims to summarize the recent peer-reviewed literature on workplace interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including studies that translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) curriculum to workplace settings (n = 10) and those that use different intervention approaches to achieve the specific objective of T2DM prevention among employees (n = 3). Recent findings Weight reduction was achieved through workplace interventions to prevent T2DM, though such interventions varied substantially in their effectiveness. The greatest weight loss was reported among intensive lifestyle interventions (i.e., at least 4 months in duration) that implemented the structured DPP curriculum (n = 3). Weight reduction was minimal among less intensive interventions, including those that substantially modified the DPP curriculum (n = 2) and those that used non-DPP intervention approaches to prevent T2DM (n = 3). Most studies (n = 12) reported increased levels of physical activity following the intervention. Summary Implementation of the DPP in workplaces may be an effective strategy to prevent T2DM among employees. PMID:28150162

  19. Modification of pathological type A as worksite stress management and disease prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonierczyk-Zreda, D

    2000-01-01

    The importance of helping an employee to better cope with occupational stress as the aim of stress management interventions is presented. It particularly concerns the employees who have the poorest temperamental and personality potential for effective coping and should be the target of primary stress intervention and prevention. According to evidence, Type A workers are at risk of occupational stress and disease, especially when some personality features of Type A are accompanied by high reactivity. The concept of pathological Type A is introduced. The already existing programs of modifying Type A and the framework of a program based on the elements that have been established to be the most therapeutic for pathological Type A are presented.

  20. 40 CFR 68.56 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance. 68.56 Section 68.56... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.56 Maintenance. (a) The owner or operator... maintenance procedures. (b) The owner or operator shall train or cause to be trained each employee involved in...

  1. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Rachel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a depression free days, (b residual depressive symptoms, (c antidepressant (ADM usage, (d psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e quality of life, and (f cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  3. A mixed methods protocol for developing and testing implementation strategies for evidence-based obesity prevention in childcare: a cluster randomized hybrid type III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren; Johnson, Susan L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Curran, Geoffrey M

    2017-07-18

    Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i.e., key components of the WISE intervention). Informed by the i-PARIHS framework, we will use a stakeholder-driven evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) process to apply information gathered in qualitative interviews on barriers and facilitators to practice to inform the design of implementation strategies. Then, a Hybrid Type III cluster randomized trial will compare a basic implementation strategy (i.e., intervention as usual) with an enhanced implementation strategy informed by stakeholders. All Head Start centers (N = 12) within one agency in an urban area in a southern state in the USA will be randomized to receive the basic or enhanced implementation with approximately 20 classrooms per group (40 educators, 400 children per group). The educators involved in the study, the data collectors, and the biostastician will be blinded to the study condition. The basic and enhanced implementation strategies will be compared on outcomes specified by the RE-AIM model (e.g., Reach to families, Effectiveness of impact on child diet and health indicators, Adoption commitment of agency, Implementation fidelity and acceptability, and Maintenance after 6 months). Principles of formative evaluation will be used throughout the hybrid trial. This study will test a stakeholder-driven approach to improve implementation, fidelity, and maintenance of EBPs for obesity prevention in childcare. Further, this study provides an example of a systematic process to develop

  4. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  5. Prevention of complications in glycogen storage disease type Ia with optimization of metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambska, M; Labrador, E B; Kuo, C L; Weinstein, D A

    2017-08-01

    Prior to 1971, type Ia glycogen storage disease was marked by life-threatening hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, severe failure to thrive, and developmental delay. With the introduction of continuous feeds in the 1970s and cornstarch in the 1980s, the prognosis improved, but complications almost universally developed. Changes in the management of type Ia glycogen storage disease have resulted in improved metabolic control, and this manuscript reviews the increasing evidence that complications can be delayed or prevented with optimal metabolic control as previously was seen in diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 'Omics'-driven discoveries in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Pedersen, Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (6): 579-588 ABSTRACT: Glucose-based methods are currently gold standards for identifying individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Obviously, these methods only consider one of many pathologies of impaired glucose metabolism and they all suffer from a poor specificity...... as type 2 diabetes risk assessment tools. Recently, however, panels of multiple biomarkers reflecting several pre-diabetic pathologies have been developed. Their specificity and potentials for future risk stratification are discussed. As a multifactorial disorder type 2 diabetes calls for a multifactorial...... treatment approach targeting multiple but modifiable vascular risk factors. The same holds for pre-diabetic states and prevention hereof. In addition, type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes show major heterogeneity between affected individuals in pathology, risk of organ damages, progression rate...

  7. Drugs from the Sea: A Marine Sponge-Derived Compound Prevents Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Van Kaer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one million Americans have Type 1 diabetes. This disease — also known as autoimmune or juvenile diabetes — strikes children suddenly, makes them dependent on insulin injections for life, and carries the constant threat of devastating complications. While it can and does strike adults, nearly half of all new cases are diagnosed in children. A child is diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes every hour. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the inability of a person’s pancreas to produce sufficient amounts of insulin to control their blood sugar levels and sustain life. While insulin injections allow affected individuals to control their blood sugar and stay alive, it is not a cure nor does it prevent the devastating complications of this disease, which include kidney failure, blindness, amputations, heart attack, and stroke. In Type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system goes awry, attacking and destroying insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

  8. Type 2 diabetes, related conditions, in relation and dementia: an opportunity for prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, José A

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic evidence linking type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its precursor conditions, elevated adiposity and hyperinsulinemia, to dementia. The mechanisms relating these conditions to dementia may be vascular and non-vascular. Elevated adiposity in middle age is related to a higher risk of dementia but the data on this association in old age is conflicting. Several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of higher adiposity and insulin resistance, is also related to a higher risk of dementia, including late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Studies have consistently shown a relation of T2D with higher dementia risk, but the associations are stronger for vascular dementia compared to LOAD. A large proportion of the world population may be at increased risk of dementia given the trends for increasing prevalence of overweight, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and T2D. However, these associations may present a unique opportunity for prevention and treatment of dementia. There are several known modalities that are effective in the prevention and T2D and the reduction of hyperinsulinemia including lifestyle interventions, metformin, thiazolideniodones, and acarbose. Several studies in the prevention and treatment of T2D are currently measuring cognitive outcomes and will provide information on whether T2D treatment and prevention can prevent cognitive decline and dementia.

  9. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  10. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CAME-Computer Aided Maintenance Engineering: a new methodology to reduce maintenance life cycle cost pipelines (repair level, spares, preventive/scheduled/inspection and resources) by modeling, analysis and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Yizhak [BQR Reliability Engineering Ltd. (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In today's insecure and uncertain climate in the high-tech industry, where money is less accessible, companies are constantly searching for ways to cut expenses. Two important financial factors to consider are maintenance and down time when the equipment/system/processes are not functioning/operating. In this paper we shall describe a new technology, which will help designers and operators of complex systems to improve the reliability of the products and to reduce the maintenance cost, when they are used in field. These set of tools are interfaced to exist CAD/CAE and ERP/CMMS systems concurrently. (author)

  12. Electrical predictive maintenance at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L. R.; Fernandez de la Mata, R.; Cano Gonzalez, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical predictive maintenance plan is currently being put into effect at Trillo I Nuclear Power Plant which is initially being applied to three types of equipment: motors, transformers and motor-driven valves. This paper describes the different phases considered in the implementation of the Predictive Maintenance Plan: study of existing techniques for such equipment (tangoδ, spectral analysis of stator current, chromatographic analysis of gases, spectral analysis of the axial stray magnetic flux, etc), study of the special characteristics of the electrical equipment at Trillo NPP, analysis of applicable techniques (characteristic parameters, alert-alarm values, experience with such techniques, etc), analysis of machine history records, study of the optimum preventive-predictive case, study of applicable frequencies and definition of the computerised predictive maintenance management tool. With the exception of the computerised predictive maintenance management applications which are presently being implemented, all the activities described above have been carried out on the three types of equipment mentioned. (Author)

  13. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Harz (1981), reports the results of questioning largc- numbers of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) involved in the maintenance process. The second type of...identified maintenance problems (e.g., Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). The second step was the identificatl i of demand factors that affect the actual...Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). Second, if any of the data on which allocations are based are faulty, or budgetary decisions require a cutback in

  14. The burden of type 2 diabetes: strategies to prevent or delay onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Iqbal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nayyar IqbalDepartment of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is widespread and its prevalence is increasing rapidly. In the US alone, approximately 41 million individuals have prediabetes, placing them at high risk for the development of diabetes. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves inadequate insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin. Suggestive data link insulin resistance and accompanying hyperglycemia to an excess of abdominal adipose tissue, a link that appears to be mediated partially by adipocyte secretion of multiple adipokines that mediate inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The adipokine adiponectin has reduced expression in obesity and appears to be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes. Current recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes center on lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise. Clinical trials have established the efficacy of lifestyle intervention, as well as pharmacologic interventions that target glycemic control or fat metabolism. However, diabetes did develop in a substantial percentage of individuals who received intensive intervention in these trials. Thus there is an unmet need for additional strategies in high-risk individuals. Recent data suggest thiazolidinediones and blockade of the endocannabinoid system represent novel therapeutic approaches that may be used for the prevention of diabetes.Keywords: cardiometabolic risk, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, endocannabinoid system

  15. [Regulatory role of NKT cells in the prevention of type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Liana; Simoni, Yannick; Pingris, Karine; Beaudoin, Lucie; Lehuen, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of pancreatic β cells by the immune system. NKT cells are innate-like T cells that can exert potent immuno-regulatory functions. The regulatory role of NKT cells was initially proposed after the observed decreased frequency of this subset in mouse models of type 1 diabetes, as well as in patients developing various autoimmune pathologies. Increasing NKT cell frequency and function prevent the development of type 1 diabetes in mouse models. Several mechanisms including IL-4 and IL-10 production by NKT cells and the accumulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells are critical for the dampening of pathogenic anti-islet T cell responses by NKT cells. Importantly, these cells can at the same time prevent diabetes and promote efficient immune responses against infectious agents. These results strengthen the potential role of NKT cells as a key target for the development of therapeutic strategies against type 1 diabetes. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Maintenance care in chiropractic – what do we know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestbæk Lise

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Back problems are often recurring or chronic. It is therefore not surprising that chiropractors wish to prevent their return or reduce their impact. This is often attempted with a long-term treatment strategy, commonly called maintenance care. However, some aspects of maintenance care are considered controversial. It is therefore relevant to investigate the scientific evidence forming the basis for its use. Objectives A review of the literature was performed in order to obtain answers to the following questions: What is the exact definition of maintenance care, what are its indications for use, and how is it practised? How common is it that chiropractors support the concept of maintenance care, and how well accepted is it by patients? How frequently is maintenance care used, and what factors are associated with its use? Is maintenance care a clinically valid method of approach, and is it cost-effective for the patient? Results Thirteen original studies were found, in which maintenance care was investigated. The relative paucity of studies, the obvious bias in many of these, the lack of exhaustive information, and the diversity of findings made it impossible to answer any of the questions. Conclusion There is no evidence-based definition of maintenance care and the indications for and nature of its use remains to be clearly stated. It is likely that many chiropractors believe in the usefulness of maintenance care but it seems to be less well accepted by their patients. The prevalence with which maintenance care is used has not been established. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of maintenance care for various types of conditions are unknown. Therefore, our conclusion is identical to that of a similar review published in 1996, namely that maintenance care is not well researched and that it needs to be investigated from several angles before the method is subjected to a multi-centre trial.

  17. Metabolic control of von Gierke disease (glycogen storage disease type Ia) in pregnancy: maintenance of euglycemia with cornstarch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M P; Compton, A; Drugan, A; Evans, M I

    1990-03-01

    In patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia, glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency reduces the liver's ability to generate free glucose from glycogen. Without a continuous, exogenous source of glucose, severe hypoglycemia and subsequent metabolic perturbations occur. Our observations of a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ia, who also had a clomiphene-induced triplet gestation, suggest that cornstarch, which can be catabolized by debranching enzymes, may be used to maintain a constant state of maternal and fetal euglycemia and correct many metabolic abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia can be safely managed in pregnancy under a tightly monitored and regulated protocol of raw cornstarch feedings.

  18. Model of Management (Mo.Ma) for the patient with schizophrenia: crisis control, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The

  19. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  20. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  1. Efficacy of the Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Using LifeStyle Education Program RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Young, Myles D; Callister, Robin

    2016-03-01

    Self-administered lifestyle interventions have been suggested as an alternative to face-to-face delivery modes, although their efficacy remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Type 2 diabetes mellitus Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) Program, a self-administered and gender-tailored lifestyle intervention for men at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 6-month, assessor-blinded, parallel-group RCT was conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia in 2012-2013. Men (aged 18-65 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2), high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus) were stratified by age (50 years) and BMI category (25.0-29.9, 30.0-35.9, and 35.0-40 kg/m(2)) and individually randomized (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n=53) or waitlist control groups (n=48). The intervention group received the PULSE Program, which contained print and video resources on weight loss (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology [SHED-IT] Weight Loss Program), diet modification, and exercise for Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention. The waitlist control group received no information until 6 months. Data were collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and analyzed in 2014-2015. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) were used to determine group X time interactions (differences between groups in changes over time) at 6 months for the primary outcome (weight), glycated hemoglobin, and several secondary outcomes (significance level, plifestyle intervention, which has potential for dissemination in community settings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifestyle Interventions to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Alouki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.

  3. Effects of electromagnetic shielding cases for semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters on preventing electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Saze, Takuya; Mori, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Performance of electromagnetic shielding cases for preventing malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs) caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a digital cellular telephone (cell phone) and a card reader of access control system were analyzed. The cases were handcrafted by using cloth of activated carbon fiber, polyester film laminated metal, and two kinds of metal netting. Five kinds of SEPDs put in the cases were exposed to the high frequency electromagnetic fields for 50 sec or 1 min. The cases prevented perfectly the malfunction due to the cell phone. The cases shortened distances required to prevent the malfunction due to the card reader, but did not prevent the malfunction. The electromagnetic immunity level of SEPD inserted in the cases increased from greater than 11.2 to greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and from 1.1 to greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. The maximum of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of each case was greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. (author)

  4. Maintenance Mentor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, John

    2003-01-01

    Maintenance Mentor (MXM) is a research effort conducted by a joint AFRL/HESR and Northrop Grumman Information Technology team to identify the basic, high-level requirements necessary for improving flight line diagnostic capabilities...

  5. Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses.

  6. Long-Term Maintenance of Treatment Outcomes: Diabetes Personal Trainer Intervention for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Plotnick, Leslie P.; Clark, Loretta M.; Zeitzoff, Linda

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe a 2-year follow-up of A1C outcomes of a self-regulation intervention for youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 81 youths with type 1 diabetes ages 11?16 years were randomized to usual care versus a diabetes personal trainer intervention consisting of six self-monitoring, goal-setting, and problem-solving sessions with trained nonprofessionals. A1C data were obtained from medical records 2 years postintervention, and ANCOVA adjusting for age a...

  7. Physical activity in children: prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Simmons, David

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that increased physical activity is beneficial for blood glucose homeostasis and the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This chapter takes a life course approach with an emphasis on the intrauterine and childhood stages of life. Firstly, growth and development at critical periods with a focus on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue; then, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered in relation to physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The importance of the development of fundamental movement skills in early childhood for both physical fitness and also growth and development is emphasised. Physical activity guidelines in westernised countries are examined for commonalities. Finally, the effective translation of the evidence base for the benefits of physical activity into randomised controlled trials and then into real-world public health services that are sustainable is addressed with a case study from New Zealand of Project Energize--a through-school physical activity and nutrition intervention. Physical activity, alongside a 'healthy diet' is arguably the best preventive measure and treatment for both obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is an essential and normal activity of daily life, and all aspects of the life course and the environment should support physical activity.

  8. Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies show that prevalence of type 2 diabetes is 1.6 to 2 times lower in vegetarians than in the general population, even after adjustment for differences in body mass index (BMI). Clinical interventional trials demonstrated that vegetarian diets lead to a greater weight loss and greater reduction in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, and hypoglycemic medication than a conventional hypocaloric diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We found a greater reduction in visceral fat and greater improvements in insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers with a vegetarian compared to a conventional hypocaloric diabetic diet. Vegetarian diets are sustainable in the long term and may elicit desirable improvements not only in physical health but also in mental health. The American Dietetic Association states that well-planned vegetarian diets are healthy and nutritionally adequate and they may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of some illnesses. Larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness and promote the inclusion of vegetarian diets in dietary guidelines for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  9. A European evidence-based guideline for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulweber, B; Valensi, P; Lindström, J; Lalic, N M; Greaves, C J; McKee, M; Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Liatis, S; Cosson, E; Szendroedi, J; Sheppard, K E; Charlesworth, K; Felton, A-M; Hall, M; Rissanen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Schwarz, P E; Roden, M; Paulweber, M; Stadlmayr, A; Kedenko, L; Katsilambros, N; Makrilakis, K; Kamenov, Z; Evans, P; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Lalic, K; Jotic, A; Djordevic, P; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, V; Hühmer, U; Kulzer, B; Puhl, S; Lee-Barkey, Y H; AlKerwi, A; Abraham, C; Hardeman, W; Acosta, T; Adler, M; AlKerwi, A; Barengo, N; Barengo, R; Boavida, J M; Charlesworth, K; Christov, V; Claussen, B; Cos, X; Cosson, E; Deceukelier, S; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, V; Djordjevic, P; Evans, P; Felton, A-M; Fischer, M; Gabriel-Sanchez, R; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Goldfracht, M; Gomez, J L; Greaves, C J; Hall, M; Handke, U; Hauner, H; Herbst, J; Hermanns, N; Herrebrugh, L; Huber, C; Hühmer, U; Huttunen, J; Jotic, A; Kamenov, Z; Karadeniz, S; Katsilambros, N; Khalangot, M; Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Köhler, D; Kopp, V; Kronsbein, P; Kulzer, B; Kyne-Grzebalski, D; Lalic, K; Lalic, N; Landgraf, R; Lee-Barkey, Y H; Liatis, S; Lindström, J; Makrilakis, K; McIntosh, C; McKee, M; Mesquita, A C; Misina, D; Muylle, F; Neumann, A; Paiva, A C; Pajunen, P; Paulweber, B; Peltonen, M; Perrenoud, L; Pfeiffer, A; Pölönen, A; Puhl, S; Raposo, F; Reinehr, T; Rissanen, A; Robinson, C; Roden, M; Rothe, U; Saaristo, T; Scholl, J; Schwarz, P E; Sheppard, K E; Spiers, S; Stemper, T; Stratmann, B; Szendroedi, J; Szybinski, Z; Tankova, T; Telle-Hjellset, V; Terry, G; Tolks, D; Toti, F; Tuomilehto, J; Undeutsch, A; Valadas, C; Valensi, P; Velickiene, D; Vermunt, P; Weiss, R; Wens, J; Yilmaz, T

    2010-04-01

    The prevalence and socioeconomic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and associated co-morbidities are rising worldwide. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for preventing T2DM. A European multidisciplinary consortium systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of screening and interventions for T2DM prevention using SIGN criteria. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are the main modifiable risk factors. Age and ethnicity are non-modifiable risk factors. Case-finding should follow a step-wise procedure using risk questionnaires and oral glucose tolerance testing. Persons with impaired glucose tolerance and/or fasting glucose are at high-risk and should be prioritized for intensive intervention. Interventions supporting lifestyle changes delay the onset of T2DM in high-risk adults (number-needed-to-treat: 6.4 over 1.8-4.6 years). These should be supported by inter-sectoral strategies that create health promoting environments. Sustained body weight reduction by >or= 5 % lowers risk. Currently metformin, acarbose and orlistat can be considered as second-line prevention options. The population approach should use organized measures to raise awareness and change lifestyle with specific approaches for adolescents, minorities and disadvantaged people. Interventions promoting lifestyle changes are more effective if they target both diet and physical activity, mobilize social support, involve the planned use of established behaviour change techniques, and provide frequent contacts. Cost-effectiveness analysis should take a societal perspective. Prevention using lifestyle modifications in high-risk individuals is cost-effective and should be embedded in evaluated models of care. Effective prevention plans are predicated upon sustained government initiatives comprising advocacy, community support, fiscal and legislative changes, private sector engagement and continuous media communication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  10. Condition-based maintenance for complex systems : Coordinating maintenance and logistics planning for the process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Keizer, Minou Catharina Anselma

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance planning in the process industries is extremely complex for various reasons. Plants often run nonstop, allowing little time for performing preventive maintenance. Failures should be prevented, however, as they can lead to system downtime and high losses of revenue. Corrective maintenance

  11. Midodrine in the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome type 2 recurrence: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandria, C; Debernardi-Venon, W; Carello, M; Ceretto, S; Rizzetto, M; Marzano, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of cirrhosis. Treatment with terlipressin has currently the best efficacy pedigree, inducing hepatorenal syndrome reversal in a high proportion of patients. However, hepatorenal syndrome recurrence after terlipressin withdrawal is very common, especially in type 2 hepatorenal syndrome. Midodrine, an oral adrenergic vasoconstrictor, has been suggested to be an effective therapy in hepatorenal syndrome. To analyse the impact of treatment with midodrine after hepatorenal syndrome type 2 reversal induced by terlipressin on the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome recurrence. A case-control design was used. The outcome of 10 patients with hepatorenal syndrome type 2 treated successfully with terlipressin and then with midodrine (7.5-12.5mg/tid) was compared with that of an historical control group of hepatorenal syndrome type 2 patients responders to treatment with terlipressin. Patients and controls were matched by age, plasma renin activity (PRA) levels and severity of renal and liver failure. Cases and controls were similar with respect to pre-treatment with terlipressin. The hepatorenal syndrome recurrence probability was the same in the two groups (cases and control: 9/10, 90%, p=ns). No significant differences were found between cases and controls with respect to serum creatinine (1.9+/-0.1mg/dl vs. 2+/-0.2mg/dl), blood creatinine clearance (28+/-5ml/min vs. 24+/-5ml/min), urinary sodium excretion (12+/-6mequiv./d vs. 19+/-4mequiv./d) and PRA levels (17+/-3ng/ml/h) vs. 20+/-3ng/ml/h) after terlipressin withdrawal (p=ns). These results show that in patients responders to terlipressin hepatorenal syndrome recurrence is not different between patients treated with midodrine and subjects who did not receive vasoconstrictor treatment after terlipressin withdrawal. These data suggest that midodrine is not effective in preventing hepatorenal syndrome type 2 recurrence.

  12. Planning of maintenance of electrical equipment in nuclear plants/laboratories [Paper No.: VB-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasinga Rao, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Satisfactory operating performance of electrical systems ensures continuous availability of power to the various plants and machinery in nuclear plant and laboratories. For effective optimal functioning of the electrical equipment and to reduce their down time, scheduled planning of maintenance to the equipment is essential. Maintenance of power plant, nuclear or fossil, and industrial plant and research laboratories demands essential ingredients such as right type of trained and motivated technical personnel, adoption of standard procedures for maintenance, adequate safety and protection for equipment, safety procedures adopted in the installation to prevent hazards to the workers, provision of adequate stores and inventories, facilities for quick repairs and testing of equipment and effective planning of procedures for their maintenance. While breakdown maintenance allows equipment to operate before it is repaired or replaced, preventive maintenance makes use of scheduled inspection and periodical equipment overhaul and has little value for predicting future continuous performances of equipment. The engineered maintenance is most advantageous and offers maximum operating time to reduce down time of the equipment while adding predictive testing technique to aid in determining the frequency of overhaul of equipment. The important checks to be conducted and preventive maintenance programme to be scheduled are discussed in this paper. The safety and reliable functioning of the electrical equipment depend on proper optimal design, selection of equipment, their installation, subsequent maintenance and strict compliance with safety regulations. (author)

  13. Excellence through maintenance mastering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, M.; Guillot, M.; Monier, M.

    1987-01-01

    To improve the overall availability factor of nuclear power plants you have to cut either the forced outage role and the planned outage time or you need to reduce simultaneously the failures and the efforts devoted to avoiding them. Among other results, this goal leads to a decrease in the number of real or anticipated problems. Electricite de France policy, in this matter, is to focus on decreasing the compoents' maintenance needs through a comprehensive modification program, targeted to eliminating the weak points as revealed by the operation. Thereby one may reach, for simple equipment, a nearly maintenance-free condition in which the only maintenance needed is surveillance, which provides assurance that everything is operating properly. A good example of this type of equipment is the family of static components, drums, and pipes whose corrective maintenance is almost nil when their initial condition is good

  14. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.

    2000-01-01

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  15. Application of different kinds of packaging to prevent greying of a special type of chilled sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Gibis, Doris; Rieblinger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Chilled sausages react very sensitive to oxygen and light. This results even in presence of small amounts of oxygen, in a strong greying of the sausages. This leads to a rejection by the consumer and therefore to economic losses of the retail. Therefore there is a great need to protect sausages from discolouration (greying). Objective of this study was to investigate different kinds of packaging of a special type of chilled sausages (“Leberkäse”) in order to prevent greying. Investigations sh...

  16. Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps and Hypoglycemia Prevention in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steineck, Isabelle; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    prevention. We present evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses including nonpregnant individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We also outline concerns regarding SAPs with and without automated insulin suspension. There is evidence that SAP treatment reduces episodes......Hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, unconsciousness, or death. Insulin pump treatment reduces the frequency of severe hypoglycemia compared with multiple daily injections treatment. The addition of a continuous glucose monitor, so-called sensor-augmented pump (SAP) treatment, has the potential...

  17. Recruitment and retention of participants for an international type 1 diabetes prevention trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franciscus, Margaret; Nucci, Anita; Bradley, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Trial to Reduce Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is the first multicenter international type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trial to be undertaken. A unique feature of TRIGR has been recruitment of eligible pregnant women and enrollment of newborns...... privacy regulations mid-trial. The majority of participants were recruited from primary care antenatal clinics located near the study centers and from a general hospital or pediatric center that was affiliated with a TRIGR Study center. Internet and magazine advertisements were found to be useful...

  18. Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Christopher J; Damm, Peter; Prentki, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is now a pandemic and shows no signs of abatement. In this Seminar we review the pathophysiology of this disorder, with particular attention to epidemiology, genetics, epigenetics, and molecular cell biology. Evidence is emerging that a substantial part of diabetes susceptibility...... is acquired early in life, probably owing to fetal or neonatal programming via epigenetic phenomena. Maternal and early childhood health might, therefore, be crucial to the development of effective prevention strategies. Diabetes develops because of inadequate islet β-cell and adipose-tissue responses...... such as the heart. Reversal of overnutrition, healing of the β cells, and lessening of adipose tissue defects should be treatment priorities....

  19. Maintenance Activity Planning by Reability Centered Maintenance II Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research discuss maintenance activity by using RCM II method to determine failure function risk at compresor screw. Calculation is given to magnitude optimum time maintenance interval by considering the cost maintenance and the cost reparation. From the research results with RPN points out that critical component that needs to get main priority in give maintenance on compresor screw are bust logistic on timeworn piston, and on filter's sponge airs to come out damage that gets RPN 45. Optimum maintenance interval point one that acquired to prevent failure on compresor screw smaller than appreciative MTTF which indicate optimum maintenance interval in avoiding its bust happening logistic component before happening damage.

  20. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  1. Methods and tools in development in the field of maintenance; Methodes et outils pour la maintenance en cours de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Reverend, D.; Tortolano, M. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), 78 - Chatou (France); Leniaud, F. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nuleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the maintenance strategy followed by EDF for its nuclear power plants. This strategy is based on the American method RCM (reliability centered method) that has been extended to passive components such as structures and relies on 4 axis. The first axis can be defined as the optimization of maintenance with regard to safety, outage and costs. The aim is to set the border between preventive maintenance and remedial maintenance. The second axis is the condition based maintenance that is the maintenance action that is triggered by the real state of the equipment. This type of maintenance implies the search for reliable and accurate diagnostics. The third axis is the design of simulation and planning tools required for the management of the moving of tools, machinery and spare-parts on a maintenance work site. The fourth axis is the design of tools able to repair some important equipment, this way may be a valid alternative to the replacement of equipment in terms of cost and outage time. (A.C.)

  2. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on CANDU maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings record the information presented at the 4th International Conference on CANDU Maintenance held November 16-18,1997 in Toronto, Canada. The papers for these proceedings were prepared on component maintenance, human performance, steam generator leak detection, fuel channel inspections, rotating equipment maintenance, surveillance programs, inspection techniques, valve maintenance, steam generator repairs and performance, reactor aging management and preventative maintenance

  3. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on CANDU maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    These proceedings record the information presented at the 4th International Conference on CANDU Maintenance held November 16-18,1997 in Toronto, Canada. The papers for these proceedings were prepared on component maintenance, human performance, steam generator leak detection, fuel channel inspections, rotating equipment maintenance, surveillance programs, inspection techniques, valve maintenance, steam generator repairs and performance, reactor aging management and preventative maintenance.

  4. Maintenance of radiation monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei

    2001-01-01

    As the safety and quality of atomic power facilities are more strongly required, the reliability improvement and preventive maintenance of radiation monitoring systems are important. This paper describes the maintenance of radiation monitoring systems delivered by Fuji Electric and the present status of preventive maintenance technology. Also it introduces the case that we developed a fault diagnosis function adopting a statistics technique and artificial intelligence (AI) and delivered a radiation monitoring system including this function. This system can output a fault analysis result and a countermeasure from the computer in real time. (author)

  5. Skeletal muscle mitochondria as a target to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Low levels of physical activity and the presence of obesity are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the evidence for a causal relationship between mitochondrial function and insulin resistance is still weak, emerging evidence indicates that boosting mitochondrial function might be beneficial to patient health. Exercise training is probably the most recognized promoter of mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity and hence is still regarded as the best strategy to prevent and treat T2DM. Animal data, however, have revealed several new insights into the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, and novel targets for interventions to boost mitochondrial function have emerged. Importantly, many of these targets seem to be regulated by factors such as nutrition, ambient temperature and circadian rhythms, which provides a basis for nonpharmacological strategies to prevent or treat T2DM in humans. Here, we will review the current evidence that mitochondrial function can be targeted therapeutically to improve insulin sensitivity and to prevent T2DM, focusing mainly on human intervention studies.

  6. Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutie, Pascal M; Giordano, Giuseppe N; Franks, Paul W

    2017-09-22

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  7. Maintenance of sex-related genes and the co-occurrence of both mating types in Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan P G Short

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering to synonymous (silent substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae.

  8. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  9. Medication adherence survey of drugs useful in prevention of dementia of Alzheimer's type among Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikav, Vikas; Singh, Pritika; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2013-09-01

    Good medication adherence is the cornerstone of therapeutic success. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and most patients are old and on multiple drugs, and good compliance therefore is even more important in this population. Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) at present is yet to find a cure. Anticholinesterases and N-methyl-D-aspartate blockers are specific anti-AD therapies available. Hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia can contribute to cognitive worsening. Keeping hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in control can therefore possibly prevent further cognitive decline. Patients with subjective memory complaints (n = 75) were chosen randomly. Upon thorough neurological diagnostic work up for dementia, those with mild cognitive impairment/questionable dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating = 0.5) or those with AD were recruited in this study (n = 67). Those with hypertension, diabetes, and deranged lipid profile were further interviewed if they were able to take medicines regularly or not. An attempt was made to know causes of non-compliance. Forty-one percent of patients were not taking the drugs that have potential to prevent cardiovascular complications or ability to slow down cognitive decline in AD on regular basis. The lack of awareness, ignorance, medicines being "too expensive," and the pressure of taking medicines regularly were cited as the reasons for non-compliance. Being illiterate and having low education contributed majorly to poor compliance in this study. Compliance to drugs that have potential or real ability to slow down cognitive decline is low in elderly people with DAT.

  10. Sitagliptin Prevents Inflammation and Apoptotic Cell Death in the Kidney of Type 2 Diabetic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Marques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV inhibitor, in preventing the deleterious effects of diabetes on the kidney in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus; the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat: 20-week-old rats were treated with sitagliptin (10 mg/kg bw/day during 6 weeks. Glycaemia and blood HbA1c levels were monitored, as well as kidney function and lesions. Kidney mRNA and/or protein content/distribution of DPP-IV, GLP-1, GLP-1R, TNF-α, IL-1β, BAX, Bcl-2, and Bid were evaluated by RT-PCR and/or western blotting/immunohistochemistry. Sitagliptin treatment improved glycaemic control, as reflected by the significantly reduced levels of glycaemia and HbA1c (by about 22.5% and 1.2%, resp. and ameliorated tubulointerstitial and glomerular lesions. Sitagliptin prevented the diabetes-induced increase in DPP-IV levels and the decrease in GLP-1 levels in kidney. Sitagliptin increased colocalization of GLP-1 and GLP-1R in the diabetic kidney. Sitagliptin also decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, as well as, prevented the increase of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio, Bid protein levels, and TUNEL-positive cells which indicates protective effects against inflammation and proapoptotic state in the kidney of diabetic rats, respectively. In conclusion, sitagliptin might have a major role in preventing diabetic nephropathy evolution due to anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties.

  11. Sitagliptin prevents inflammation and apoptotic cell death in the kidney of type 2 diabetic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina; Mega, Cristina; Gonçalves, Andreia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Teixeira, Frederico; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos; Reis, Flávio; Fernandes, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, in preventing the deleterious effects of diabetes on the kidney in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus; the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat: 20-week-old rats were treated with sitagliptin (10 mg/kg bw/day) during 6 weeks. Glycaemia and blood HbA1c levels were monitored, as well as kidney function and lesions. Kidney mRNA and/or protein content/distribution of DPP-IV, GLP-1, GLP-1R, TNF-α, IL-1β, BAX, Bcl-2, and Bid were evaluated by RT-PCR and/or western blotting/immunohistochemistry. Sitagliptin treatment improved glycaemic control, as reflected by the significantly reduced levels of glycaemia and HbA1c (by about 22.5% and 1.2%, resp.) and ameliorated tubulointerstitial and glomerular lesions. Sitagliptin prevented the diabetes-induced increase in DPP-IV levels and the decrease in GLP-1 levels in kidney. Sitagliptin increased colocalization of GLP-1 and GLP-1R in the diabetic kidney. Sitagliptin also decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels, as well as, prevented the increase of BAX/Bcl-2 ratio, Bid protein levels, and TUNEL-positive cells which indicates protective effects against inflammation and proapoptotic state in the kidney of diabetic rats, respectively. In conclusion, sitagliptin might have a major role in preventing diabetic nephropathy evolution due to anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties.

  12. Transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito C-type lectins for dengue prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1, facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden.

  13. Transmission-Blocking Antibodies against Mosquito C-Type Lectins for Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2014-01-01

    C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden. PMID:24550728

  14. Prevention of low back pain: effect, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility of maintenance care – study protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Andreas; Axén, Iben; Kongsted, Alice; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Jensen, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent condition and a socioeconomic problem in many countries. Due to its recurrent nature, the prevention of further episodes (secondary prevention), seems logical. Furthermore, when the condition is persistent, the minimization of symptoms and prevention of deterioration (tertiary prevention), is equally important. Research has largely focused on treatment methods for symptomatic episodes, and little is known about preventive treatment strategies. Met...

  15. The L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian is necessary for maintenance of sensory axon advance in the Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Veronica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion molecules have long been implicated in the regulation of axon growth, but the precise cellular roles played by individual cell adhesion molecules and the molecular basis for their action are still not well understood. We have used the sensory system of the Drosophila embryo to shed light on the mechanism by which the L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian regulates axon growth. Results We have found a highly penetrant sensory axon stalling phenotype in neuroglian mutant embryos. Axons stalled at a variety of positions along their normal trajectory, but most commonly in the periphery some distance along the peripheral nerve. All lateral and dorsal cluster sensory neurons examined, except for the dorsal cluster neuron dbd, showed stalling. Sensory axons were never seen to project along inappropriate pathways in neuroglian mutants and stalled axons showed normal patterns of fasciculation within nerves. The growth cones of stalled axons possessed a simple morphology, similar to their appearance in wild-type embryos when advancing along nerves. Driving expression of the wild-type form of Neuroglian in sensory neurons alone rescued the neuroglian mutant phenotype of both pioneering and follower neurons. A partial rescue was achieved by expressing the Neuroglian extracellular domain. Over/mis-expression of Neuroglian in all neurons, oenocytes or trachea had no apparent effect on sensory axon growth. Conclusion We conclude that Neuroglian is necessary to maintain axon advance along axonal substrates, but is not required for initiation of axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation or recognition of correct growth substrates. Expression of Neuroglian in sensory neurons alone is sufficient to promote axon advance and the intracellular region of the molecule is largely dispensable for this function. It is unlikely, therefore, that Nrg acts as a molecular 'clutch' to couple adhesion of F-actin within the growth cone to the

  16. Community-based randomized controlled trial of diabetes prevention study for high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes: lifestyle intervention using web-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trend of increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes emphasizes the need for active screening of high-risk individuals and intensive lifestyle modification (LSM. Methods/design The community-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (C-KDPS is a randomized controlled clinical trial to prevent type 2 diabetes by intensive LSM using a web-based program. The two public healthcare centers in Korea are involved, and 420 subjects are being recruited for 6 months and will be followed up for 22 months. The participants are allocated randomly to intensive LSM (18 individual sessions for 24 weeks and usual care (control group. The major goals of the C-KDPS lifestyle intervention program are: 1 a minimum of 5–7% loss of initial body weight in 6 months and maintenance of this weight loss, 2 increased physical activity (≥ 150 min/week of moderate intensity activity, 3 balanced healthy eating, and 4 quitting smoking and alcohol with stress management. The web-based program includes education contents, video files, visit schedules, and inter-communicable keeping track sites. Primary outcomes are the diagnoses of newly developed diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test with hemoglobin A1c level determination and cardiovascular risk factor assessment is scheduled at 6, 12, 18, and 22 months. Discussion Active screening of high-risk individuals and an effective LSM program are an essential prerequisite for successful diabetes prevention. We hope that our C-KDPS program can reduce the incidence of newly developed type 2 diabetes and be implemented throughout the country, merging community-based public healthcare resources and a web-based system. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Republic of Korea (No. KCT0001981 . Date of registration; July 28, 2016.

  17. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of

  18. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  19. Laboratory services series: a programmed maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxbury, D.C.; Srite, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The diverse facilities, operations and equipment at a major national research and development laboratory require a systematic, analytical approach to operating equipment maintenance. A computer-scheduled preventive maintenance program is described including program development, equipment identification, maintenance and inspection instructions, scheduling, personnel, and equipment history.

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.303 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance. 101-39.303... Maintenance. In order to ensure uninterrupted operation of GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles, safety and preventive maintenance inspections will be performed at regularly scheduled intervals...

  1. Collaborative learning in condition based maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, J.; Ao, SI; Gelman, L; Hukins, DWL; Hunter, A; Korsunsky, AM

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of reliable and consistent production equipments has increased. As a result, companies are shifting their maintenance policy from preventive maintenance towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Despite the growing trend in this area and success stories of CBM

  2. Maintenance management for nuclear power plant 'Integrated valve maintenance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, P.; Zanner, G.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of Europe's power market does force many utilities, and especially nuclear power plant operators, to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order to be able to compete within this new environment. The optimization of plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing e.g. expenditure on maintenance. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, in cooperation with plant operators, is currently implementing new and improved service concepts which can have a major effect on the way in which maintenance will be performed in the future. Innovative service packages for maintenance in nuclear power plants are available which can be used to perform a time- and cost-effective maintenance. The concepts encompass optimization of the overall sequence from planning in advance to the individual measures including reduction of the scope of maintenance activities, identification of cost cutting potential and bundling of maintenance activities. The main features of these maintenance activities are illustrated here using the examples of outage planning and integrated valve maintenance. In nuclear power plants approx. 5000 valves are periodically preventively, condition-based or breakdown-based maintained. Because of this large number of valves to be maintained a high potential of improvements and cost reductions can be achieved by performing an optimized, cost-effective maintenance based on innovative methods and tools. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH has developed and qualified such tools which allow to reduce service costs while maintaining high standards of safety and availability. By changing from preventive to predictive (condition-based) maintenance - the number of valves to be maintained may be reduced considerably. The predictive maintenance is based on the Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH diagnostic and evaluation method (ADAM). ADAM is used to monitor the operability of valves by analytical verification of

  3. Corrective maintenance support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    With increase of share of nuclear power generation in electric power supply in Japan, requirement for further safe operation and improvement of economics for the nuclear power plants is promoting. The pressed water type (PWR) nuclear power plant in operation in Japan reaches to 22 sets, application rate of the instruments is 74% as mean value for 7 years since 1989 and in high level, which is due to a result of preventive maintenance in ordinary and periodical inspections. The present state of maintenance at the nuclear power plant is mainly preventive maintenance, which is mainly conducted in a shape of time planning maintenance but partially in a shape of state monitoring maintenance for partial rotating appliances. Concretely speaking, the periodical inspection was planned on a base of daily inspection and a long term program on maintenance, and executed on a base of feedback function to think of the long term program again by evaluating the periodical inspection results. Here were introduced on the monitoring diagnosis and periodical inspection regionalization equipment, fatigue monitoring system, automatic supersonic wave damage inspection equipment for reactor, steam evaporator heat conductive tube inspection equipment, automatic testing equipment for measuring controller, air working valve property testing equipment, as maintaining support system in the PW generation plant. (G.K.)

  4. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  6. Patient satisfaction, preventive services, and emergency room use among African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Maiese, Eric M; Batts-Turner, Marian; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Fredrick L

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between patient satisfaction and diabetes- related preventive health care and emergency room (ER) use. We studied 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes aged > or =25 years who were enrolled in a primary carebased intervention trial to improve diabetes control and reduce adverse health events; 73% female, mean age 58 years, 35% had yearly household incomes of Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) and use of diabetes-related preventive health care and ER were assessed by self-report. We then followed participants for 12 months to determine ER use prospectively. In general, participants gave favorable ratings of their care; over 70% reported that they had no problem getting care, over 60% reported the highest ratings on the communication and courtesy domains, and mean ratings (0-10 scale) for personal doctor and overall health care were high (8.8 and 8.4, respectively). Using poisson regression models adjusted for age, education, and self-reported rating of health, several aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with subsequent ER use. Participants who reported that medical staff were usually helpful or that doctors and nurses usually spent enough time were 0.49 and 0.37 times, respectively, less likely to use the ER (all p < 0.05). However, few aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with better preventive services. These data suggest that greater patient satisfaction was associated with lower ER use in urban African-Americans. Whether measures to improve patient satisfaction would reduce ER use requires further prospective study.

  7. Primary prevention of beta-cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes – The Global Platform for the Prevention of Autoimmune Diabetes (GPPAD perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Ziegler

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It is timely and feasible to establish a platform for primary prevention trials for type 1 diabetes in Europe. This multi-site European infrastructure would perform RCTs, supply data coordination and biorepository, provide cohorts for mechanistic and observational studies, and increase awareness for autoimmune diabetes.

  8. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in polycystic ovary syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Safa; Shikalgar, Nigar

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age, associated with metabolic sequelae which includes increased risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adverse effects of DM2 affects a woman throughout her lifespan. Health care expenditure of DM2 highlights the need for prevention through appropriate screening, diagnosis and intervention. Lifestyle modification (LSM) programs that include diet and/or physical activity are suggested for patients characterized as prediabetic to delay the onset of adult DM2. Diet (i.e. low carbohydrate), combination of aerobic and resistance exercise with high intensity interval training (HIT) 150 to 175min/week with resistance exercise 2 to 3days/week and weight loss may be valuable supporters in the fight against IR, IGT and DM2 associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of two prevention programs on alcohol use as a function of provider type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is still unclear how to translate effectively programs validated in research for use in real-world contexts. Among the efforts being made to identify strategies which optimize the application of these programs in everyday practice are tests of the differential effectiveness of the programs depending on the application agent. Method: this study analyses the effects of two programs on alcohol use and its variables as a function of provider type. Two hundred students from the first year of secondary education were distributed among five experimental conditions: four treatment conditions, in which the two programs were applied by teachers at the school or external psychologists, and a control condition. Results: the results suggest that, for both programs, teachers obtain better outcomes in alcohol use and concern about addiction. Conclusions: it is concluded that teachers are the ideal application agents in terms of efficiency, and we discuss the implications for research and preventive practice.

  10. Antidiabetic drugs for stroke prevention in patients with type-2 diabetes. The neurologist's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Blanca

    2018-04-13

    To date, stroke prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been based on the control of other risk factors and comorbidities, as clinical trials aimed at intensive glycemic control have failed to prove the existence of any sort of benefit in reducing macrovascular complications. However, thanks to the FDA's requirement to evaluate the vascular risk of antidiabetic drugs, there has been significant progress in the knowledge of their benefits on the risk of vascular death, acute myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke in patients with type 2 DM and high vascular risk. This implies the need to incorporate these drugs into the overall vascular prevention strategy in patients with DM who have already suffered a stroke. This manuscript is a critical, non-systematic review on the oral antidiabetics that have demonstrated any sort of effect on stroke risk, interpreting the results of the main clinical trials from the neurologist's point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway.

  12. [Anti-PCSK9 antibodies in type 2 diabetes and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, José; Pintó, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are considered to have the same cardiovascular risk as patients with ischemia. However, the degree of lipid control in diabetic and ischemic patients remains highly deficient. The availability of new agents, such as anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, could represent a notable advance in meeting this unmet need. Alirocumab and evolucumab, followed by bococizumab, are currently under the advanced phase of research. A growing database has demonstrated a relationship between glucose metabolism, body weight and PCSK9 function, but the clinical implications of this relationship have not been well defined. A broad programme of clinical trials has demonstrated that these agents decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by more than 60% and also decrease apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a), showing a good tolerability and safety profile. In addition, post hoc analyses of phase 2 and 3 trials have observed that when these agents are associated with conventional lipid-lowering they reduce cardiovascular risk by more than 50%. Currently, 4 large clinical trials of cardiovascular prevention are underway in patients with ischemia or high cardiovascular risk. The aim of these trials is to define the role of anti-PCSK9 agents in the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with ischemia and high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hamdy, Osama; Mohan, Viswanathan; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-07

    In the past couple of decades, evidence from prospective observational studies and clinical trials has converged to support the importance of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The quality of dietary fats and carbohydrates consumed is more crucial than is the quantity of these macronutrients. Diets rich in wholegrains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts; moderate in alcohol consumption; and lower in refined grains, red or processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and improve glycaemic control and blood lipids in patients with diabetes. With an emphasis on overall diet quality, several dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, low glycaemic index, moderately low carbohydrate, and vegetarian diets can be tailored to personal and cultural food preferences and appropriate calorie needs for weight control and diabetes prevention and management. Although much progress has been made in development and implementation of evidence-based nutrition recommendations in developed countries, concerted worldwide efforts and policies are warranted to alleviate regional disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of immune system modulation in prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Abdulrhman Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is expected worldwide. Eventually, T1DM is fatal unless treated with insulin. The expansion of interventions to prevent diabetes and the use of alternative treatments to insulin is a dream to be fulfilled. The pathophysiology in T1DM is basically a destruction of beta cells in the pancreas, regardless of which risk factors or causative entities have been present. Individual risk factors can have separate patho-physiological processes to, in turn, cause this beta cell destruction. Currently, autoimmunity is considered the major factor in the pathophysiology of T1DM. In a genetically susceptible individual, viral infection may stimulate the production of antibodies against a viral protein that trigger an autoimmune response against antigenically similar beta cell molecules. Many components of the immune system have been implicated in autoimmunity leading to β-cell destruction, including cytotoxic and helper T-cells, B-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The inflammatory process in early diabetes is thought to be initiated and propagated by the effect of Th1-secreted cytokines (e.g. g interferon and suppressed by Th2-secreted antiinflammatory cytokines (interleukins. Structure and function of β-cell may be modulated by using Th1/Th2-secreted cytokines. Several experimental and clinical trials of applying GAD65, Hsp60, peptide-MHC, pepetide-277 immunization, anti-CD3 infusion, and interleukins to modulate immune response in T1DM were done. Applying such trials in patients with prediabetes, will most likely be the future key in preventing Type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

  15. Addressing policy needs for prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atre, Sachin

    2015-09-01

    India carries nearly one-fifth of the global burden of diabetes cases, the majority of which are of type 2 diabetes. Recognising the need for controlling diabetes, the Government of India has initiated a national level programme for prevention and control of diabetes along with other non-communicable diseases in 2008. Despite being piloted and implemented, there is hardly any published literature about the national level situation of diabetes and its control efforts. The present article is written with the aim to fill this gap to some extent and to provide a situational analysis of the diabetes problem in India in a holistic way, addressing policy needs for the national programme. It focuses on three main areas, namely, awareness of diabetes, costs of drugs for its treatment and healthcare-system related issues. It argues that poor coverage and weak implementation of the national level programme are major forces that push patients to seek help in the weakly regulated private sector. Approaching the private sector is likely to increase the cost of care, which in turn can lead to an increased financial burden for patients and their families due to factors such as patients' lack of awareness about diabetes, poor drug price regulation and prescriptions including combinations and/or patented products of medicines used for treating diabetes by the private sector. This article addresses several needs such as strengthening the national programme and increasing its reach to unreached districts, exerting drug price regulation and implementing community-based participatory programmes for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. It also underscores a need for piloting and implementing a robust national level electronic reporting system for diabetes programmes. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  16. Long-term, feeder-free maintenance of human embryonic stem cells by mussel-inspired adhesive heparin and collagen type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mihyun; Kim, Youngjin; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyuri; Han, Yong-Mahn; Lee, Haeshin

    2016-03-01

    For practical applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine, hESCs should be cultured on a large scale, and at the same time their properties have to be maintained in a controllable manner. Here, we report a chemically defined, scalable culture platform involving co-immobilization of heparin-catechol (HepC) and collagen type-1 (Col) for the long-term maintenance (>18 passages) of hESCs in a feeder-free condition. This platform utilizes a wet-adhesive, mussel-inspired heparin-catechol conjugate as a key component. We hypothesized that the heparin's affinity toward a wide range of proteins, might support undifferentiated in vitro growth of hESC. In fact, on the HepC-coated substrate, most hESC clumps were adhered (∼78% at passage 2 (P2)) and expressed pluripotency markers (Fig. 2). Although HepC alone wasn't able to support long-term maintenance of hESCs in a feeder-free system due to decrease in the adhesion rate of hESCs on HepC coating (∼ 44% at P4) during the repeated passaging processes, we found that when collagen type I was co-immobilized in the process of HepC coating, the long-term maintenance (passage 18 or more) of hESCs could be achieved with 100% adhesion efficiency (Fig. 4). One remarkable observation is that hESCs on collagen type-I underwent spontaneous differentiation after P6 (Fig. 3), which implied co-immobilized HepC played a role to suppress differentiation of hESCs. This study suggests that unlike the previous studies using proteins, peptides, or synthetic polymers, a polysaccharide, heparin, can be used as a cost-effective component for chemically defined, feeder-free culture of hESC. Towards practical applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in regenerative medicine, hESCs should be cultured on a large scale, and their pluripotent property has to be maintained in a controllable manner. To address these issues, studies that develop chemically defined culture substrates have been explored to replace

  17. Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Martin O; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-01-01

    Large prospective cohort studies consistently show associations of a high dietary fiber intake (>25 g/d in women and >38 g/d in men) with a 20-30% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), after correction for confounders. It is less well recognized that these effects appear to be mainly driven by high intakes of whole grains and insoluble cereal fibers, which typically are nonviscous and do not relevantly influence postprandial glucose responses [i.e., glycemic index (GI)] or are strongly fermented by the gut microbiota in the colon. In contrast, a dietary focus on soluble, viscous, gel-forming, more readily fermentable fiber intakes derived from fruit and certain vegetables yields mixed results and generally does not appear to reduce T2D risk. Although disentangling types of fiber-rich foods and separating these from possible effects related to the GI is an obvious challenge, the common conclusion that key metabolic effects of high-fiber intake are explained by mechanisms that should mainly apply to the soluble, viscous type can be challenged. More recently, studies in humans and animal models focused on gaining mechanistic insights into why especially high-cereal-fiber (HCF) diets appear to improve insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes risk. Although effects of HCF diets on weight loss are only moderate and comparable to other types of dietary fibers, possible novel mechanisms have emerged, which include the prevention of the absorption of dietary protein and modulation of the amino acid metabolic signature. Here we provide an update of our previous review from 2008, with a focus on mechanistic insights of how HCF diets may improve IR and the risk of developing T2D. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  18. North American nuclear maintenance best practices compared to Japanese utility maintenance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, M.L.; Ferguson, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the best practices in North America concerning Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) or Preventive Maintenance Optimization (PMO) with the time-directed maintenance philosophies utilized by Japanese utilities, and how the Japanese utilities are considering (and some have begun) adopting North American ways of doing business. Preventive Maintenance Living Programs are also discussed, along with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations AP-913 process, Equipment Reliability Process. Also, a cost benefit analysis will be demonstrated showing how major cost savings can be achieved by shifting from a predominantly time-directed maintenance philosophy to a predominantly predictive strategy utilizing vibration analysis, lubricating oil analysis, thermography and other predictive technologies to better utilize resources, reduce spare part consumption and to minimize maintenance induced errors. As a result of the strides made while incorporating these new philosophies, we no longer advocate tearing apart perfectly good equipment. (author)

  19. Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Hubert; Martin, Stephan

    2017-07-19

    Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status. In general, these factors promote an increase in body mass index. Since loss of β-cell function is the ultimate cause of developing overt type 2 diabetes, environmental and lifestyle changes must have resulted in a higher risk of β-cell damage in those at genetic risk. Multiple mechanistic pathways may come into play. Strategies of diabetes prevention should aim at promoting a 'diabetes-protective lifestyle' whilst simultaneously enhancing the resistance of the human organism to pro-diabetic environmental and lifestyle factors. More research on diabetes-protective mechanisms seems warranted.

  20. A Review of Haptoglobin Typing Methods for Disease Association Study and Preventing Anaphylactic Transfusion Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin, the product of the gene, is a glycoprotein involved in the scavenging of free hemoglobin. Haptoglobin levels increase or decrease in response to various acquired conditions, and they are also influenced by genetic predisposition. There were 2 major alleles, and , and 1 minor allele, . Many researchers have attempted to study the haptoglobin types and their association with disease; however, no definitive conclusions have been reached yet. It is reported that patients who are genetically deficient in haptoglobin are at risk of anaphylaxis against blood components containing haptoglobin. Haptoglobin genotypes also affect the reference intervals of haptoglobin levels. Many studies have attempted to establish simple and accurate typing methods. In this paper, we have broadly reviewed several methods for haptoglobin typing—phenotyping, Southern blotting, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification. We discuss their characteristics, clinical applications, and limitations. The phenotyping methods are time consuming and labor intensive and not designed to detect patients harboring . The rapid and robust haptoglobin genotyping may help in preventing fatal anaphylactic reactions and in establishing the relationships between the haptoglobin phenotypes and diseases.

  1. Maintenance training - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author's job responsibilities at Rocky Flats include preventive maintenance, training to meet the needs of maintenance personnel, training for special projects such as welding and metal fabrication, and reporting to the manager of plant maintenance engineers. He notes that many old-line manufacturers are becoming high-tech companies, emphasizing the role of automation in production and quality control. He lists and discusses changes at Rocky Flats, along with the attendant preventive maintenance program the changes necessitate. He observes estimates that training costs to companies over the next 10 years will exceed 10% of their revenues - that in 1986, American companies spent $210 billion on training at all levels. But, if you think training is expensive, try placing a cost on ignorance. 9 figures

  2. Replication-Coupled Recruitment of Viral and Cellular Factors to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication Forks for the Maintenance and Expression of Viral Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infects over half the human population. Much of the infectious cycle occurs in the nucleus of cells where the virus has evolved mechanisms to manipulate host processes for the production of virus. The genome of HSV-1 is coordinately expressed, maintained, and replicated such that progeny virions are produced within 4–6 hours post infection. In this study, we selectively purify HSV-1 replication forks and associated proteins from virus-infected cells and identify select viral and cellular replication, repair, and transcription factors that associate with viral replication forks. Pulse chase analyses and imaging studies reveal temporal and spatial dynamics between viral replication forks and associated proteins and demonstrate that several DNA repair complexes and key transcription factors are recruited to or near replication forks. Consistent with these observations we show that the initiation of viral DNA replication is sufficient to license late gene transcription. These data provide insight into mechanisms that couple HSV-1 DNA replication with transcription and repair for the coordinated expression and maintenance of the viral genome. PMID:28095497

  3. Maintenance Management Support Systems for component aging estimation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Ando, Yasumasa; Morioka, Toshihiko; Okuzumi, Naoaki

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance Management Support Systems (MMSSs) for nuclear power plants have been developed using component aging estimation methods and decision tree analysis for maintenance planning. The former evaluates actual component reliability through statistical analysis on field maintenance data. The latter provides preventive maintenance (PM) planning guidance using heuristic expert knowledge and estimated reliability parameters. The following aspects have been investigated: (1) A systematic and effective method of managing components/parts design information and field maintenance data (2) A method for estimating component aging based on a statistical analysis of field maintenance data (3) A method for providing PM planning guidance using estimated component reliability/performance parameters and decision tree analysis. Based on these investigations, two MMSSs were developed. One deals with 'general maintenance data', which are common to all component types and are amenable to common data handling. The other system deals with 'specific maintenance data', which are specific to an individual component type. Both systems provide PM planning guidance for PM cycles propriety and the PM work priority. The function of these systems were verified using simulated maintenance data. (author)

  4. Novel flower-type covered metal stent to prevent cholecystitis: experimental study in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Noh, Dong Hyo; Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jang, Kee-Taek

    2016-03-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS) has the risk of obstruction of the cystic duct, and the main and branch pancreatic ducts due to strong radial force and covering material, which results in cholecystitis and pancreatitis. A flower-type covered self-expandable metal stent (F-CSEMS) having a five-petal-shaped design with side grooves was constructed to prevent the obstruction of the cystic duct orifice. This study investigated the value of the F-CSEMS in protection for cholecystitis in a pig model. Fourteen pigs randomly underwent endoscopic placement of either F-CSEMS or conventional CSEMS (C-CSEMS). The stent was placed across the cystic duct orifice to impede bile drainage from the gallbladder. Drainage was checked at 24, 48, 120 and 168 h after implantation. Blood was collected at baseline, on days 2 and 7 following implantation. The animals were killed for histologic evaluation on day 7. All stents were successfully inserted into bile duct without any procedure-related complications. At 48 h, the rate of contrast drainage from the gallbladder was higher in the F-CSEMS group than the C-CSEMS group without significant difference (71.4 vs. 28.6% p = 0.28). C-CSEMS was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (35.2 vs. 20.5 µg/dl, p = 0.03) and histologic inflammatory scores of gallbladder (score 4 vs. 2; p = 0.03). The F-CSEMS appears safe and helpful to prevent cholecystitis without disturbance of bile flow in a pig model.

  5. Extension of Type 2 Diabetes Genome-Wide Association Scan Results in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allan F.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Saxena, Richa; Pollin, Toni I.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Genome-wide association scans (GWASs) have identified novel diabetes-associated genes. We evaluated how these variants impact diabetes incidence, quantitative glycemic traits, and response to preventive interventions in 3,548 subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which examined the effects of lifestyle intervention, metformin, and troglitazone versus placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near diabetes-associated loci, including EXT2, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, HHEX, LOC387761, and SLC30A8 in DPP participants and performed Cox regression analyses using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence. We evaluated their effect on insulin resistance and secretion at 1 year. RESULTS— None of the selected SNPs were associated with increased diabetes incidence in this population. After adjustments for ethnicity, baseline insulin secretion was lower in subjects with the risk genotype at HHEX rs1111875 (P = 0.01); there were no significant differences in baseline insulin sensitivity. Both at baseline and at 1 year, subjects with the risk genotype at LOC387761 had paradoxically increased insulin secretion; adjustment for self-reported ethnicity abolished these differences. In ethnicity-adjusted analyses, we noted a nominal differential improvement in β-cell function for carriers of the protective genotype at CDKN2A/B after 1 year of troglitazone treatment (P = 0.01) and possibly lifestyle modification (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS— We were unable to replicate the GWAS findings regarding diabetes risk in the DPP. We did observe genotype associations with differences in baseline insulin secretion at the HHEX locus and a possible pharmacogenetic interaction at CDKNA2/B. PMID:18544707

  6. The right maintenance on the right components, at the right time, with the right parts: maintaining high plant reliability through an effective maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hatten, P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the maintenance program at a Nuclear Power Plant is to be proactive and prevent unexpected failures of equipment that can impact on Nuclear or Conventional Safety and Plant Production. This does not mean that all equipment failures will be prevented; in a number of cases the most cost effective solution is to allow equipment to run to failure. Deciding what components are critical to the plant is the first step. The industry uses guidance from INPO Advanced Process, AP913, to classify components as Critical, Non Critical or Run to Failure based on the consequence of the failure. Once this is complete, then the right maintenance program needs to be specified. This is done through utilization of experience from the industry based on the type of component. Maintenance strategies and templates have been produced for most power plant components. Each station or fleet needs then to apply the criteria, with exceptions as required, to determine the maintenance requirements and frequency for their components. This includes predictive and preventative maintenance. The more critical the component is the more rigorous the maintenance requirements. Once the maintenance program is defined it can be implemented. This requires that the Preventative Maintenance (PM's) are updated to ensure the correct tasks are in place and the frequency is correct. Work Management will group the PM's so they can scheduled efficiently and to minimize equipment down time. The last element is to ensure that the required parts are specified and are stocked or readily available for the maintenance when it is scheduled. This is an ongoing effort since components become obsolete or suppliers go out of business or change hands. (author)

  7. Opportune maintenance and predictive maintenance decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas , Edouard; Levrat , Eric; Iung , Benoît; Cocheteux , Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Conventional maintenance strategies on a single component are being phased out in favour of more predictive maintenance actions. These new kinds of actions are performed in order to control the global performances of the whole industrial system. They are anticipative in nature, which allows a maintenance expert to consider non-already-planned maintenance actions. Two questions naturally emerge: when to perform a predictive maintenance action; how a maintenance expert c...

  8. Sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guqin; Nie, Hanxiang; Yang, Jiong; Ding, Xuhong; Huang, Yi; Yu, Hongying; Li, Ruyou; Yuan, Zhuqing; Hu, Suping

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease involving many different cell types. Recently, type I natural killer T (NKT) cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of asthma. However, the roles of type II NKT cells in asthma have not been investigated before. Interestingly, type I and type II NKT cells have been shown to have opposing roles in antitumor immunity, antiparasite immunity, and autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells could prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in asthma. Strikingly, in our mouse model, activation of type II NKT cells by sulfatide administration and adoptive transfer of sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells result in reduced-inflammation cell infiltration in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BALF; and decreased serum levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and IgG1. Furthermore, it is found that the activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells leads to the functional inactivation of type I NKT cells, including the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data reveal that type II NKT cells activated by glycolipids, such as sulfatide, may serve as a novel approach to treat allergic diseases and other disorders characterized by inappropriate type I NKT cell activation.

  9. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  10. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  11. Genomic-based tools for the risk assessment, management, and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Taber KA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Johansen Taber, Barry D DickinsonDepartment of Science and Biotechnology, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a common and serious disorder and is a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, periodontal disease, and foot ulcers and amputations. The burden of disease associated with T2D has led to an emphasis on early identification of the millions of individuals at high risk so that management and intervention strategies can be effectively implemented before disease progression begins. With increasing knowledge about the genetic basis of T2D, several genomic-based strategies have been tested for their ability to improve risk assessment, management and prevention. Genetic risk scores have been developed with the intent to more accurately identify those at risk for T2D and to potentially improve motivation and adherence to lifestyle modification programs. In addition, evidence is building that oral antihyperglycemic medications are subject to pharmacogenomic variation in a substantial number of patients, suggesting genomics may soon play a role in determining the most effective therapies. T2D is a complex disease that affects individuals differently, and risk prediction and treatment may be challenging for health care providers. Genomic approaches hold promise for their potential to improve risk prediction and tailor management for individual patients and to contribute to better health outcomes for those with T2D.Keywords: diabetes, genomic, risk prediction, management

  12. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  13. Holistic approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a family setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori SN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra N Ofori, Chioma N Unachukwu Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, progressive metabolic disorder with several complications that affect virtually all the systems in the human body. Type 2 DM (T2DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The management of T2DM is multifactorial, taking into account other major modifiable risk factors, like obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. A multidisciplinary team is essential to maximize the care of individuals with DM. DM self-management education and patient-centered care are the cornerstones of management in addition to effective lifestyle strategies and pharmacotherapy with individualization of glycemic goals. Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach when implemented. Individuals with DM and their family members usually share a common lifestyle that, not only predisposes the non-DM members to developing DM but also, increases their collective risk for CVD. In treating DM, involvement of the entire family, not only improves the care of the DM individual but also, helps to prevent the risk of developing DM in the family members. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, multifactorial management

  14. Steps to preventing Type 2 diabetes: Exercise, walk more, or sit less?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrine eTudor-Locke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence supports the promotion of structured exercise for treating prediabetes and preventing Type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, contemporary societal changes in lifestyle behaviors (occupational, domestic, transportation, and leisure time have resulted in a notable widespread deficiency of non-exercise physical activity (e.g., ambulatory activity undertaken outside the context of purposeful exercise that has been simultaneously exchanged for an excess in sedentary behaviors (e.g., desk work, labor saving devices, motor vehicle travel, and screen-based leisure time pursuits. It is possible that the known beneficial effects of more structured forms of exercise are attenuated or otherwise undermined against this backdrop of normalized and ubiquitous slothful living. Although public health guidelines have traditionally focused on promoting a detailed exercise prescription, it is evident that the more pressing need is to revise and expand the message to address this insidious and deleterious lifestyle shift. Specifically, we recommend that adults avoid averaging < 5,000 steps/day and strive to average ≥ 7,500 steps/day, of which ≥ 3,000 steps (representing at least 30 minutes should be taken at a cadence ≥ 100 steps/min. They should also practice regularly breaking up extended bouts of sitting with ambulatory activity. Simply put, we must consider advocating a whole message to walk more, sit less, and exercise.

  15. Microcapsule-Type Self-Healing Protective Coating for Cementitious Composites with Secondary Crack Preventing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Min Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microcapsule-type self-healing protective coating with secondary crack preventing capability has been developed using a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (STP/dibutyltin dilaurate (DD healing agent. STP undergoes condensation reaction in the presence of DD to give a viscoelastic substance. STP- and DD-containing microcapsules were prepared by in-situ polymerization and interfacial polymerization methods, respectively. The microcapsules were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microcapsules were integrated into commercial enamel paint or epoxy coating formulations, which were applied on silicon wafers, steel panels, and mortar specimens to make dual-capsule self-healing protective coatings. When the STP/DD-based coating was scratched, self-healing of the damaged region occurred, which was demonstrated by SEM, electrochemical test, and water permeability test. It was also confirmed that secondary crack did not occur in the healed region upon application of vigorous vibration to the self-healing coating.

  16. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  17. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  18. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  19. Maintenance-Ready Web Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper tackles the subject of developing maintenance-ready web applications. Maintenance is presented as a core stage in a web application’s lifecycle. The concept of maintenance-ready is defined in the context of web application development. Web application maintenance tasks types are enunciated and suitable task types are identified for further analysis. The research hypothesis is formulated based on a direct link between tackling maintenance in the development stage and reducing overall maintenance costs. A live maintenance-ready web application is presented and maintenance related aspects are highlighted. The web application’s features, that render it maintenance-ready, are emphasize. The cost of designing and building the web-application to be maintenance-ready are disclosed. The savings in maintenance development effort facilitated by maintenance ready features are also disclosed. Maintenance data is collected from 40 projects implemented by a web development company. Homogeneity and diversity of collected data is evaluated. A data sample is presented and the size and comprehensive nature of the entire dataset is depicted. Research hypothesis are validated and conclusions are formulated on the topic of developing maintenance-ready web applications. The limits of the research process which represented the basis for the current paper are enunciated. Future research topics are submitted for debate.

  20. Joint Optimization Approach of Maintenance and Production Planning for a Multiple-Product Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mifdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of maintenance and production planning for randomly failing multiple-product manufacturing system. The latter consists of one machine which produces several types of products in order to satisfy random demands corresponding to every type of product. At any given time, the machine can only produce one type of product and then switches to another one. The purpose of this study is to establish sequentially an economical production plan and an optimal maintenance strategy, taking into account the influence of the production rate on the system’s degradation. Analytical models are developed in order to find the production plan and the preventive maintenance strategy which minimizes sequentially the total production/inventory cost and then the total maintenance cost. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  1. Assessment of building maintenance in Nigerian university system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In additio n, the University should adopt preventive maintenance policy by employing outsourcing maintenance services. The University should also introduce the use of one stop shop maintenance services including the use of information and communication technology. Keywords : Infrastructure maintenance, University ...

  2. An effective manpower planning approach for maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of maintenance activities of a cocoa processing factory in Nigeria was studied. Data on critical machine parts involved in the maintenance work were collected and the different jobs carried out according to sections and nature of the activities were classified. The workloads for each type of maintenance activities ...

  3. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  4. The EPIC Kids Study: a randomized family-focused YMCA-based intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Turner, Tami; Kutob, Randa; Merchant, Nirav; Roe, Denise J; Stump, Craig; Going, Scott B

    2015-12-18

    It is well established that behavioral lifestyle interventions resulting in modest weight reduction in adults can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes mellitus; however in children, successful weight management interventions are rarely found outside of controlled clinical settings. The lack of effective community-based programs is a barrier to reducing obesity prevalence and diabetes risk in children. The objective of our study is to develop and test a group-randomized family-centered community-based type 2 diabetes prevention intervention targeting at-risk children, 9- to 12-years-old. Using participatory methods, the adult-focused YMCA Diabetes Prevention Program was adapted for families, creating a novel lifestyle behavior change program focused on healthy eating, physical activity, and a supportive home environment. The program will be tested in sixty 9- to 12-year-old children at risk of diabetes and sixty parents over 12 consecutive weeks with two intervention formats randomized by location: a face-to-face instructor-led program, or a hybrid program with alternating face-to-face and mobile technology-delivered content. Anthropometric, behavioral, psychosocial and physiological outcomes will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks), and follow-up (24 weeks). Secondary outcomes are participant acceptability, feasibility, and adherence. The RE-AIM framework (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) will guide intervention implementation and evaluation. Changes at 12 weeks will be assessed using a paired t-test combining both delivery formats. Exploratory models using linear regression analysis will estimate the magnitude of the difference between the face-to-face and hybrid format. The sample size of 60 children, informed by a previous YMCA intervention in which -4.3 % change in overweight (SE = 1.1) was observed over 6 months, will give us 80 % power to detect an effect size of this magnitude, assuming a one-sided test at alpha

  5. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  6. A solution approach based on Benders decomposition for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of a stochastic large-scale energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Petersen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    to be regularly taken down for refueling and maintenance, in such away that the expected cost of meeting the power demand in a number of potential scenarios is minimized. We show that the problem structure naturally lends itself to Benders decomposition; however, not all constraints can be included in the mixed...... integer programming model. We present a two phase approach that first uses Benders decomposition to solve the linear programming relaxation of a relaxed version of the problem. In the second phase, integer solutions are enumerated and a procedure is applied to make them satisfy constraints not included...... on small instances of the problem, but runs into difficulty on larger ones. Unlike heuristic approaches, however, this methodology can be used to provide lower bounds on solution quality....

  7. Maintenance Task Allocation And Planning In KT. X Tugboat Using Reliability Centered Maintenance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM as one of the processes that used to decisive action which should be performed to ensure any physical components or a system can work optimally in accordance with the function desired by its users. Basically, RCM used a risk management principles of the failure of the components so that it can be determined the type of maintenance properly. With the appropriate type of maintenance, then the failures that may occur can be prevented at once to be able to be detected before they occur. Appropriate implementation of RCM, capable of delivering cost savings, the impact on both the cost of maintenance as well as repair costs due to the occurrence of failure. In this paper, the components become the object of research is the main engine of the KT. X tugboat belongs to Pelindo Marine Service (PMS Surabaya. KT. X tugboat has the lowest level of availability of the entire company-owned tugboat 80.01 percent. Tugboat is one of the main assets of PMS who support the economy of the company. Therefore, it is imperative for a company to further enhance the efficiency of activities of its operations. These include the efficiency of human resources, as well as economic analysis of system reliability of company assets. It is used in order to keep abreast of competition at the world maritime national and globally. Implementation of RCM process on main engine KT. X, priority levels can be specified against the failure of components that have critical consequences. So it can be a planned maintenance system generated properly and efficiently.

  8. Risk Based Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    such that the preventive maintenance effort is balanced against the costs to corrective maintenance including indirect costs to reduced production. The basis for the optimization is the risk based Bayesian decision theory. The method is demonstrated through an application example....

  9. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  10. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Delay or Prevent Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes: Walking for Exercise and Nutrition to Prevent Diabetes for You

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, A. S.; Bogossian, F. E.; Wilkinson, S. A.; Gibbons, K. S.; Kim, C.; McIntyre, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To develop a program to support behaviour changes for women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and a Body Mass Index (BMI) > 25?kg/m2 to delay or prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods. Women diagnosed with GDM in the previous 6 to 24 months and BMI > 25 kg/m2 were randomized to an intervention (I) (n = 16) or a control (C) (n = 15) group. The intervention was a pedometer program combined with nutrition coaching, with the primary outcome increased weight loss in th...

  11. Towards a maintenance semantic architecture.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedi Karray, Mohamed; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Technological and software progress with the evolution of processes within company have highlighted the need to evolve systems of maintenance process from autonomous systems to cooperative and sharing information system based on software platform. However, this need gives rise to various maintenance platforms. The first part of this study investigates the different types of existing industrial platforms and characterizes them compared to two criteria namely : informati...

  12. How prevention curricula are taught under real-world conditions: Types of and reasons for teacher curriculum adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Hecht, Michael L; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John; Krieger, Janice

    As interventions are disseminated widely, issues of fidelity and adaptation become increasingly critical to understand. This study aims to describe the types of adaptations made by teachers delivering a school-based substance use prevention curriculum and their reasons for adapting program content. To determine the degree to which implementers adhere to a prevention curriculum, naturally adapt the curriculum, and the reasons implementers give for making adaptations, the study examined lesson adaptations made by the 31 teachers who implemented the keepin' it REAL drug prevention curriculum in 7th grade classrooms ( n = 25 schools). Data were collected from teacher self-reports after each lesson and observer coding of videotaped lessons. From the total sample, 276 lesson videos were randomly selected for observational analysis. Teachers self-reported adapting more than 68 percent of prevention lessons, while independent observers reported more than 97 percent of the observed lessons were adapted in some way. Types of adaptations included: altering the delivery of the lesson by revising the delivery timetable or delivery context; changing content of the lesson by removing, partially covering, revising, or adding content; and altering the designated format of the lesson (such as assigning small group activities to students as individual work). Reasons for adaptation included responding to constraints (time, institutional, personal, and technical), and responding to student needs (students' abilities to process curriculum content, to enhance student engagement with material). The study sample was limited to rural schools in the US mid-Atlantic; however, the results suggest that if programs are to be effectively implemented, program developers need a better understanding of the types of adaptations and reasons implementers provide for adapting curricula. These descriptive data suggest that prevention curricula be developed in shorter teaching modules, developers

  13. Strategies to prevent ventilation-associated pneumonia: the effect of cuff pressure monitoring techniques and tracheal tube type on aspiration of subglottic secretions: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eleanor L; Duguid, Alasdair; Ercole, Ari; Matta, Basil; Burnstein, Rowan M; Veenith, Tonny

    2014-03-01

    Ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the commonest nosocomial infection in intensive care. Implementation of a VAP prevention care bundle is a proven method to reduce its incidence. The UK care bundle recommends maintenance of the tracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 to 30  cmH₂O with 4-hourly pressure checks and use of tracheal tubes with subglottic aspiration ports in patients admitted for more than 72  h. To evaluate the effects of tracheal tube type and cuff pressure monitoring technique on leakage of subglottic secretions past the tracheal tube cuff. Bench-top study. Laboratory. A model adult trachea with simulated subglottic secretions was intubated with a tracheal tube with the cuff inflated to 25  cmH₂O. Experiments were conducted using a Portex Profile Soft Seal tracheal tube with three cuff pressure monitoring strategies and using a Portex SACETT tracheal tube with intermittent cuff pressure checks. Rate of simulated secretion leakage past the tracheal tube cuff. Mean ± SD leakage of fluid past the Profile Soft Seal tracheal tube cuff was 2.25 ± 1.49  ml  min⁻¹ with no monitoring of cuff pressure, 2.98 ± 1.63  ml  min⁻¹ with intermittent cuff pressure monitoring and 3.83 ± 2.17  ml  min⁻¹ with continuous cuff pressure monitoring (P aspiration port and aspirating the simulated secretions prior to intermittent cuff pressure checks reduced the leakage rate to 0.50 ± 0.48  ml  min⁻¹ (P aspiration port. Further evaluation of medical device performance is needed in order to design more effective VAP prevention strategies.

  14. The relation between preventive maintenance and energy saving, planning and production control; La relacion entre el mantenimiento preventivo y el ahorro de energia planeacion y control de la produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazarez, Mario [Coorporacion de ingenieros en aire acondicionado y mantenimiento en general (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper the importance that the preventive maintenance has as an important ingredient of the internal policies of the companies for the promotion of the energy saving is discussed. It considers that the department of planning and production control must take into account very seriously the importance of programmed preventive maintenance in order to maintain the continuity of the production process and with this eliminate the bottle necks that adversely affect it and consequently the the company's image before the clients, besides contributing positively the promotion of energy saving. The faults that stop the production process inflict losses of income and adversely affect the yield of the company, in addition, they increase the production cost or the plant expenses associated to the repair of the damaged equipment, in the worst of the cases, important penalties will have to be paid for the delayed delivery of the product to the client. By keeping the correct operation of the equipment, increasing its availability and assuring that all the safeties of these operate correctly we will be contributing to the optimal operation of the enterprise system and avoiding the additional consumption of energy associated to the failure of an equipment and interruption of the production line. The preventive maintenance also promotes, the order and the cleanliness, the safety and hygiene in the work centers and the protection to the environment. Once the prevention has won the battle to the correction, one enters the field of diagnosis, handling the service periods in an optimal way in benefit of the production line. In this stage it can be spoken of entering the application of Total Productive Maintenance. [Spanish] En este trabajo se discute la importancia que tiene el mantenimiento preventivo como un ingrediente importante de las politicas internas de las empresas para la promocion del ahorro de energia. Considera que el departamento de planeacion y control de la

  15. Applicability of Operational Research Techniques in CANDU Nuclear Plant Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, and ICONE 9 in Niece, 2001, the use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. Innovative practices included greatly reducing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is being put in place. Further cost refinement of the station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data is being evaluated. A wide range of Operational Research (OR) literature was reviewed for implementation issues and several encouraging areas were found that will assist in the current effort of evaluating maintenance optimization techniques for nuclear power production. The road ahead is expected to consist first of resolving 25 years of data issues and preserving the data via appropriate knowledge system techniques while post war demographics permit experts to input into the system. Subsequent analytical techniques will emphasize total simplicity to obtain the requisite buy in from Corporate Executives who possibly are not trained in Operational Research. Case studies of containment airlock seal failures are used to illustrate the direct applicability of stochastic processes. Airlocks and transfer chambers were chosen as they have long been known as high maintenance items. Also, the very significant financial consequences of this type of failure will help to focus the attention of Senior Management on the effort. Despite substantial investment in research, improvement in the design of the seal material or configuration has not been achieved beyond the designs completed in the 1980's. Overall, the study showed excellent agreement of the relatively quick stochastic methods with the maintenance programs produced at

  16. Continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, Nina; Auer, Stefanie; Gisinger, Christoph; Kil, Monika; Keser Aschenberger, Filiz; Klerings, Irma; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2017-08-08

    Because of the enormous social and economic burden of disease, the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia has become a major global public health priority. Studies show that cognitively stimulating activities during middle adulthood might have a protective effect on the brain by boosting the cognitive reserve. The aim of this review is to identify evidence investigating the effects of continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia in late life. Our approach employs a two-stage design: First, we will conduct a systematic review to assess the preventive effects of continuing education on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. Second, because we expect to find few studies, we will perform a review of systematic reviews on leisure activities that mimic formal continuing education to determine their effects on the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. We will search electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Scopus) for published studies and gray literature databases (e.g., trial registries) for unpublished studies. Two authors will independently screen abstracts and full-texts using pre-defined eligibility criteria, select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of included studies or reviews. Outcomes of interest include the incidence of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's-type dementia, quality of life, functional capacity, and psychological wellbeing. Intermediate outcomes are cognitive (test) performance, cognitive functioning, and social inclusion. The review team is a multidisciplinary group consisting of methodological experts and dementia, geriatrics, and continuing education researchers. We anticipate that our review will highlight serious gaps in the current evidence. Results will build the basis for further research regarding the relation of continuing education and cognitive decline

  17. Present status and future of maintenance robots of nuclear power plants. Part 2. Toshiba Corporation's activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Katsuhiko; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Underwater remotely operated vehicle for inspection, repair and preventive maintenance in a narrow space had been developed with advanced robot technologies. Maintenance robot for core internals worked under high radiation environment and size limit of applied parts and passage space. Visual inspection (VT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) of welds using core shroud vehicle had been realized. Swimming type vehicle for VT and crawler type vehicle for cleaning was also prepared. Position measuring system for VT with image processing based on position information of movable joint axis and micro replica equipment to obtain microstructure image of structure surface could be combined. Underwater remotely operated maintenance and repair system was applied to improve surface stresses around welds to compression with laser peening technology and also to remove cracks with electric discharge machining for prevention of crack propagation. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Disparities in health care access and receipt of preventive services by disability type: analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-12-01

    To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Improving the TRIGA facility maintenance by predictive maintenance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, M.; Sabau, C.; Barbalata, E.

    1997-01-01

    This work deals with the specific operation of equipment in radioactive environment or in conditions allowing radioactive contamination. The requirements of remote operation ensuring the operators' protection are presented. Also, the requirements of international standards issued by IAEA-Vienna are reviewed. The organizational withdraws of the maintenance activities, based on the standards and maintenance and repair directives still in force, are shown. It is emphasized the fact that this type of maintenance was adequate to a given level of technical development, characteristic for pre-computerized industry, but, at present, it is obsolete and uneconomic both in utilization and maintenance. Such a system constitutes already a burden hindering the efforts of maximizing the availability, maintenance, prolongation the service life of equipment and utilities, finally, of increasing the efficiency of complex installations. Moreover, the predictive maintenance techniques are strongly requested by the character of radioactive installations precluding the direct access in given zones (a potential risk of irradiation or radioactive contamination) of installations during operation. The results obtained by applying the predictive maintenance techniques in the operation of the double circuit irradiation loop, used in the TRIGA reactors, are presented

  20. Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C

    2015-11-01

    To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  2. Let's prevent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Williams, Sian

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a globally recognised health care priority, but there is a lack of rigorous research investigating optimal methods of translating diabetes prevention programmes, based on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, into routine primary care. The aim...... of the study is to establish whether a pragmatic structured education programme targeting lifestyle and behaviour change in conjunction with motivational maintenance via the telephone can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation (a composite of impaired glucose...... of type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, blood glucose levels, cardiovascular risk, the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.Methods: The study consists of screening and intervention phases within 44 general practices coordinated from...

  3. Characterization Testing - A Predictive Maintenance Advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randolph, Russ

    1998-01-01

    Knowing that a traditional time directed preventive maintenance program is limited in its flexibility and effectiveness, the CHAR 921 characterization system software was developed as an open architecture design...

  4. Mixed methods study of engagement in behaviors to prevent type 2 diabetes among employees with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, pmotivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports.

  5. Gloves, extra gloves or special types of gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries in healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Saarto, Annika; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Pahwa, Manisha; Ijaz, Sharea

    2014-03-07

    Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring viral diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV through exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids at work. Most often infection occurs when a healthcare worker inadvertently punctures the skin of their hand with a sharp implement that has been used in the treatment of an infected patient, thus bringing the patient's blood into contact with their own. Such occurrences are commonly known as percutaneous exposure incidents. To determine the benefits and harms of extra gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure incidents among healthcare workers versus no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHSEED, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, CISDOC, PsycINFO and LILACS until 26 June 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthcare workers as the majority of participants, extra gloves or special types of gloves as the intervention, and exposure to blood or bodily fluids as the outcome. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses for seven different comparisons. We found 34 RCTs that included 6890 person-operations as participating units and reported on 46 intervention-control group comparisons. We grouped interventions as follows: increased layers of standard gloves, gloves manufactured with special protective materials or thicker gloves, and gloves with puncture indicator systems. Indicator gloves show a coloured spot when they are perforated. Participants were surgeons in all studies and they used at least one pair of standard gloves as the control intervention. Twenty-seven studies also included other surgical staff (e.g. nurses). All but one study used perforations in gloves as an indication of exposure. The median control group rate was 18.5 perforations per 100 person-operations. Seven studies reported blood stains on the skin and two studies reported self reported

  6. Can We Learn From Viruses How to Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    von Herrath, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We will take a journey from basic pathogenetic mechanisms elicited by viral infections that play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes to clinical interventions, where we will discuss novel combination therapies. The role of viral infections in the development of type 1 diabetes is a rather interesting topic because in experimental models viruses appear capable of both accelerating as well as decelerating the immunological processes leading to type 1 diabetes. Consequently, I will disc...

  7. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  8. A proactive condition-based maintenance strategy with both perfect and imperfect maintenance actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Phuc; Voisin, Alexandre; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a proactive condition-based maintenance (CBM) considering both perfect and imperfect maintenance actions for a deteriorating system. Perfect maintenance actions restore completely the system to the ‘as good as new’ state. Their related cost are however often high. The first objective of the paper is to investigate the impacts of imperfect maintenance actions. In fact, both positive and negative impacts are considered. Positive impact means that the imperfect maintenance cost is usually low. Negative impact implies that (i) the imperfect maintenance restores a system to a state between good-as-new and bad-as-old and (ii) each imperfect preventive action may accelerate the speed of the system's deterioration process. The second objective of the paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance policy which can help to select optimally maintenance actions (perfect or imperfect actions), if needed, at each inspection time. Moreover, the time interval between two successive inspection points is determined according to a remaining useful life (RUL) based-inspection policy. To illustrate the use of the proposed maintenance policy, a numerical example finally is introduced. - Highlights: • A new imperfect maintenance model for deterioration system is proposed. • Both positive and negative impacts of an imperfect maintenance action are investigated. • An adaptive condition-based maintenance policy is introduced. • The optimal number of useful imperfect maintenance actions for each life cycle is optimally provided

  9. Concepts for measuring maintenance performance and methods for analysing competing failure modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, R.; Paulsen, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of maintenance performance is done on the basis of component history data in which service sojourns are distinguished according to whether they terminate in corrective or preventive maintenance. From the viewpoint of data analysis, corrective and preventive maintenance constitute...... competing failure modes. This article examines ways to assess maintenance performance without introducing statistical assumptions, then introduces a plausible statistical model for describing the interaction of preventive and corrective maintenance, and finally illustrates these with examples from...

  10. Concepts for measuring maintenance performance and methods for analysing competing failure modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Roger; Paulsen, Jette

    1997-02-01

    Measurement of maintenance performance is done on the basis of component history data in which service sojourns are distinguished according to whether they terminate in corrective or preventive maintenance. From the viewpoint of data analysis, corrective and preventive maintenance constitute competing failure nudes. This article examines ways to assess maintenance performance without introducing statistical assumptions, then introduces a plausible statistical model for describing the interaction of preventive and corrective maintenance, and finally illustrates these with examples from the Nordic TUD data system.

  11. MOV predictive maintenance program at Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details the Motor Operated Valve (MOV) Predictive Maintenance program at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. The program encompasses the use of diagnostics tooling in conjunction with more standard maintenance techniques, with the goal of improving performance of MOV's. Problems encountered and solutions developed during the first two phases of this program are presented, along with proposed actions for the final trending phase of the program. This paper also touches on the preventive and corrective maintenance aspects of an overall MOV maintenance program. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in type 2 diabetic patients: results of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Michele; Pellegrini, Fabio; Roncaglioni, Maria C; Avanzini, Fausto; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    We investigated in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes. The Primary Prevention Project (PPP) is a randomized, open trial with a two-by-two factorial design aimed to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. The primary end point was a composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. A total of 1,031 people with diabetes in the PPP, aged >/=50 years, without a previous cardiovascular event were enrolled by 316 general practitioners and 14 diabetes outpatient clinics. The PPP trial was prematurely stopped (after a median of 3.7 years) by the independent data safety and monitoring board because of a consistent benefit of aspirin compared with the control group in a population of 4,495 patients with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors. In diabetic patients, aspirin treatment was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in the main end point (relative risk [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62) and in total cardiovascular events (0.89, 0.62-1.26) and with a nonsignificant increase in cardiovascular deaths (1.23, 0.69-2.19). In nondiabetic subjects, RRs for the main end point, total cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular deaths were 0.59 (0.37-0.94), 0.69 (0.53-0.90), and 0.32 (0.14-0.72), respectively. No significant reduction in any of the end points considered could be found with vitamin E in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. Our data suggest a lower effect of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with low-dose aspirin in diabetic patients as opposed to subjects with other cardiovascular risk factors. If confirmed, these findings might indicate that the antiplatelet effects of aspirin in diabetic patients are overwhelmed by aspirin-insensitive mechanisms of platelet activation and

  13. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  14. In-line Typed High-Precision Polarization Lidar for Disaster Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shiina, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    Lidars for local weather prediction for prevention of disasters such as heavy rain and lightning strike were developed. As in-line optics were adopted to the in-line MPL and the high precision polarization lidar, the near range measurement could be accomplished with the narrow FOV. Optical circulators were also developed originally not to only separate echoes from the transmitting beam, but also to detect the orthogonal polarization echoes. The polarization extinction ratio between p- and s-p...

  15. Implementation of remote maintenance techniques at the La Hague reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverot, P.M.; Dubois, G.

    1995-01-01

    The effective implementation of the safety objectives of the La Hague reprocessing plants called for several plant design criteria such as containment of radioactive materials and radiation shielding (both in normal operating conditions and off-normal conditions), equipment designs which minimize exposure from maintenance operations, and remote automated operations which can be completely controlled from the central control room. The design of the La Hague reprocessing plants incorporates innovative maintenance concepts to reduce integrated doses of maintenance personnel to ALARA levels. For instance, shearing-dissolution or vitrification cells have overhead remote maintenance cells designed for any type of preventive maintenance or repair of equipment, including replacement of certain items. Equipment and components are handled with remote wall-mounted master-slave manipulators as well as in-cell cranes. When the crane itself requires maintenance, it is brought in a ''garage'' at the extremity of the maintenance cell it services and separated from it by doors. These cranes have demonstrated good operating performance. Equipment such as pumps, valves, ejectors, vacuum filters, pH meter probes, mixer impellers require periodic maintenance during the reprocessing plants operations. This type of equipment is standardized, at La Hague, for a fast turn-around remote replacement without disconnecting process piping. Maintenance, is performed with a Mobile Equipment Replacement Cask (MERC) in a contained area, with temporary barrier modification but without breaching the containment barrier. A fleet of 19 MERCs services the plant and the MERC system has proved its reliability over the past five years in over 600 equipment replacement operations. Occupational dose linked to the operation of the remote maintenance MERC system is very low, close to the detection threshold and not contamination has resulted from it use. (author). 4 figs

  16. Maintenance of membrane organization in the aging mouse brain as the determining factor for preventing receptor dysfunction and for improving response to anti-Alzheimer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Julie; Thomas, Mélanie H; Gregory-Pauron, Lynn; Pinçon, Anthony; Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Corbier, Catherine; Claudepierre, Thomas; Yen, Frances T; Oster, Thierry; Malaplate-Armand, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Although a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the "aging" parameter is not systematically considered in preclinical validation of anti-AD drugs. To explore how aging affects neuronal reactivity to anti-AD agents, the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-associated pathway was chosen as a model. Comparison of the neuroprotective properties of CNTF in 6- and 18-month old mice revealed that CNTF resistance in the older animals is associated with the exclusion of the CNTF-receptor subunits from rafts and their subsequent dispersion to non-raft cortical membrane domains. This age-dependent membrane remodeling prevented both the formation of active CNTF-receptor complexes and the activation of prosurvival STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways, demonstrating that age-altered membranes impaired the reactivity of potential therapeutic targets. CNTF-receptor distribution and CNTF signaling responses were improved in older mice receiving dietary docosahexaenoic acid, with CNTF-receptor functionality being similar to those of younger mice, pointing toward dietary intervention as a promising adjuvant strategy to maintain functional neuronal membranes, thus allowing the associated receptors to respond appropriately to anti-AD agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of type 1 diabetes by inducing subclinical dermatitis on a small area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engkilde, Kaare; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have previously epidemiologically shown that type 1 diabetes is inversely associated with contact allergy. This finding is intriguing as type 1 diabetes and contact allergy are two completely different diseases, although T cells are involved in both diseases. The objective of this s......-obese diabetic mice. The contact allergens gave a non-visible, subclinical dermatitis on the application site. Activation of NKT cells to the ear lymph nodes seems to be involved.......OBJECTIVE: We have previously epidemiologically shown that type 1 diabetes is inversely associated with contact allergy. This finding is intriguing as type 1 diabetes and contact allergy are two completely different diseases, although T cells are involved in both diseases. The objective...

  18. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  19. ROR inverse agonist suppresses insulitis and prevents hyperglycemia in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Laura A; Banerjee, Subhashis; Campbell, Sean; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Burris, Thomas P

    2015-03-01

    Hyperglycemia associated with type 1 diabetes is a consequence of immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Although it is apparent that both CD8(+) T cells and TH1 cells are key contributors to type 1 diabetes, the function of TH17 cells in disease onset and progression remains unclear. The nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors-α and γt (RORα and RORγt) play critical roles in the development of TH17 cells and ROR-specific synthetic ligands have proven efficacy in several mouse models of autoimmunity. To investigate the roles and therapeutic potential for targeting the RORs in type 1 diabetes, we administered SR1001, a selective RORα/γ inverse agonist, to nonobese diabetic mice. SR1001 significantly reduced diabetes incidence and insulitis in the treated mice. Furthermore, SR1001 reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression, particularly TH17-mediated cytokines, reduced autoantibody production, and increased the frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells. These data suggest that TH17 cells may have a pathological role in the development of type 1 diabetes, and use of ROR-specific synthetic ligands targeting this cell type may prove utility as a novel treatment for type 1 diabetes.

  20. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided.

  1. Predictive Maintenance--An Effective Money Saving Tool Being Applied in Industry Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Looks at preventive/predictive maintenance as it is used in industry. Discusses core preventive maintenance tools that must be understood to prepare students. Includes a list of websites related to the topic. (JOW)

  2. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis...... was lowered. Intranasal gliadin also rescued a fraction of prediabetic 13-week-old NOD mice from progressing to clinical onset of diabetes compared to OVA-treated controls. Vaccination with i.n. gliadin led to an induction of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and even more significant induction of γδ T cells in mucosal...

  3. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  4. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.).

  5. Daily use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors as prevention for recurrent priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archimedes Nardozza Junior

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The pathogenesis of recurrent priapism is currently being investigated based on the regulation of the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5 enzyme. We explored the daily use of PDE5 inhibitors to treat and prevent priapism recurrences. Method: We administered PDE5 inhibitors using a long-term therapeutic regimen in seven men with recurrent priapism, with a mean age of 29.2 years (range 21 to 35 years. Six men (85.7% had idiopathic priapism recurrences and one man (24.3% had sickle cell disease-associated priapism recurrences. Tadalafil 5 mg was administered daily. The mean follow-up was 6.6 months (range 3 to 12 months. Results: Daily long-term oral PDE5 inhibitor therapy alleviated priapism recurrences in all patients. Five (71.4% had no episodes of priapism and two (28.6% referred decrease in their episodes of priapism. All patients referred improvement in erectile function. Conclusion: These findings suggest the hypothesis that PDE5 dysregulation exerts a pathogenic role for both sickle cell disease-associated priapism and for idiopathic priapism, and that it offers a molecular target for the therapeutic management of priapism. These preliminary observations suggest that continuous long-term oral PDE5 inhibitor therapy may treat and prevent recurrent priapism.

  6. Prevention of microalbuminuria using early intervention with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can p......-cause mortality(p=0.07). Conclusions: We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, early intervention with ACEis or ARBs reduces the risk for development of microalbuminuria.......Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can...

  7. [Physical cardiovascular activity in the physical preventive medecine of the diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The indication of physical activity in patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 and in the metabolic syndrome has a scientific proven evidence. There does no exist a general definite program of this activity. There is designed his methodology, modality, intensity, frequency and duration. The first results are presented in diabete type 2 patients and of them those who meet with metabolic syndrome by means of evaluation of the HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and IMC. On emphasizes that there is reached a very high and linear decrease of the HbA1c, with the individualized program of physical cardiovascular activity.

  8. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  9. Comparative evaluation of maintenance performance using subsurvival functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, J.L.; Cooke, R.; Nyman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Subsurvival functions are applied to operational data for the control rod drive systems of Nordic nuclear reactors to evaluate maintenance performance. Competing failure modes are preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintenance indicators are defined and evaluated for 8 plants. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  10. THE OFFICIAL AUDIT: THE MAINTENANCE OF THE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Biglia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The author distinguishes the ordinary maintenance in corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance and describes the importance of the verifications of the maintenance procedures of the structures and the equipmentes in the food industy. He individualizes criterions to follow for an aware detective check. This approach offers a greater guarantee of food security and a greater responsibility of OSA

  11. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated IL-10 gene delivery prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudy, Kevin; Song, Sihong; Wasserfall, Clive; Zhang, Y. Clare; Kapturczak, Matthias; Muir, Andrew; Powers, Matthew; Scott-Jorgensen, Marda; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Crawford, James M.; Ellis, Tamir M.; Flotte, Terence R.; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    The development of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice provides for their use as a model of human type 1 diabetes. To test the feasibility of muscle-directed gene therapy to prevent type 1 diabetes, we developed recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors containing murine cDNAs for immunomodulatory cytokines IL-4 or IL-10. Skeletal muscle transduction of female NOD mice with IL-10, but not IL-4, completely abrogated diabetes. rAAV-IL-10 transduction attenuated the production of insulin autoantibodies, quantitatively reduced pancreatic insulitis, maintained islet insulin content, and altered splenocyte cytokine responses to mitogenic stimulation. The beneficial effects were host specific, as adoptive transfer of splenocytes from rAAV IL-10-treated animals rapidly imparted diabetes in naive hosts, and the cells contained no protective immunomodulatory capacity, as defined through adoptive cotransfer analyses. These results indicate the utility for rAAV, a vector with advantages for therapeutic gene delivery, to transfer immunoregulatory cytokines capable of preventing type 1 diabetes. In addition, these studies provide foundational support for the concept of using immunoregulatory agents delivered by rAAV to modulate a variety of disorders associated with deleterious immune responses, including allergic reactions, transplantation rejection, immunodeficiencies, and autoimmune disorders. PMID:11717448

  12. Weight management in African-Americans using church-based community interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Berry, Diane; Nasir, Laura

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to examine the utilization of church-based interventions designed for African-Americans in the community for the management of overweight and obesity and prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar were searched using the following key search terms: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, prevention, management, African-Americans, Blacks, weight loss, weight management, church-based interventions, community interventions, faith-based interventions, and prayer. Sixteen primary studies were located and six met inclusion criteria. The studies were separated into two categories: faith-placed interventions or collaborative interventions. The overall results demonstrated significant weight loss ranging from 2.3 (SD = 4.1) pounds to 10.1 (SD = 10.3) pounds post-intervention. Further research is needed to understand interventions that are church-based and culturally sensitive for African-Americans. Weight management is important in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the African-American population.

  13. Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes through a Physically Active Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond W.; Kamla, Jim; Lee, Man-Cheong; Mak, Jennifer Y.

    2007-01-01

    The general decrease in physical activity in the United States population has led to an increase of cases of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM), obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Remarkable scientific advancements have been made toward understanding the beneficial effects of physical activity…

  14. Synthesis of evidence of diagnostic tests and preventive programs identifying pre-diabetes type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Tučková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D has become the main type of diabetes in children and it is expected that in countries with high income diabetes it is projected to be one of the leading causes of death by 2030. Another fact is that programs and tests diagnosing pre-diabetes type 2 (T2P-DMC are missing. Methods: The aim of the paper is to present the steps for the synthesis of the evidence within the brand new type of the systematic review (SR: SR of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA. Using the acronym PIRD it was developed a review question, search strategy and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The initial search was done in two databases (MedLine and Cinahl with 2 025 results. The second search after the improvement of the sensitivity and the specificity was done in 15 databases with 3 681 results. Conclusion: This methodological paper introduces how to conduct the systematic review protocols of diagnostic test accuracy on the example of T2P-DMC.

  15. Disordered Eating in Girls with Type 1 Diabetes: Examining Directions for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Karina; Wade, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Girls with Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]) have been identified to be at an increased risk for developing bulimia nervosa (BN) and subthreshold eating disorders. The co-occurrence of these conditions can severely compromise the physical health of these individuals and can even accelerate mortality. The use of a unique…

  16. Prevention of early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Fundová, Petra; Hansen, A. K.; Buschard, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : gliadin * diabetes * diabetes 1 type * NOD mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  17. The cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes screening including prevention of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai; Jiwani, Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with elevated risks of perinatal complications and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and screening and intervention can reduce these risks. We quantified the cost, health impact and cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and intervention in India and Israel,...

  18. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  19. Aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Marcel Maria Christiaan

    2010-01-01

    In the first of this thesis, results are summarized of a randomised crossover trial on the effects of aspirin on markers of inflammation, coagulation and number of endothelial progenitor cells in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease. In the second part, results of two systematic

  20. Underwater maintenance and inspection technology for reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.; Sano, Y.; Sudou, A.; Konagai, C.; Okano, H.; Shima, S.

    1996-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to develop preventive maintenance technologies in addition to inspection, repair and maintenance technologies already developed. Those preventive maintenance technologies include fundamental technologies concerning residual stress improvement, surface metallurgical improvement, water chemistry improvement, welding and machining, and technology for execution concerning remote handling/automated machines. Toshiba is engaged in the development of fundamental and application technologies. This paper describes a shot peening and a laser peening as the residual stress improvement technology and a multipurpose maintenance robot and a visual inspection submersible as remote handling equipment for maintenance and inspection. (author)

  1. Two-sided messages for health risk prevention: the role of argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted among adolescents in 2011 in urban parts of Belgium, Europe. The effectiveness of two-sided binge drinking and marijuana prevention messages was investigated in relation to argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence. Study 1 (n = 373) serves as a baseline study for study 2 (n = 156). Data were collected through a printed questionnaire in classrooms in Flemish secondary schools. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Implications for health practitioners, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are given.

  2. Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV: a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Ahrén, Bo; Holst, Jens J

    2004-01-01

    that has warranted the design of inhibitor-based drugs. At the molecular level, DPP IV cleaves two amino acids from the N-terminus of the intact, biologically active forms of both so-called incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (formerly known......, prevent the progressive impairment of glucose metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes. DPP IV has become a focus of attention for drug design, as it has a pivotal role in the rapid degradation of at least two of the hormones released during food ingestion, a property...

  3. Component-Based Data-Driven Predictive Maintenance to Reduce Unscheduled Maintenance Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.; de Boer, L.W.M.; Chen, C.H.; Trappey, A.C.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Wognum, N.

    2017-01-01

    Costs associated with unscheduled and preventive maintenance can contribute significantly to an airline's expenditure. Reliability analysis can help to identify and plan for maintenance events. Reliability analysis in industry is often limited to statistically based

  4. New Advanced Technology to Improve Prediction and Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    utilizing some space off campus in White Flint being leased by the post polio syndrome group. There would be a cost associated with this but if you are...GBM is composed of alpha -3, -4, -5, and -6 chains. In Alport syndrome , a genetically determined disease characterized by heavy proteinuria...defects in the type IV collagen molecule are responsible for the principal clinical feature of the syndrome . In these patients the pathology is sustained

  5. Prevention of diabetes I. type and health promotion, education of diabetics and patients after pancreas transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    MRÁZ, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor theses attend to people with diabetes mellitus Type 1 and patients after pancreas transplantation. The first chapters of theoretical part deal with pancreas anatomy, matter of disorder, its medication, belated complications, movement and nutrition connected with diabetes. The last chapter of this part is about pancreas transplantation. The practical part shows importance of education and knowledge of diabetics. It deals with life quality of diabetics who undergo pancreas transpla...

  6. Evaluation of a Botulinum Toxoid, Type B, for the Prevention of Shaker Foal Syndrome,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    pregnancy has been shown to be an efficient means of passively immunizing foals against the tetanus neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani . The...9,12 Clostridium botulinum, type B, has been isolated repeatedly from the feces of affected foals 4 and the disease can be reproduced experimentally...immunization of their dams with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed tetanus toxoid (derived from the neurotoxin of C. tetani ) given in 2-ml doses at 2 months

  7. Buena Alimentacion, Buena Salud: a preventive nutrition intervention in Caribbean Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, I M; Millen, B; Bissett, L; Levenson, S M; Chipkin, S R

    1998-01-01

    A culturally sensitive 3-month intervention was provided to 18 Caribbean Latino men and women with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. Compared to the randomly assigned control group, the intervention group showed statistically significant decreases in total calories, fat calories, percent of calories from fat, saturated fat calories, and percent of calories from saturated fat The intervention group showed increases in calories from carbohydrates and in the percent of calories from fiber.

  8. Metformin prevents the development of goiter in diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Ittermann T, Markus MR, Schipf S, Derwahl KM, Meisinger C, Volzke H. Metformin Inhibits Goitrogenous Effects of Type 2 Diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 May 17;169(1:9-15. doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-0101. Print 2013.

  9. MEDEMAS -Medical Device Management and Maintenance System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ülkü Balcı; Dogan, Mehmet Ugur; Ülgen, Yekta; Özkan, Mehmed

    In the proposed study, a medical device maintenance management system (MEDEMAS) is designed and implemented which provides a data pool of medical devices, the maintenance protocols and other required information for these devices. The system also contains complete repair and maintenance history of a specific device. MEDEMAS creates optimal maintenance schedule for devices and enables the service technician to carry out and report maintenance/repair processes via remote access. Thus predicted future failures are possible to prevent or minimize. Maintenance and repair is essential for patient safety and proper functioning of the medical devices, as it prevents performance decrease of the devices, deterioration of the equipment, and detrimental effects on the health of a patient, the user or other interacting people. The study aims to make the maintenance process more accurate, more efficient, faster and easier to manage and organize; and much less confusing. The accumulated history of medical devices and maintenance personnel helps efficient facility planning.

  10. Improving nuclear power plant reliability through predictive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geilhausen, R.; Kunze, U.

    1996-01-01

    Maintenance strategies can be assigned to one of three categories: failure maintenance, periodic maintenance or condition-oriented maintenance. The optimum maintenance scheme can be selected on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis but the safety of life and limb or the political climate for NPP can hardly expressed in numbers. The implementation of preventive maintenance needs two preconditions: high-performance instrumentation in the form of stationary and mobile monitoring systems for the determination of the condition of the nuclear power plant components and provision of a tool that can handle both the organization of the work and the evaluation of the results obtained. (authors)

  11. Naringin prevents bone loss in a rat model of type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoira, M; Rodríguez, V; Picotto, G; Battaglino, R; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know whether naringin (NA) could prevent the bone complications in a model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Rats were divided in: 1) controls, 2) STZ-rats, 3) STZ-rats treated with 40 mg NA/kg, and 4) STZ-rats treated with 80 mg NA/kg. BMD and BMC were performed by DEXA. Bone histomorphometry and histology as well as TRAP staining were done in tibia. Osteocalcin (OCN) was determined in bone and serum. Glutathione content and SOD and catalase activities were assayed in bone marrow from femur. The data showed that NA80 increased the BMD and BMC from the long bones of STZ-rats. Both NA40 and NA80 normalized the trabecular number and the trabecular separations. An increase in the number of adipocytes and TRAP(+) cells in tibia from STZ-rats was blocked by NA. NA40 treatment increased the number of OCN(+) cells, but only the NA80 treatment allowed to reach the control values. NA normalized the SOD and catalase activities in bone marrow of femur from STZ-rats. In conclusion, NA avoids alterations in the physical properties and microstructure of bone from STZ-rats probably by stimulation of osteoblastogenesis, inhibition of the osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis via blocking the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Potential Role of Yogurt in Weight Management and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Yogurt is a semisolid fermented milk product that originated centuries ago and is viewed as an essential food and important source of nutrients in the diet of humans. Over the last 30 years, overweight and obesity have become characteristic of Western and developing countries, which has led to deleterious health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that yogurt is involved in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis and may play a role in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes partly via the replacement of less healthy foods in the diet, its food matrix, the effect of specific nutrients such as calcium and protein on appetite control and glycemia, and alteration in gut microbiota. This review will discuss the specific properties that make yogurt a unique food among the dairy products, epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting yogurt's role in body weight, energy balance, and type 2 diabetes, including its potential mechanisms of action and gaps that need to be explored. Key teaching points • Several epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis, although this remains controversial. • Yogurt possesses unique properties, including its nutritional composition; lactic acid bacteria, which may affect gut microbiota; and food matrix, which may have a potential role in appetite and glycemic control. • Potential mechanisms of action of yogurt include an increase in body fat loss, decrease in food intake and increase in satiety, decrease in glycemic and insulin response, altered gut hormone response, replacement of less healthy foods, and altered gut microbiota. • The relative energy and nutrient content and contribution of a standard portion of yogurt to the overall diet suggest that the percentage daily intake of these nutrients

  13. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Primary Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hydrie, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the study was to identify the extent of metabolic syndrome on the basis of ATP III and IDF definition in subjects aged 25 years and above from an urban population of Karachi. Also to see the association of risk factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome in this population. And finally to prove the hypothesis of intervention effect on the onset of type 2 diabetes in a high risk urban population and evaluate the rate of conversion of IGT to diabetes by these interve...

  14. Laboratory services series: a master-slave manipulator maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenness, R.G.; Hicks, R.E.; Wicker, C.D.

    1976-12-01

    The volume of master slave manipulator maintenance at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has necessitated the establishment of a repair facility and organization of a specially trained group of craftsmen. Emphasis on cell containment requires the use of manipulator boots and development of precise procedures for accomplishing the maintenance of 287 installed units. A very satisfactory computer programmed maintenance system has been established at the Laboratory to provide an economical approach to preventive maintenance

  15. A predictive maintenance approach for improved nuclear plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.; Pandya, M.B.; Kini, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Predictive maintenance programme as against preventive maintenance programme aims at diagnosing, inspecting, monitoring, and objective condition-checking of equipment. It helps in forecasting failures, and scheduling the optimal frequencies for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. It also helps in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. Various stages of predictive maintenance programme for a nuclear power plant are outlined. A partial list of instruments for predictive maintenance is given. (M.G.B.)

  16. Application of Bayesian statistical decision theory for a maintenance optimization problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procaccia, H.; Cordier, R.; Muller, S.

    1997-01-01

    Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is a rational approach that can be used to identify the equipment of facilities that may turn out to be critical with respect to safety, to availability, or to maintenance costs. Is is dor these critical pieces of equipment alone that a corrective (one waits for a failure) or preventive (the type and frequency are specified) maintenance policy is established. But this approach has limitations: - when there is little operating feedback and it concerns rare events affecting a piece of equipment judged critical on a priori grounds (how is it possible, in this case, to decide whether or not it is critical, since there is conflict between the gravity of the potential failure and its frequency?); - when the aim is propose an optimal maintenance frequency for a critical piece of equipment - changing the maintenance frequency hitherto applied may cause a significant drift in the observed reliability of the equipment, an aspect not generally taken into account in the RCM approach. In these two situations, expert judgments can be combined with the available operating feedback (Bayesian approach) and the combination of risk of failure and economic consequences taken into account (statistical decision theory) to achieve a true optimization of maintenance policy choices. This paper presents an application on the maintenance of diesel generator component

  17. Predictive maintenance: A new approach in maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Ferrari, L.

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance services for a Nuclear Power Plant are in general aimed at reaching the following goals: - Increase component availability and consequently decrease intervention frequency; - Reduce unexpected costs from unexpected repairs; - Progressively decrease the time of each intervention; - Improve the spare parts supply efficiency; - Improve spare parts and consumable warehouse managing; - Decrease maintenance costs. Most of the currently used maintenance activities refer to run-to-failure or preventive approaches: - Run-to-failure or Corrective Maintenance means that work is only carried out when a component or system is faulty and unable to perform its critical function. Non critical components such as filters or components with spare may be maintained in this way; - Preventive or Scheduled Maintenance involves a regular pre-set schedule programme of maintenance work. Programme outlined by the manufacturer of the component in question based on the design life of the component and based on past experience by operation. One step further than Preventive Maintenance is represented by Predictive Maintenance. Whereas Preventive Maintenance bases its schedules on past performance data, a predictive system acquires condition data from the machine to be maintained whilst the machine is in operation. The information obtained from this analysis indicates the condition in real time, provides a diagnosis of wear and shows any trend towards critical conditions. Predictive maintenance mainly consists of the following interventions: - Lubricant analysis; - Collection / analysis of functional parameters, such as motor absorption, flow rate, pressure, temperature, noise, vibration of rotating equipment, thermal efficiency, etc; - Periodical test of lifting systems; - Other operations to acquire sensitive equipment parameters. Predictive Maintenance can reduce the accidental intervention and extend the components life, and, in the end, is increasing the global availability

  18. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of “central” and “peripheral” details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting. PMID:26773100

  19. Hotspot and sampling analysis for effective maintenance and performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this project, we propose two sampling methods addressing how much and where the agencies need to collect infrastraucture condition data for accurate Level-of-Maintenance (LOM) estimation in maintenance network with single type or multiple ty...

  20. Planning and control of maintenance systems modelling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duffuaa, Salih O

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing maintenance as an integrated system with objectives, strategies and processes that need to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled using statistical and optimization techniques, the theme of this book is the strategic holistic system approach for maintenance. This approach enables maintenance decision makers to view maintenance as a provider of a competitive edge not a necessary evil. Encompassing maintenance systems; maintenance strategic and capacity planning, planned and preventive maintenance, work measurements and standards, material (spares) control, maintenance operations and control, planning and scheduling, maintenance quality, training, and others, this book gives readers an understanding of the relevant methodology and how to apply it to real-world problems in industry. Each chapter includes a number exercises and is suitable as a textbook or a reference for a professionals and practitioners whilst being of interest to industrial engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical en...

  1. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  2. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  3. Movable bridge maintenance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Movable bridges have particular maintenance issues, which cost considerably more than those of fixed bridges, : mostly because of the complex interaction of the mechanical, electrical and structural components. In order to track : maintenance and ope...

  4. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  5. Maintenance: organizational modes, activities and health and safety. Use of a French national survey and in-situ analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Corinne

    2014-12-01

    Maintenance activities are identified as critical both to operator safety and to systems safety and reliability. However, it is still difficult to identify maintenance workers in French occupational accident and disease statistics. Moreover, few analyses of these activities and of organizational changes in this field have been conducted. This paper presents two different approaches to this same issue. Analyses were aimed firstly at identifying the occupational exposures of these operators and at comparing them with occupational exposures of production staff and, secondly at developing understanding of normal real maintenance activities, i.e. maintenance activities that are normally actually carried out, while taking into account the socio-technical system and maintenance organization within which they lie. The use of the French SUMER 2003 survey shows that occupational exposures of maintenance staff to various constraints are more frequent than occupational exposures of their production colleagues. However, maintenance staff appear to have greater independence. Analyses were also conducted in a subcontracting urban public transport company, who outsources some maintenance work. Those analyses highlight a complex network of companies involved in maintenance activities, a substantial number of work interruptions and a significant fragmentation of the internal technicians' activities that can be cognitively costly, reduce anticipation possibilities and lead to incidents or accidents. Above all they underline internal technicians' contributions to the completion of outsourced interventions and interdependent relationships between the activities of the internal and the external technicians. Outsourcing maintenance interventions thus raises the question of risks associated with the interdependence of actual work activities undertaken by the different types of staff, since they contribute to the same maintenance intervention. This study therefore pinpoints the need to

  6. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  7. Psychiatric components of a Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1987-01-01

    The operational psychiatric requirements for a comprehensive Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) on a permanently manned Space Station are examined. Consideration is given to the psychological health maintenance program designed for the diagnosis of mental distress in astronauts during flight and for prevention of mental breakdown. The types of mental disorders that can possibly affect the astronauts in flight are discussed, including various organic, psychotic, and affective mental disorders, as well as anxiety, adjustment, and somatoform/dissociative disorders. Special attention is given to therapeutic considerations for psychiatric operations on Space Station, such as restraints, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, and psychosocial support.

  8. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by lifestyle intervention in an Australian primary health care setting: Greater Green Triangle (GGT Diabetes Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunker Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials demonstrate a 60% reduction in type 2 diabetes incidence through lifestyle modification programmes. The aim of this study is to determine whether such programmes are feasible in primary health care. Methods An intervention study including 237 individuals 40–75 years of age with moderate or high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A structured group programme with six 90 minute sessions delivered during an eight month period by trained nurses in Australian primary health care in 2004–2006. Main outcome measures taken at baseline, three, and 12 months included weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and lipids, plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge, blood pressure, measures of psychological distress and general health outcomes. To test differences between baseline and follow-up, paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed. Results At twelve months participants' mean weight reduced by 2.52 kg (95% confidence interval 1.85 to 3.19 and waist circumference by 4.17 cm (3.48 to 4.87. Mean fasting glucose reduced by 0.14 mmol/l (0.07 to 0.20, plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge by 0.58 mmol/l (0.36 to 0.79, total cholesterol by 0.29 mmol/l (0.18 to 0.40, low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l (0.16 to 0.34, triglycerides by 0.15 mmol/l (0.05 to 0.24 and diastolic blood pressure by 2.14 mmHg (0.94 to 3.33. Significant improvements were also found in most psychological measures. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a type 2 diabetes prevention programme using lifestyle intervention is feasible in primary health care settings, with reductions in risk factors approaching those observed in clinical trials. Trial Number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN38031372

  9. Optimization of surface maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, E.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  10. Prevention and Maintenance in Archeological Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gasparoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available È piuttosto evidente che le strutture archeologiche sono soggette a significative condizioni di rischio per ragioni connesse alla loro vulnerabilità e alla pericolosità ambientale, essendo in genere costituite da strutture ruderizzate, spesso in avanzato stato di degrado e direttamente esposte agli agenti atmosferici. Per tenere adeguatamente sotto controllo i fattori di rischio, al fine di evitare l’ineluttabile perdita dei manufatti archeologici, o quanto meno per allungare il loro ciclo di vita nelle migliori condizioni di conservazione, è necessario un costante monitoraggio e interventi di prevenzione, protezione e “cura” assidui e proseguiti nel tempo. Negli ultimi anni, sulla base di una consistente fase sperimentale sviluppata su casi di eccellenza, sono stati messi a punto strumenti operativi efficaci che hanno consentono di definire procedure dirette alla attivazione di processi di attività ispettiva (controlli e di manutenzione preventiva e programmata. Le esperienze maturate, inoltre, hanno messo in evidenza come la conservazione dei beni culturali, anche dei beni archeologici, richiede attenzioni e interventi per i quali, spesso, non necessariamente si deve fare ricorso a raffinate competenze di carattere archeologico, ma più semplicemente al buonsenso e alle conoscenze tecniche derivanti dalle regole dell’arte e dalle buone pratiche del costruire, già ampiamente note e sperimentate. Senza sottovalutare, dunque, l’importanza delle competenze specialistiche, come condizione essenziale per consentire il riconoscimento di valore, e da qui derivare le opportune cautele nell’operare, si deve però considerare che le condizioni di degrado, il più delle volte causate da carenti o errate manutenzioni, non sono in genere dovute a limiti nelle conoscenze scientifiche o tecniche, ma a difetti e omissioni di tipo operativo, previsionale, organizzativo e pianificatorio.

  11. Human error in maintenance: An investigative study for the factories of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, B S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of human error in maintenance. Many different aspects of human error in maintenance considered useful for the factories of the future are studied, including facts, figures, and examples; occurrence of maintenance error in equipment life cycle, elements of a maintenance person's time, maintenance environment and the causes for the occurrence of maintenance error, types and typical maintenance errors, common maintainability design errors and useful design guidelines to reduce equipment maintenance errors, maintenance work instructions, and maintenance error analysis methods

  12. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Adrienne R; Hoddy, Kristin K; Unterman, Terry G; Varady, Krista A

    2014-10-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) regimens have gained considerable popularity in recent years, as some people find these diets easier to follow than traditional calorie restriction (CR) approaches. IF involves restricting energy intake on 1-3 d/wk, and eating freely on the nonrestriction days. Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a subclass of IF, which consists of a "fast day" (75% energy restriction) alternating with a "feed day" (ad libitum food consumption). Recent findings suggest that IF and ADF are equally as effective as CR for weight loss and cardioprotection. What remains unclear, however, is whether IF/ADF elicits comparable improvements in diabetes risk indicators, when compared with CR. Accordingly, the goal of this review was to compare the effects of IF and ADF with daily CR on body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal superior decreases in body weight by CR vs IF/ADF regimens, yet comparable reductions in visceral fat mass, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. None of the interventions produced clinically meaningful reductions in glucose concentrations. Taken together, these preliminary findings show promise for the use of IF and ADF as alternatives to CR for weight loss and type 2 diabetes risk reduction in overweight and obese populations, but more research is required before solid conclusions can be reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactococcal 936-type phages and dairy fermentation problems: from detection to evolution and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 936-type phages are the most frequently encountered lactococcal phage species in dairy fermentations, where they cause slow or even failed fermentations with concomitant economic losses. Several dairy phage population studies, performed in different geographical locations, have detailed their dominance in dairy phage populations, while various phage-resistance mechanisms have been assessed in a bid to protect against this virulent phage group. The impact of thermal and chemical treatments on 936 phages is an important aspect for dairy technologists and has been assessed in several studies, and has indicated that these phages have adapted to better resist such treatments. The abundance of 936 phage genome sequences has permitted a focused view on genomic content and regions of variation, and the role of such variable regions in the evolution of these phages. Here, we present an overview on detection and global prevalence of the 936 phages, together with their tolerance to industrial treatments and anti-phage strategies. Furthermore, we present a comprehensive review on the comparative genomic analyses of members of this fascinating phage species.

  14. Mutagenesis by damaged deoxyribonucleotides and its prevention by MutT-type hydrolyzing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Satou, Kazuya; Hori, Mika; Iida, Emiko; Ishiguro, Chieko; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Oxidized deoxyribonucleotides, 2-hydroxydeoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (2-OH-dATP) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-OH-dGTP), were introduced into Escherichia coli strains deficient in DNA polymerase IV (a Y-family DNA polymerase encoded in the dinB gene), and the MutT and Orfl35 proteins to examine their in vivo roles in mutagenesis elicited by 2-OH-dATP and 8-OH-dGTP. 2-OH-dATP elicited mutations less efficiently in the dinB- strain than in the wild type strain, suggesting involvement of DNA polymerase IV in 2-OH-dATP-induced mutations. 8-OH-dGTP and 2-OH-dATP elicited mutations more efficiently in mutT- and orfl35- strains, respectively, than those in their isogenic mutT+ and orfl35+ strains. These results indicate that these proteins play important roles in mutagenesis induced by 2-OH-dATP and 8-OH-dGTP in vivo.

  15. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockie, Alan; Bjorkelo, Kenneth

    A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence of maintenance programs on addressing the system and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. Four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management were identified: (1) the selection of critical systems and components; (2) the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; (3) the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; and (4) the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations.

  16. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Harousseau

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM has changed dramatically in the past twenty years with the introduction of high-dose therapy plus autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT in younger patients and, more recently, of three novel agents (thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide. When conventional chemotherapy was the only available possibility, complete responses (CR were very rare and the objective of maintenance was to prolong remission duration by continuing the same type of treatment that induced the initial response. With recent therapeutic improvements, CR achievement becomes a realistic goal that, in most cases, is significantly correlated with the outcome (1. Therefore, both the nature and the impact of maintenance therapy have changed. Maintenance therapy is based currently on novel agents, and its objective is not only to control the clone but also to further decrease the tumor burden and improve the quality of response. A number of randomized studies show a benefit from maintenance therapy with novel agents (until now, mostly thalidomide, at least in terms of response rate and progression-free survival (PFS. However, there is still a debate as concerns the impact on overall survival (OS and the optimal administration of maintenance therapy.

  17. A development of maintenance educational support method by using navigation method Pt. 4. A development of a paper prototype system for the RHR pump maintenance educational support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Hirotsu, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junzo; Tsumura, Joji

    2004-01-01

    This research establishes the new maintenance educational support prototype system for aiming at organization as Trinity (a supervision person, a construction person in charge, a work person in charge, and group length), and improvement in human reliability for the purpose of aiming at before hand prevention of a systematic error, human error, and the accident and a trouble. (1) This maintenance educational support: system made educational start to the educational end the structure navigated exactly, carrying out the exchange with a data base along with the road map which divided action (act) of the work process and worker concerning RHR pump maintenance work for a participant etc. by class. (2) First, according to a participant's attribute, this educational support system performs educational support (a question and reply) concerning an organization and organization, and judges knowledge and a nature type based on the result. Furthermore, educational support (a question and reply) concerning maintenance work is performed, and a knowledge level is judged based on the result. And it considered as the structure which performs the comprehensive judgment about an organization, organization, and the educational effect concerning maintenance work at the last. (3) The judgment pattern of the knowledge and nature after the educational support end concerning a participant's organization and organization was made into four kinds which consist of (1) organization priority and duty A type, (2) organization priority and an adaptable type, (3) individual priority and an adaptable type, and (4) individual priority and a duty priority type. (4) The judgment pattern of the knowledge level after the educational support end concerning maintenance work of a participant was used as three kinds of evaluation axes, schedule management, apparatus reliability capability, and human-being reliability. (author)

  18. An approach to maintenance optimization where safety issues are important

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatn, Jorn; Aven, Terje

    2010-01-01

    The starting point for this paper is a traditional approach to maintenance optimization where an object function is used for optimizing maintenance intervals. The object function reflects maintenance cost, cost of loss of production/services, as well as safety costs, and is based on a classical cost-benefit analysis approach where a value of prevented fatality (VPF) is used to weight the importance of safety. However, the rationale for such an approach could be questioned. What is the meaning of such a VPF figure, and is it sufficient to reflect the importance of safety by calculating the expected fatality loss VPF and potential loss of lives (PLL) as being done in the cost-benefit analyses? Should the VPF be the same number for all type of accidents, or should it be increased in case of multiple fatality accidents to reflect gross accident aversion? In this paper, these issues are discussed. We conclude that we have to see beyond the expected values in situations with high safety impacts. A framework is presented which opens up for a broader decision basis, covering considerations on the potential for gross accidents, the type of uncertainties and lack of knowledge of important risk influencing factors. Decisions with a high safety impact are moved from the maintenance department to the 'Safety Board' for a broader discussion. In this way, we avoid that the object function is used in a mechanical way to optimize the maintenance and important safety-related decisions are made implicit and outside the normal arena for safety decisions, e.g. outside the traditional 'Safety Board'. A case study from the Norwegian railways is used to illustrate the discussions.

  19. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakin Elizabeth G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address issues of maintenance and broad population reach. Telephone-delivered interventions have the potential to address these gaps. Methods/Design Using a two-arm randomised controlled design, this study will evaluate an 18-month, telephone-delivered, behavioural weight loss intervention focussing on physical activity, diet and behavioural therapy, versus usual care, with follow-up at 24 months. Three-hundred adult participants, aged 20-75 years, with type 2 diabetes, will be recruited from 10 general practices via electronic medical records search. The Social-Cognitive Theory driven intervention involves a six-month intensive phase (4 weekly calls and 11 fortnightly calls and a 12-month maintenance phase (one call per month. Primary outcomes, assessed at 6, 18 and 24 months, are: weight loss, physical activity, and glycaemic control (HbA1c, with weight loss and physical activity also measured at 12 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Study recruitment began in February 2009, with final data collection expected by February 2013. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate the telephone as the primary method of delivering a behavioural weight loss intervention in type 2 diabetes. The evaluation of maintenance outcomes (6 months following the end of intervention, the use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity, and the inclusion of a cost-effectiveness analysis will advance the science of broad reach approaches to weight

  20. Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Shimada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation.

  1. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  2. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    hospitalizations could be related with the severity of the injury. This article reviews the best available epidemiological information about injuries, including incidence and risk factors. Also this article reviews information about specific types of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Information about accidents in people with epilepsy is also discussed.

  3. The potential role of phytochemicals in wholegrain cereals for the prevention of type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Diets high in wholegrains are associated with a 20-30% reduction in risk of developing type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is attributed to a variety of wholegrain components, notably dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. Most phytochemicals function as antioxidants in vitro and have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation which are implicated in the pathogenesis of T2D. In this review we compare the content and bioavailability of phytochemicals in wheat, barley, rice, rye and oat varieties and critically evaluate the evidence for wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions increasing plasma phytochemical concentrations and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in humans. Phytochemical content varies considerably within and among the major cereal varieties. Differences in genetics and agro-climatic conditions explain much of the variation. For a number of the major phytochemicals, such as phenolics and flavanoids, their content in grains may be high but because these compounds are tightly bound to the cell wall matrix, their bioavailability is often limited. Clinical trials show that postprandial plasma phenolic concentrations are increased after consumption of wholegrain wheat or wheat bran however the magnitude of the response is usually modest and transient. Whether this is sufficient to bolster antioxidant defences and translates into improved health outcomes is still uncertain. Increased phytochemical bioavailability may be achieved through bio-processing of grains but the improvements so far are small and have not yet led to changes in clinical or physiological markers associated with reduced risk of T2D. Furthermore, the effect of wholegrain cereals and cereal fractions on biomarkers of oxidative stress or strengthening antioxidant defence in healthy individuals is generally small or nonexistent, whereas biomarkers of systemic inflammation tend to be reduced in people consuming high intakes of wholegrains. Future dietary

  4. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Delay or Prevent Type 2 Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes: Walking for Exercise and Nutrition to Prevent Diabetes for You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Peacock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To develop a program to support behaviour changes for women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM and a Body Mass Index (BMI > 25 kg/m2 to delay or prevent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods. Women diagnosed with GDM in the previous 6 to 24 months and BMI > 25 kg/m2 were randomized to an intervention (I (n=16 or a control (C (n=15 group. The intervention was a pedometer program combined with nutrition coaching, with the primary outcome increased weight loss in the intervention group. Secondary outcomes included decreased waist and hip measurements, improved insulin sensitivity and body composition, increased physical activity, and improved self-efficacy in eating behaviours. Results. Median (IQR results were as follows: weight: I −2.5 (2.3 kg versus C +0.2 (1.6 kg (P=0.009, waist: I −3.6 (4.5 cm versus C −0.1 (3.6 cm (P=0.07, and hip: I −5.0 (3.3 cm versus C −0.2 (2.6 cm (P=0.002. There was clinical improvement in physical activity and eating behaviours and no significant changes in glucose metabolism or body composition. Conclusion. A pedometer program and nutrition coaching proved effective in supporting weight loss, waist circumference, physical activity, and eating behaviours in women with previous GDM.

  5. Maintenance management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, M. de

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned principally with Maintenance Management systems and their effective introduction into organisations. Maintenance improvement is basically a problem of managing the maintenance department in the broadest sense. Improvement does not only lie in the area of special techniques, systems or procedures; although they are valuable tools, but rather in a balanced attack, carefully guided by management. Over recent years, maintenance systems have received the major emphasis and in many instances the selection of the system has become a pre-occupation, whereas the importance of each maintenance function must be recognised and good management practices applied to all maintenance activities. The ingredients for success in the implementation of maintenance management systems are summarised as: having a management committee, clear objectives, project approach using project management techniques and an enthusiastic leader, user managed and data processing supported project, realistic budget and an understanding of the financial audit requirements. (author)

  6. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  7. The Influence of Stress, Gender, and Culture on Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Among Black Men: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Asani H; Hurt, Tera R; Shirley, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    This study used focus-group methodology to seek understanding about the unique influence of stress, gender, and culture on type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) prevention and management among Black men. Twenty men from Iowa were recruited from a larger longitudinal study on Black families; each of these men participated in one of three focus groups. Ninety-five percent of the men in the sample were Black and all were either diagnosed with t2dm (n = 10), were prediabetic (n = 1), or had experience with t2dm through family and friends (n = 9). Our results revealed the existence of significant stress and some pessimism with respect to perceived ability to prevent and manage t2dm. The participants made it clear that, while their families are primary sources of support for managing stress, including t2dm, they can also be a source of stress, particularly with respect to parenting. Black men had mixed opinions on their relationships with respect to their health care providers; some had positive, long-standing relationships while others reported little or no relationship with their providers. In response to life stress, Black men reported experiencing inadequate and disrupted sleep as well as consuming too much alcohol at times. Some of the participants reported engaging in physical activity to manage their stress. The study concluded that, as researchers develop t2dm prevention and management programs, they should continue to consider the unique role that stress in its various forms, plays in the lives of Black men. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effect of Oral Insulin on Prevention of Diabetes in Relatives of Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Jeffrey P; Schatz, Desmond A; Bundy, Brian; Skyler, Jay S; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2017-11-21

    Type 1 diabetes requires major lifestyle changes and carries increased morbidity and mortality. Prevention or delay of diabetes would have major clinical effect. To determine whether oral insulin delays onset of type 1 diabetes in autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes. Between March 2, 2007, and December 21, 2015, relatives with at least 2 autoantibodies, including insulin autoantibodies and normal glucose tolerance, were enrolled in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden, Finland, and Germany. The main study group (n = 389) had first-phase insulin release on an intravenous glucose tolerance test that was higher than the threshold. The 55 patients in the secondary stratum 1 had an identical antibody profile as the main study group except they had first-phase insulin release that was lower than the threshold. Secondary strata 2 (n = 114) and strata 3 (n = 3) had different autoantibody profiles and first-phase insulin release threshold combinations. Follow-up continued through December 31, 2016. Randomization to receive 7.5 mg/d of oral insulin (n = 283) or placebo (n = 277), including participants in the main study group who received oral insulin (n = 203) or placebo (n = 186). The primary outcome was time to diabetes in the main study group. Significance was based on a 1-sided threshold of .05, and 1-sided 95% CIs are reported. Of a total of 560 randomized participants (median enrollment age, 8.2 years; interquartile range [IQR], 5.7-12.1 years; 170 boys [60%]; 90.7% white non-Hispanic; 57.6% with a sibling with type 1 diabetes), 550 completed the trial including 389 participants (median age, 8.4 years; 245 boys [63%]), 382 (96%) in the main study group. During a median follow-up of 2.7 years (IQR, 1.5-4.6 years) in the main study group, diabetes was diagnosed in 58 participants (28.5%) in the oral insulin group and 62 (33%) in the placebo group. Time to diabetes

  9. Maintenance program, organization and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schegk, J.R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) operates two pressurized water reactors (PWR) with 1.200 MW and 1.300 MW and two boiling water reactors (BWR) with an electrical output of 1.300 MW each. The PWR were commissioned in 1975 and 1977 respectively and have so far achieved a cumulative availability of 72%. The BWR started operating in 1984 and 1985. Since than they have been generating with a cumulative availability of 88%. The reliability of the nuclear power stations resulted in a trouble-free operation. For the last two years, the unscheduled non-availability amounted to 3,7% and 6,5% for the PWR and the BWR respectively. These favourable operating results derive inter alia from systematic preventive maintenance and consistent outage management. Apart from the personnel structure in the power stations the functional sequence of planning, control, performance as well as evaluation of maintenance results constitute a closed cycle. In order to ensure and support an effective cooperation of the above mentioned four functional sequences of a cycle, uniform and computer-assisted information and planning aids have been introduced such as task lists, job ordering, time scheduling and materials management. As a result of this preventive maintenance system the average refueling outage period is 35 to 42 days. (orig.)

  10. Low-dose maintenance steroid treatment could reduce the relapse rate in patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis: a long-term Japanese multicenter analysis of 510 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Kenji; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Uchida, Kazushige; Shiomi, Hideyuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Kyoko; Arakura, Norikazu; Kanno, Atsushi; Sakagami, Junichi; Itoi, Takao; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ueki, Toshiharu; Nishino, Takayoshi; Inui, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Sugiyama, Masanori; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Irisawa, Atshishi; Shimosegawa, Toru; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2017-08-01

    The effect of maintenance steroid treatment (MST) in reducing the risk of relapse in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) remains under debate. The aim of this study was to validate the effect of MST on AIP administered in accordance with the 2010 Japanese consensus guidelines. The clinical data of patients with (n = 510) from 22 high-volume centers in Japan were studied. The primary endpoints were the relapse rates (RRs) in patients administered MST versus those not administered MST. The secondary endpoints were the optimal dose and duration of MST in terms of steroid toxicity and the predictors of relapse. The RRs were 10.0% within 1 year, 25.8% within 3 years and 35.1% within 5 years. The RR in the steroid therapy group reached a plateau at 42.7% at 7 years. In terms of the optimal dosage, the overall RR in the MST 5 mg/day group was 26.1%, which was significantly lower than that in the group which had discontinued steroid therapy (45.2%; p = 0.023) or was receiving MST at 2.5 mg/day (43.4%, p = 0.001). The RRs in the group receiving MST at ≥5 mg/day versus the patient group receiving MST at 5 mg/day were identified as predictors of relapse (OR 0.483; p = 0.001). The RR could continue to increase for 7 years even under MST. Based on our analysis of the side effects of steroid therapy, MST at 5 mg/day for 2 (total 4625 mg) to 3 (total 6425 mg) years might be a rational and safe therapeutic strategy in terms of keeping the RR to <30% while avoiding potential steroid toxicity.

  11. The effectiveness of three types of alternating pressure air mattresses in the prevention of pressure ulcers in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria; Clays, Els; Vanderwee, Katrien; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2013-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of multi-stage and one-stage alternating low-pressure air mattresses (ALPAM) and alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) overlays in preventing pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients, data were pooled (N = 617) from a study of patients allocated to multi-stage ALPAM (n = 252) or one-stage ALPAM (n = 264), and another study of patients allocated to APAM overlay (n = 101). Cumulative pressure ulcer incidence was 4.9% (n = 30) over 14 days. Fewer ulcers developed on multi-stage ALPAM compared with APAM overlay (OR = 0.33; 95% CI [0.11, 0.97]), but no difference was found between one-stage ALPAM and APAM overlay (OR = 0.40; 95% CI [0.14, 1.10]). Time to develop ulcers did not differ by mattress type. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE PRIMARY PREVENTION OF TYPE 2 DIABETES VIA THE AMELIORATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash C. Routen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most common endocrine disease in our society, affecting around 5% of Western populations, whilst showing a steady rise in prevalence. The complications that arise from the disease are known to cause morbidity and mortality, and are associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of variousorgans. These complications include atherosclerosis in the micro and macro vasculature, kidney dysfunction, nerve problems, hypertension; and eye problems such as retinopathy. Epidemiological evidence suggests regular physical activity improves insulin sensitivity. This review presents the case for physical activity as a tool ofprimary prevention, in the population of non-diabetics and high risk individuals (IFG & IGT, in reference to obesity related insulin resistance. Cross-sectional, prospective cohort and randomised control trials clearly show that moderate-intensity physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity; this can be improved further byundertaking vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  13. Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Collagen Type IV Mutant Mouse Models of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Identify Mechanisms for Stroke Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Marion; Jorgensen, Jeff; Gould, Douglas B

    2015-05-05

    Collagen type IV alpha1 (COL4A1) and alpha2 (COL4A2) form heterotrimers critical for vascular basement membrane stability and function. Patients with COL4A1 or COL4A2 mutations suffer from diverse cerebrovascular diseases, including cerebral microbleeds, porencephaly, and fatal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown, and there is a lack of effective treatment. Using Col4a1 and Col4a2 mutant mouse models, we investigated the genetic complexity and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease. We found that Col4a1 mutations cause abnormal vascular development, which triggers small-vessel disease, recurrent hemorrhagic strokes, and age-related macroangiopathy. We showed that allelic heterogeneity, genetic context, and environmental factors such as intense exercise or anticoagulant medication modulated disease severity and contributed to phenotypic heterogeneity. We found that intracellular accumulation of mutant collagen in vascular endothelial cells and pericytes was a key triggering factor of ICH. Finally, we showed that treatment of mutant mice with a US Food and Drug Administration-approved chemical chaperone resulted in a decreased collagen intracellular accumulation and a significant reduction in ICH severity. Our data are the first to show therapeutic prevention in vivo of ICH resulting from Col4a1 mutation and imply that a mechanism-based therapy promoting protein folding might also prevent ICH in patients with COL4A1 and COL4A2 mutations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Inhibiting 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 prevents stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and impairs contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Zhou, Ming; Yau, Joyce L W; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2014-06-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes intracellular regeneration of corticosterone and cortisol, thereby enhancing glucocorticoid action. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 reverses the deficits in cognition with aging, a state of elevated glucocorticoid levels. However, any impact of 11β-HSD1 inhibition during high glucocorticoid states in younger animals is unknown. Here we examined whether a single injection of the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor UE2316 modifies the effect of stress on hippocampal long-term potentiation and fear conditioning, a learning paradigm that is strongly modulated by glucocorticoids. We found that novelty stress suppresses hippocampal synaptic potentiation. This effect was completely prevented by administration of UE2316 one hour before stress exposure. A single injection of UE2316 also impaired contextual, but not tone-cue-fear conditioning. These observations suggest that local metabolism of glucocorticoids is relevant for the outcome of stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may be an interesting new approach to the prevention of trauma-associated psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study Protocol: The Norfolk Diabetes Prevention Study [NDPS]: a 46 month multi - centre, randomised, controlled parallel group trial of a lifestyle intervention [with or without additional support from lay lifestyle mentors with Type 2 diabetes] to prevent transition to Type 2 diabetes in high risk groups with non - diabetic hyperglycaemia, or impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Melanie; Murray, Nikki; Bachmann, Max; Barton, Garry; Clark, Allan; Howe, Amanda; Greaves, Colin; Sampson, Mike

    2017-01-06

    This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]. Those with an elevated fasting plasma glucose [impaired fasting glucose or IFG] with or without an elevated HbA1c [non -diabetic hyperglycaemia; NDH] are randomised into three treatment arms: a control arm receiving no trial intervention, an arm receiving an intensive bespoke group-based diet and physical activity intervention, and an arm receiving the same intervention with enhanced support from people with T2DM trained as diabetes prevention mentors [DPM]. The primary end point is cumulative transition rates to T2DM between the two intervention groups, and between each intervention group and the control group at 46 months. Participants with screen detected T2DM are randomized into an equivalent prospective controlled trial with the same intervention and control arms with glycaemic control [HbA1c] at 46 months as the primary end point. Participants with NDH and a normal fasting plasma glucose are randomised into an equivalent prospective controlled intervention trial with follow up for 40 months. The intervention comprises six education sessions for the first 12 weeks and then up to 15 maintenance sessions until intervention end, all delivered in groups, with additional support from a DPM in one treatment arm. The NDPS programme reports in 2018 and will provide trial outcome data for a group delivered

  16. Correction of GSK3β at young age prevents muscle pathology in mice with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Christina; Stock, Lauren; Valanejad, Leila; Zalewski, Zachary A; Karns, Rebekah; Puymirat, Jack; Nelson, David; Witte, David; Woodgett, Jim; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Timchenko, Lubov

    2018-01-05

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a progressive neuromuscular disease caused by expanded CUG repeats, which misregulate RNA metabolism through several RNA-binding proteins, including CUG-binding protein/CUGBP1 elav-like factor 1 (CUGBP1/CELF1) and muscleblind 1 protein. Mutant CUG repeats elevate CUGBP1 and alter CUGBP1 activity via a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-cyclin D3-cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) signaling pathway. Inhibition of GSK3β corrects abnormal activity of CUGBP1 in DM1 mice [human skeletal actin mRNA, containing long repeats ( HSA LR ) model]. Here, we show that the inhibition of GSK3β in young HSA LR mice prevents development of DM1 muscle pathology. Skeletal muscle in 1-yr-old HSA LR mice, treated at 1.5 mo for 6 wk with the inhibitors of GSK3, exhibits high fiber density, corrected atrophy, normal fiber size, with reduced central nuclei and normalized grip strength. Because CUG-GSK3β-cyclin D3-CDK4 converts the active form of CUGBP1 into a form of translational repressor, we examined the contribution of CUGBP1 in myogenesis using Celf1 knockout mice. We found that a loss of CUGBP1 disrupts myogenesis, affecting genes that regulate differentiation and the extracellular matrix. Proteins of those pathways are also misregulated in young HSA LR mice and in muscle biopsies of patients with congenital DM1. These findings suggest that the correction of GSK3β-CUGBP1 pathway in young HSA LR mice might have a positive effect on the myogenesis over time.-Wei, C., Stock, L., Valanejad, L., Zalewski, Z. A., Karns, R., Puymirat, J., Nelson, D., Witte, D., Woodgett, J., Timchenko, N. A., Timchenko, L. Correction of GSK3β at young age prevents muscle pathology in mice with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  17. Condition based maintenance pilot projects at Pickering ND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemdegs, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has recognized that the approaches to maintenance have undergone significant changes to the past decades. The traditional break down maintenance approach has been replaced by preventative maintenance and more recently, by condition based maintenance. The nuclear plants of Ontario Hydro have evaluated on a number of alternative programs to improve their maintenance effectiveness and to reduce costs, including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM), call-up review, component-based PM programs, analysis of failure history and so on. Pickering ND (nuclear division) and Ontario Hydro's Nuclear Technologies Services Division, have embarked on a Condition Based Maintenance pilot project to address the above issues as a breakthrough solution for smarter maintenance. The Condition Based Maintenance pilot project will demonstrate an end-to-end process utilizing a Reliability Centred Maintenance structured approach to re-engineer and redefine the existing maintenance programs. The project emphasizes on-condition maintenance where justified, and utilizes an information management tool to provide the required records keeping and analysis infrastructure. This paper briefly describes the planned maintenance model at Pickering ND used to guide the CBM pilot, and an overview of the methodology used to develop on-condition equipment indicators as part of a re-engineered maintenance plan

  18. Analysis of the possibility of applying a condition-based maintenance model on an example of tank weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor J. Epler

    2013-12-01

    the safety degree on the observed sections. Comparing the actual level of safety with the projected level, we can decide on the action of maintenance to be implemented in order to prevent failure. The data from Table 1 and the methodology for the selection of maintenance strategies (Figure 1, in the case of a weakened or damaged magnets for electric firing on the tank 7.62 mm machine gun indicate the possibilities of the condition-based maintenance model with the control of reliability levels. Conclusion The introduction of the condition-based maintenance model would minimize overall costs because the “reliability reserve” of components or representative tank weapons would be used to the maximum. On the other hand, the current maintenance system of tank weapons would experience some changes. The intensity of preventive maintenance actions could be reduced and particular maintenance levels might be omitted  as well as specific types of maintenance (easy maintenance, medium maintenance

  19. Maintenance for the Millennium: Another Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculthorpe, Barruy R.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear units nationwide are struggling to increase plant reliability and availability while at the same time reduce their operating and maintenance costs. Some very costly investments have been made in programs such as Reliability Centered Maintenance [RCM]. Florida Power and Light's approach at the St. Lucie Nuclear Plant has taken a slightly different approach. Building on our knowledge of the RCM process and an already existing 'World Class' Predictive Maintenance Program, a 'Condition-Based' Maintenance Program that takes advantage of the RCM philosophy and our toolbox full of advanced and highly successful predictive maintenance technologies. These tools currently consist of vibration analysis, lubricant analysis (both physical property and wear metals analysis, thermographic analysis, motor current signature analysis, tribology and process parameter trending. All employed with the intent to evaluate a machines health. This machine health check allows the forecasting of future preventative maintenance [PM's] tasks and the revision of existing PM's to maximize machine performance and eliminate 'no-value-added' maintenance activities/costs. Within the last year, the Condition-Based Maintenance Program has produced a cost saving of approximately $1.5 million dollars. As the program matures, these cost savings will accumulate well into the millennium. (authors)

  20. Vitamins D, C, and E in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Garcia-Bailo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy2, Pierre S Haddad3, Paul Arora1,4, Firas BenZaied5, Mohamed Karmali1,2,4, Alaa Badawi11Office for Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Natural Health Products and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal and Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide, and certain population subgroups are especially vulnerable to the disease. To reduce T2DM risk and progression at the population level, preventative strategies are needed that can be implemented on a population-wide scale with minimal cost and effort. Chronic low-grade inflammation resulting from oxidative stress and imbalances in the innate immune system has been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance – critical stages in the development and progression of T2DM. Therefore, inflammation may play a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reducing it via modulation of oxidative stress and the innate immune response could lead to a status of improved insulin sensitivity and delayed disease onset. Dietary supplementation with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutritional factors, such as micronutrients, might present a novel strategy toward the prevention and control of T2DM at the population level. This review examines current knowledge linking oxidation, inflammatory signaling pathways, and vitamin supplementation or intake to the risk of T2DM. The concept that micronutrients, via attenuation of inflammation, could be employed as a novel preventive measure for T2DM is evaluated in the context of its

  1. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  2. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  3. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hayashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

  4. CFD investigations of natural circulation between the RPV and the cooling pond of VVER-440 type reactors in incidental conditions during maintenance performed with the code CFX-4.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legradi, G.; Aszodi, A.

    2002-01-01

    During the annual maintenance of the VVER-440 type reactors, the RPV, the cooling pond and the transfer pond form a connected flow domain. The reactor is cooled by the natural circulation, which develops in one or two main loops. The cooling pond has its own cooling loops. CFD calculations have been performed with the CFX-4.3 code to investigate whether it is possible to cool the reactor core in case the main loops are lost and other emergency systems are not available. The results point out that the cooling system of the cooling pond is not capable of cooling the reactor core with the present connection. Therefore, modifications of the cooling system are investigated which would make it suitable for removing the remanent heat from the core.(author)

  5. Intensive Individualized Reinforcement Education Is Important for the Prevention of Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Mi Yong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated whether an intensive individualized reinforcement education program could influence the prevention of hypoglycemic events in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsFrom March 2013 to September 2013, patients aged 35 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes who had not previously participated in diabetes education, and treated with insulin or a sulfonylurea-containing regimen were included in the study. After structured group education, the patients assigned to the intensive individualized education group (IT were requested to visit for reinforcement. All subjects in the IT were encouraged to self-manage dose adjustments. Participants in both groups (control group [CG, group education only; n=22] and IT [n=24] attended follow-up visits at 2, 8, 12, and 24 weeks. At each visit, all patients were asked whether they had experienced hypoglycemia.ResultsThe total study population consisted of 20 men (43.5%; mean age and diabetic duration of 55.9±11.0 and 5.1±7.3 years, respectively. At 24 weeks, there were no significant differences in hemoglobin A1c values between the CG and IT. The total number of hypoglycemic events per patient was 5.26±6.5 in the CG and 2.58±2.3 times in the IT (P=0.004. Adherence to lifestyle modification including frequency of exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, or dietary habit was not significantly different between the groups. However, adherence to hypoglycemia management, especially the dose adjustment of medication, was significantly higher in the IT compared with the CG.ConclusionCompared with the structured group education, additional IT resulted in additional benefits in terms of avoidance of hypoglycemia and treating hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. A novel arctigenin-containing latex glove prevents latex allergy by inhibiting type I/IV allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Xue, Dan-Ting; Liu, Meng; Zhou, Zheng-Min; Shang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at developing a natural compound with anti-allergic effect and stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions and investigating whether its anti-allergic effect is maintained after its addition into the latex. The effects of nine natural compounds on growth of the RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were determined using MTT assay. The compounds included glycyrrhizin, osthole, tetrandrine, tea polyphenol, catechin, arctigenin, oleanolic acid, baicalin and oxymatrine. An ELISA assay was used for the in vitro anti-type I/IV allergy screening; in this process β-hexosaminidase, histamine, and IL-4 released from RBL-2H3 cell lines and IFN-γ and IL-2 released from mouse primary spleen lymphocytes were taken as screening indices. The physical stability of eight natural compounds and the dissolubility of arctigenin, selected based on the in vitro pharnacodynamaic screening and the stability evaluation, were detected by HPLC. The in vivo pharmacodynamic confirmation of arctigenin and final latex product was evaluated with a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) model and an allergen-specific skin response model. Nine natural compounds showed minor growth inhibition on RBL-2H3 cells and mouse primary spleen lymphocytes. Baicalin and arctigenin had the best anti-type I and IV allergic effects among the natural compounds based on the in vitro pharmacodynamic screening. Arctigenin and catechin had the best physical stability under different manufacturing conditions. Arctigenin was the selected for further evaluation and proven to have anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. The final product of the arctigenin-containing latex glove had anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vivo which were mainly attributed to arctigenin as proved from the dissolubility results. Arctigenin showed anti-type I and IV allergic effects in vitro and in vivo, with a good stability under latex glove manufacturing conditions

  7. Reliability-Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-29

    C. Mentzer, who directed khe pioneering studies of maintenance policy at United Airlines, and to the Federal Aviation Administration for creating...ANALYSIS 425 D-3 INFORMATION SCIENCi AND DECISION ANALYSIS 427 D-4 MAINTENANCE THEORY AND PHILOSOPHY 430 D-5 MAINTENANCE APPLUCATIONS 436 D-6 A GUIDE...occupants N Operational consequences, which involve an indirect economic loss as well as the direct cost of repair l Nonoperational consequences, which

  8. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  9. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  10. Interactive videodisc in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Nguyen Van Nghi, B.

    1986-01-01

    After a recall of the videodisc characteristics, this paper presents its utilization by Electricite de France in the framework of training and maintenance. The SICMA (Interactive Communication System in Maintenance) developed and tested by Electricte de France is presented as also its utilization. It has been tested on the sites of Dampierre and Paluel in the cases of training and maintenance (deconnexion of drive rods of control elements); the conclusions of this experimentation are finally given. 4 refs [fr

  11. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K.

    1998-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation include: (1) an analysis model and methods to evaluate maintenance action programs and the support decision to make changes in them and (2) to understand the maintenance strategies in a systems perspective as a basis for future developments. The subproject showed how systematic models for maintenance analysis and decision support, utilising computerised and statistical tool packages, can be taken into use for evaluation and optimisation of maintenance of active systems from the safety and economic point of view

  13. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  14. Industrial Maintenance Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial plants have become more complex due to technological advancement. This has made the task of maintenance more difficult. The maintenance costs in terms of resources and downtime loss are so high that maintenance function has become a critical factor in a plant's profitability. Industry should devote as much forethought to the management of maintenance function as to production. Maintenance has grown from an art to a precise, technical engineering science. Planning, organizing scheduling and control of maintenance using modern techniques pays dividends in the form of reduced costs and increased reliability. The magnitude and the dimension of maintenance have multiplied due to development in the engineering technologies. Production cost and capacities are directly affected by the breakdown time. Total operating cost including the maintenance cost plays an important role in replacement dimension. The integrated system approach would bring forth the desired results of high maintenance standards. The standards once achieved and sustained, would add to the reliability of the plan and relieve heavy stresses and strains on the engineering logistic support. (author)

  15. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  16. Preventing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Illnesses Through Ergonomics: The Air Force PREMIER Program, Volume 4B: Research Report For Level I Ergonomics Methodology Guide For Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barker, Richard

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot test to assess the reliability, sensitivity, validity, and practicality of the Level I Ergonomics Assessment Methodology Guide for Maintenance/Inspection Work Areas...

  17. A scoping review of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes: implications for prevention, treatment, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Evelyn; Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelius; Van Hout, Marie Claire; McVeigh, Jim

    2016-04-19

    Several home-produced substances such as krokodil and boltushka are prevalent in many Eastern European countries. Anecdotal reports of its use have been circulating in Germany and Norway; however, this has not been confirmed. Its use has also been reported by the media in the USA, although only one confirmed report of its use exists. Home-produced drugs are associated with high levels of morbidity and a number of complex health issues such as the spread of blood borne viruses, gangrene, and internal organ damage. The high incidence of HIV rates amongst people who inject home-produced substances is a public health concern. The resulting physical health consequences of injecting these crude substances are very severe in comparison to heroin or amphetamine acquired in black markets. Due to this fact and the increased mortality associated with these substances, professionals in the area of prevention, treatment, and policy development need to be cognisant of the presentation, harms, and the dangers associated with home-produced substances globally. This scoping review aimed to examine existing literature on the subject of home-produced heroin and amphetamine-type stimulant substitutes. The review discussed the many implications such research may have in the areas of policy and practice. Data were gathered through the use of qualitative secondary resources such as journal articles, reports, reviews, case studies, and media reports. The home production of these substances relies on the utilisation of precursor drugs such as less potent stimulants, tranquillizers, analgesics, and sedatives or natural plant ingredients. The Internet underpins the facilitation of this practice as recipes, and diverted pharmaceutical sales are available widely online, and currently, ease of access to the Internet is evident worldwide. This review highlights the necessity of prevention, education, and also harm reduction related to home-produced drugs and also recommends consistent monitoring

  18. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  19. Systematization of Angra-1 operation attendance - Maintenance and periodic testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furieri, E.B.; Carvalho Bruno, N. de; Salaverry, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    A maintenance analysis, their types and their functions for the safety of nuclear power plants is done. Programs and present trends in the reactor maintenance, as well as the maintenance program and periodic tests of Angra I, are analysed. The necessities of safety analysis and a systematization for maintenance attendance are discussed and the periodic testing as well as the attendance of international experience. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Adeyemi

    Full Text Available Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM. Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05 and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05 exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05, but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05. UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001, whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  1. Application and issues of online maintenance for equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higasa, Hisakazu

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance systems for long-term safety and repair costs reduction of equipment of nuclear power plants are stated. Planned maintenance contained the breakdown maintenance (BM) and the preventive maintenance, which consists of the time based maintenance (MBM) and the condition based maintenance (CBM). Explained are the characteristics of equipments, maintenance methods, maintenance solutions and the self-evaluation maintenance power, damage mechanism and solutions, and monitoring tools and application. Stated are the maintenance system and application of monitoring technology, periodical maintenance, application of diagnosis, vibration monitoring techniques, decision of vibration monitoring, and application of monitoring techniques for improvement of maintenance. Illustrated are realization of planned maintenance by reorganization of maintenance, a trend of maintenance of equipments, table of classified maintenance systems, change of maintenance program, maintenance data and investigation of damage mechanism, examples of self-evaluation maintenance power, examples of analysis of damage of parts of equipments, evaluation of rotating machines by vibration method, examples of results of diagnosis of bearing of rotating machines, online maintenance system of Asahi Kasei Engineering Corporation, degradation pattern of pomp, estimation of lifetime by total vibration and vibration on acceleration, and improvement of equipments. (S.Y.)

  2. Ageing nuclear plants inspection, maintenance and performance monitoring eased by Data Validation and Reconciliation (DVR) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, A. Tran; Chares, R.

    2012-01-01

    With the long term operation of nuclear power plants, decisions to replace or repair should be optimized from an economical, human resource and safety point of view. In that frame, the operation requires a continuous inspection and testing of systems in order to detect degradations and failures at an early stage. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that such assiduous vigilance ensures safety, it is not optimized in terms of man power and maintenance costs. Preventive strategies show the same types of drawbacks. On top of that, these maintenance procedures rely on process measurements which accuracy, availability and reliability cannot always be ensured. The present paper introduces a new approach to the maintenance management of ageing installations and suggests a method that overcomes the actual drawbacks. The Reconciliation and Validation of data (DVR) is an advanced and innovative technology that relies on process data statistics, thermodynamic and on-site process knowledge. Benefits of real-time applications are also presented. (author)

  3. Perspectives of UK Pakistani women on their behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes: qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The ‘New life, New you’ (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. Objectives To investigate Pakistani female participants’ perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. Setting A community-based 8-w...

  4. Self-reported facilitators of, and impediments to maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviours following a supervised research-based lifestyle intervention programme in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, T P; Mohr, P; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Brinkworth, G D

    2012-05-01

    Sustainability of healthy lifestyle behaviours following participation in a research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme is often poor. This study aimed to document factors reported by overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes as enhancing or impeding sustainability of lifestyle behaviours following participation in such a programme. Thirty patients who completed a 16-week research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme, incorporating a structured energy restricted diet with or without supervised resistance-exercise training underwent a semi-structured qualitative interview about their experiences in maintaining programme components after 1 year. Participants maintained 8.8 ± 8.9 kg of the 13.9 ± 6.6 kg weight loss achieved with the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme. Only 23% of participants indicated continuation of the complete diet programme. Desire for 'variety' (33%) and increased portion size (27%) were the most commonly reported reasons for discontinuation. Participants who undertook supervised exercise training during the programme indicated access to appropriate programmes/facilities (38%), more affordable gym membership (21%) and having a personal trainer/motivator (17%) would have facilitated exercise continuation. In overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes, success of the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme was perceived as being primarily due to high levels of professional support and supervision, the discontinuation of which subsequently presented difficulties. The interview data provide insight into what people experience following the completion of a research-based intensive lifestyle intervention programme and suggest that programmes assembled for research purposes with the emphasis on compliance may not necessarily promote sustainable change. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  5. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.; Bjorkelo, K.

    1992-01-01

    For a variety of economic and technical reasons, there has been a growing concern with the aging of complex systems and components and the role that maintenance can play in reducing this degradation. A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence that their maintenance programs have on their ability to address the systems and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. The four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management program were identified. These are: the selection of critical systems and components; the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations. In examining how the four organizations have structured their maintenance programs to include these key elements provides valuable lessons not only for the nuclear power industry, but also for any industrial organization that is concerned with the management of system and component aging degradation. This document provides detail, of these studies

  6. Effective maintenance practices to manage system aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockie, A.; Bjorkelo, K.

    1992-01-01

    For a variety of economic and technical reasons, there has been a growing concern with the aging of complex systems and components and the role that maintenance can play in reducing this degradation. A study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was recently undertaken to identify effective maintenance practices that could be adapted by the nuclear industry in the United States to assist in managing the aging degradation of plant systems and components. Four organizations were examined to assess the influence that their maintenance programs have on their ability to address the systems and component aging degradation issues. An effective maintenance program was found to be essential to the management of system and component aging. The four key elements of an effective maintenance program that are important to an aging management program were identified. These are: the selection of critical systems and components; the development of an understanding of aging through the collection and analysis of equipment performance information; the development of appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance tasks to manage equipment and system aging degradation; the use of feedback mechanisms to continuously improve the management of aging systems and components. These elements were found to be common to all four organizations. In examining how the four organizations have structured their maintenance programs to include these key elements provides valuable lessons not only for the nuclear power industry, but also for any industrial organization that is concerned with the management of system and component aging degradation. This document provides detail, of these studies.

  7. A VITAL service for predictive MOV maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Motor-operated valve (MOV) maintenance can be a major contributor to unplanned plant downtime, either because valve malfunctions cause unscheduled outages, or because unnecessary valve maintenance lengthens scheduled outages. The cause of both situations is a preventive approach to valve maintenance, where maintenance is scheduled according to a timetable instead of according to a demonstrated need. To move towards a predictive maintenance approach, inexpensive methods of collecting and diagnosing real-time data on the conditions of a valve must be made available. Such a system must be capable of detecting and diagnosing degrading mechanical and electrical behaviour at an early stage, as well as being able to predict the time of failure. Without this data, a predictive approach to maintenance is impossible. Westinghouse is addressing the requirements for a predictive approach to MOV maintenance with the introduction of a third-generation of diagnostic systems for motor-operated valves -the portable Valve Intelligent Test and Analysis System (VITALS) and the on-line Valve Monitoring System (VMS). (author)

  8. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, A.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a `real time` environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs.

  9. Operations and maintenance plans for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.L.; Fedor, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is constructing a Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) scheduled to begin operation for fusion research experiments in late 1981, first with hydrogen and deuterium plasmas and later, in the second phase, using tritium for high power fusion studies. This latter mode will introduce considerable complexity to operation and maintenance of the TFTR in terms of meeting requirements for tritium handling, adequate radiation shielding, and corrective and preventive maintenance procedures. In this paper we discuss plans for the installation and preoperational testing of the major subsystems of TFTR, proposed start-up and operating scenarios for the device and the system of operational control. In addition, the TFTR Maintenance Plan and related procedures for specific major maintenance tasks are described, including the use of remote handling equipment and remote manipulators. Each of these topics is addressed in terms of the current status of planning and development

  10. Performance measures for world class maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    A main problem in maintenance in general, and in power plants and related equipment in particular, is the lack of a practical, consistent, and adaptive performance measure that provides a focused feedback and integrates preventive and corrective modes of maintenance. The presentation defines concepts of world class and benchmarking. Desirable features in an appropriate performance measure are identified. It then, demonstrates current practices in maintenance and criticises their shortcomings. An alternative model is presented through a case study. The model monitors performance from a general view, and then offers a focused analysis. The main conclusion is that the proposed model offers an adaptive and a dynamic framework, and hence production and maintenance are integrated in a 'real time' environment. The system is also flexible in working with any other criteria whether they are of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. (orig.) 16 refs

  11. Probabilistic analysis of free ways for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres V, A.; Rivero O, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The safety during the maintenance interventions is treated in limited manner and in general independent of the systems of management of the maintenance. This variable is affected by multiple technical or human factors many times subjective and difficult to quantifying, what limits the design of preventive plans. However, some factors constitute common points: the isolation configurations during the free ways (bank drafts in the oil industry) and the human errors associated to their violation. This characteristic allowed to develop the analysis of such situations through the methodology of fault trees that it links faults of teams and human errors cohesively. The methodology has been automated inside the MOSEG Win Ver 1.0 code and the same one can embrace from the analysis of a particular situation of free way until that of a complete strategy of maintenance from the point of view of the safety of the maintenance personal. (Author)

  12. Automating Contextualized Maintenance Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, H.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky; Borsato, M.; Wognum, N.; Peruzzini, M.; Stjepandić, J.; Verhagen, W.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, task support information in aircraft maintenance is mostly provided using paper-based solutions, which are burdensome, slow and prone to error. Aircraft maintenance documentation contains vast amounts of information irrelevant for the task at hand and even for the simplest tasks multiple

  13. Maintenance optimization with AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostroun, Frank; Herzing, Karl-Heinz; Buschart, Rufus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Driven by the economic expectations of an energy market that becomes increasingly unregulated, the optimization of the maintenance in a nuclear power plant is a more demand practice. This paper describes on three exemplary product lines of AREVA, how AREVA can support its customers optimizing its maintenance.

  14. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  15. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment

  16. Systematic analysis of maintenance strategies of technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Stroemberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies of technical systems in operating power plants. In the Experience Based Reliability Centred Maintenance (EBRCM) approach, the analyses of the history of occurred faults and the preventive maintenance program are combined. Changes in the maintenance programs are proposed for reduction of faults or increasing the cost-efficiency of maintenance. The justification of changes is based on simple maintenance indicators and study of the underlying failure and maintenance data. To make the analysis resource-efficient and generate easily the maintenance indicators, suitable data analysis and warehouse tools are used. They facilitate the online access and treatment of the work orders and other planning information in plant information systems. In order to direct the analysis to the important items from maintenance point of view, the equipment of the plant are classified based on their importance for reaching the maintenance objectives such as plant safety, plant availability and worker protection. Maintenance optimisation is directed to those important equipment which exhibit a high number of failures. The other equipment of less maintenance importance, but which exhibit high preventive maintenance costs and low numbers of failures are also analysed to improve the cost-effectiveness of maintenance. After experiences from performing two case studies, both on a standby safety system and a continuously operating process system, Barsebdck Kraft AB adopted the experience based RCM approach as standard method for evaluation of the maintenance action programs and planning of modifications in them. The strength is the applicability and continuity of this method, i.e. each year again. (orig.)

  17. Handy help for maintenance workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-cost, color-coded job cards packed with technical reference information and geared to specific types of maintenance and troubleshooting efficiency in nuclear as well as other types of power plants. Developed in conjunction with EPRI's counterpart in Japan, job card sets have been pilot-tested at two operating U.S. nuclear plants and are also being evaluated by Japanese utilities. In addition to their potential for utility customization, job cards could become a new line of EPRI information product that is used directly by the people who inspect and repair equipment in utility power plants

  18. Oncogenic HPV Types Infection in Adolescents and University Women from North Portugal: From Self-Sampling to Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jani; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Cerqueira, Fátima; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Baldaque, Ines; Osório, Teresa; Medeiros, Rui

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR = 3.56; P = 0.001), the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR = 4.50; P < 0.001), and years of sexual activity (OR = 2.36; P = 0.008) as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2–5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations. PMID:22174713

  19. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Agonist Attenuates Acute Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema by Preventing Neutrophil Migration after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhao, Diana; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether JWH133, a selective cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonist, prevented neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by attenuating inflammation. Adult male rats were assigned to six groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) treatment 1 h after surgery, and SAH with JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) at 1 h with a selective CB2R antagonist, SR144528 (3.0 mg/kg). The perforation model of SAH was performed and pulmonary wet-to-dry weight ratio was evaluated 24 and 72 h after surgery. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry were evaluated 24 h after surgery. JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) significantly and most strongly improved lung edema 24 h after SAH. SR144528 administration significantly reversed the effects of JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg). SAH-induced increasing levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreasing levels of a tight junction (TJ) protein, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A, were ameliorated by JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) administration 24 h after SAH. Immunohistochemical assessment also confirmed substantial leukocyte infiltration in the outside of vessels in SAH, which were attenuated by JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) injection. CB2R agonist ameliorated lung permeability by inhibiting leukocyte trafficking and protecting tight junction proteins in the lung of NPE after SAH.

  20. Oncogenic HPV Types Infection in Adolescents and University Women from North Portugal: From Self-Sampling to Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR=3.56; P=0.001, the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR=4.50; P<0.001, and years of sexual activity (OR=2.36; P=0.008 as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2–5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations.