WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive maintenance action

  1. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  2. Optimizing preventive maintenance with maintenance templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, I.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rising operating costs has caused maintenance professionals to rethink their strategy for preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Maintenance Templates are pre-engineered PM task recommendations for a component type based on application of the component. Development of the maintenance template considers the dominant failure cause of the component and the type of preventive maintenance that can predict or prevent the failure from occurring. Maintenance template development also attempts to replace fixed frequency tasks with condition monitoring tasks such as vibration analysis or thermography. For those components that have fixed frequency PM intervals, consideration is given to the maintenance drivers such as criticality, environment and usage. This helps to maximize the PM frequency intervals and maximize the component availability. Maintenance Templates have been used at PECO Energy's Limerick Generating Station during the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process to optimize their PM program. This paper describes the development and uses of the maintenance templates

  3. Preventive maintenance and reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the recent past, the primary function of the preventive maintenance program at a nuclear power plant was to maintain the operability and reliability of the plant. Reducing overall maintenance costs by performing effective preventive maintenance, instead of more costly and disruptive corrective maintenance, instead of more costly and disruptive corrective maintenance, was a secondary consideration. In today's operating environment, the preventive maintenance program must meet the test of cost-effectiveness as well as many new standards for performance that are being required by rate regulators. The preventive maintenance program must be able to withstand the challenge of independent audit to a new standard of technical adequacy and compliance with recommendations from component vendors. In this new environment, the standard that is being applied at the San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) is that the preventive maintenance program must meet the test of cost-effectiveness, improve equipment performance, support increased plant availability, and (a) literally implement the recommendations of the vendor, (b) provide other compensation for the vendor recommendation, or (c) provide technical justification for the deviation. The subject of this paper is the way that reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is helping SONGS meet these challenges

  4. Optimizing preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCola, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional approach to preventive maintenance (PM) is based on adherence to manufacturers's requirements and recommended frequencies. When equipment fails, either new procedures are established or the frequency is increased. This leads to an increase in the number of PM activities, overloading not only maintenance resources, but support as well. There is no correlation between more PM and an increase in equipment reliability. More PM may actually induce failures. Reliability-centered maintenance, a new concept in utility maintenance, is based on identifying system/subsystem functions, failures, and dominant failure modes to develop or revise PM tasks. The activities described in this paper are based on actual implementation of this concept on an ongoing project to upgrade the PM program at one of the largest electric utilities in the country. Optimum PM activities are those that, when implemented, will minimize factors that c cause equipment to fail. One technique described illustrates how equipment performance, failure modes, and causes can be related to minimize the occurrence of failures. Operating history and service life of a component are key factors in determining the most effective PM activities, provided that the factors are related to failure modes and causes

  5. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  6. A preventive maintenance lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapaykina, S A; Ol' kov, P L; Pertsev, A N; Rodzevillo, I T; Rogacheva, O I; Zinov' yev, A P

    1980-02-15

    A method is disclosed to lower the adherence of materials by reducing the viscosity of a preventive maintenance lubricant against adhesion of moist, freeflowing materials, containing extract of selective cleaning of oil fractions and asphalt. Gas oil of catalytic cracking is added having a boiling point of 190-300 degrees, with the following ratio of components (%): selective cleaning extract, 43-50; asphalt, 14-16; and gas oil of catalytic cracking, the remainder, Treating a surface with the proposed lubricant lowers the specific resistance to shift of rock compared with the prototype (g/cm/sup 2/): sand (moisture content, 18%) from 3.82 to 1.55; and clay (moisture content 16%), from 5.41 to 3.51.

  7. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  8. A proactive condition-based maintenance strategy with both perfect and imperfect maintenance actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Phuc; Voisin, Alexandre; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a proactive condition-based maintenance (CBM) considering both perfect and imperfect maintenance actions for a deteriorating system. Perfect maintenance actions restore completely the system to the ‘as good as new’ state. Their related cost are however often high. The first objective of the paper is to investigate the impacts of imperfect maintenance actions. In fact, both positive and negative impacts are considered. Positive impact means that the imperfect maintenance cost is usually low. Negative impact implies that (i) the imperfect maintenance restores a system to a state between good-as-new and bad-as-old and (ii) each imperfect preventive action may accelerate the speed of the system's deterioration process. The second objective of the paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance policy which can help to select optimally maintenance actions (perfect or imperfect actions), if needed, at each inspection time. Moreover, the time interval between two successive inspection points is determined according to a remaining useful life (RUL) based-inspection policy. To illustrate the use of the proposed maintenance policy, a numerical example finally is introduced. - Highlights: • A new imperfect maintenance model for deterioration system is proposed. • Both positive and negative impacts of an imperfect maintenance action are investigated. • An adaptive condition-based maintenance policy is introduced. • The optimal number of useful imperfect maintenance actions for each life cycle is optimally provided

  9. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  10. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers. Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier. Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles. Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  11. Optimal interval for major maintenance actions in electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louit, Darko; Pascual, Rodrigo [Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna MacKenna, 4860 Santiago (Chile); Banjevic, Dragan [Centre for Maintenance Optimization and Reliability Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Rd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Many systems require the periodic undertaking of major (preventive) maintenance actions (MMAs) such as overhauls in mechanical equipment, reconditioning of train lines, resurfacing of roads, etc. In the long term, these actions contribute to achieving a lower rate of occurrence of failures, though in many cases they increase the intensity of the failure process shortly after performed, resulting in a non-monotonic trend for failure intensity. Also, in the special case of distributed assets such as communications and energy networks, pipelines, etc., it is likely that the maintenance action takes place sequentially over an extended period of time, implying that different sections of the network underwent the MMAs at different periods. This forces the development of a model based on a relative time scale (i.e. time since last major maintenance event) and the combination of data from different sections of a grid, under a normalization scheme. Additionally, extended maintenance times and sequential execution of the MMAs make it difficult to identify failures occurring before and after the preventive maintenance action. This results in the loss of important information for the characterization of the failure process. A simple model is introduced to determine the optimal MMA interval considering such restrictions. Furthermore, a case study illustrates the optimal tree trimming interval around an electricity distribution network. (author)

  12. Periodic imperfect preventive maintenance with two categories of competing failure modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zequeira, R.I. [ISTIT FRE CNRS 2732-Equipe LM2S, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)]. E-mail: romulo.zequeira@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [ISTIT FRE CNRS 2732-Equipe LM2S, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France)]. E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr

    2006-04-15

    A maintenance policy is studied for a system with two types of failure modes: maintainable and non-maintainable. The quality of maintenance actions is modelled by its effect on the system failure rate. Preventive maintenance actions restore the system to a condition between as good as new and as bad as immediately before the maintenance action. The model presented permits to study the equipment condition improvement (improvement factor) as a function of the time of the preventive maintenance action. The determination of the maintenance policy, which minimizes the cost rate for an infinite time span, is examined. Conditions are given under which a unique optimal policy exists.

  13. Periodic imperfect preventive maintenance with two categories of competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zequeira, R.I.; Berenguer, C.

    2006-01-01

    A maintenance policy is studied for a system with two types of failure modes: maintainable and non-maintainable. The quality of maintenance actions is modelled by its effect on the system failure rate. Preventive maintenance actions restore the system to a condition between as good as new and as bad as immediately before the maintenance action. The model presented permits to study the equipment condition improvement (improvement factor) as a function of the time of the preventive maintenance action. The determination of the maintenance policy, which minimizes the cost rate for an infinite time span, is examined. Conditions are given under which a unique optimal policy exists

  14. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  15. Complete guide to preventive and predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This book shares the best practices, mistakes, victories, and essential steps for success which the author has gleaned from working with countless organizations. Unlike other books that only focus on the engineering issues (task lists) or management issues (CMMS), this in-depth resource is the first to give true emphasize to the four aspects of success in preventive maintenance systems - engineering, management, economic, and psychological - thereby enabling readers to have a balanced view and understanding of what is happening in their organizations. Additionally, it blends concrete actionable steps and structures with the theory behind the steps. It includes check sheets, history of PM, stories, photographs, and case histories. It contains a glossary of terms. It provides sample task lists for a variety of equipment with some of the logic behind each task. It offers templates for developing your own tasking. It includes protocols for detailed economic analysis with examples.

  16. Assessing maintenance contracts when preventive maintenance is outsourced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2012-01-01

    In some companies, corrective maintenance is conducted in-house but preventive maintenance might be outsourced. This raises a need to optimise some parameters such as the number of contracts from a perspective of the equipment owner. This paper considers a maintenance policy for such a situation, analyses the roles of the parameters in a PM model, proposes approaches to defining bonus functions, and finally discusses special cases of both the PM policy and the bonus function. Numerical examples are also given to explore the impact of parameters on the expected lifecycle cost rate.

  17. Strategy and Management Guideline on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...

  18. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  19. design of preventive maintenance scheduling model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    connected in parallel, Rj(ti) is the reliability of the jth unit at ith time interval, n is the to- tal number of systems (components or units) connected in parallel. Equations (3) and (4) enable us to deter- mine the reliability of all components, units or sub-systems in an industry. 5. System Reliability with Preventive. Maintenance. Fig.

  20. Preventive maintenance for computer systems - concepts & issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performing preventive maintenance activities for the computer is not optional. The computer is a sensitive and delicate device that needs adequate time and attention to make it work properly. In this paper, the concept and issues on how to prolong the life span of the system, that is, the way to make the system last long and ...

  1. Reliability-based maintenance evaluations and standard preventive maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; McKinley, M.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent issuance of 10CFR50.65, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintenance rule (Rule), and the open-quotes Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes prepared by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council, many utilities are undertaking review or evaluation of current preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Although PM optimization and documentation are not specifically required by the Rule, an appropriate and effective PM program (PMP) will be the cornerstone of the successful and cost-effective implementation of the Rule. Currently, a project is being conducted at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) in conjunction with Quadrex Energy Services to evaluate, optimize, and document the PMP. The project began in March 1993 and is scheduled for completion in mid-1995. The initial scope for the project is the evaluation of those structures, systems, and components that are within the scope of the Rule. Because of the number of systems to be evaluated (∼50), the desired completion schedule, and cost considerations, a streamlined approach to PM optimization and documentation is being utilized

  2. Preventive maintenance technology for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    With the increase of the number of nuclear power plants in operation and the number of years of operation, the improvement of reliability and the continuation of safe operation have become more important, and the expectation for preventive maintenance technology has also heightened. The maintenance of Japanese nuclear power plants is based on the time schedule maintenance mainly by the regular inspection carried out every year, but the monitoring of the conditions of various machinery and equipment in operation has been performed widely. In this report, the present state of checkup and inspection technologies and the monitoring and diagnostic technologies for operational condition, which are the key technologies of preventive maintenance, are described. As the checkup and inspection technologies, ultrasonic flow detection technology, phased array technology, Amplituden und Laufzeit Orts Kurven method and X-ray CT, and as the monitoring and diagnostic technologies for operational condition, the diagnosis support system for BWR plants 'PLADIS', those for rotary machines, those for turbogenerators, those for solenoid valves, the mechanization of patrol works and the systematizing technology are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Key words: Maintenance, preventive maintenance, enterprise, planning. INTRODUCTION .... There is machine introduction form on each machine. Moreover, ..... loy using total productive maintenance (TPM) approach. M.Sc.

  4. RCM optimization of a system under both preventive and corrective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bris, R.; Cepin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Testing and maintenance activities of power electrical equipment are an important potential for both risk and cost reduction. A multi-objective maintenance optimization method is presented based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) technique. The method determines the optimal schedule of preventive maintenance actions based on minimization both selected risk measure and cost. Applied cost model takes into account both preventive and corrective maintenance. This paper also presents application of the methodology to optimize maintenance of a real distribution network 22 kV. Conclusions and recommendations for practice are made on the basis of obtained results. (author)

  5. Condition monitoring a key component in the preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isar, C.

    2006-01-01

    The preventive maintenance programs are necessary to ensure that nuclear safety significant equipment will function when it is supposed to. Diesel generator, pumps, motor operated valves and air operated control valves are typically operated every three months. When you drive a car, you depend on lot of sounds, the feel of the steering wheel and gauges to determine if the car is running correctly. Similarly with operating equipment for a power plant - sounds or vibration of the equipment or the gauges and test equipment indicate a problem or degradation, actions are taken to correct the deficiency. Due to safety and economical reason diagnostic and monitoring systems are of growing interest in all complex industrial production. Diagnostic systems are requested to detect, diagnose and localize faulty operating conditions at an early stage in order to prevent severe failures and to enable predictive and condition oriented maintenance. In this context it is a need for using various on-line and off-line condition monitoring and diagnostics, non-destructive inspection techniques and surveillance. The condition monitoring technique used in nuclear power plant Cernavoda are presented in this paper. The selection of components and parameters to be monitored, monitoring and diagnostics techniques used are incorporated into a preventive maintenance program. Modern measurement technique in combination with advanced computerized data processing and acquisition show new ways in the field of machine surveillance. The diagnostic capabilities of predictive maintenance technologies have increased recently year with advances made in sensor technologies. The paper will focus on the following condition monitoring technique: - oil analysis - acoustic leakage monitoring - thermography - valve diagnostics: motor operated valve, air operated valve and check valve - motor current signature - vibration monitoring and rotating machine monitoring and diagnostics For each condition monitoring

  6. Reliability theory with applications to preventive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2000-01-01

    The material in this book was first presented as a one-semester course in Relia­ bility Theory and Preventive Maintenance for M.Sc. students of the Industrial Engineering Department of Ben Gurion University in the 1997/98 and 1998/99 academic years. Engineering students are mainly interested in the applied part of this theory. The value of preventive maintenance theory lies in the possibility of its imple­ mentation, which crucially depends on how we handle statistical reliability data. The very nature of the object of reliability theory - system lifetime - makes it extremely difficult to collect large amounts of data. The data available are usu­ ally incomplete, e.g. heavily censored. Thus, the desire to make the course material more applicable led me to include in the course topics such as mod­ eling system lifetime distributions (Chaps. 1,2) and the maximum likelihood techniques for lifetime data processing (Chap. 3). A course in the theory of statistics is aprerequisite for these lectures. Stan­ dard...

  7. Flexibility configurations and preventive maintenance impact on job-shop manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Renna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems need to be able to work under the dynamic and uncertain production environment. Machine and routing flexibility combined with preventive maintenance actions can improve the performance of the manufacturing systems under dynamic conditions. This paper evaluates different levels of machine and routing flexibility combined with different degrees of preventive maintenance policy. The performance measures considered are throughput, work in process and throughput. The performance measures are compared with a system without any flexibility and no preventive maintenance actions. Different levels of flexibility and preventive maintenance actions are examined under a simulation environment. The simulation results highlight more important factors for the performance measures and the best combination of the factors to improve the performance.

  8. Preventive maintenance: optimization of time - based discard decisions at the bruce nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.K.; Jardine, A.K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, several innovative practices reduced Reliability Centered Maintenance costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is in place where an Expert Panel consisting of all players/experts proceed through each system in a disciplined fashion and reach agreement on all items under a rigorous time frame. It is well known that there are essentially 3 maintenance based actions that can flow from a Maintenance Optimization Analysis: condition based maintenance, time based maintenance and time based discard. The present effort deals with time based discard decisions. Maintenance data from the Remote On-Power Fuel Changing System was used. (author)

  9. An optimal dynamic interval preventive maintenance scheduling for series systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Zhang, Zixian; Tan, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies preventive maintenance (PM) with dynamic interval for a multi-component system. Instead of equal interval, the time of PM period in the proposed dynamic interval model is not a fixed constant, which varies from interval-down to interval-up. It is helpful to reduce the outage loss on frequent repair parts and avoid lack of maintenance of the equipment by controlling the equipment maintenance frequency, when compared to a periodic PM scheme. According to the definition of dynamic interval, the reliability of system is analyzed from the failure mechanisms of its components and the different effects of non-periodic PM actions on the reliability of the components. Following the proposed model of reliability, a novel framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule with dynamic interval based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed. The framework denotes the strategies include updating strategy, deleting strategy, inserting strategy and moving strategy, which is set to correct the invalid population individuals of the algorithm. The values of the dynamic interval and the selections of PM action for the components on every PM stage are determined by achieving a certain level of system availability with the minimum total PM-related cost. Finally, a typical rotary table system of NC machine tool is used as an example to describe the proposed method. - Highlights: • A non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling model is proposed. • A framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule problem is developed. • The interval of non-periodic PM is flexible and schedule can be better adjusted. • Dynamic interval leads to more efficient solutions than fixed interval does

  10. Optimizing preventive maintenance policy: A data-driven application for a light rail braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Francesco; Kraijema, Sander; Godjevac, Milinko; Lodewijks, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a case study determining the optimal preventive maintenance policy for a light rail rolling stock system in terms of reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. The maintenance policy defines one of the three predefined preventive maintenance actions at fixed time-based intervals for each of the subsystems of the braking system. Based on work, maintenance, and failure data, we model the reliability degradation of the system and its subsystems under the current maintenance policy by a Weibull distribution. We then analytically determine the relation between reliability, availability, and maintenance costs. We validate the model against recorded reliability and availability and get further insights by a dedicated sensitivity analysis. The model is then used in a sequential optimization framework determining preventive maintenance intervals to improve on the key performance indicators. We show the potential of data-driven modelling to determine optimal maintenance policy: same system availability and reliability can be achieved with 30% maintenance cost reduction, by prolonging the intervals and re-grouping maintenance actions.

  11. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  12. Flexibility configurations and preventive maintenance impact on job-shop manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Renna

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturing systems need to be able to work under the dynamic and uncertain production environment. Machine and routing flexibility combined with preventive maintenance actions can improve the performance of the manufacturing systems under dynamic conditions. This paper evaluates different levels of machine and routing flexibility combined with different degrees of preventive maintenance policy. The performance measures considered are throughput, work in process and throughput. The performa...

  13. Site Maintenance Plan: Part 2, Site Maintenance Action Plan for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    This Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 Site Maintenance Action Plan (SMAP) is Part II of the Site Maintenance Plan, and has been written by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to outline the requirements stated in DOE Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3.3.1. The SMAP provides an annual status of maintenance initiatives completed and planned, a summary of performance indicators, a summary of maintenance backlog, a listing of real property and capital equipment maintenance cost estimates that were used to create the FY 1996 infrastructure and maintenance budget input, and a listing of proposed line item and general plant projects. Additionally, assumptions for various Site programs are listed to bring the Site Maintenance Plan into focus with overall Site activities. The primary mission at Hanford is to clean up the Site. In this cleanup process WHC will provide scientific and technological expertise to meet global needs, and partnership with stakeholders in the region to develop regional economic diversification. Other missions at the Hanford Site include energy research and development, and waste management and disposal activities. Their primary mission has a 30-year projected life span and will direct the shutting down and cleanup of defense production facilities and the Fast Flux Test Facility. This long-term mission requires continuous maintenance and in many instances, replacement of existing basic infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities. Without adequate maintenance and capital funding these infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities will continue to deteriorate causing an increase in backlogged work.

  14. Site Maintenance Plan: Part 2, Site Maintenance Action Plan for FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, E.L.

    1994-06-01

    This Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 Site Maintenance Action Plan (SMAP) is Part II of the Site Maintenance Plan, and has been written by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to outline the requirements stated in DOE Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3.3.1. The SMAP provides an annual status of maintenance initiatives completed and planned, a summary of performance indicators, a summary of maintenance backlog, a listing of real property and capital equipment maintenance cost estimates that were used to create the FY 1996 infrastructure and maintenance budget input, and a listing of proposed line item and general plant projects. Additionally, assumptions for various Site programs are listed to bring the Site Maintenance Plan into focus with overall Site activities. The primary mission at Hanford is to clean up the Site. In this cleanup process WHC will provide scientific and technological expertise to meet global needs, and partnership with stakeholders in the region to develop regional economic diversification. Other missions at the Hanford Site include energy research and development, and waste management and disposal activities. Their primary mission has a 30-year projected life span and will direct the shutting down and cleanup of defense production facilities and the Fast Flux Test Facility. This long-term mission requires continuous maintenance and in many instances, replacement of existing basic infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities. Without adequate maintenance and capital funding these infrastructure, support facilities, and utilities will continue to deteriorate causing an increase in backlogged work

  15. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  16. Preventive Maintenance. FMO: Fundamentals of Machine Operation. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Louis

    This text is intended to provide students with basic information on conducting preventive maintenance on agricultural machinery. The following topics are covered in the individual chapters: the importance of preventive maintenance and recommended service intervals; engine intake and exhaust systems (air cleaners, turbochargers, intake and exhaust…

  17. Revised action plan of the Maintenance division for 1965, Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, M.

    1965-01-01

    The action plan presented in this annex is a revised version of the plan adopted in January 1965. It includes tasks of the mechanics, electrical and electronic equipment services. It includes a detailed list of planned and preventive maintenance actions related to the heavy water system, technical water system, helium system, reactor core, transportation equipment, hot cells, heating and ventilation systems in the reactor building, power supply system, auxiliary systems in the RA reactor building [sr

  18. Comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-08-01

    Throughout the medical equipment life cycle, preventive maintenance is considered one of the most important stages that should be managed properly. However, the need for better management and control by giving a reasonable prioritization for preventive maintenance becomes essential. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Fuzzy Logic (FL). The quality function deployment is proposed in order to identify the most important criteria that could impact preventive maintenance priority decision; meanwhile the role of the fuzzy logic is to generate a priority index of the list of equipment considering those criteria. The model validation was carried out on 140 pieces of medical equipment belonging to two hospitals. In application, we propose to classify the priority index into five classes. The results indicate that the strong correlation existence between risk-based criteria and preventive maintenance priority decision.

  19. Joint optimization of production scheduling and machine group preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Lei; Song, Sanling; Chen, Xiaohui; Coit, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Joint optimization models were developed combining group preventive maintenance of a series system and production scheduling. In this paper, we propose a joint optimization model to minimize the total cost including production cost, preventive maintenance cost, minimal repair cost for unexpected failures and tardiness cost. The total cost depends on both the production process and the machine maintenance plan associated with reliability. For the problems addressed in this research, any machine unavailability leads to system downtime. Therefore, it is important to optimize the preventive maintenance of machines because their performance impacts the collective production processing associated with all machines. Too lengthy preventive maintenance intervals may be associated with low scheduled machine maintenance cost, but may incur expensive costs for unplanned failure due to low machine reliability. Alternatively, too frequent preventive maintenance activities may achieve the desired high reliability machines, but unacceptably high scheduled maintenance cost. Additionally, product scheduling plans affect tardiness and maintenance cost. Two results are obtained when solving the problem; the optimal group preventive maintenance interval for machines, and the assignment of each job, including the corresponding start time and completion time. To solve this non-deterministic polynomial-time problem, random keys genetic algorithms are used, and a numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed model. - Highlights: • Group preventive maintenance (PM) planning and production scheduling are jointed. • Maintenance interval and assignment of jobs are decided by minimizing total cost. • Relationships among system age, PM, job processing time are quantified. • Random keys genetic algorithms (GA) are used to solve the NP-hard problem. • Random keys GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are compared.

  20. Imperfect Preventive Maintenance Model Study Based On Reliability Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective maintenance is crucial for equipment performance in industry. Imperfect maintenance conform to actual failure process. Taking the dynamic preventive maintenance cost into account, the preventive maintenance model was constructed by using age reduction factor. The model regards the minimization of repair cost rate as final target. It use allowed smallest reliability as the replacement condition. Equipment life was assumed to follow two parameters Weibull distribution since it was one of the most commonly adopted distributions to fit cumulative failure problems. Eventually the example verifies the rationality and benefits of the model.

  1. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  2. Optimization of the preventive maintenance plan of a series components system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Jose A. Caldeira [Mathematical Department, Instituto Politecnico de Setubal/Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2914-508 Setubal (Portugal)]. E-mail: jduarte@est.ips.pt; Craveiro, Joao C. Taborda A. [MIIT, Manutencao Industrial Informatizada e Tecnologia, Lda, Av. Elias Garcia, 123, 5o, Lisbon (Portugal); Trigo, Tomas Pedro [MIIT, Manutencao Industrial Informatizada e Tecnologia, Lda, Av. Elias Garcia, 123, 5o, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-04-15

    One of the most critical problems in preventive maintenance is the determination of the optimum frequency to perform preventive maintenance in equipment, in order to ensure its availability. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to solve the previous problem for equipment that exhibit linearly increasing hazard rate and constant repair rate. Based on this algorithm, we have developed another one to solve the problem of maintenance management of a series system based on preventive maintenance over the different system components. We assume that all components of the system still exhibit linearly increasing hazard rate and constant repair rate and that preventive maintenance would bring the system to the as good as new condition. We define a cost function for maintenance tasks (preventive and corrective) for the system. The algorithm calculates the interval of time between preventive maintenance actions for each component, minimizing the costs, and in such a way that the total downtime, in a certain period of time, does not exceed a predetermined value.

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Problem with Fuzziness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, S.A.; Abdallah, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance activity is regarded as the most important key factor for the safety, reliability and economy of a nuclear power plant. Preventive maintenance refers to set of planned activities which include nondestructive testing and periodic inspection as well as maintenance. In this paper, we address the problem of nuclear power plant preventive maintenance scheduling with uncertainty. The uncertainty will be represented by fuzzy parameters. The problem is how to determine the period for which generating units of an electric system should be taken off line for planned preventive maintenance over specific time horizon. Preventive maintenance activity of a nuclear power plant is an important issue as it designed to extend the plant life . It is more required to review the maintenance not only from the view point of safety and reliability but also economy. Preventive maintenance program exists to ensure that nuclear safety significant equipment will function when it is supposed to. Also this problem is extremely important because a failure in a power plant may cause a general breakdown in an electric network. In this paper a mixed integer programming model is used to express this problem. In proposed model power demand is taken as fuzzy parameters. A case study is provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model.

  4. MINIMASI BIAYA PERAWATAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much Djunaidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. Primatexco Indonesia merupakan perusahaan tekstil dengan produk benang tenun, kain, printing, dan waste. Di PT. Primatexco Indonesia terdapat bagian blowing yang bertugas menyuplai bahan baku untuk proses produksi. Artikel ini membahas mengenai alternatif jadwal perbaikan maupun perawatan dengan biaya terkecil untuk komponen mesin blowing. Dengan menghitung biaya perawatan untuk repair policy dan dibandingkan dengan biaya preventive maintenance policy, maka akan didapatkan jadwal perbaikan maupun perawatan yang optimal. Dari hasil perhitungan, diusulkan jadwal perawatan mengikuti kebijakan repair untuk kerusakan komponen klasifikasi A. Untuk kerusakan komponen klasifikasi B diterapkan kebijakan preventive maintenance setiap 5 bulan. Dan untuk kerusakan komponen klasifikasi C diterapkan kebijakan preventive maintenance setiap 7 bulan.

  5. Preventive maintenance prioritization index of medical equipment using quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list.

  6. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the process of a parquet enterprise's transition to preventive maintenance which has been implementing maintenance technique in case of breakdown was investigated. During that transition process, follow up forms for maintenance–repair, breakdown and spare parts were prepared and the implementation ...

  7. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  8. Equipment reliability process improvement and preventive maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darragi, M.; Georges, A.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.; Croteau, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Gentilly-2 Nuclear Power Plant wants to optimize its preventive maintenance program through an Integrated Equipment Reliability Process. All equipment reliability related activities should be reviewed and optimized in a systematic approach especially for aging plants such as G2. This new approach has to be founded on best practices methods with the purpose of the rationalization of the preventive maintenance program and the performance monitoring of on-site systems, structures and components (SSC). A rational preventive maintenance strategy is based on optimized task scopes and frequencies depending on their applicability, critical effects on system safety and plant availability as well as cost-effectiveness. Preventive maintenance strategy efficiency is systematically monitored through degradation indicators. (author)

  9. The economy of preventive maintenance of concrete bridges : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The most economical approach to maintain existing concrete bridges is by adopting an active preventive maintenance : approach. An in-depth investigation of the combined deterioration effects of various deterioration mechanisms is needed : to establis...

  10. Integrated preventive maintenance and production decisions for imperfect processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil; Ben-Daya, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates production, maintenance, and quality for an imperfect process in a multi-period multi-product capacitated lot-sizing context. The production system is modeled as an imperfect machine, whose the status is considered to be either in-control or out-of-control. When the machine is out of control, it produces a fraction of nonconforming items. During each period, this machine is inspected and imperfect preventive maintenance activities are simultaneously performed to reduce its age, proportional to the preventive maintenance level. The objective is to minimize the total cost, while satisfying the demand for all products. Our optimization model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values of production plan, and the maintenance policy, while taking into account quality related costs. A solution algorithm is developed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. It is found that the increase in PM level leads to reductions in quality control costs. Furthermore, if the cost of performing PM is high to the point where it is not compensated for by reductions in the quality related costs, then performing PM is not justifiable. Finally, using non-periodic preventive maintenance with the possibility of different preventive maintenance levels may result in an improvement of the total cost. - Highlights: • We integrate production, maintenance, and quality. • We evaluate all the expected costs. • Our model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values. • A solution algorithm is developed. • Increasing PM level will decrease quality control costs.

  11. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventative maintenance plan for emergency pumping trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose/goal of this document is to identify the maintenance requirements and resources available to properly maintain the readiness and condition of the Emergency Pumping Equipment controlled by the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Farms Plant Engineering and Tank Stabilization Operations. This equipment is intended to pump a single-shell tank (SST) that has been identified as an assumed leaking tank. The goal is to commence pumping (submersible or jet) as soon as safely possible after identifying a SST as an assumed leaking tank. Important information pertaining to the Emergency Pumping Equipment, Over-Ground Piping installation, and procedures is found in WHC-SD-WM-AP-005, ''Single Shell Tank Leak Emergency Pumping Guide.''

  13. Proposing New Heuristic Approaches for Preventive Maintenance Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid Esmailian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of preventive maintenance management is to perform a series of tasks that prevent or minimize production breakdowns and improve reliability of production facilities. An important objective of preventive maintenance management is to minimize downtime of production facilities. In order to accomplish this objective, personnel should efficiently allocate resources and determine an effective maintenance schedule. Gopalakrishnan (1997 developed a mathematical model and four heuristic approaches to solve the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of assigning skilled personnel to work with tasks that require a set of corresponding skills. However, there are several limitations in the prior work in this area of research. The craft combination problem has not been solved because the craft combination is assumed as given. The craft combination problem concerns the computation of all combinations of assigning multi skilled workers to accomplishment of a particular task. In fact, determining craft combinations is difficult because of the exponential number of craft combinations that are possible. This research provides a heuristic approach for determining the craft combination and four new heuristic approach solution for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem with multi skilled workforce constraints. In order to examine the new heuristic approach and to compare the new heuristic approach with heuristic approach of Gopalakrishnan (1997, 81 standard problems have been generated based on the criterion suggested by from Gopalakrishnan (1997. The average solution quality (SQ of the new heuristic approaches is 1.86% and in old heuristic approaches is 8.32%. The solution time of new heuristic approaches are shorter than old heuristic approaches. The solution time of new heuristic approaches is 0.78 second and old heuristic approaches is 6.43 second, but the solution time of mathematical model provided by Gopalakrishnan (1997 is 152 second.

  14. Multi-objective group scheduling optimization integrated with preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiufang; Jiang, Min

    2017-11-01

    This article proposes a single-machine-based integration model to meet the requirements of production scheduling and preventive maintenance in group production. To describe the production for identical/similar and different jobs, this integrated model considers the learning and forgetting effects. Based on machine degradation, the deterioration effect is also considered. Moreover, perfect maintenance and minimal repair are adopted in this integrated model. The multi-objective of minimizing total completion time and maintenance cost is taken to meet the dual requirements of delivery date and cost. Finally, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve this optimization model, and the computation results demonstrate that this integrated model is effective and reliable.

  15. Extended great deluge algorithm for the imperfect preventive maintenance optimization of multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahas, Nabil; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Ait-Kadi, Daoud; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with preventive maintenance optimization problem for multi-state systems (MSS). This problem was initially addressed and solved by Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. It consists on finding an optimal sequence of maintenance actions which minimizes maintenance cost while providing the desired system reliability level. This paper proposes an approach which improves the results obtained by genetic algorithm (GENITOR) in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203]. The considered MSS have a range of performance levels and their reliability is defined to be the ability to meet a given demand. This reliability is evaluated by using the universal generating function technique. An optimization method based on the extended great deluge algorithm is proposed. This method has the advantage over other methods to be simple and requires less effort for its implementation. The developed algorithm is compared to than in Levitin and Lisnianski [Optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for multi-state systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2000;67:193-203] by using a reference example and two newly generated examples. This comparison shows that the extended great deluge gives the best solutions (i.e. those with minimal costs) for 8 instances among 10

  16. RCM [reliability-centered maintenance] at Ginna: Preventive maintenance program optimization at year 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric Company's Ginna station is entering its second year. Of the 20 systems originally selected for evaluation, 10 are in various stages of completion, and recommendations resulting from the earliest systems studied are now being implemented. As expected, few major discoveries have been made in terms of preventive maintenance program failings or excesses. The performance of the now 20-yr-old plant has been excellent in recent years, and objectives focus more on ensuring continued high standards of safety, reliability, and economy than on maintenance program cost reduction

  17. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 31 -- Relays -- timing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1998-07-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to timing relays. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  18. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 30 -- Relays -- control. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1998-07-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to control relays. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  19. Preventive maintenance program of motorized operated valves (MOV) at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, M.; Moldoveanu, Edy

    2001-01-01

    This is a Power Point presentation. The following objectives are addressed: A. Determine the target of MOV program; B. Define the strategy for MOV; C. Establish the MOV program execution phases; D. Identification of key parameters; E. Examples. The target of MOV program is to improve the safety by ensuring the adequacy of safety valves and the reliability of safety equipment and, subsequently, to ensure the economic operation of the plant. Consequences of MV malfunction are indicated. The strategy for MOV program development is both general, namely, to define the minimal requirements of preventive /corrective maintenance activities for all MOV's according to design/ manufacture specification and particular, namely to identify MV's specific problems and the need for increasing/decreasing the preventing maintenance tasks or frequency established in 'general' MOV program. Strategy for MOV program development implies: - Establish MOV program applicability; - Develop diagnostic strategy (define key parameters ); - Perform program for engineering review; - Establish program for preventive maintenance; - Revise procedures for operating and maintenance tests; - Dynamic evaluation of MOV. The program execution phases are listed as follows: 1. Perform risk assessment of the MOV's to determine criticality level (program applicability); 2. Collect data to fill in MOV Application Data Sheet; 3. Perform engineering review to determine functional parameters acceptable range and determine key parameters; 4. Analysis for maintenance tasks / frequencies selection and determination of implementing actions (engineer review); 5. Prepare work packages for availability confirmation; 6. Schedule and plan corrective actions or provide input to other programs; 7. Schedule and plan implementing actions in preparation for program field execution; 8. Program field implementation; 9. Program monitoring, evaluation and optimization. The criteria defining the key operational and maintenance

  20. Status on system inspection and preventive maintenance of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Ki; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Kwag, Byung-Ho

    1999-01-01

    .III component such as reactor structure, primary pump and pipe etc., is the group for the In-Service Inspection. In the main text, all the activities for each kind of inspection are summarized based on an interval of the required action. General work procedures for the inspection activities, dealing with non-conformances and any required documentation are also briefly discussed. Extensive studies on program and technology are in the process in order to prolong the lifetime of the components and to proceed detail implementation of the system inspection and preventive maintenance. (author)

  1. The cost function for the preventive - maintenance replacement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaplana, Jose Perez

    1994-01-01

    Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...

  2. Preventive maintenance-A countermeasure to plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aging of power plants is caused by manifold and different influences. For instance, mechanical and thermal stress, radiation exposure, denting or wastage can considerably affect the aging of plant components and thus cause premature failures of components. In this presentation, the term 'Plant Aging' in nuclear power plants is to be understood more comprehensively than wear on components and material fatigue. In addition, nuclear power plants are to be adjusted to the advancing state of the science and technology (state-of-the-art) in order to guarantee safe operation at all times. The preventive maintenance - as a countermeasure to plant aging - comprises the systematic checks and servicing of the plant systems in operation and follows aging by inspection and tests. Experience with Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) preventive maintenance program at the Biblis NNP (1300 MW, PWR) is discussed. The concept of an 'Integrated Maintenance System' as a means to avoid 'Plant Aging' is presented

  3. Preventive maintenance - An important element in the `risk management` philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullev, Lars [VEKS (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    The contents of the paper is a presentation of the company VEKS with particular focus on the connection between preventive maintenance and the `Risk Management` philosophy. Implementation of Risk Management was preferred instead of an ISO-9000 certification of the company. The experience is that the responsibility in the organisation has been increased. (au)

  4. Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2005-01-01

    prevention studies, all of which are performed outside Denmark. Thus, this paper is not a classical review but rather a highlight of some aspects that the author finds important. The latest Danish national figures show a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity, especially among young men-a sevenfold...... regarding a national action plan against obesity. CONCLUSION: This paper highlights some important aspects of the epidemiology, prevention and actions in the field of paediatric obesity with special focus on Denmark.......UNLABELLED: The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important...

  5. A Planned Preventive Maintenance Program. A Handbook for Chief Business Officers and Supervisors of Maintenance with Suggestions on Maintenance for Consideration by Presidents of Higher Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Clarence H.

    This handbook explains planned preventive maintenance program, which is an operational system of maintenance designed to increase the effectiveness of the maintenance staff and the use of maintenance funds through efficient scheduling of inspections and follow-through of work to be performed. Sections are included for the chief administrative…

  6. Basic Characteristics of Human Erroneous Actions during Test and Maintenance Activities Leading to Unplanned Reactor Trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Test and maintenance (T and M) activities of nuclear power plants are essential for sustaining the safety of a power plant and maintaining the reliability of plant systems and components. However, the potential of human errors during T and M activities has also the potential to induce unplanned reactor trips or power derate or making safety-related systems unavailable. According to the major incident/accident reports of nuclear power plants in Korea, contribution of human errors takes up about 20% of the total events. The previous study presents that most of human-related unplanned reactor trip events during normal power operation are associated with T and M activities (63%), which are comprised of plant maintenance activities such as a 'periodic preventive maintenance (PPM)', a 'planned maintenance (PM)' and a 'corrective maintenance (CM)'. This means that T and M activities should be a major subject for reducing the frequency of human-related unplanned reactor trips. This paper aims to introduce basic characteristics of human erroneous actions involved in the test and maintenance-induced unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants. The basic characteristics are described by dividing human erroneous actions into planning-based errors and execution-based errors. For the events associated with planning failures, they are, firstly, classified according to existence of the work procedure and then described for what aspects of the procedure or work plan have deficiency or problem. On the other hand, for the events associated with execution failures, they are described from the aspect of external error modes

  7. A PSO approach for preventive maintenance scheduling optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.N.A.; Lapa, C.M.F.; Mol, A.C.A.; Luz, A.F. da

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach for preventive maintenance policy optimization, focused in reliability and cost. The probabilistic model for reliability and cost evaluation is developed in such a way that flexible intervals between maintenance are allowed. As PSO is skilled for realcoded continuous spaces, a non-conventional codification has been developed in order to allow PSO to solve scheduling problems (which is discrete) with variable number of maintenance interventions. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology, the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a typical 4-loop PWR has been considered. Results demonstrate ability in finding optimal solutions, for which expert knowledge had to be automatically discovered by PSO. (author)

  8. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  9. Aging management and preventive maintenance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Toichi; Sagawa, Wataru; Oyamada, Osamu; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1995-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will bear main electric power supply for long term. For this purpose, by applying proper preventive maintenance to the nuclear power plants in operation, the maintenance of high reliability and the rate of plant operation is extremely important. Especially it has been strongly demanded to execute efficiently the periodic inspection which is carried out every year to shorten its period and increase the rate of operation, and to maintain the reliability by the proper maintenance for the aged plants with long operation years. As to efficient and short periodic inspection, the preparation is advanced by the guidance of electric power companies aiming at realizing it in nearest fiscal year, and further, effort is exerted for the development of technology in long term to optimize periodic inspection. For securing the reliability of aged plants, it is important to do proper inspection and diagnosis and to take the countermeasures by repair and replacement, based on the grasp of secular change mechanism and the evaluation of life of machinery, equipment and materials. In particular, effort is exerted for the development of maintenance technology for reactor pressure vessels and in-core equipment which are hard to access. The confirmation of the function of remote operation equipment and the establishment of execution condition are carried out by uisng the full scale mock-up of BWR plant. The problems in maintenance service and the activities and results of reliability improvement are reported. (K.I.)

  10. PERANCANGAN PENJADWALAN PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA PT. ARTHA PRIMA SUKSES MAKMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugowati Praharsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. Artha Prima Sukses Makmur memiliki lima mesin dalam menjalankan kegiatan produksi sol sepatu yang berlangsung 24 jam setiap hari, sehingga kegiatan perawatan dan pemeliharaan perlu dilakukan dengan baik dan dijadwalkan agar tidak mengganggu kegiatan produksi yang sedang berlangsung. Kerusakan mesin saat ini masih terhitung tinggi dan memerlukan waktu perbaikan yang cukup lama. Perancangan penjadwalan maintenancediperlukan untuk mengurangi downtime pada mesin, sehingga tidak menghambat dan mengganggu jadwal produksi. Penjadwalan yang diusulkan adalah preventive maintenance dengan metode age replacement. Berdasarkan prinsip Pareto terdapat dua mesin kritis dari lima mesin yang ada.Hasil perhitungan dari data kerusakan mesin sebelumnya diketahui, jika dilakukan preventive maintenance downtime akan berkurang sebanyak 2.85%, dan terjadi penghematan sebesar 38%.

  11. PERANCANGAN PENJADWALAN PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PADA PT. ARTHA PRIMA SUKSES MAKMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugowati Praharsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. Artha Prima Sukses Makmur memiliki lima mesin dalam menjalankan kegiatan produksi sol sepatu yang berlangsung 24 jam setiap hari, sehingga kegiatan perawatan dan pemeliharaan perlu dilakukan dengan baik dan dijadwalkan agar tidak mengganggu kegiatan produksi yang sedang berlangsung. Kerusakan mesin saat ini masih terhitung tinggi dan memerlukan waktu perbaikan yang cukup lama. Perancangan penjadwalan  maintenancediperlukan untuk mengurangi downtime pada mesin, sehingga tidak menghambat dan mengganggu jadwal produksi. Penjadwalan yang diusulkan adalah preventive maintenance dengan metode age replacement. Berdasarkan prinsip Pareto terdapat dua mesin kritis dari lima mesin yang ada.Hasil perhitungan dari data kerusakan mesin sebelumnya diketahui, jika dilakukan preventive maintenance downtime akan berkurang sebanyak 2.85%, dan terjadi penghematan sebesar 38%.

  12. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  13. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older technology devices and predictive maintenance for newer high-tech devices. For preventive maintenance development, 589 older technology devices were subjected to performance verification and safety testing (PVST). For predictive maintenance development, the manufacturers' recommendations were used for 134 high-tech devices. These strategies were evaluated in terms of device reliability. This study recommends the use of two different maintenance strategies for old and new devices at hospitals in developing countries. Thus, older technology devices that applied only corrective maintenance will be included in maintenance like high-tech devices.

  14. Preventive maintenance at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, H.

    1985-01-01

    The maintenance system at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant began in 1975, and was drawn up in co-operation with other power stations within the control of the Swedish State Power Board. Preventive maintenance (PM) is part of the system and has been in operation since 1978. Great efforts have been made to build up the system and to gather input data. Since 1981, the system has been in continuous use; follow-ups and system and quality improvements in database contents have been carried out. Great effort has also been devoted to maintaining a high quality of database contents and to the interplay between the different PM measures. We believe that PM plays an important role in the safety and economic operation of the power station and that it is essential that interest in PM should exist at all levels of the power company. (author)

  15. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  16. Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Mingyi; Li Hongguang; Meng Guang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two component-level control-limit preventive maintenance (PM) policies for systems subject to the joint effect of partial recovery PM acts (imperfect PM acts) and variable operational conditions, and investigates the properties of the proposed policies. The extended proportional hazards model (EPHM) is used to model the system failure likelihood influenced by both factors. Several numerical experiments are conducted for policy property analysis, using real lifetime and operational condition data and typical characterization of imperfect PM acts and maintenance durations. The experimental results demonstrate the necessity of considering both factors when they do exist, characterize the joint effect of the two factors on the performance of an optimized PM policy, and explore the influence of the loading sequence of time-varying operational conditions on the performance of an optimized PM policy. The proposed policies extend the applicability of PM optimization techniques.

  17. Preventive maintenance scheduling by variable dimension evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbourg, Philipp; Kochs, Hans-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Black box optimization strategies have been proven to be useful tools for solving complex maintenance optimization problems. There has been a considerable amount of research on the right choice of optimization strategies for finding optimal preventive maintenance schedules. Much less attention is turned to the representation of the schedule to the algorithm. Either the search space is represented as a binary string leading to highly complex combinatorial problem or maintenance operations are defined by regular intervals which may restrict the search space to suboptimal solutions. An adequate representation however is vitally important for result quality. This work presents several nonstandard input representations and compares them to the standard binary representation. An evolutionary algorithm with extensions to handle variable length genomes is used for the comparison. The results demonstrate that two new representations perform better than the binary representation scheme. A second analysis shows that the performance may be even more increased using modified genetic operators. Thus, the choice of alternative representations leads to better results in the same amount of time and without any loss of accuracy

  18. Preventative maintenance of drainpipes in radioisotope facility using flexible hose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Tomoko; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Kuwabara, Rie; Kouyama, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Takio

    2009-01-01

    A flexible hose made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride was introduced into underground radioactive wastewater drainpipes as preventative maintenance. We completed a seamless connection spanning the longest interval between the last confluence point and the wastewater tank. Although the flexible hose is not a construction material but rather a consumable article, it is robust against the effects of temperature change and erosion by chemical substances. Moreover, it is placed in an underground steel pipe where it is protected from UV irradiation and friction. Therefore, increased hose durability is expected. In addition, the risk of damage from earthquakes or ground subsidence is negligible due to the flexibility of the hose. Compared with a full renovation of the plumbing, the economic cost is much cheaper and the construction period is much shorter. We propose the use of flexible hoses as one of the most convenient methods to prevent leakage accidents at radioisotope facilities with underground plumbing for wastewater. (author)

  19. After reliability centred maintenance. Preventive maintenance living program implementation at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, Michael L.; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial preventive maintenance (PM) programs represent a large part of plant O and M costs. PM Optimization (PMO) projects represent an effective mechanism for identifying unnecessary PM, extending PM intervals and infusing predictive maintenance (PdM) methods. However, once optimized, what process prevents the PM program from returning to a state of disarray? This is the function of a PM living program (PMLP). In 1997, an independent performance assessment identified concerns with the applicability and effectiveness of all Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (OPGI) PM programs. In response, OPGI instituted an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and a PMLP. It should be noted that the PMLP was developed for the 3 OPGI nuclear Sites (i.e. Bruce, Pickering, and Darlington). Effective 1 May 2001, the Bruce Site has been leased to a group of investors lead by British Energy. This paper is written in historical context and therefore refers to the Bruce Site as part of OPGI. The PMLP is made up of five elements: 1) process control, 2) change control, 3) worker feedback, 4) program performance metrics, and 5) deferral module. A PMLP software tool, originally applied to Duke Energy nuclear plants, was enhanced and customized specifically for the OPGI PMLP, and then implemented at all three of OPGI's nuclear sites. The objective of the OPGI PMLP was to: Provide processes/procedures for continual optimization of all site PM tasks, Ensure effective and timely revision of PM tasks in the work management system, Ensure PM tasks remain applicable/effective at all times, Maintain and enhance PM consistency on a component, system and Site basis, Ensure that new predictive maintenance techniques are applied and integrated with the PM program, Ensure that mandated PM tasks are identified and executed, Provide a mechanism for craft feedback, Meet regulatory requirements for PM program effectiveness, and Provide PM task deferral

  20. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  1. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G.; Arnaldos, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  2. Joint optimization of preventive maintenance and spare parts inventory for an optimal production plan with consideration of CO_2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, Kader; Dellagi, Sofiene; Rezg, Nidhal; Erray, Walid

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a joint optimization of spare parts inventory and preventive maintenance. While minimizing CO_2 emissions, this approach is based on an optimal production plan achieved thanks to the HMMS model. The process which is studied in this paper only manufactures one type of product. The purpose of the paper is to determine for a random demand over a given period, a cost-effective production plan and a maintenance policy which integrates a spare parts strategy in accordance with environmental requirements and regulations. Our green spare parts management can be defined as a set of actions that are applied in order to decrease the spare parts footprint in its lifetime (Ba et al., 2015) [1]. Indeed, we take into account the spare parts characteristics (new or used) which will be used during maintenance actions (preventive or corrective) to preserve the environment. Consequently, we set up analytical models based on the effect of the production rate on the system deterioration so as to substantially cut the maintenance costs, production costs and CO_2 emissions. To evaluate the performance of our models, we give some illustrative examples. - Highlights: • Establishment of an optimal production plan for a manufacturing process. • Cost-effective maintenance strategy with a green spare parts strategy. • Possibility to choose between used and new spare parts to execute maintenance action.

  3. When focusing on a goal interferes with action control: action versus state orientation and over-maintenance of intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigendijk, H.A.H.; Koole, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    People vary in action versus state orientation, or the ease versus difficulty by which they can form and enact goals under demanding conditions (Kuhl and Beckmann in Volition and personality: action versus state orientation, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1994). According to the over-maintenance hypothesis,

  4. Two Different Maintenance Strategies in the Hospital Environment: Preventive Maintenance for Older Technology Devices and Predictive Maintenance for Newer High-Tech Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Sezdi, Mana

    2016-01-01

    A maintenance program generated through the consideration of characteristics and failures of medical equipment is an important component of technology management. However, older technology devices and newer high-tech devices cannot be efficiently managed using the same strategies because of their different characteristics. This study aimed to generate a maintenance program comprising two different strategies to increase the efficiency of device management: preventive maintenance for older tec...

  5. JIT single machine scheduling problem with periodic preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Mohammadreza; Shoja, Naghi; Zade, Amir Ebrahimi; Barak, Sasan; Sharifi, Mani

    2016-09-01

    This article investigates a JIT single machine scheduling problem with a periodic preventive maintenance. Also to maintain the quality of the products, there is a limitation on the maximum number of allowable jobs in each period. The proposed bi-objective mixed integer model minimizes total earliness-tardiness and makespan simultaneously. Due to the computational complexity of the problem, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is implemented. Also, as well as MOPSO, two other optimization algorithms are used for comparing the results. Eventually, Taguchi method with metrics analysis is presented to tune the algorithms' parameters and a multiple criterion decision making technique based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution is applied to choose the best algorithm. Comparison results confirmed the supremacy of MOPSO to the other algorithms.

  6. Reusable rocket engine preventive maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jiawen; Jin, Ping; Cai, Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the preventive maintenance (PM) scheduling problem of reusable rocket engine (RRE), which is different from the ordinary repairable systems, by genetic algorithm. Three types of PM activities for RRE are considered and modeled by introducing the concept of effective age. The impacts of PM on all subsystems' aging processes are evaluated based on improvement factor model. Then the reliability of engine is formulated by considering the accumulated time effect. After that, optimization model subjected to reliability constraint is developed for RRE PM scheduling at fixed interval. The optimal PM combination is obtained by minimizing the total cost in the whole life cycle for a supposed engine. Numerical investigations indicate that the subsystem's intrinsic reliability characteristic and the improvement factor of maintain operations are the most important parameters in RRE's PM scheduling management

  7. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  8. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo; Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion; Nieva, Marcelino Curiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  9. Maintenance of systemic immune functions prevents accelerated presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Baba, Susumu; Omae, Mariko; Lee, Shinryu; Yamashita, Toshio; Ikehara, Susumu

    2008-05-07

    There is no effective therapy for progressive hearing loss such as presbycusis, the causes of which remain poorly understood because of the difficulty of separating genetic and environmental contributions. In the present study, we show that the age-related dysfunctions of the systemic immune system in an animal model of accelerated presbycusis (SAMP1, senescence-accelerated mouse P1) can be corrected by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We also demonstrate that this presbycusis can be prevented; BMT protects the recipients from age-related hearing impairment and the degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) as well as the dysfunctions of T lymphocytes, which have a close relation to immune senescence. No donor cells are infiltrated to the spiral ganglia, confirming that this experimental system using BMT is connected to the systemic immune system and does not contribute to transdifferentiation or fusion by donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), or to the direct maintenance of ganglion cells by locally infiltrated donor immunocompetent cells. Therefore, another procedure which attempts to prevent the age-related dysfunctions of the recipient immune system is the inoculation of syngeneic splenocytes from young donors. These mice show no development of hearing loss, compared with the recipient mice with inoculation of saline or splenocytes from old donors. Our studies on the relationship between age-related systemic immune dysfunctions and neurodegeneration mechanisms open up new avenues of treatment for presbycusis, for which there is no effective therapy.

  10. Balancing preventive and corrective maintenance in Cernavoda Unit 1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, M.; Marinescu, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a short reminder of Romania's Cernavoda NPP entering commercial operation and a brief description of the CANDU-6 project on which Unit 1 is based. The short term objectives of the maintenance management, the status of the existing maintenance programmes as well as future predictable maintenance programmes are outlined together with the Government plan to complete the balance of NPP. (author)

  11. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  12. Systematic analysis and prevention of human originated common cause failures in relation to maintenance activities at Finnish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    The focus in human reliability analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, human maintenance failures and design deficiencies, remained latent in the system, have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. by disabling safety-related equipment on demand. Especially common cause failures (CCFs) of safety related systems can affect the core damage risk to a significant extent. The topic has been addressed in Finnish studies, where experiences of latent human errors have been searched and analysed systematically from the maintenance history stored in the the power plant information systems of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. Both the single and multiple errors (CCFs) were classified in detail and documented as error and event reports. The human CCFs involved human, organisational and technical factors. The review of the analysed single and multiple errors showed that instrumentation and control and electrical equipment are more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance objects. The review of the analysed experience showed that most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage periods. More than half of the multiple errors from the outages remained latent to the power operating periods. The review of the analysed multiple errors showed that difficulties with small plant modifications and planning of maintenance and operability were significant sources of common cause failures. The most dependent human errors originating from small modifications could be reduced by a more tailored planning and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by identifying better in work planning from the operating experiences those complex or intrusive repair and preventive maintenance work tasks and actions which are prone to errors. Such uncertain cases in important equipment require a more tailored work planning of the installation

  13. Systematic analysis and prevention of human originated common cause failures in relation to maintenance activities at Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.

    2006-12-01

    The focus in human reliability analysis of nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, human maintenance failures and design deficiencies, remained latent in the system, have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. by disabling safety-related equipment on demand. Especially common cause failures (CCFs) of safety related systems can affect the core damage risk to a significant extent. The topic has been addressed in Finnish studies, where experiences of latent human errors have been searched and analysed systematically from the maintenance history stored in the the power plant information systems of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. Both the single and multiple errors (CCFs) were classified in detail and documented as error and event reports. The human CCFs involved human, organisational and technical factors. The review of the analysed single and multiple errors showed that instrumentation and control and electrical equipment are more prone to human error caused failure events than the other maintenance objects. The review of the analysed experience showed that most errors stem from the refuelling and maintenance outage periods. More than half of the multiple errors from the outages remained latent to the power operating periods. The review of the analysed multiple errors showed that difficulties with small plant modifications and planning of maintenance and operability were significant sources of common cause failures. The most dependent human errors originating from small modifications could be reduced by a more tailored planning and coverage of their start-up testing programs. Improvements could also be achieved by identifying better in work planning from the operating experiences those complex or intrusive repair and preventive maintenance work tasks and actions which are prone to errors. Such uncertain cases in important equipment require a more tailored work planning of the installation

  14. Erythropoietin Action in Stress Response, Tissue Maintenance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. The cloning and production of recombinant human EPO has led to its clinical use in patients with anemia for two and half decades and has facilitated studies of EPO action. Reports of animal and cell models of ischemic stress in vitro and injury suggest potential EPO benefit beyond red blood cell production including vascular endothelial response to increase nitric oxide production, which facilitates oxygen delivery to brain, heart and other non-hematopoietic tissues. This review discusses these and other reports of EPO action beyond red blood cell production, including EPO response affecting metabolism and obesity in animal models. Observations of EPO activity in cell and animal model systems, including mice with tissue specific deletion of EPO receptor (EpoR, suggest the potential for EPO response in metabolism and disease.

  15. Preventive Maintenance Optimization in Healthcare Domain: Status of Research and Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfoud, H.; El Barkany, A.; El Biyaali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although medical equipment maintenance has been carefully managed for years, very few in-depth studies have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of these implemented preventive maintenance strategies, especially after the debate about the credibility of manufacturer’s recommendations has increased in the clinical engineering community. Facing the dilemma of merely following manufactures maintenance manual or establishing an evidence-based maintenance, medical equipment ...

  16. Preventive Maintenance Interval Prediction: a Spare Parts Inventory Cost and Lost Earning Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Adebimpe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some preventive maintenance parameters in manufacturing firms were identified and used to develop cost based functions in terms of machine preventive maintenance. The proposed cost based model considers system’s reliability, cost of keeping spare parts inventory and lost earnings in deriving optimal maintenance interval. A case of a manufacturing firm in Nigeria was observed and the data was used to evaluate the model.

  17. Joint redundancy and imperfect preventive maintenance optimization for series–parallel multi-state degraded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Châtelet, Eric; Nahas, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    This paper formulates a joint redundancy and imperfect preventive maintenance planning optimization model for series–parallel multi-state degraded systems. Non identical multi-state components can be used in parallel to improve the system availability by providing redundancy in subsystems. Multiple component choices are available in the market for each subsystem. The status of each component is considered to degrade with use. The objective is to determine jointly the maximal-availability series–parallel system structure and the appropriate preventive maintenance actions, subject to a budget constraint. System availability is defined as the ability to satisfy consumer demand that is represented as a piecewise cumulative load curve. A procedure is used, based on Markov processes and universal moment generating function, to evaluate the multi-state system availability and the cost function. A heuristic approach is also proposed to solve the formulated problem. This heuristic is based on a combination of space partitioning, genetic algorithms (GA) and tabu search (TS). After dividing the search space into a set of disjoint subsets, this approach uses GA to select the subspaces, and applies TS to each selected sub-space.

  18. Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded systems with minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soro, Isaac W.; Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model for evaluating the availability, the production rate and the reliability function of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. The status of the system is considered to degrade with use. These degradations may lead to decrease in the system efficiency. It is assumed that the system can consecutively degrade into several discrete states, which are characterized by different performance rates, ranging from perfect functioning to complete failure. The latter is observed when the degradation level reaches a certain critical threshold such as the system efficiency may decrease to an unacceptable limit. In addition, the system can fail randomly from any operational or acceptable state and can be repaired. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The used preventive maintenance policy suggests that if the system reaches the last acceptable degraded state, it is brought back to one of the states with higher efficiency. Considering customer demand as constant, the system is modeled as a continuous-time Markov process to assess its instantaneous and stationary performance measures. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model.

  19. Principal scheme of preventive maintenance support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Takuya; Terano, Takao; Yokoo, Takeshi; Shinohara, Yasushi

    1985-01-01

    It is of great importance to turn lessons learned from abnormal event experiences to advantage as well as taking apriori actions for prevention of abnormal events in nuclear power plants. From this point of view, a consultation system, named as Preventive Maintenance Support System (PMSS), which is to possess accumulated knowledges drawn from the past abnormal events in nuclear power plants infer occurrences, factors and developments of abnormal events and recommend preventive countermeasures on the basis of the knowledges, has been proposed. This report presents the principal scheme of PMSS. To begin with, following to the discussion of the purpose and use of PMSS, the fundamental functions PMSS should perform are specified. They are (1) event factors analyzation, (2) event prediction (event development estimation and analogous event estimation), (3) event significance evaluation and (4) preventive countermeasures presentation. In the next place, it is asserted that such a system should be constructed as a knowledge engineering one. Then, the R and D subjects and related schedule for PMSS are set up. (author)

  20. Preventive maintenance optimization for a multi-component system under changing job shop schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojun; Lu Zhiqiang; Xi Lifeng

    2012-01-01

    Variability and small lot size is a common feature for many discrete manufacturing processes designed to meet a wide array of customer needs. Because of this, job shop schedule often has to be continuously updated in reaction to changes in production plan. Generally, the aim of preventive maintenance is to ensure production effectiveness and therefore the preventive maintenance models must have the ability to be adaptive to changes in job shop schedule. In this paper, a dynamic opportunistic preventive maintenance model is developed for a multi-component system with considering changes in job shop schedule. Whenever a job is completed, preventive maintenance opportunities arise for all the components in the system. An optimal maintenance practice is dynamically determined by maximizing the short-term cumulative opportunistic maintenance cost savings for the system. The numerical example shows that the scheme obtained by the proposed model can effectively address the preventive maintenance scheduling problem caused by the changes in job shop schedule and is more efficient than the ones based on two other commonly used preventive maintenance models.

  1. A preventive maintenance model for leased equipment subject to internal degradation and external shock damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaojun; Wu, Changjie; Li, Yanting; Xi, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    A periodic preventive maintenance modeling method is proposed for leased equipment with continuous internal degradation and stochastic external shock damage considered simultaneously, which can facilitate the equipment lessor to optimize the maintenance schedule for the same kind of equipment rented by different lessees. A novel interactive mechanism between the continuous internal degradation and the stochastic external shock damage is established on the hazard rate of the equipment with integrating the imperfect effect of maintenance. Two improvement factors are defined for the modeling of imperfect maintenance. The number of failures resulting from internal degradation and from external shocks are both mathematically deduced based on this interactive mechanism. The optimal preventive maintenance scheme is obtained by minimizing the cumulative maintenance cost throughout the lease period. Numerical example shows that the proposed preventive maintenance model not only can reflect the reliability status of the equipment but also can clearly distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. - Highlights: • We propose an imperfect periodic preventive maintenance model for leased equipment. • It can distinguish between the impact from internal degradation and that from external shocks. • An internal–external interactive mechanism is proposed. • Two improvement factors are introduced into the modeling of imperfect maintenance. • The model is helpful for the PM scheduling of the same equipment rented by different lessees.

  2. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  3. On preventive maintenance policy of a critical reliability level for system subject to degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.X.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional preventive maintenance (PM) policies generally hold same time interval for PM actions and are often applied with known failure modes. The same time interval will give unavoidably decreasing reliabilities at the PM actions for degradation system with imperfect PM effect and the known failure modes may be inaccurate in practice. Therefore, field managers would prefer policy with an acceptable reliability level to keep system often at a good state. A PM policy with the critical reliability level is presented to address the preference of field managers. Through assuming that system after a PM action starts a new failure process, a parameter so-called degradation ratio is introduced to represent the imperfect effect. The policy holds a law that there is same number of failures in the time intervals of various PM cycles, and same degradation ratio for the system reliability or benefit parameters such as the optimal time intervals and the hazard rates between the neighboring PM cycles. This law is valid to any of the failure modes that could be appropriately referred as a 'general isodegrading model', and the degradation ratio as a 'general isodegrading ratio'. In addition, life cycle availability and cost functions are derived for system with the policy. An analysis of the field data of a loading and unloading machine indicates that the reliability, availability and cost in life cycle might be well modeled by the present theory and approach

  4. Preventive and corrective maintenance for MINT EPS 3000 electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Shaari Jahar

    2005-01-01

    Preventive and corrective maintenance of a high energy electron is to ensure that the machine would not fail during operation. MINT's EPS 3000 electron beam machine has been in operation for almost 12 years. Throughout those years, events relating to scheduled overhauls and unscheduled corrective maintenance had provided invaluable experience in the form of informal maintenance training to the operators. With the implementation of ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System at the facility, the preventive and corrective maintenance program is becoming more structured and orderly. Collected maintenance data shall be used to initiate continual improvement activities in the facility.This paper describes MINT-ALURTRON's 12 years experience in providing maintenance work for the EPS 3000. (Author)

  5. An evaluation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant preventive maintenance program based on reliability centered maintenance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, C.L.; McCullough, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) techniques were used to support a preventative maintenance (PM) upgrade program (PMUP) performed at TVA Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFNP). The purpose of the RCM analysis was to identify critical equipment based on risk and economic importance and to evaluate the PM activities applicable to that equipment. The analysis may be conveniently divided into three steps, which will be outlined in the Approach section of this paper. The net benefit of the RCM approach was a prioritization of the focus of the PM upgrade program so that plant components receive attention proportional to their importance, and assurance that PM activities properly address the most likely component failure causes

  6. Diagnostics of heavy mining equipment during the scheduled preventive maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, M. Yu; Kuryshkin, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Intensification of production, economic globalization and dramatic downgrade of the workers’ professional skills lead to unacceptable technical state of heavy mining equipment. Equipment maintenance outage reaches 84 % of the total downtime, of which emergency maintenance takes up to 36 % of time, that excesses 429 hours per year fr one excavator. It is shown that yearly diagnostics using methods of non-destructive check allows to reduce emergency downtime by 47 %, and 55 % of revealed defects can be eliminated without breaking the technological cycle of the equipment.

  7. Optimal preventive maintenance and repair policies for multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Shey-Huei; Chang, Chin-Chih; Chen, Yen-Luan; George Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal preventive maintenance (PM) policies for multi-state systems. The scheduled PMs can be either imperfect or perfect type. The improved effective age is utilized to model the effect of an imperfect PM. The system is considered as in a failure state (unacceptable state) once its performance level falls below a given customer demand level. If the system fails before a scheduled PM, it is repaired and becomes operational again. We consider three types of major, minimal, and imperfect repair actions, respectively. The deterioration of the system is assumed to follow a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov process (NHCTMP) with finite state space. A recursive approach is proposed to efficiently compute the time-dependent distribution of the multi-state system. For each repair type, we find the optimal PM schedule that minimizes the average cost rate. The main implication of our results is that in determining the optimal scheduled PM, choosing the right repair type will significantly improve the efficiency of the system maintenance. Thus PM and repair decisions must be made jointly to achieve the best performance

  8. Penerapan Preventive Maintenance Untuk Meningkatkan Reliability Pada Boiler Feed Pump PLTU Tarahan Unit 3 & 4

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Melki

    2015-01-01

    Pemeliharaan dan perawatan merupakan kegiatan untuk menjamin mesin dapat bekerja sebagaimana mestinya. Pemeliharaan dan perawatan menyeluruh untuk meningkatkan produktivitas perusahaan dikenal dengan Preventive Maintenance. pemeliharaan keterlibatan operator melalui kegiatan autonomous maintenance. PT. PLN (Persero) Pembangkitan Sumatera Bagian Selatan Sektor Tarahan merupakan salah satu perusahaan penghasil listrik dan semua mesinnya beroperasi selama 24 jam. Beroperasinya mesin secara c...

  9. A methodology based in particle swarm optimization algorithm for preventive maintenance focused in reliability and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, Andre Ferreira da

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO) is developed for preventive maintenance optimization. The proposed methodology, which allows the use flexible intervals between maintenance interventions, instead of considering fixed periods (as usual), allows a better adaptation of scheduling in order to deal with the failure rates of components under aging. Moreover, because of this flexibility, the planning of preventive maintenance becomes a difficult task. Motivated by the fact that the PSO has proved to be very competitive compared to other optimization tools, this work investigates the use of PSO as an alternative tool of optimization. Considering that PSO works in a real and continuous space, it is a challenge to use it for discrete optimization, in which scheduling may comprise variable number of maintenance interventions. The PSO model developed in this work overcome such difficulty. The proposed PSO searches for the best policy for maintaining and considers several aspects, such as: probability of needing repair (corrective maintenance), the cost of such repairs, typical outage times, costs of preventive maintenance, the impact of maintaining the reliability of systems as a whole, and the probability of imperfect maintenance. To evaluate the proposed methodology, we investigate an electro-mechanical system consisting of three pumps and four valves, High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) of a PWR. Results show that PSO is quite efficient in finding the optimum preventive maintenance policies for the HPIS. (author)

  10. Design of preventive maintenance system using the reliability engineering and maintenance value stream mapping methods in PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Angelita, S.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a company owned by non-governmental organizations engaged in the field of production of rubber processing becoming crumb rubber. Part of the production is supported by some of machines and interacting equipment to achieve optimal productivity. Types of the machine that are used in the production process are Conveyor Breaker, Breaker, Rolling Pin, Hammer Mill, Mill Roll, Conveyor, Shredder Crumb, and Dryer. Maintenance system in PT. XYZ is corrective maintenance i.e. repairing or replacing the engine components after the crash on the machine. Replacement of engine components on corrective maintenance causes the machine to stop operating during the production process is in progress. The result is in the loss of production time due to the operator must replace the damaged engine components. The loss of production time can impact on the production targets which were not reached and lead to high loss costs. The cost for all components is Rp. 4.088.514.505. This cost is really high just for maintaining a Mill Roll Machine. Therefore PT. XYZ is needed to do preventive maintenance i.e. scheduling engine components and improving maintenance efficiency. The used methods are Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping (MVSM). The needed data in this research are the interval of time damage to engine components, opportunity cost, labor cost, component cost, corrective repair time, preventive repair time, Mean Time To Opportunity (MTTO), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), and Mean Time To Yield (MTTY). In this research, the critical components of Mill Roll machine are Spier, Bushing, Bearing, Coupling and Roll. Determination of damage distribution, reliability, MTTF, cost of failure, cost of preventive, current state map, and future state map are done so that the replacement time for each critical component with the lowest maintenance cost and preparation of Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) are developed. For the critical component that has been

  11. Identification of Optimal Preventive Maintenance Decisions for Composite Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laks, P.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Gherman, B.; Porumbel, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a decision support tool which identifies cost-optimal maintenance decisions for a given planning period. Simultaneously, the reliability state of the component is kept at or below a given reliability threshold: a failure limit policy applies. The tool is developed to support

  12. RoVi: Continuous transport infrastructure monitoring framework for preventive maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ground transport infrastructures require in-situ monitoring to evaluate their condition and deterioration and to design appropriate preventive maintenance strategies. Current monitoring practices provide accurate and detailed spatial measurements but often lack the required temporal resolution. This

  13. Proposal for monitoring concrete painting as a preventive maintenance tool (Abutments and pier caps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    One of the growing number of preventive bridge maintenance activities conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) is washing and applying thin film protective coatings to bridge abutments and piers. Previous work conducted by Kentucky Tra...

  14. Webinar: Making the Connection: Linking IAQ, Energy Efficiency and Preventive Maintenance Together for Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the February 22, 2018, Energy Savings Plus Health for Schools Webinar Series Webinar: Making the Connection: Linking IAQ, Energy Efficiency and Preventive Maintenance Together for Healthy Schools

  15. Preventative and predictive maintenance as a function of spare part management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRose, R.; Sloski, P.

    2006-01-01

    Preventive and predictive maintenance has many aspects, such as vibration monitoring, lubricating oil analysis, thermography etc. This presentation focuses on the material and design application of sealing devices. (author)

  16. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  17. Money-back guarantee warranty policy with preventive maintenance strategy for sensor-embedded remanufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ammar Y.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2018-01-01

    In today's global environment, technology is constantly evolving. Being able to stay up-to-date with the very latest technological advances can be extremely hard to accomplish. As a result of these changes and developments in technology, which often come unexpectedly, consumers are frequently tempted to update their devices to the very latest model. The result is that the life cycle of a product is becoming shorter and shorter than before. Manufacturers attempt to respond to consumers' concerns involving environmental issues as well as the more governmentally stringent environmental legislations by establishing facilities which include the minimization of the totality of waste relocated to landfills by recovering materials and components from returned, or End-Of-Life products and reuse them to build a remanufactured product, and/or novel components. With the rapid growth of interest in remanufactured products' market, offering warranty for remanufactured products and components is becoming a necessity for remanufacturer in order to meet customers' requirement and as a marketing mechanism. During that process, maintenance policies are of great importance in order to reduce the warranty cost on the remanufacturer. In this paper, an optimization simulation model for remanufactured items sold with one-dimensional non-renewing money-back guarantee (MBG) warranty policy is proposed from the view of remanufacturer, in which, an End-Of-Life product is subjected to upgrade action at the end of its past life and during the warranty period, preventive maintenance actions are carried out when the remaining life of the product reaches a pre-specified value so that the remanufacturer's expected profit can be maximized. Finally, a numerical example and design of experiment analysis are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  18. Repair and preventive maintenance technology for BWR reactor internals and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsubo, Tooru; Itou, Takashi; Sakashita, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of welding portion has found in many domestic and foreign BWR reactor internals and Primary Loop Recirculation piping. Also, repair and preventive maintenance technologies for SCC has been developed and/or adopted to BWRs in recent years. This paper introduces the sample of these technologies, such as seal-welding for SCC on BWR reactor internals, preventive maintenance technology for PLR piping such as Corrosion Resistant Cladding, Internal Polishing and Induction Heating Stress Improvement. These technologies are introduced on 'E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance', which is an international journal on a exclusive website of Japan Society of Maintenology. (author)

  19. A new multi-objective optimization model for preventive maintenance and replacement scheduling of multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Kamran S.; Usher, John S.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, a new multi-objective optimization model is developed to determine the optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedules in a repairable and maintainable multi-component system. In this model, the planning horizon is divided into discrete and equally-sized periods in which three possible actions must be planned for each component, namely maintenance, replacement, or do nothing. The objective is to determine a plan of actions for each component in the system while minimizing the total cost and maximizing overall system reliability simultaneously over the planning horizon. Because of the complexity, combinatorial and highly nonlinear structure of the mathematical model, two metaheuristic solution methods, generational genetic algorithm, and a simulated annealing are applied to tackle the problem. The Pareto optimal solutions that provide good tradeoffs between the total cost and the overall reliability of the system can be obtained by the solution approach. Such a modeling approach should be useful for maintenance planners and engineers tasked with the problem of developing recommended maintenance plans for complex systems of components.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR OPTIMAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE POLICY IN A STEEL INDUSTRY : SIX SIGMA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. R. Naidu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a critical evaluation of the Preventive Maintenance system in steel industry. This study helps in implementing Six Sigma solutions to reduce the down time of two critical machines i.e., Electric Arc Furnace (EAF and Billet Casting Machine (BCM. It is clear from the analysis of EAF and BCM respectively that, variations in output are quite possible because the machines output not only depend on maintenance time but also on several other variables. Further, the objective is to design a preventive maintenance programme on the same equipment situated in the plant using Six Sigma. The breakdown of these equipments could very well affect the production rate. For this, the mathematical models have been developed and these models are used to obtain the optimum preventive maintenance frequency for minimizing the down time and maximizing the profits.

  1. A two-stage preventive maintenance optimization model incorporating two-dimensional extended warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    In practice, customers can decide whether to buy an extended warranty or not, at the time of item sale or at the end of the basic warranty. In this paper, by taking into account the moments of customers purchasing two-dimensional extended warranty, the optimization of imperfect preventive maintenance for repairable items is investigated from the manufacturer's perspective. A two-dimensional preventive maintenance strategy is proposed, under which the item is preventively maintained according to a specified age interval or usage interval, whichever occurs first. It is highlighted that when the extended warranty is purchased upon the expiration of the basic warranty, the manufacturer faces a two-stage preventive maintenance optimization problem. Moreover, in the second stage, the possibility of reducing the servicing cost over the extended warranty period is explored by classifying customers on the basis of their usage rates and then providing them with customized preventive maintenance programs. Numerical examples show that offering customized preventive maintenance programs can reduce the manufacturer's warranty cost, while a larger saving in warranty cost comes from encouraging customers to buy the extended warranty at the time of item sale. - Highlights: • A two-dimensional PM strategy is investigated. • Imperfect PM strategy is optimized by considering both two-dimensional BW and EW. • Customers are categorized based on their usage rates throughout the BW period. • Servicing cost of the EW is reduced by offering customized PM programs. • Customers buying the EW at the time of sale is preferred for the manufacturer.

  2. Preventive maintenance and load testing of fixed position cranes in support of major operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrick, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper will address load testing and preventive maintenance of fixed in-place cranes in general, and maintenance and load testing of the 200 ton Polar Gantry Crane at the FFTF in particular. This paper also covers the installation of a 100-ton bridge crane in the FFTF's Reactor Service Building, as well as use of these cranes in making important lifts of FFTF equipment

  3. Preventive Maintenance Scheduling for Multicogeneration Plants with Production Constraints Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Alhamad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method developed to schedule the preventive maintenance tasks of the generation and desalination units in separate and linked cogeneration plants provided that all the necessary maintenance and production constraints are satisfied. The proposed methodology is used to generate two preventing maintenance schedules, one for electricity and the other for distiller. Two types of crossover operators were adopted, 2-point and 4-point. The objective function of the model is to maximize the available number of operational units in each plant. The results obtained were satisfying the problem parameters. However, 4-point slightly produce better solution than 2-point ones for both electricity and water distiller. The performance as well as the effectiveness of the genetic algorithm in solving preventive maintenance scheduling is applied and tested on a real system of 21 units for electricity and 21 units for water. The results presented here show a great potential for utility applications for effective energy management over a time horizon of 52 weeks. The model presented is an effective decision tool that optimizes the solution of the maintenance scheduling problem for cogeneration plants under maintenance and production constraints.

  4. A preventive maintenance model with a two-level inspection policy based on a three-stage failure process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbin; Zhao, Fei; Peng, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Inspection is always an important preventive maintenance (PM) activity and can have different depths and cover all or part of plant systems. This paper introduces a two-level inspection policy model for a single component plant system based on a three-stage failure process. Such a failure process divides the system′s life into three stages: good, minor defective and severe defective stages. The first level of inspection, the minor inspection, can only identify the minor defective stage with a certain probability, but can always reveal the severe defective stage. The major inspection can however identify both defective stages perfectly. Once the system is found to be in the minor defective stage, a shortened inspection interval is adopted. If however the system is found to be in the severe defective stage, we may delay the maintenance action if the time to the next planned PM window is less than a threshold level, but otherwise, replace immediately. This corresponds to the well adopted maintenance policy in practice such as periodic inspections with planned PMs. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed model by comparing with other models. - Highlights: • The system′s deterioration goes through a three-stage process, namely, normal, minor defective and severe defective. • Two levels of inspections are proposed, e.g., minor and major inspections. • Once the minor defective stage is found, instead of taking a maintenance action, a shortened inspection interval is recommended. • When the severe defective stage is found, we delay the maintenance according to the threshold to the next PM. • The decision variables are the inspection intervals and the threshold to PM

  5. Verifying elementary ITER maintenance actions with the MS2 benchmark product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.; Schropp, G.Y.R.

    2011-01-01

    A new facility has been taken in operation to investigate the influence of visual and haptic feedback on the performance of remotely executed ITER RH maintenance tasks. A reference set of representative ITER remote handling maintenance tasks was included the master slave manipulator system (MS2) benchmark product. The benchmark product was used in task performance tests in a representative two-handed dexterous manipulation test bed at NRG. In the setup, the quality of visual feedback was varied by exchanging direct view with indirect view setups in which visual feedback is provided via video cameras. Interaction forces were measured via an integrated force sensor. The impact of feedback quality on the performance of maintenance tasks at the level of handling individual parts was measured and analysed. Remote execution of the maintenance actions took roughly 3-5 times more time than hands-on. Visual feedback was identified as the dominant factor, including aspects like (lack of) operator control over camera placement, pan, tilt and zoom, lack of 3D perception, image quality, and latency. Haptic feedback was found to be important, but only in specific contact transition and constrained motion tasks.

  6. Integrating the sequence dependent setup time open shop problem and preventive maintenance policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naboureh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most industrial environments, it is usually considered that machines are accessible throughout the planning horizon, but in real situation, machines may be unavailable due to a scheduled preventive maintenance where the periods of unavailability are known in advance. The main idea of this paper is to consider different preventive maintenance policies on machines regarding open shop scheduling problem (OSSP with sequence dependent setup times (SDST using immune algorithm. The preventive maintenance (PM policies are planned for maximizing availability of machines or keeping minimum level of reliability through the production horizon. The objective function of the paper is to minimize makespan. In total, the proposed algorithm extensively is compared with six adaptations of existing heuristic and meta-heuristic methods for the problem through data sets from benchmarks based on Taillard’s instances with some adjustments. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms for this problem.

  7. Using risk-informed asset management for feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Ernest; Sun, Alice; Richards, Andrew; Grantom, Rick; Liming, James; Salter, James

    2004-01-01

    The initial development of a South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company process for supporting preventative maintenance optimization by applying the Balance-Of-Plant model and Risk-Informed Asset Management alpha-level software applications is presented. Preventative maintenance activities are evaluated in the South Texas Project Risk-Informed Asset Management software while the plant maintains or improves upon high levels of nuclear safety. In the Balance-Of-Plant availability application, the level of detail in the feedwater system is enhanced to support plant decision-making at the component failure mode and human error mode level of indenture by elaborating on the current model at the super-component level of indenture. The enhanced model and modeling techniques are presented. Results of case studies in feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization sing plant-specific data are also presented. (author)

  8. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 37 -- Main turbine EHC hydraulics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1998-11-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to the main turbine EHC hydraulic fluid and associated components. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  9. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 19 -- HVAC -- chillers and compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to HVAC -- Chillers and Compressors. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program

  10. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  11. Development of preventive maintenance technology and advanced service equipment for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Sumikawa, Masaharu; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Arakawa, Tadao; Hasegawa, Kunio; Kato, Kanji.

    1990-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. as a manufacturer of nuclear power plants has carried out the consistent general preventive maintenance activities from the planning of the plants and the design of maintainability in the construction phase to the planning and working of preventive maintenance in the operation and maintenance phase, and exerted efforts to heighten the capacity ratio and reliability of the plants. For the purpose, the steady activities of reliability improvement have been carried out throughout the whole company, and the rationalization of the planning and management of the preventive maintenance with a computer and the development of the robots to which Al is applied have been promoted. As the technology of upgrading the facilities, boron racks, the control rods having long life and so on were developed, and their practical use is advanced. Moreover for the future, the development of the diagnostic technology on material deterioration using superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUID) is in progress. The preventive maintenance activities in Hitachi Ltd., the technical development for the purpose and the upgrading of the plant facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Preventive maintenance prosthodontics telescopic overdenture (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardiansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Missing of permanent teeth in adult patient without replacing them may lead to thedisturbance of such functions of mastication, aesthetics and phonetics. Besides, masticationorgans imbalance may happen, Missing of permanent teeth causing the more demand for replacing them that providesmore perfect elements which cannot be achieved by removable or fixed denture. Removable dentures attached by means of telescopic anchors are regarded to be a good clinical solution. This kind of restorations in patients with reduced and residual dentition gives an opportunity to reduce destructive rotational and horizontal occlusal forces by directing them more axially. It can also increase the stability of abutment teeth and protect them from pathologic migration, and, thus may enhance the functional effect of the prosthetic treatment.In addition to the Overdenture, can prevent alveolar bone resorption so that the denture does not quickly loose. This can be considered as a preventive treatment prosthodontics. This paper is expected to provide important information to save the remaining natural teeth, giving information retain natural teeth even with periodontal disorders and esthetics. Eventually provide an alternative solution in addition to conventional denture care. The conclusion is Overdenture treatment denture with telescopic been to improve the aesthetic, tooth retention, stabilization, and maintain the remaining teeth.

  13. Networks for prevention of violence: from utopia to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie Njaine

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the experience of networks for the protection of people exposed to situations of violence or prevention networks. It is based on the concept created by Castells, who defines the information age. This study is part of the investigation "Successful experiences in the prevention of violence", carried out by the Latin-American Center for Studies on Violence Jorge Careli/ENSP-IFF/Fiocruz, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Health Survey of the Ministry of Health. The article analyzes the possibilities and limitations in the construction of networks for the prevention of violence, seeking to understand the sense of actions and movements carried out in networks. The method we used is a case study of two network initiatives in the Southern region of the country. In terms of results, in face of the difficulties of working in networks, we found it to be necessary: to break with sectorial and vertical actions; to promote constant communication and interchange of information; to permanently train the professionals and persons involved in the network, incorporating them into the protective and preventive actions; and to promote the participation of wide social sectors. In conclusion, one can affirm that the construction of a protection network involves complex steps, looking to the same problem with new eyes and a new vision for planting solutions.

  14. Opportunities and supporting activities to promote preventive maintenance of NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, A.; Shinkawa, T.; Sakurada, M.

    1998-01-01

    With increase of the number of NPPs and operation history, enhancement of the safety regulation is becoming important for such long-operated NPPs. Centering on the comprehensive preventive maintenance, periodic safety reviews by utilities and its review and evaluation by MITI are in progress. The first reviews have not revealed essential and critical indications to be newly implemented. This means that the most of activities to secure reliability and safety have been done steadily. The present paper addresses the mechanism of on-going preventive maintenance and its essential elements: opportunities to identify issues and problems, and supporting activities to promote decision-makings on feedback, upgrading and modernization of NPPs. (author)

  15. Development of a Preventive Maintenance Program for Tooling Used in Powder Slush Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL

    2016-07-19

    ORNL collaborated with Faurecia Interior Systems to investigate the feasibility of developing a thermomagnetic preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling used in powder slush molding. It was found that thermal treatments at temperatures greater than 500°C can anneal strain hardening in nickel tooling and a range of temperatures and times for effective thermal annealing were identified. It was also observed that magnetic fields applied during thermal annealing do not alter the kinetics of strain hardening annealing. The results obtained in this investigation provide a foundation for establishing a preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling.

  16. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-10-01

    This manual was prepared to provide detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  18. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  19. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-09-01

    This manual provides detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  20. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  1. Where does “whichever occurs first” hold for preventive maintenance modelings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Liu, Hu-Chen; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe where the classical assumption “whichever occurs first” holds for preventive maintenance (PM) modelings. We firstly take up a bivariate maintenance policy where “whichever occurs first” and the newly proposed “whichever occurs last” are respectively used. Modification of PM performance is introduced into modelings to avoid interruptions of job executions, that is, PMs are done only at the end of working cycles. From the points of performability and maintenance cost, we secondly compare the optimized “first” and “last” policies in detail and find two critical points of comparisons analytically. Further, by comparing the “first” and “last” policies with the standard maintenance, modified PM costs are obtained to observe whether it is easy to save PM cost for “whichever occurs first”. For a trivariate maintenance policy, we thirdly propose an entirely new assumption “whichever occurs middle” and give another one model that considers both assumptions of “first” and “last”. We analyze maintenance probabilities for each model and then obtain directly their expected maintenance cost rates for further studies. - Highlights: • A bivariate maintenance policy based on “whichever occurs first” is improved. • Two comparisons of “whichever occurs first and last” are made. • Modified maintenance costs are obtained to observe which policy could save more costs. • New assumption “whichever occurs middle” for the trivariate maintenances is proposed. • One policy is modeled by considering both assumptions of “first” and “last”

  2. A preventive maintenance policy based on dependent two-stage deterioration and external shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Peng, Rui; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a preventive maintenance policy for a single-unit system whose failure has two competing and dependent causes, i.e., internal deterioration and sudden shocks. The internal failure process is divided into two stages, i.e. normal and defective. Shocks arrive according to a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), leading to the failure of the system immediately. The occurrence rate of a shock is affected by the state of the system. Both an age-based replacement and finite number of periodic inspections are schemed simultaneously to deal with the competing failures. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal preventive replacement interval, inspection interval and number of inspections such that the expected cost per unit time is minimized. A case study on oil pipeline maintenance is presented to illustrate the maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A maintenance model based on two-stage deterioration and sudden shocks is developed. • The impact of internal system state on external shock process is studied. • A new preventive maintenance strategy combining age-based replacements and periodic inspections is proposed. • Postponed replacement of a defective system is provided by restricting the number of inspections.

  3. Hybrid Optimization Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search for Preventive Maintenance Period Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All equipment must be maintained during its lifetime to ensure normal operation. Maintenance is one of the critical roles in the success of manufacturing enterprises. This paper proposed a preventive maintenance period optimization model (PMPOM to find an optimal preventive maintenance period. By making use of the advantages of particle swarm optimization (PSO and cuckoo search (CS algorithm, a hybrid optimization algorithm of PSO and CS is proposed to solve the PMPOM problem. The test functions show that the proposed algorithm exhibits more outstanding performance than particle swarm optimization and cuckoo search. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages of strong optimization ability and fast convergence speed to solve the PMPOM problem.

  4. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  5. Preventive maintenance and the interval availability distribution of an unreliable production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkhuizen, G. van; Heijden, M. van der

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the optimal preventive maintenance interval for an unreliable production system has been determined by maximizing its limiting availability. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that this performance measure does not always provide relevant information for practical purposes. This is particularly true for order-driven manufacturing systems, in which due date performance has become a more important, and even a competitive factor. Under these circumstances, the so-called interval availability distribution is often seen as a more appropriate performance measure. Surprisingly enough, the relation between preventive maintenance and interval availability has received little attention in the existing literature. In this article, a series of mathematical models and optimization techniques is presented, with which the optimal preventive maintenance interval can be determined from an interval availability point of view, rather than from a limiting availability perspective. Computational results for a class of representative test problems indicate that significant improvements of up to 30% in the guaranteed interval availability can be obtained, by increasing preventive maintenance frequencies somewhere between 10 and 70%

  6. Attitudes and actions of asthma patients on regular maintenance therapy: the INSPIRE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrseth Sven-Erik

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the attitudes and actions of 3415 physician-recruited adults aged ≥ 16 years with asthma in eleven countries who were prescribed regular maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids or inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists. Methods Structured interviews were conducted to assess medication use, asthma control, and patients' ability to recognise and self-manage worsening asthma. Results Despite being prescribed regular maintenance therapy, 74% of patients used short-acting β2-agonists daily and 51% were classified by the Asthma Control Questionnaire as having uncontrolled asthma. Even patients with well-controlled asthma reported an average of 6 worsenings/year. The mean period from the onset to the peak symptoms of a worsening was 5.1 days. Although most patients recognised the early signs of worsenings, the most common response was to increase short-acting β2-agonist use; inhaled corticosteroids were increased to a lesser extent at the peak of a worsening. Conclusion Previous studies of this nature have also reported considerable patient morbidity, but in those studies approximately three-quarters of patients were not receiving regular maintenance therapy and not all had a physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma. This study shows that patients with asthma receiving regular maintenance therapy still have high levels of inadequately controlled asthma. The study also shows that patients recognise deteriorating asthma control and adjust their medication during episodes of worsening. However, they often adjust treatment in an inappropriate manner, which represents a window of missed opportunity.

  7. An Enhanced Preventive Maintenance Optimization Model Based on a Three-Stage Failure Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants are highly complex systems and the issues related to their safety are of primary importance. Probabilistic safety assessment is regarded as the most widespread methodology for studying the safety of nuclear power plants. As maintenance is one of the most important factors for affecting the reliability and safety, an enhanced preventive maintenance optimization model based on a three-stage failure process is proposed. Preventive maintenance is still a dominant maintenance policy due to its easy implementation. In order to correspond to the three-color scheme commonly used in practice, the lifetime of system before failure is divided into three stages, namely, normal, minor defective, and severe defective stages. When the minor defective stage is identified, two measures are considered for comparison: one is that halving the inspection interval only when the minor defective stage is identified at the first time; the other one is that if only identifying the minor defective stage, the subsequent inspection interval is halved. Maintenance is implemented immediately once the severe defective stage is identified. Minimizing the expected cost per unit time is our objective function to optimize the inspection interval. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.

  8. Incidence of falls and preventive actions in a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Cassola, Talita Portela; Suzuki, Lyliam Midori; Dias, Vera Lucia Mendes; Pinho, Leandro Barbosa de; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2018-01-01

    Objective Describing the incidence of falls and its relation with preventive actions developed in a Brazilian university hospital. Method A retrospective longitudinal study. Hospitalized adult patients in the clinical, surgical, psychiatric and emergency units who suffered a fall in the institution, and who had the event notified in the period from January 2011 to December 2015 were included in the study. The data were collected from the institution's management information system and analyzed in the SPSS statistical program. Results There were 2,296 falls, with a mean incidence of 1.70 falls/1,000 patients per day. An increase in the incidence of falls was observed in the period from 2011 (1.61) to 2012 (2.03). In the following years, the incidence of falls decreased from 1.83 falls/1,000 patients per day in 2013 to 1.42 falls/1,000 patients per day in 2015. The incidence of falls accompanied an implementation of preventive actions, suggesting the impact of such interventions in reducing the event occurrence. Conclusion The findings demonstrate the importance of implementing preventive interventions in reducing the incidence of falls in hospitalized patients.

  9. A reliability-based preventive maintenance methodology for the projection spot welding machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayzimatov Ulugbek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An effective operations of a projection spot welding (PSW machine is closely related to the effec-tiveness of the maintenance. Timely maintenance can prevent failures and improve reliability and maintainability of the machine. Therefore, establishing the maintenance frequency for the welding machine is one of the most important tasks for plant engineers. In this regard, reliability analysis of the welding machine can be used to establish preventive maintenance intervals (PMI and to identify the critical parts of the system. In this reliability and maintainability study, analysis of the PSW machine was carried out. The failure and repair data for analysis were obtained from automobile manufacturing company located in Uzbekistan. The machine was divided into three main sub-systems: electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic. Different distributions functions for all sub-systems was tested and their parameters tabulated. Based on estimated parameters of the analyzed distribu-tions, PMI for the PSW machines sub-systems at different reliability levels was calculated. Finally, preventive measures for enhancing the reliability of the PSW machine sub-systems are suggested.

  10. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of optimised preventive maintenance strategies for deteriorating infrastructure assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshkhah, A.; Stocks, N.G.; Jeffrey, P.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient life-cycle management of civil infrastructure systems under continuous deterioration can be improved by studying the sensitivity of optimised preventive maintenance decisions with respect to changes in model parameters. Sensitivity analysis in maintenance optimisation problems is important because if the calculation of the cost of preventive maintenance strategies is not sufficiently robust, the use of the maintenance model can generate optimised maintenances strategies that are not cost-effective. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis methods (particularly variance based ones), only partially respond to this issue and their use is limited to evaluating the extent to which uncertainty in each input contributes to the overall output's variance. These methods do not take account of the decision-making problem in a straightforward manner. To address this issue, we use the concept of the Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) to perform decision-informed sensitivity analysis: to identify the key parameters of the problem and quantify the value of learning about certain aspects of the life-cycle management of civil infrastructure system. This approach allows us to quantify the benefits of the maintenance strategies in terms of expected costs and in the light of accumulated information about the model parameters and aspects of the system, such as the ageing process. We use a Gamma process model to represent the uncertainty associated with asset deterioration, illustrating the use of EVPI to perform sensitivity analysis on the optimisation problem for age-based and condition-based preventive maintenance strategies. The evaluation of EVPI indices is computationally demanding and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques would not be helpful. To overcome this computational difficulty, we approximate the EVPI indices using Gaussian process emulators. The implications of the worked numerical examples discussed in the context of analytical efficiency and organisational

  11. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  12. Optimizing production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning's integration in failure-prone manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.

  13. Arbitral action and preventive methods against predatory journal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Pil Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As open access model of journal publication increases, predatory journals, which deceive scholars to publish journals in fake database websites and exploit them for publishing fee, is also increasing. There are two types of predatory journals. First, journal hijacking and cybersquatting generally create fake database website by mimicking authentic database website, thereby defrauding scholars for publication fee. Second, journal phishing use scam emails to steal scholars’ personal information. If scholars suffered damage from predatory journals, scholars can take either arbitral or judicial actions. Arbitral action follows arbitrational resolution process termed Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy. Scholars can join Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy proceeding with legal entity that has right to authentic database website, which will result in cancellation or transfer of fake database website. In contrast, scholars can take judicial action under Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which may help scholars to recover an actual monetary damage from predatory journals. Nonetheless, taking precaution to avoid predatory journals is the best course of action, rather than going through arduous cure procedures. Scholars may prevent predatory journals by carefully examining fake database website names or email addresses, or observing unreasonable number of published article issues in predatory journal websites.

  14. Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.

  15. Coordinated preventive maintenance scheduling of GENCO and TRANSCO in restructured power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, T.; Swarup, K. Shanti

    2009-01-01

    Preventive maintenance of generating units and lines, in a competitive electric energy environment is proposed. Inclusion of transmission constraints and forced outage rates, over a specified operational period is considered. For generator maintenance the objective of the ISO is to maintain adequate level of reliability throughout the operational period, for which Bender's decomposition technique is used. The objective of the GENCO is to maximize profit or to minimize loss in profit, for which transmission constrained price based unit commitment (TCPBUC), based on Lagrangian relaxation method is used. Bender's decomposition technique is used for line maintenance, with adequate level of reliability. A coordinating technique using penalty factors is incorporated to obtain convergence of the conflicting objectives. The transmission constraints are modeled using dc sensitivity factors. Detailed case studies of six-bus systems and IEEE RTS system are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Wind turbine blade life-time assessment model for preventive planning of operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair...... of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O......&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law...

  17. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M) practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair...... of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O......&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law...

  18. EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS TO PREVENT DENGUE: EXPERIENCES AND STRATEGIES WITH ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.

  19. An approach to integrating surveillance and maintenance tasks to prevent the dominant failure causes of critical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Munoz, A.; Serradell, V.

    1995-01-01

    Surveillance requirements and maintenance activities in a nuclear power plant aim to preserve components' inherent reliability. Up to now, predictive and preventive maintenance mainly concerned plant staff, but the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Maintenance Rule released in July 1991 will have significant impact on how nuclear power plants perform and document this maintenance. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic methodology to establish maintenance tasks for critical components in plant with a high degree of compliance with the goals of the Rule. RCM pursues the identification of applicable and efficient tasks to prevent these components from developing their dominant failure causes, and, in turn, towards achieving proper levels of components availability with low cost. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the most suitable set of tasks to achieve this goal, which involves the integration of maintenance activities and surveillance requirements for each critical component based on the unavailability and cost associated with each individual task which is performed on it

  20. University of Tennessee - Industry collaborative research and development in preventive maintenance technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Preventive Maintenance Engineering Laboratory (PMEL) was inaugurated at the University of Tennessee Nuclear Engineering Department in September 1989. The startup funding was provided by Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc. The purpose of PMEL is to identify maintenance-related problems in the power and process industries and to find their solutions through the development and application of emerging technologies. These include advanced digital signal processing, applied artificial intelligence (AI), artificial neural networks, and reliability based methods. The Laboratory activities are being expanded by the formation of an industrial consortium within the Measurement and Control Engineering Center at the University of Tennessee. Several research and development projects in preventive maintenance are being carried out. These include condition monitoring of air operated valves, automated diagnostics of motor operated valves, instrument calibration, verification, and estimation of expected residual life of electric motors using applied AI technology and reliability-based methods. The new methodology will be applied to other industrial subsystems. A long-term research and development project is being sponsored by the T.V.A. Nuclear Maintenance Department. The overall objective of the research program is to develop and apply advanced artificial intelligence and information processing methods to the problems of plant performance monitoring and preventive maintenance. The program includes the development of a workstation/PC-based, networking of plant information for easy access to operational and management personnel, implementation of a sensor verification system, monitoring of feedwater flow venturi fouling and heat rate balance, and integration of signal validation, command validation, and fault-tolerant control strategies

  1. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Florian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair and replacement activities as well as large revenue losses, mainly in the case of offshore wind farms. The recent development and evolution of condition monitoring techniques, as well as the fact that an increasing number of installed turbines are equipped with online monitoring systems, offers a large amount of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law approach. The model is used within a risk-based maintenance decision framework to optimize maintenance planning for the blades lifetime.

  2. Joint Optimization of Preventive Maintenance and Spare Parts Inventory with Appointment Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of the wide application of condition-based maintenance (CBM in maintenance practice, the joint optimization of maintenance and spare parts inventory is becoming a hot research to take full advantage of CBM and reduce the operational cost. In order to avoid both the high inventory level and the shortage of spare parts, an appointment policy of spare parts is first proposed based on the prediction of remaining useful lifetime, and then a corresponding joint optimization model of preventive maintenance and spare parts inventory is established. Due to the complexity of the model, the combination method of genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo is presented to get the optimal maximum inventory level, safety inventory level, potential failure threshold, and appointment threshold to minimize the cost rate. Finally, the proposed model is studied through a case study and compared with both the separate optimization and the joint optimization without appointment policy, and the results show that the proposed model is more effective. In addition, the sensitivity analysis shows that the proposed model is consistent with the actual situation of maintenance practices and inventory management.

  3. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  4. A comprehensive approach to RCM-based preventive maintenance program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.E.; Davis, T.; Pennington, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In late 1986, Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G) concluded that to support its vision and strategic planning it would be necessary to develop a consistent approach to maintenance for all nuclear units at the artificial island. General Physics Corporation was selected to lead a consultant team to support full-scale development of a preventive maintenance (PM) program for Salem and Hope Creek generating stations based on a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approach. RCM was selected because it represents a systematic approach to developing a PM program that provides a logical, consistent, and traceable methodology and produces a well-documented engineering basis for the program. Early in 1987, primary objectives for the PM program were defined. The Phase I tasks addressed key programmatic areas such as maintenance philosophy, procedures, condition monitoring, performance trending, equipment failure data base, ogranization, PM program effectiveness evaluation, RCM process, reliability/availability modeling, information management, training, spare parts, software/hardware, and commitments. Phase I of the PM program development project was completed in January 1988. Highlights of the Phase I work and the PM program manual are described

  5. Determining optimal preventive maintenance interval for component of Well Barrier Element in an Oil & Gas Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, A.; Kurniati, N.

    2018-04-01

    An oil and gas company has 2,268 oil and gas wells. Well Barrier Element (WBE) is installed in a well to protect human, prevent asset damage and minimize harm to the environment. The primary WBE component is Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV). The secondary WBE component is Christmas Tree Valves that consist of four valves i.e. Lower Master Valve (LMV), Upper Master Valve (UMV), Swab Valve (SV) and Wing Valve (WV). Current practice on WBE Preventive Maintenance (PM) program is conducted by considering the suggested schedule as stated on manual. Corrective Maintenance (CM) program is conducted when the component fails unexpectedly. Both PM and CM need cost and may cause production loss. This paper attempts to analyze the failure data and reliability based on historical data. Optimal PM interval is determined in order to minimize the total cost of maintenance per unit time. The optimal PM interval for SCSSV is 730 days, LMV is 985 days, UMV is 910 days, SV is 900 days and WV is 780 days. In average of all components, the cost reduction by implementing the suggested interval is 52%, while the reliability is improved by 4% and the availability is increased by 5%.

  6. Constrained non-linear multi-objective optimisation of preventive maintenance scheduling for offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuya; Pantelous, Athanasios A.; Beer, Michael; Zhou, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Offshore wind farm is an emerging source of renewable energy, which has been shown to have tremendous potential in recent years. In this blooming area, a key challenge is that the preventive maintenance of offshore turbines should be scheduled reasonably to satisfy the power supply without failure. In this direction, two significant goals should be considered simultaneously as a trade-off. One is to maximise the system reliability and the other is to minimise the maintenance related cost. Thus, a non-linear multi-objective programming model is proposed including two newly defined objectives with thirteen families of constraints suitable for the preventive maintenance of offshore wind farms. In order to solve our model effectively, the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II, especially for the multi-objective optimisation is utilised and Pareto-optimal solutions of schedules can be obtained to offer adequate support to decision-makers. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the performances of the devised model and algorithm, and explore the relationships of the two targets with the help of a contrast model.

  7. From science to action and from action to science: the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Larrat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. During the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite Trichinella nativa in Nunavik inhabitants. In response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program (NTPP. The objectives of the present communication are to review the NTPP, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations. Study design. Descriptive study. Methods. The NTPP relies on a pooled digestion assay of tongue samples taken from each harvested walrus. The public health recommendations depend on the results of the analyses: infected walrus meat should be destroyed; parasite-free meat may be eaten raw or cooked. Results. All communities involved in the walrus hunt participate in the NTPP and a high percentage of harvested walruses are included in the NTPP. Infected animals account for 2.9% of the walruses tested (20/694 since 1992. The NTPP permitted the early management of a trichinellosis event in 1997. Since then, it prevented the new occurrence of outbreaks related to walruses hunted by Nunavimmiut. Conclusions. The absence of recent major outbreaks of trichinellosis in Nunavik may reasonably be attributed to the NTPP. The success of the program stands on many facilitating factors such as the nature of the disease and its source, the existence of an efficient analytic method, the strong involvement of the different partners including direct resource users, as well as the comprehensive bidirectional science-to-action approach that has been followed.

  8. Preventive maintenance plan of the air-conditioning duct using the ACM-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuba, Kazushi; Ito, Takanobu; Kojima, Akiko; Tanji, Kazuhiro; Sato, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Air-conditioning duct is difficult to predict the date to occur of corrosion such as affect the function. Therefore, the current conservation method is mostly corrective maintenance. Therefore, we used the test pieces of six types and ACM-sensor in order to solve the corrosion speed from corrosion environment and relationship of corrosion quantity of test pieces. In addition, was used the duct molded articles various in order to check the corrosion degree of when processed the duct. As a result, we were selected crust body constituting a duct and optimal combination of the flange by solve the corrosion speed of the test pieces various. Thus, it performs preventive disposal before to occur of corrosion such as affect the function by predicting the duct life from corrosion speed, and lead to stability and safe operating by appropriate maintenance of equipment. (author)

  9. An overview of a knowledge based system for preventive maintenance support of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya; Yokoo, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, much interest has been paid to knowledge engineering techniques for new vehicles of advanced information processing. As a practical application in electric power industry, this report discusses a knowledge based system for supporting preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants. To support preventive maintenance tasks, the system must have facilities to reason failures and accidents of the plants, to evaluate their significance, to predict any possible troubles, and to indentify appropriate preventive countermeasures for them. This report describes the overview of the prototype system from a viewpoint of knowledge engineering. The results of the study are as follows: (1) The knowledge base of the prototype system consists of a data-base on plants and a rule-base derived from experts' knowledge. Using the information in the knowledge base, the system diagnoses the plant without real-time interaction with operational plants. (2) Expert's knowledge in the rule-base is represented in the non-procedural declarative forms. These rules are organized in some hierarchical structure so as to be used efficiently and used in conjunction with the corresponding set of plant information in the data-base. (3) The prototype system is incrementally developed with the rapid prototyping techniques, that is, the processes of design, implementation and evaluation are repeated several times. (author)

  10. PWSCC Preventive Maintenance Activities for Alloy 600 in Japanese PWR Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Onishi, K.; Okimura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Because many nuclear plants have been in operation for ages, the importance of preventive maintenance technologies is getting higher. One conspicuous problem found in pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants is the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) observed in Alloy 600 (a kind of high nickel based alloy) parts. Alloy 600 was used for butt welds between low alloy steel and stainless steel of nozzles of Reactor Vessel (RV), Steam Generator (SG), and Pressurizer (Pz). As PWSCC occurred at these parts may cause Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), preventive maintenance is necessary. PWSCC is considered to be caused by a mixture of three elements: high residual tensile stress on surface, material (Alloy 600) and environment. PWSCC can be prevented by improving one of the elements. MHI has been developing stress improvement methods, for example, Water Jet Peening (WJP), Shot Peening by Ultrasonic vibration (USP), and Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP). According to the situation, appropriate method is applied for each part. WJP has been applied for RV nozzles of a lot of plants in Japan. However PWSCC was observed in RV nozzles during the inspection before WJP in recent years, MHI developed the Advanced INLAY system to improve the material from Alloy 600 to Alloy 690. Alloy 600 on the inner surface of the nozzles is removed and welding with Alloy 690 is performed. In addition, heat treatments for the nozzles are difficult for its structural situation, so ambient temperature temper bead welding technique for RV nozzles was developed to make the heat treatments unnecessary. This paper describes countermeasures against PWSCC and introduces the maintenance activities performed in Japan. (author)

  11. The impact of preventive maintenance practices on manufacturing performance: A proposed model for SMEs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Halim Mad; Taib, Che Azlan; Lamsali, Hendrik; Saleh, Mohamed Najib; Subramaniam, Chandrakantan

    2016-08-01

    Preventive maintenance (PM) plays important role to avoid or mitigate potential stoppages and disruptions of equipment or machinery from occurring in daily operations. PM emphasized total employee involvement and it is important for companies as well as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). SME sectors contribution to the Malaysian economy makes up 95% of the total manufacturers, however PM remain relatively lacking. The ability, reliability and effective maintenance management is highly important in order to achieve desired manufacturing performance. Therefore, organizational capability in planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring PM activities is important. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the potential impact of PM practices towards manufacturing performance with organizational capability as a moderating effect is still limited and indecisive. Henceforth, this paper aims to explore and investigate potential relationships between PM practices and manufacturing performance moderated by organizational capability in the contact of Malaysian SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Correspondently, the study intends to propose a new research framework and hypotheses to examine the abovementioned relationships. The proposed framework includes PM team, PM strategy and planned maintenance as the determinants, while organizational capability serves as the moderating variable. Manufacturing performance will be viewed in terms of innovation and financial factors. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed at the end of the study.

  12. An Optimal Number-Dependent Preventive Maintenance Strategy for Offshore Wind Turbine Blades Considering Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shafiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In offshore wind turbines, the blades are among the most critical and expensive components that suffer from different types of damage due to the harsh maritime environment and high load. The blade damages can be categorized into two types: the minor damage, which only causes a loss in wind capture without resulting in any turbine stoppage, and the major (catastrophic damage, which stops the wind turbine and can only be corrected by replacement. In this paper, we propose an optimal number-dependent preventive maintenance (NDPM strategy, in which a maintenance team is transported with an ordinary or expedited lead time to the offshore platform at the occurrence of the Nth minor damage or the first major damage, whichever comes first. The long-run expected cost of the maintenance strategy is derived, and the necessary conditions for an optimal solution are obtained. Finally, the proposed model is tested on real data collected from an offshore wind farm database. Also, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of changes in the model parameters on the optimal solution.

  13. Preventive maintenance. 'Problem recognition style' can be used to segment the market and promote healthier lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, R K

    1997-01-01

    Problem recognition styles--desired state types (DSTs) and actual state types (ASTs)--have an effect on preventive health care decision making. Segmenting the market along these lines can help marketers position products and services to educate and attract people who will not see a doctor unless there is something wrong with them. Both groups expect the same benefits from preventive health care actions, but ASTs fail to act on those expectations. Therefore, marketing strategy touting the benefits of preventive health care might be futile. Educational promotional campaigns aimed at both DSTs and ASTs also are wasteful because DSTs already possess much health knowledge, lead wellness-oriented lifestyles, and practice preventive health behaviors.

  14. Opportune maintenance and predictive maintenance decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas , Edouard; Levrat , Eric; Iung , Benoît; Cocheteux , Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Conventional maintenance strategies on a single component are being phased out in favour of more predictive maintenance actions. These new kinds of actions are performed in order to control the global performances of the whole industrial system. They are anticipative in nature, which allows a maintenance expert to consider non-already-planned maintenance actions. Two questions naturally emerge: when to perform a predictive maintenance action; how a maintenance expert c...

  15. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  16. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 15 -- Rotary screw air compressors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 15 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to rotary screw air compressors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  17. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 1 -- Air-operated valves. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. This document provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to Air Operated Valves (AOV's) in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  18. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 16 -- Power operated relief valves, solenoid actuated. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. This volume 16 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to power operated relief valves (PORV's) that are solenoid actuated. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  19. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 21 -- HVAC, air handling equipment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 21 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to HVAC-Air Handling Equipment. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  20. Verifying elementary ITER maintenance actions with the MS2 benchmark product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, C. J. M.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Magielsen, A. J.; Schropp, G. Y. R.

    2011-01-01

    A new facility has been taken in operation to investigate the influence of visual and haptic feedback on the performance of remotely executed ITER RH maintenance tasks. A reference set of representative ITER remote handling maintenance tasks was included the master slave manipulator system (MS2)

  1. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schropp, G.Y.R.; Hermes, H.V.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators

  2. Effect of Maintenance Therapy with Isoxsuprine in the Prevention of Preterm Labor: Randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Azin; Rajaee, Minoo; Amirian, Malihe; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Jahanshahi, Keramat Allah; Faghihi, Armaghan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Isoxsuprine (Vasodilan) is a beta-adrenergic that directly affects the vascular smooth muscle and results in peripheral vascular dilation. Isoxsuprine relaxes the uterine smooth muscles and is used for treatment of pre-term labor and dysmenorrhea. Isoxsuprine is used extensively in hospitals and private clinics in Iran; however, few studies have reported its safety and efficacy in the prevention of pre-term labor. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maintenance therapy with oral isoxsuprine for the prevention of pre-term labor. Methods: We undertook a blinded prospective randomized trial of 70 women with singleton pregnancies who presented in pre-term labor between 26 to 34 weeks of gestation. After arresting the contractions with intravenous magnesium sulfate, the patients were randomized into two groups, with the treatment group receiving oral isoxsuprine until 34 weeks of gestation. Response to treatment was assessed by the progression of the pregnancies in both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Our results showed that 14 (40%) of the patients in the case group and 12 (34.29%) of patients in the control group had pre-term births, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.621). Also four women (11.43%) in the case group and five women (14.29%) in the control group delivered before 34 weeks (P=0.721). Conclusion: Oral isoxsuprine was not effective as a maintenance treatment in preventing pre-term births or in delaying delivery until after 34 weeks. Larger studies are needed to identify the best treatment for pre-term labor. PMID:26396726

  3. Preventative maintenance cycle of contact switches for nuclear power plants based on lifetime assessment and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    An approach to determine the preventive maintenance cycle was proposed in consideration of the lifetime, optimal cost and economy. Two parameters Weibull distribution was used to calculate the lifetime of contact switch. The block replacement model and age replacement model were built with the objective of optimal cost, and the preventive replacement cycle was accounted. Eight proposals for preventive replacement cycle were given. Economy model was applied to assess those proposals and the optimal proposal was confirmed. (authors)

  4. Navy Ship Maintenance: Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategys Potential Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    implementation of the new strategy, the Navy conducted market research and pilot-tested attributes of the strategy with pilot maintenance periods for a...readiness strategy and, in 2015, introduction of a new contracting strategy for ship repair, referred to as MAC-MO. House Report 114-102 accompanying the...Maintenance Letter 1 Background 3 Market Research and Piloting Helped Inform Roll-out of MAC-MO Strategy, Which Offers Potential Benefits

  5. NCI Statement on the U.S. Surgeon General's "Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Federal Government's principal agency for cancer research and training, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) endorses the U.S. Surgeon General’s “Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer,” which provides a comprehensive evaluation of the current state of skin cancer prevention efforts in the United States and recommends actions for improvement in the future.

  6. MPGV: An expert system for the preventive maintenance of the vapor generators in a PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelanu, L.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics and the architecture of the expert system designed for assisting the preventive maintenance of vapor generators are described. The main objectives of the system are: to optimize the inspection plans, to assess breakdown risks, to propose solutions and to organize maintenance operations. The expert system allows the accurate evaluation of risks concerning the development of an application. However, the experience demonstrates that a cost-benefit analysis not accurate enough induces errors in the expert system applications [fr

  7. The meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance and quality assurance programs at a former nuclear weapons facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of the meteorological monitoring audit, preventative maintenance, and quality assurance programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to (1) support Emergency Preparedness (EP) programs at the Site in assessing the transport, dispersion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations; and (2) provide information for onsite and offsite projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. The risk from the Site includes chemical and radioactive emissions historically related to nuclear weapons component production activities that are currently associated with storage of large quantities of radionuclides (plutonium) and radioactive waste forms. The meteorological monitoring program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Preparedness operations

  8. Study on the methodology for predicting and preventing errors to improve reliability of maintenance task in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Iwaki, Toshio; Embrey, D.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and effective methodology for predicting and preventing errors in nuclear power plant maintenance tasks. A method was established by which chief maintenance personnel can predict and reduce errors when reviewing the maintenance procedures and while referring to maintenance supporting systems and methods in other industries including aviation and chemical plant industries. The method involves the following seven steps: 1. Identification of maintenance tasks. 2. Specification of important tasks affecting safety. 3. Assessment of human errors occurring during important tasks. 4. Identification of Performance Degrading Factors. 5. Dividing important tasks into sub-tasks. 6. Extraction of errors using Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA). 7. Development of strategies for reducing errors and for recovering from errors. By way of a trial, this method was applied to the pump maintenance procedure in nuclear power plants. This method is believed to be capable of identifying the expected errors in important tasks and supporting the development of error reduction measures. By applying this method, the number of accidents resulting form human errors during maintenance can be reduced. Moreover, the maintenance support base using computers was developed. (author)

  9. New methods to minimize the preventive maintenance cost of series-parallel systems using ant colony optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samrout, M.; Yalaoui, F.; Cha-hat telet, E.; Chebbo, N.

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on a previous study made by Bris, Chatelet and Yalaoui [Bris R, Chatelet E, Yalaoui F. New method to minimise the preventive maintenance cost of series-parallel systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2003;82:247-55]. They use genetic algorithm to minimize preventive maintenance cost problem for the series-parallel systems. We propose to improve their results developing a new method based on another technique, the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The resolution consists in determining the solution vector of system component inspection periods, T P . Those calculations were applied within the programming tool Matlab. Thus, highly interesting results and improvements of previous studies were obtained

  10. Are green building features safe for preventive maintenance workers? Examining the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mohamed Shamun; Quinn, Margaret M; Buchholz, Bryan; Geiser, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Many newly constructed green buildings (GB) are certified using the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system for new construction and major renovation which focuses on architectural and mechanical design to conserve energy, reduce environmental harm, and enhance indoor quality for occupants. This study evaluated the preventive maintenance (PM) worker occupational safety and health (OSH) risks related to the design of GB. PM job hazard analyses (JHA) were performed on the tasks required to operate and maintain five GB features selected from 13 LEED certified GB. A 22-item JHA and OSH risk scoring system were developed. Potentially serious OSH hazards included: green roofs made of slippery material without fall protection; energy recovery wheels and storm water harvesting systems in confined spaces; skylights without guard rails; and tight geothermal well mechanical rooms constraining safe preventive practices. GB can present PM OSH risks and these should be eliminated in the building design phase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of implementation an Integrated Safety and Preventive Maintenance System for Improving of Safety Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I mohammadfam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Accident analysis shows that one of the main reasons for accidents is non-integration of maintenance units with safety. Merging these two processes through an integrated system can reduce and or eliminate accidents, diseases, and environmental pollution. These issues lead to improvement in organizational performance, as well. The aim of this study is to design and establish an integrated system for obtaining the aforementioned goal. Integration was carried out at Nirou Moharreke Machine Tools Company via Structured System Analysis & Design Method (SSADM. In order to measure the effectiveness of the system, selected indexes were compared using statistical methods prior and after system establishment. Results show that the accident severity index reduced from 135.46 in 2010, to 43.85 in 2012. Moreover, system effectiveness improved equipment reliability and availability (e.g. reliability of the Pfeiffer Milling machine (P (t>50 increased from 0.89 in 2010, to 0.9 in 2012. This system by forecasting various failures, and planning and designing the required operations for preventing occurrence of these failures, plays an important role in improving safety conditions of equipment, and increasing organizational performance, and is capable of presenting an excellent accident prevention program.

  12. Operations and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, D.E.; Jackson, G.J.

    1997-02-01

    This document provides detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility, located in the 300 Area. This document includes the type and frequency of requirement maintenance, failure response procedures, and reporting requirements. Sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will enter the holding tank via a sloped 102 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) line from the office trailers. The septic holding tank will be emptied, as required, by system demands. During normal usage, it is estimated that the tank will require pumping every 3 working days. Approximately 834 gallons of sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will be disposed of into the septic system during this time

  13. Design, operations, and maintenance of the soil vapor extraction systems for the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides the design, operating, and maintenance guidelines for the soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems implemented as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA. Additionally, this document provides general information regarding the ERA, the SVE system design, and the general approach towards soil vapor extraction. The remaining content of this document includes the following: regulatory compliance; summary of vadose zone physical and containment characteristics; past and present SVE system designs and potential design upgrades; general design and monitoring considerations for the SVE systems; descriptions of the SVE system components and their respective functions; safety requirements; operation of the SVE systems including startup, surveillances, shutdown, GAC canister changeouts, and wellfield characterization; monitoring requirements; SVE optimization; and instrument calibrations, preventive maintenance, and spare parts and site inventory requirements

  14. Preventing tobacco-caused cancer: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, C T

    1995-11-01

    Nicotine addiction is the most common serious medical problem in the country. Tobacco use is responsible for 30% of cancer deaths in the United States and 90% of all lung cancer deaths. The physical addiction to nicotine explains why over 30% of Americans continue to smoke or use tobacco despite their desires and efforts to quit. The testimony summarized in this paper recommends four broad strategies for preventing tobacco-caused cancers in the United States: a) mandating and reimbursing effective treatments for nicotine addiction; b) increasing Federal and state tobacco excise taxes and earmarking a fraction of tax revenues for tobacco prevention and cessation; c) enacting other policy changes to prevent tobacco use and addiction among children, including expanded clean indoor air legislation, comprehensive youth tobacco access legislation, and the regulation of tobacco products and their advertising and promotion; and d) expanding tobacco control research and critical Federal research support. Specific recommendations are given for each broad strategy.

  15. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-12-01

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  16. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Assessment and preventive action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of the events of 11 September, the General Conference requested the IAEA Director General to review thoroughly the activities and programmes of the Agency with a view to strengthening the Agency's work relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. That review is ongoing and the results will be presented in March to the Board of Governors, including proposals for revisions and updates on relevant programmes. It is underlined that preventing nuclear terrorism requires cooperation between States and with international organizations. The problem must be addressed in a comprehensive manner. The international community should therefore strive for strong, comprehensive, internationally accepted security systems

  17. [A Structural Equation Model of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Action in Clinical Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Ja; Park, Ok Kyoung; Park, Mi Yeon

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model for pressure ulcer prevention action by clinical nurses. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used as the basis for the study. A structured questionnaire was completed by 251 clinical nurses to analyze the relationships between concepts of perceived benefits, perceived barriers, attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, intention to perform action and behavior. SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs were used to analyze the efficiency of the hypothesized model and calculate the direct and indirect effects of factors affecting pressure ulcer prevention action among clinical nurses. The model fitness statistics of the hypothetical model fitted to the recommended levels. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived control on pressure ulcer prevention action explained 64.2% for intention to perform prevention action. The major findings of this study indicate that it is essential to recognize improvement in positive attitude for pressure ulcer prevention action and a need for systematic education programs to increase perceived control for prevention action.

  18. Codes and standards in repair and replacement process. Importance of corrective action in maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    For creating a corrective measure plan for industrial plant components, it is very important to have a well-grounded basis. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for determining the following three elements of such a plan: an equipment to be repaired, a corrective measure method to be adopted, and a timing of its implementation using a rational approach. And the importance of corrective measure in plant maintenance is also discussed. (author)

  19. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-06-01

    Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Public school administrators ( N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.

  20. Human factor analysis and preventive countermeasures of maintenance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Based on the human error analysis theory and the characteristics of maintenance in a nuclear power plant, human factors of maintenance in NPP are divided into three different areas: human, technology, and organization, in which human refers to the individual factors, mainly including psychological quality, physiological characteristic, state of health, knowledge, skill level, and interpersonal relationship. Technology includes the maintenance technology, maintenance strategy, maintenance tool, maintenance interface, maintenance regulation, and work environment. Organization includes task arrangement, information communication, training, personnel external environment, team construction, and leadership. The analysis also reveals that the organization factors, which can indirectly influence personnel performance, are the primary initiators of human error. Based on these, some countermeasures are brought forward in order to reduce human errors. (authors)

  1. Maintenance action readiness assessment plan for White Oak Creek and Melton Branch Weir Stilling Pool cleanout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan has been prepared to document operational readiness for the following maintenance action: (1) removal of sediment from the White Oak Creek and Melton Branch Weir Stilling Pools and (2) disposal of the radiologically contaminated sediment in another location upstream of the weirs in an area previously contaminated by stream overflow from Melton Branch in Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This project is being performed as a maintenance action rather than an action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act because the risk to human health and environment is well below the US Environmental Protection Agency's level of concern. The decision to proceed as a maintenance action was documented by an interim action proposed plan, which is included in the administrative record. The administrative record is available for review at the US Department of Energy Information Resource Center, 105 Broadway Avenue, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830

  2. Alcohol in America: taking action to prevent abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R

    1985-01-01

    ... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...

  3. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  4. EXPERT ESTIMATE OF PREVENTIVE AND PEDAGOGICAL POTENTIAL OF FAMILIES WITH MINORS ON INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Viktorovich Kostyukovisky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research surveys and polls conducted among 121 professional social workers at the St. Petersburg State Budgetary Institution The City Center for Social Programs CONTACT. The main objective of the research was to make the specified group of experts estimate educational and preventive potential of families with minors who are on individual social maintenance. The data obtained let us claim that family is a significant deviantogenic factor triggering asocial behavior of teenagers. We should admit that parents of underaged children fail to implement activities aimed at forming comprehensively and harmoniously developed personality due to the low level of pedagogical culture, growing indiffe-rence within a family and lack of emotional bonds with their kids as well as common interests and hobbies. As a matter of fact children can’t count on parents giving them a hand. The research has also shown that social workers faced a number of cases when parents put intense physical and psychological pressure on their children. One of the most significant problems experts registered in the course of their work are parent/child conflicts.

  5. Cost analysis of two-dimensional warranty for products with periodic preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Gau, Wei-Yo; Ho, Jyh-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a bivariate approach, which simultaneously considers the time and usage of a repairable product, and takes into account periodic preventive maintenance to develop a two-dimensional warranty policy for the repairable product. The proposed model is based on the bivariate Weibull process to analyze the breakdown process of a repairable product simultaneously in terms of time and usage. A repairable product may be differently utilized by various customers. We consider two types of customers: (1) customers whose product warranty is terminated because the warranty time limit has reached first; (2) customers whose product warranty is terminated because the warranty usage limit has reached first, to perform cost analyses for determining an appropriate warranty policy. However, since it is often the case that the repairable product may be equally likely purchased by the two types of customers who are equivalently important to the product manufacturer; the optimal warranty policy would thus be the equilibrium solution of the cost analyses which pay the same attention to both types of customers in order to maximize the total profit of the manufacturer. - Highlights: • We use a bivariate method to model the breakdown process. • We consider a periodic PM schedule. • We obtain an optimal two-dimensional warranty policy considering various customers. • The optimal 2D warranty is an equilibrium which satisfies both seller and buyer

  6. Non-periodic preventive maintenance with reliability thresholds for complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zu-Liang; Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Fang, Chih-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In general, a non-periodic condition-based PM policy with different condition variables is often more effective than a periodic age-based policy for deteriorating complex repairable systems. In this study, system reliability is estimated and used as the condition variable, and three reliability-based PM models are then developed with consideration of different scenarios which can assist in evaluating the maintenance cost for each scenario. The proposed approach provides the optimal reliability thresholds and PM schedules in advance by which the system availability and quality can be ensured and the organizational resources can be well prepared and managed. The results of the sensitivity anlysis indicate that PM activities performed at a high reliability threshold can not only significantly improve the system availability but also efficiently extend the system lifetime, although such a PM strategy is more costly than that for a low reliabiltiy threshold. The optimal reliability threshold increases along with the number of PM activities to prevent future breakdowns caused by severe deterioration, and thus substantially reduces repair costs. - Highlights: • The PM problems for repairable deteriorating systems are formulated. • The structural properties of the proposed PM models are investigated. • The corresponding algorithms to find the optimal PM strategies are provided. • Imperfect PM activities are allowed to reduce the occurences of breakdowns. • Provide managers with insights about the critical factors in the planning stage

  7. Development and Field Application Experience of the Reactor Internal Preventive Maintenance Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, A.; Yoshikubo, F.; Morinaka, R.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Hatou, H.

    2012-01-01

    A reactor internal preventive maintenance technology, Water Jet Peening (WJP), has been developed as a stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mitigation technology that has been successfully implemented during refuelling outages at 15 Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and three (3) Advanced BWRs (during the site construction and in the shop fabrication) in Japan. WJP is one of the most successful underwater peening methods, which utilizes the energy generated from the collapsing of bubbles produced by the cavitating water jet nozzle. The energy produced from the cavitations introduces compressive residual stress on the metal surface and subsurface up to a depth of several hundred micrometers. Most recently, we have successfully applied WJP to the bottom head components and to some cracked areas on the shroud support in the Tokai-2 plant. In the case of the bottom head components, we produced inspection and repair tooling as a contingency in the event SCC was identified and would be required to be repaired prior to the implementation of WJP. (author)

  8. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schropp, G.Y.R.; Hermes, H.V.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not

  9. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M., E-mail: c.heemskerk@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Eendebak, P.T. [TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (Netherlands); Schropp, G.Y.R. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Hermes, H.V. [TU Eindhoven (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Magielsen, A.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not.

  10. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

  11. PENERAPAN MODEL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SMITH DAN DEKKER DI PD. INDUSTRI UNIT INKABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Adianto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization era along with fast development of technology%2C industries must try to increase the quantity and quality of products that they have produced. The development of industrial products which have been increase continually need support from fluency of production process. In this case the industrial companies want a high availability system. PD Industri Unit Inkaba is one of the companies that moves in sector rubber technique industry. The company wants the production process go smoothly so that the company can keeps the existence and increases the product’s quality with cost efficiency and can competes with foreign markets. The smoothness of production process needs support from machines or production’s tools that have good condition. To keep the machines in good condition so that they will in the optimal condition when used%2C then the machines need to be maintained. M.A.J. Smith dan R. Dekker develop a model that combine availability model and preventive maintenance and consider the expected uptime and downtime of the system. This model is a 1 out of n system model%2C which has one operating machine and support by (n – 1 unit machine reserves. A 1 out of n system is also applicable to replaceable components. Smith and Dekker’s model gives the expected uptime and downtime of the system approximation that can gives good approximation of long term average operating cost. The results from decision of component preventive replacement age and optimal number of component reserve are expected to be able to keep the reliability system and be able to avoid the decease of availability system because of maintenance activity. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era persaingan industri yang semakin global disertai perkembangan teknologi yang pesat%2C industri-industri terus berusaha meningkatkan kuantitas dan kualitas produk yang dihasilkannya. Perkembangan hasil industri yang semakin meningkat secara terus-menerus memerlukan dukungan

  12. The American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination and State Medical Board Disciplinary Actions: a Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Furman S; Duhigg, Lauren M; Arnold, Gerald K; Hafer, Ruth M; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2018-03-07

    Some have questioned whether successful performance in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program is meaningful. The association of the ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) MOC examination with state medical board disciplinary actions is unknown. To assess risk of disciplinary actions among general internists who did and did not pass the MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification. Historical population cohort study. The population of internists certified in internal medicine, but not a subspecialty, from 1990 through 2003 (n = 47,971). ABIM IM MOC examination. General internal medicine in the USA. The primary outcome measure was time to disciplinary action assessed in association with whether the physician passed the ABIM IM MOC examination within 10 years of initial certification, adjusted for training, certification, demographic, and regulatory variables including state medical board Continuing Medical Education (CME) requirements. The risk for discipline among physicians who did not pass the IM MOC examination within the 10 year requirement window was more than double than that of those who did pass the examination (adjusted HR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.83 to 2.39). Disciplinary actions did not vary by state CME requirements (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.16), but declined with increasing MOC examination scores (Kendall's tau-b coefficient = - 0.98 for trend, p actions were less severe among those passing the IM MOC examination within the 10-year requirement window than among those who did not pass the examination. Passing a periodic assessment of medical knowledge is associated with decreased state medical board disciplinary actions, an important quality outcome of relevance to patients and the profession.

  13. The prevention of an electricity crisis by smart action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, C.; Steenbeek, O.W.

    2001-01-01

    Because of large variations in energy prices risk management is very important in a liberalized market. A sound trade of energy contracts can help to prevent an energy crisis. In this article it is highlighted how the Dutch energy market differs from other (financial) markets, and what lessons can be learned from the recent energy crisis in California, USA. The possibility to introduce the so-called Value-at-Risk standard is discussed. Also other tools which are available for parties to manage and control old and new risks in a liberalized market for electricity are outlined. 3 refs

  14. Development of maintenance procedure for plate type heat exchanger taking into account preventing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Kensuke; Someki, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yuya

    2017-01-01

    In Japanese pressurized water reactors (PWR), heat loads of spent fuel pools (SFP) is increasing due to rising spent fuels and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. Therefore, SFP cooling capacities are necessary to be enhanced, and replacement of SFP coolers or installation of additional coolers is needed. On the other hand, installation spaces of SFP coolers are limited in existing buildings. Therefore, plate type heat exchangers which can be designed to be compact because of the high heat efficiency have often been adopted for SFP coolers instead of shell and tube type heat exchangers in general use. Plate type heat exchangers have to be overhauled periodically for inspection and gasket replacement. However, in plate type SFP coolers, radioactive SFP water and non-radioactive component cooling water (CCW) alternately run through between each plate. Thus there is a concern that the CCW system may be contaminated by radioactive materials from the SFP water during overhaul of the SFP cooler. In order to solve this problem, we have developed the maintenance procedure of the plate type SFP coolers to prevent CCW side contamination by coating the contaminated surfaces with strippable paint prior to disassembly. Before applying this developed maintenance procedure to actual equipment, we have performed the following verification tests. (1) Confirmation of fundamental characteristics for strippable paint. Firstly, we selected both water-based and solvent-based strippable paints. Secondly, we tested and confirmed the detachability and the drying time of the selected strippable paints respectively. Moreover we also confirmed that the selected strippable paints are appropriate materials from the viewpoint of chemical composition restriction of consumable materials used in nuclear power plant. (2) Confirmation of workability for paint filling, drying and peeling off. The strippable paints need to be peeled off after filling into plate type heat exchanger and draining

  15. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....

  16. Setting strategy for system change: using concept mapping to prioritise national action for chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Sonia; Roberts, Nick; Willis, Cameron; Best, Allan; Wilson, Andrew; Trochim, William

    2017-08-08

    Chronic diseases are a serious and urgent problem, requiring at-scale, multi-component, multi-stakeholder action and cooperation. Despite numerous national frameworks and agenda-setting documents to coordinate prevention efforts, Australia, like many countries internationally, is yet to substantively impact the burden from chronic disease. Improved evidence on effective strategies for the prevention of chronic disease is required. This research sought to articulate a priority set of important and feasible action domains to inform future discussion and debate regarding priority areas for chronic disease prevention policy and strategy. Using concept mapping, a mixed-methods approach to making use of the best available tacit knowledge of recognised, diverse and well-experienced actors, and national actions to improve the prevention of chronic disease in Australia were identified and then mapped. Participants (ranging from 58 to 78 in the various stages of the research) included a national sample of academics, policymakers and practitioners. Data collection involved the generation and sorting of statements by participants. A series of visual representations of the data were then developed. A total of 95 statements were distilled into 12 clusters for action, namely Inter-Sectoral Partnerships; Systems Perspective/Action; Governance; Roles and Responsibilities; Evidence, Feedback and Learning; Funding and Incentive; Creating Demand; Primary Prevention; Social Determinants and Equity; Healthy Environments; Food and Nutrition; and Regulation and Policy. Specific areas for more immediate national action included refocusing the health system to prevention over cure, raising the profile of public health with health decision-makers, funding policy- and practice-relevant research, improving communication about prevention, learning from both global best-practice and domestic successes and failures, increasing the focus on primary prevention, and developing a long-term prevention

  17. Evaluation and analysis of emergency maintenance due by third party action's, formulation and execution of contingency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul; Nunez Ribera, Gary [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    In September 2008, in the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG) located in the south of Bolivia, atypical situations took place. Due to the political events and the social mobilizations in which the country was, a series of third party actions developed putting in risk the facilities of the gas pipeline. These actions resulted in the rupture of a 1 inch instrumentation pipe, causing a leak witch some time caught fire and caused an interruption of the transportation service in that section of the pipeline, later on, another action derived in safety valve shut down causing a total pipeline shut down. In addition to these events we experience a fuel shortage, road blocks and a telephone communication system failure. In spite of these obstacles the maintenance activities were realized and emergency repairs put back in operating conditions the gas pipeline, task that was accomplished in a very short time, taking in account the situation. Later analysis, including all the adverse elements of the situation, result in the adoption of a series of measures and plans directed to mitigate the risk associated to this type of events, such as Mutual Aid Plans with fellow companies and institutions, fortification of the patrimonial security, stock material handling for emergency repairs, etc. (author)

  18. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  19. "Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuvasa Ausaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.

  20. Improvement of the preventive maintenance program of an emergency diesel generator set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Meuwisse, C.; Cailleaux, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An exhaustive Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) analysis was performed of the emergency diesel generator sets in Electricite de France 900-MW nuclear power plants. The first part of this paper describes the Reliability Centered Maintenance approach, including the functional breakdown, complete analysis of operation feedback and safety assessment of the risk induced by functional diesel failures. The second part shows how this kind of RCM analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of periodic tests of the machine, and more generally, the efficiency of condition-directed maintenance tasks. The underlying objective is to minimize risk and aging of the machine

  1. Joint Optimization of Economic Production Quantity and Preventive Maintenance with Considering Multi-Products and Reserve Time

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cy...

  2. Putting program evaluation to work: a framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Thigpen, Sally; Lockman, Jennifer; Mackin, Juliette; Madden, Mary; Perkins, Tamara; Schut, James; Van Regenmorter, Christina; Williams, Lygia; Donovan, John

    2013-06-01

    The economic and human cost of suicidal behavior to individuals, families, communities, and society makes suicide a serious public health concern, both in the US and around the world. As research and evaluation continue to identify strategies that have the potential to reduce or ultimately prevent suicidal behavior, the need for translating these findings into practice grows. The development of actionable knowledge is an emerging process for translating important research and evaluation findings into action to benefit practice settings. In an effort to apply evaluation findings to strengthen suicide prevention practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supported the development of three actionable knowledge products that make key findings and lessons learned from youth suicide prevention program evaluations accessible and useable for action. This paper describes the actionable knowledge framework (adapted from the knowledge transfer literature), the three products that resulted, and recommendations for further research into this emerging method for translating research and evaluation findings and bridging the knowledge-action gap.

  3. Filling machine preventive maintenance using age replacement method in PT Lucas Djaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Fifi Herni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Lucas Djaja is a company engaged in the pharmaceutical industry which produce sterile drugs and non-sterile. Filling machine has a high failure rate and expensive corrective maintenance cost. PT Lucas Djaja has a policy to perform engine maintenance by way of corrective maintenance. The study focused on the critical components, namely bearing R2, bearing 625 and bearing 626. When the replacement of the failure done by the company is currently using the formula mean time to failure with the result of bearing R2 at point 165 days, bearing 625 at a point 205 days, and bearing 626 at a point 182 days. Solutions generated by using age replacement method with minimization of total maintenance cost given on the bearing R2 at a point 60 days, bearing 625 at the point of 80 days and bearing 626 at a point 40 days.

  4. 38 CFR 1.478 - Disclosures to prevent multiple enrollments in detoxification and maintenance treatment programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... psychological effects incident to withdrawal from the sustained use of a narcotic drug. (3) Maintenance... heroin or other morphine-like drugs. (4) Member program means a non-VA detoxification treatment or...

  5. Preventative Maintenance and Reliability Study for the Central Heating and Power Plant at Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavrin, John L; Brown, III, William T; Kemme, Michael R; Westerman, John; Lorand, Robert T; Walden, Charles; Swinehart, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    ... (FWA) (Vavrin et al. 2006) recommended that if the option for a new CHPP were to be pursued, among the tasks suggested for further analysis was to determine predictive maintenance requirements and new technologies for the existing plant...

  6. Preventive Maintenance and Reliability Study for the Central Heating and Power Plant at Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vavrin, John L; Brown, III, William T; Kemme, Michael R; Westerman, John; Lorand, Robert; Walden, Charles; Swinehart, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    ... (FWA) (Vavrin et al. 2006) recommended that if the option for a new CHPP were to be pursued, among the tasks suggested for further analysis was to determine predictive maintenance requirements and new technologies for the existing plant...

  7. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  8. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  9. Shareholder‘s derivate action: "ex lege" measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalonienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second article on the topic related to the shareholder‘s derivate action. After evaluating the key general aspects of the shareholder’s derivate action (e.g. concept, rationale and goals) with respect to the Lithuanian Corporate Law, this article analyzes some ex lege protective measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse in bringing shareholder‘s derivate action as well as evaluates need to revise the related Lithuanian legislation. The focus of the article is, first, on spec...

  10. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  11. A Biochemical Approach to Understanding the Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for Preventing Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    the Fanconi Anemia Pathway- Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for Preventing Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Biochemical Approach to Understanding the Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Regulated Nucleases in Genome Maintenance for...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fanconi anemia is the most prevalent inherited BMF syndromes, caused by mutations in

  12. Maintenance Management Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternloff, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Current trends in park maintenance are overviewed, including maintenance impact statements, avoidance of cost through efficient use and national resource conservation, horticultural accomplishments that influence maintenance management, and vandalism prevention. (CB)

  13. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the

  14. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load : risk factors, consequences, and preventive action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Goudswaard, A.; Dhondt, S.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Poel, E.G.T. van der

    1998-01-01

    Objectives - Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks,

  15. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Patricia A., Ed.; Faden, Vivian B., Ed.; Wing, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This "Call to Action" serves as a reminder that underage drinking has serious social costs and tragic consequences, demonstrating the importance of prevention. Underage alcohol use is not inevitable, and schools, parents, and other adults are not powerless to stop it. The latest research demonstrates a compelling need to address alcohol use early,…

  16. Towards peer education prevention of school dropout: An exploratory analysis of an action-research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.

  17. Benchmarking government action for obesity prevention--an innovative advocacy strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Peeters, A; Honisett, S; Mavoa, H; Swinburn, B; de Silva-Sanigorski, A

    2014-01-01

    Successful obesity prevention will require a leading role for governments, but internationally they have been slow to act. League tables of benchmark indicators of action can be a valuable advocacy and evaluation tool. To develop a benchmarking tool for government action on obesity prevention, implement it across Australian jurisdictions and to publicly award the best and worst performers. A framework was developed which encompassed nine domains, reflecting best practice government action on obesity prevention: whole-of-government approaches; marketing restrictions; access to affordable, healthy food; school food and physical activity; food in public facilities; urban design and transport; leisure and local environments; health services, and; social marketing. A scoring system was used by non-government key informants to rate the performance of their government. National rankings were generated and the results were communicated to all Premiers/Chief Ministers, the media and the national obesity research and practice community. Evaluation of the initial tool in 2010 showed it to be feasible to implement and able to discriminate the better and worse performing governments. Evaluation of the rubric in 2011 confirmed this to be a robust and useful method. In relation to government action, the best performing governments were those with whole-of-government approaches, had extended common initiatives and demonstrated innovation and strong political will. This new benchmarking tool, the Obesity Action Award, has enabled identification of leading government action on obesity prevention and the key characteristics associated with their success. We recommend this tool for other multi-state/country comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A hybrid Constraint Programming/Mixed Integer Programming framework for the preventive signaling maintenance crew scheduling problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher

    2017-01-01

    A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... to feed as ‘warm start’ solutions to a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) solver for further optimisation. We apply the CP/MIP framework to a section of the Danish rail network and benchmark our results against both direct application of a MIP solver and modelling the problem as a Constraint Optimisation...

  19. Optimization of preventive maintenance cycle based on experimental feedback in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jie

    2010-01-01

    The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)

  20. Webinar: A Proactive Approach to IAQ: Saving Money and Protecting Health With Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  1. Webinar: From Roof to Curb: Taking a Comprehensive Approach to IAQ Management Through Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A page to register to view the June 22, 2017, webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Green Cleaning for Improved Health: The Return on Investment of Green Cleaning in Schools

  2. Maintenance Action Readiness Assessment Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan has been prepared to document operational readiness for the maintenance action consisting of remediation of four inactive liquid low-level radioactive tanks in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The four tanks to be remediated are Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 will be removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associated with excavation and site access, Tank 3013 will be grouted in place and permanently closed. This project is being performed as a maintenance action rather than an action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, because the risk to human health and environment is well below the US Environmental Protection Agency's level of concern. The decision to proceed as a maintenance action was documented by an interim action proposed plan, which is included in the administrative record. A Readiness Assessment Team has been assembled to review the criteria deemed necessary to conduct the remediation tasks. These criteria include approval of all plans, acquisition of needed equipment, completion of personnel training, and coordination with plant health and safety personnel. Once the criteria have been met and documented, the task will begin. The readiness assessment is expected to be completed by late July 1995, and the task will begin thereafter

  3. Dutch monitor on stress and physical load: risk factors, consequences, and preventive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, I L; Goudswaard, A; Dhondt, S; van der Grinten, M P; Hildebrandt, V H; van der Poel, E G

    1998-02-01

    Due to recent changes in legislation on occupational health and safety, a national monitor on stress and physical load was developed in The Netherlands to monitor (a) risks and consequences of stress and physical load at work, (b) preventive actions in companies to reduce these risks, and (c) organisational and environmental variables that facilitate preventive actions. Information was gathered from employers, employees, and employees' representatives. The monitor was used with a nationally representative sample of companies in industry, wholesale trade, and banking and finance, 782 companies in total. The information from the employees, aggregated at the company level, was not found to be correlated with that from the employer from the same companies. Although many employers do recognise risk factors for both physical load and stress as a problem they often seem to underestimate the problem when compared with employees or their representatives. This is particularly the case for psychosocial risk factors. Also, the perception of outcome measures, especially employers who consider emotional exhaustion to be work related, were fewer than the employees' representatives of the same organisation. Preventive measures on physical load are much more popular than measures against stress. It is the responsibility of the employer to take more preventive action of all kinds. They need to recognise risk factors as problems and health outcomes to be related to work. Employees of larger companies should participate with employers to consider effective measures, and more use should be made of support at branch level. For specific preventive measures, specific predictors emerged. Except for measures to prevent work stress, information from employees did not sufficiently contribute to the initiation of preventive measures in the workplace.

  4. Upgrade of maintenance technologies of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kazuaki

    2005-01-01

    In order to enhance long-term safe and stable operation of Ikata Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in more efficient way, maintenance technology upgrade project was started aiming at establishment of simplified and efficient self-maintenance system with affiliated companies. Maintenance technique and supervisor qualification system was introduced after improvement and reinforcement of personnel education and training. Reflecting investigation of maintenance activities of US NPPs and productivity improvement in other industries, preventive maintenance optimization project had been performed such as introduction of key performance indicator (KPI), new system incorporating reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) and condition-based maintenance (CBM), and on-line monitoring and maintenance (OLM) based on risk assessment. Enterprise asset management (EAM) to establish information data base and total productive maintenance (TPM) action for every personnel to participate in self-maintenance was also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Psychological maintenance as an integrated approach to prevention and correction of professional burning out of the medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of professional burning out is a complex of symptoms and signs evidenced in various negative psychic conditions at individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. It is formed owing to a long mismatch between the requirements of the professional environment and the resources of the expert. Analysis of the preventive and correctional programs as a psychological assistance showed insufficiency of such approach. Creation of preventive and correctional programs within psychological maintenance from the position of involution of professional resources, taking into account the theoretical - methodological basis (the concept, the purposes, tasks, system approach, criteria of efficiency and the subjective-personal resources of counteraction directed at activization to burning out at all stages of professional development is progressive.

  6. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  7. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 10 -- High voltage electric motors (5 kV and greater). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 10 of the report provides a program of PM tasks suitable for application to high voltage (5kV and greater) electric motors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs. Reactor Coolant Pumps motors (RCP's) are not excluded from this report in so far as good PM practices for motors of the appropriate class are concerned. However, the special auxiliary equipment normally associated with RCP's has not been included. Consequently, this report does not provide a complete PM program for RCP's. Industry and vendor programs for RCP's should be consulted for complete definition of RCP motor PM programs

  8. Modeling the Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Followed by an Assembly Stage Considering Aging Effects and Preventive Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problem for the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP followed by an assembly stage considering aging effects additional preventive and maintenance activities is studied in this paper. In this production system, a number of products of different kinds are produced. Each product is assembled with a set of several parts. The first stage is a hybrid flow shop to produce parts. All machines can process all kinds of parts in this stage but each machine can process only one part at the same time. The second stage is a single assembly machine or a single assembly team of workers. The aim is to schedule the parts on the machines and assembly sequence and also determine when the preventive maintenance activities get done in order to minimize the completion time of all products (makespan. A mathematical modeling is presented and its validation is shown by solving an example in small scale. Since this problem has been proved strongly NP-hard, in order to solve the problem in medium and large scale, four heuristic algorithms is proposed based on the Johnson’s algorithm. The numerical experiments are used to run the mathematical model and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  9. MOV predictive maintenance program at Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details the Motor Operated Valve (MOV) Predictive Maintenance program at Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. The program encompasses the use of diagnostics tooling in conjunction with more standard maintenance techniques, with the goal of improving performance of MOV's. Problems encountered and solutions developed during the first two phases of this program are presented, along with proposed actions for the final trending phase of the program. This paper also touches on the preventive and corrective maintenance aspects of an overall MOV maintenance program. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  11. Using participatory action research for injury prevention in child development centers, Suratthani province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naturthai Suwantip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of using participatory action research (PAR in the prevention of injury to children in 14 child development centers (CDCs under local administrative organizations in one district in Suratthani province, Thailand. In total, 98 stakeholder representatives participated in the study, consisting of 7 managers or representatives of the CDCs, 14 caregivers, 7 local health officials and 70 children's parents. They participated in all stages of the study—problem identification, setting the objectives and goals of the study, planning the study, development of research tools, data collection, risk analysis, risk management, monitoring, evaluation, and revision. The physical environments that were in non-compliance with safety standards were identified after a walk-through survey with the participants using an approved checklist. The number of injuries to children was collected before and after the risk management. The participants' knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention were collected using questionnaires. Optimal solutions for injury prevention were obtained through several focus group discussions between the participants within each CDC and among the CDCs. Active participation of the stakeholders resulted in significantly more knowledge and awareness relating to child injury prevention. The environments of CDCs in compliance with safety standards were significantly increased. The number of injuries to the children decreased. The participatory action model in this research was developed through collaboration between the 14 CDCs. The executives of local administrative organizations and local health officials can take the model used in this study and apply it to injury prevention in other CDCs which have a similar environment across the province. Keywords: child development center, injury prevention, participatory action research

  12. The role of nutrition in caries prevention and maintenance of oral health during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtić Marija; Pantelinac Jelena; Jovanović-Ilić Tatjana; Petrović Vasa; Grgić Olja; Blažić Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. Effects of Food on Caries Development. Caries prevention through h...

  13. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  14. Will Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Nursing Home Residents Prevent Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylotte, Joseph M

    2018-03-01

    This article is an evaluation of the literature on oral hygiene as a risk factor for nursing home-associated pneumonia (NHAP) and with interventions to improve oral hygiene and reduce the incidence of NHAP. The background for this article is that studies that have evaluated interventions to improve oral hygiene and prevent NHAP have conflicting results. To try to understand the reason for these results, the objective was to examine risk factor and intervention studies and determine their methodological validity. Review of studies evaluating oral hygiene status as a risk factor for NHAP found multiple methodological problems, resulting in limited evidence to support this association. Studies of intervention methods, whether finding benefit or not in preventing NHAP, all had methodological limitations. Therefore, it is unclear whether oral hygiene is a risk factor for NHAP and whether improving oral hygiene decreases the incidence of this infection. A recommendation is made that future studies should carefully define the etiology of suspected NHAP using molecular techniques when evaluating methods to prevent this infection because viral pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis may mimic bacterial pneumonia even though, at times, there may be coinfection with bacteria. In this latter situation, improving oral hygiene may not prevent pneumonia. Therefore, viral infection and pneumonitis with or without bacterial coinfection need to be excluded so that the focus is on prevention of bacterial pneumonia. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  16. Insider Threat: Preventing Direct Action Attacks Within the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Intelligence Agency, 2012. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Publication (JP) 3-07.2, Antiterrorism. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2010. 81...Federal Bureau of Investigation GEN General (Army rank, O-10) HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 INSCOM Intelligence and...commanders, and the intelligence community to prevent insider threats from developing into direct action attacks, this study sought to answer the

  17. RXP-E: a connexin43-binding peptide that prevents action potential propagation block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Rebecca; Procida, Kristina; Vaidyanathan, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    . Separately, RXP-E was concatenated to a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) for cytoplasmic translocation (CTP-RXP-E). The effect of RXP-E on action potential propagation was assessed by high-resolution optical mapping in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, containing approximately 20......% of randomly distributed myofibroblasts. In contrast to control experiments, when heptanol (2 mmol/L) was added to the superfusate of monolayers loaded with CTP-RXP-E, action potential propagation was maintained, albeit at a slower velocity. Similarly, intracellular acidification (pH(i) 6.2) caused a loss...... of action potential propagation in control monolayers; however, propagation was maintained in CTP-RXP-E-treated cells, although at a slower rate. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that RXP-E did not prevent heptanol-induced block of sodium currents, nor did it alter voltage dependence or amplitude of Kir2...

  18. Presenting a model of repair and preventing maintenance of Bushehr nuclear power plants analyzing the data of similar nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikhan, Hammidreza

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increase application of nuclear energy for producing electricity, special attention must be paid to their maintenance activities in general and preventive maintenance in particular. It has been shown that a well established preventive maintenance programme will enhance the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. A model of preventive maintenance for Buhehr nuclear power plant which is due to be completed by 2001 is developed. The prescribed model is based on past experiences of VVER nuclear power plants around the world. The utilized data is provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. The data and past experiences reveal such important information as availability, energy loss, types of failures, duration of failure, etc. A strategy for designing a database is established. These data are then analyzed by statistical methods such as Pareto analysis, t-test, K-S test, analysis of variance, etc. The results of our analysis reveal important information in regard to establishment of a well-defined preventive maintenance programme in Buhshehr nuclear power plant. The results show that certain equipment such turbo-generator and control-rods play an important role in the maintenance of a VVER nuclear power plant. Other findings are discussed in great detail

  19. Application of the Theory of Reason Action for Preventing of Ecstasy Abuse among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.

  20. Optimization of corrective and preventive maintenance on computers in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa Fernandez, C. B.; Gil Agudo, A.; Rodriguez Exodo, J. M.; Torres Donaire, J.; Zapata jimenez, J. C.; Arjona Gutierrez, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the functions of a Service of Radio physics and Radiation Protection is the quality control of equipment emitting ionizing radiation and detectors for clinical use and verification to incidents and actions of the commercial house that could affect the dose or the quality image. The following is the procedure used in our hospital to track incidents that cause teams in Radiology (DR), Nuclear Medicine (MN) and Radiation Oncology (ONRT) in collaboration with the Electro medicine Service (EM .).

  1. Possibilities for teacher’s preventive actions in regard bullying behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of school bullying is an important task of modern educational process, given the seriousness of its consequences for students who behave violently and for those who are exposed to bullying, as well as for other classmates. A teacher, who in comparison with other school staff is in daily contact with students, has an extremely important role in prevention of bullying and in creating encouraging school climate. Through systematized and critical reflection on the views of numerous authors, this article aims at pointing out importance of certain aspects of teachers‘ role in prevention of bullying, and importance of creating a positive school climate as an important prerequisite for preventive activity of teachers, as well as at emphasizing possible obstacles to adequate preventive actions of teachers. In the last section, changes made in recent years in Serbia in regard to prevention of bullying behavior of students in the education system are considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Održivost identiteta Srba i nacionalnih manjina u pograničnim opštinama istočne i jugoistočne Srbije

  2. Maintenance therapy with sucralfate in duodenal ulcer: genuine prevention or accelerated healing of ulcer recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, T E; Koch, G G

    1991-08-08

    We sought to compare the efficacy of sucralfate to placebo for the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence and to determine that the efficacy of sucralfate was due to a true reduction in ulcer prevalence and not due to secondary effects such as analgesic activity or accelerated healing. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multicenter clinical study with 254 patients. All patients had a past history of at least two duodenal ulcers with at least one ulcer diagnosed by endoscopic examination 3 months or less before the start of the study. Complete ulcer healing without erosions was required to enter the study. Sucralfate or placebo were dosed as a 1-g tablet twice a day for 4 months, or until ulcer recurrence. Endoscopic examinations once a month and when symptoms developed determined the presence or absence of duodenal ulcers. If a patient developed an ulcer between monthly scheduled visits, the patient was dosed with a 1-g sucralfate tablet twice a day until the next scheduled visit. Statistical analyses of the results determined the efficacy of sucralfate compared with placebo for preventing duodenal ulcer recurrence. Comparisons of therapeutic agents for preventing duodenal ulcers have usually been made by testing for statistical differences in the cumulative rates for all ulcers developed during a follow-up period, regardless of the time of detection. Statistical experts at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and on the FDA Advisory Panel expressed doubts about clinical study results based on this type of analysis. They suggested three possible mechanisms for reducing the number of observed ulcers: (a) analgesic effects, (b) accelerated healing, and (c) true ulcer prevention. Traditional ulcer analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to an analgesic effect or accelerated healing. Point-prevalence analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to accelerated healing between endoscopic examinations. Maximum ulcer

  3. A bivariate process model for maintenance and inspection planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newby, M.J.; Barker, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes decision making about monitoring and maintenance of systems described by a general stochastic process. The system is monitored and preventive and corrective maintenance actions are carried out in response to the observed system state. The decision process is simplified by using

  4. Time since injury limits but does not prevent improvement and maintenance of gains in balance in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Alcañiz, Mariano; Deutsch, Judith E

    2018-01-01

    To determine the influence of time since injury on the efficacy and maintenance of gains of rehabilitation of balance after stroke. Forty-seven participants were assigned to a least (6-12 months), a moderate (12-24 months), or a most chronic (>24 months) group. Participants trained for 20 one-hour sessions, administered three to five times a week, combining conventional physical therapy and visual feedback-based exercises that trained the ankle and hip strategies. Participants were assessed before, after the intervention, and one month later with a posturography test (Sway Speed and Limits of Stability) and clinical scales. In contrast to other subjects, the most chronic participants failed to improve their sway and to maintain the benefits detected in the Limits of Stability after the intervention. Although all the participants improved in those clinical tests that better matched the trained skills, time since injury limited the improvement, and over all, the maintenance of gains. Time since injury limits but does not prevent improvement in chronic stages post-stroke, and this effect appears to be more pronounced with maintaining gains. These findings support that training duration and intensity as well as type of therapy may need to be adjusted based on time post-stroke.

  5. Analysis on the gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products during preventive maintenance period in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Wi Ho

    2006-02-01

    The information on dose distribution inside the containment building is an essential requirement to make a reduction of radiation exposure as well as effective operation and design of nuclear power plant. After reactor shutdown, radiation exposure to workers mainly occurs during preventive maintenance period due to inspection or repair works of major components. During that period, gamma doses are induced by major corrosion products in the primary coolant system. The radiation exposure to workers has been assessed by using the measurements. The measurements are, of course, a basic and reliable assessment. But the measurement has defect such as limitation of detecting area. In order to improve the defect of the measurements, system for assessment of gamma dose distribution during preventive maintenance period by using computational code was suggested in this study. First, activity of major corrosion products was calculated by using modified CRUDSIM code. Original CRUDSIM code was modified to add evaluation of other major corrosion products besides cobalt isotopes. Modeling of containment building for YGN Unit 3 was then performed. Gamma dose distribution by major corrosion products inside the containment building was calculated by using MCNPX code. Finally, the calculations were mapped for whole space inside the containment building and were compared with the measurements. As a result of this study, the defect of the measurement are supplemented by using computational calculation system, and it is expected that workers can make an effective work plan through providing dose distribution inside the containment building in advance. In addition, this study can be applied to technology development to make an effective containment shielding design of the next generation reactor as well as an improvement of the safety for workers in nuclear power plant

  6. Improving Suicide Prevention in Dutch Regions by Creating Local Suicide Prevention Action Networks (SUPRANET): A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, Renske; De Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Mérelle, Saskia; Donker, Gé; Terpstra, Sanne; Derijck, Carla; Franx, Gerdien

    2017-03-28

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as teachers or police officers; (3) targeting high-risk persons in the community; and (4) training and support of professionals in primary care settings. The implementation starts in seven Dutch pilot regions. Each region is designated as a Suicide Prevention Action NETwork (SUPRANET). This paper describes the SUPRANET program components and the evaluation of its feasibility and impact. The findings will be used to facilitate the national implementation of EAAD in The Netherlands and to add new findings to the existing literature on EAAD.

  7. THE ROLE OF NUTRITION IN CARIES PREVENTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtić, Marija; Pantelinaci, Jelena; Jovanović Ilić, Tatjana; Petrović, Vasa; Grgić, Olja; Blazić, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may pose an increased risk for the development of caries and other oral health problems. Continuous screening of oral health status, implementing appropriate preventive measures (particularly oral hygiene, healthy diet plans and education) is of paramount importance not only for oral health but also for the general health status of the future mother and her offspring. EFFECTS OF FOOD ON CARIES DEVELOPMENT: Caries prevention through healthy diet implicates the reduction in frequency and amount of intake of cariogenic food, above all ofrefined carbohydrates, i.e. sugars and sweets. Foods known to have caries-prophylactic effects should predominate in healthy diet plans. They mainly include solid foods, which have mechanical effects on teeth cleaning, as well as foods providing sufficient amounts of vitamins (A, C, D) and a variety of elements and compounds (calcium, phosphates, fluorides) favoring the preservation and remineralization of tooth structures. EDUCATION OF PREGNANT WOMEN ON HEALHY DEIT: In accomplishing these goals, education and direct positive communication between the educator and the pregnant woman play a crucial role. Educative approach is always individual and determined by the patient's specific cultural and socioeconomic features and status, as well as her habits, motivation and willingness to accept relevant recommendations. Accomplishing the aforementioned goals requires the appropriate organization and professional competence within the preventive dental service and its close cooperation with the relevant medical institutions and social support in the framework of public health protection. Preserving of oral health during pregnancy is predominantly influenced by the following factors: 1) healthy diet, 2) oral hygiene, 3) patients' education, 4) regular control of oral health, 5) appropriate organization of dental services and 6) community engagement.

  8. Development and application of preventive maintenance technique for pipes using laser cladding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakenaka, Hiroaki; Yamadera, Masao; Shiraiwa, Takanori.

    1995-01-01

    A laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resisting coating (cladding) on the surface of the material was developed for the purpose of preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the austenitic stainless steel (Type 304). In this method, metallic powder paste is applied on the inner surface of pipes, and then a YAG laser beam is irradiated to the paste, which melts and forms a clad with excellent corrosion resistance. Recently, the laser cladding method was practically and successfully applied to the actual nuclear power plant in Japan. This report describes this laser cladding technique, the equipment, and actual works in the field. (author)

  9. Side effects in preventive maintenance therapy with neuroleptics with special emphasis on tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, J; Paraschos, A; Frangos, E

    1981-01-01

    Neuroleptics induce hypersensitivity reactions, and toxic, systemic and extrapyramidal manifestations. The latter mainly include acute dystonic reactions, other early dyskinesias, akathisia, parkinsonism and TD. These drugs have been implicated for DA antagonism exerted by an adenylate cyclase inhibition. Prolonged blockade of DA receptors is considered as the motivation for a counterbalancing mechanism inducing the DA supersensitivity from which TD results. Recent reports suggest cholinergic and GABA ergic insufficiency as secondary participants. The increasing frequency of TD calls for prevention by modifying treatment practices and searching for effective measures to combat the symptoms.

  10. Efficacy of Group Cognitive–behavioral Therapy in Maintenance Treatment and Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor Arman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite conducting wide-ranging of pharmacotherapy for bipolar adolescents, many of them are showing a deficit in functioning with high relapse rate. The aim of the current study was to develop a manual and investigate the efficacy of group cognitive–behavioral therapy (G-CBT for female bipolar adolescents. Materials and Methods: During the first qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study, a manual of G-CBT was developed. Then, 32 female bipolar adolescents aged 12–19 years old, receiving usual maintenance medications (UMM, were selected. Participants were randomized to the control (UMM and intervention group (5, 2 h weekly sessions based on G-CBT manual with UMM. The parents in intervention group participated in three parallel sessions. All participants filled the following questionnaires before 1, 3, and 6 months after the initiation of the study: Young Mania Rating Scale, Children Depression Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The concurrent qualitative phase was analyzed through thematic analysis. Results: The results showed no significant differences in all questionnaires' scores through intervention and follow-up sessions (P > 0.05. However, using cutoff point of CDI, G-CBT was effective for intervention group (relapse rate: 25% vs. 44.4%. Two themes were extracted from the second qualitative phase: emotion recognition and emotion regulation, especially in anger control. Conclusions: The results showed that the addition of G-CBT to UMM leads to decrease in the depressive scores but has no effect on manic symptoms and relapse rate.

  11. Efficacy of Group Cognitive-behavioral Therapy in Maintenance Treatment and Relapse Prevention for Bipolar Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Soroor; Golmohammadi, Farnaz; Maracy, Mohammadreza; Molaeinezhad, Mitra

    2018-01-01

    Despite conducting wide-ranging of pharmacotherapy for bipolar adolescents, many of them are showing a deficit in functioning with high relapse rate. The aim of the current study was to develop a manual and investigate the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (G-CBT) for female bipolar adolescents. During the first qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study, a manual of G-CBT was developed. Then, 32 female bipolar adolescents aged 12-19 years old, receiving usual maintenance medications (UMM), were selected. Participants were randomized to the control (UMM) and intervention group (5, 2 h weekly sessions based on G-CBT manual with UMM). The parents in intervention group participated in three parallel sessions. All participants filled the following questionnaires before 1, 3, and 6 months after the initiation of the study: Young Mania Rating Scale, Children Depression Inventory and Global Assessment of Functioning. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21 software. The concurrent qualitative phase was analyzed through thematic analysis. The results showed no significant differences in all questionnaires' scores through intervention and follow-up sessions ( P > 0.05). However, using cutoff point of CDI, G-CBT was effective for intervention group (relapse rate: 25% vs. 44.4%). Two themes were extracted from the second qualitative phase: emotion recognition and emotion regulation, especially in anger control. The results showed that the addition of G-CBT to UMM leads to decrease in the depressive scores but has no effect on manic symptoms and relapse rate.

  12. Maintenance Policy in Public-Transport Involving Government Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, U. S.; Bayuzetra, Y.; Gunawan, L. E.; Husniah, H.

    2018-02-01

    A public transport with government subsidy is considered to encourage the sustainability of the transportation. The transportations revenue is determined by the maximum of the uptimes of the vehicle. In this paper, we study a one-dimensional maintenance policy for new vehicle which is characterized by age parameter. We consider that the degradation of the vehicle is affected by the age of the vehicle, and modelled by using a one-dimensional approach. The owner performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions, and the preventive maintenance action will reduce the vehicle failure rate and hence it will decrease the corrective maintenance cost during the life time of the vehicle. The decision problem for the owner is to find the optimal preventive maintenance time of the vehicle of each subsidy option offered by maximizing the expected profit for each subsidy.

  13. Using Action Research to prevent work-related illness among rubber farmers in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Wijitra; Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Smith, John F; Phajan, Teerasak; Seetangkham, Sansanee

    2018-06-10

    This research aimed to enhance self-care among rubber farmers for preventing work-related illness. The project used Action Research's four phase iterative process: fact-finding to understand the problems, action planning, action plan implementation, and evaluation and reflection on action plan impacts. Sixty-six participants (46 rubber farmers and 20 community stakeholders) were purposively recruited from two villages in the top 10 rubber producing provinces in Northeastern Thailand. Demographic and work-related illness data were collected in face-to-face structured interviews, Focus group interviews and participant observations were used to collect data in each project phase. Night group meetings were held throughout the research phases. The intervention included training workshops and establishing a community health education team for ongoing farmer support. Results showed improved farmer self-care behaviors and establishment of a community health education team to encourage farmers to care for themselves properly. Community nurses, other health personnel, and the Thai government can build on initiatives like this to strengthen occupational health and safety practices and services policy for rubber farmers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Systematic maintenance analysis with decision support method and tool for optimizing maintenance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K.; Dorrepaal, J.; Skogberg, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes an approach to evaluate the effectiveness of test and maintenance programs of technical systems used during several years. The method combines an analysis of the historical data on faults and repairs with an analysis of the history of periodic testing and preventive maintenance action programs. The application of the maintenance analysis from the methodological point of view in the reliability centered maintenance (RCM) project for Barsebaeck nuclear power plant is described. In order to limit the analysis resources, a method for ranking of objects for maintenance analysis is needed. Preliminary suggestions for changes in maintenance action programs are based on signals from simple maintenance indicators and qualitative analysis of underlying data on failures and maintenance. To facilitate generation of maintenance indicators, and make the maintenance analysis more efficient, a powerful and suitable data treatment tool is needed for analysis of the work order history. In the final maintenance decisions, additional decision criteria must be taken into account, and thus a more formal decision analysis is often needed for decision support. (au)

  15. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  16. Vibration vector monitoring of rotating machinery: A predictive/preventative maintenance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring of overall vibration amplitudes to indicate machinery faults is a standard practice in most industries. The appearance of shaft cracks in machines retrofitted for extended life have prompted development of higher levels of machinery monitoring. Part 1 of this paper discusses vibration vector monitoring for machinery malfunction prediction and failure prevention. Machinery faults which can be diagnosed by this type of monitoring, such as rotor rubs, loose parts, shaft cracks, ..., are presented along with their most common characteristics. The newest, most effective methods of permanent machinery monitoring are presented and critiqued. An extensive case history is presented in Part 2 in which a potentially disastrous machinery fault was predicted using vibration vector monitoring and analysis. The addition of vector monitoring to the normal, overall vibration monitoring proved more effective in diagnosing the machinery fault and predicting impending failure

  17. Action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOU Yixin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and the action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in NAFLD has become a new research topic. TCM has achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of NAFLD, with the advantages of specific, flexible, multilevel, and multi-target treatment. This article introduces the role of TCM in improving insulin, regulating lipid metabolism, preventing lipid peroxidation, regulating cytokines, regulating and maintaining the dynamic balance of factors involved in lipid metabolism, and maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora, and analyzes the major problems in TCM research.

  18. Enhancing pressure ulcer prevention using wound dressings: what are the modes of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Evan; Pedersen, Justin; Bill, Brian; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Brindle, C Tod; Dealey, Carol; Santamaria, Nick; Clark, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical research has generated interest in the use of sacral wound dressings as preventive devices for patients at risk of ulceration. This study was conducted to identify the modes of action through which dressings can add to pressure ulcer prevention, for example, shear and friction force redistribution and pressure distribution. Bench testing was performed using nine commercially available dressings. The use of dressings can reduce the amplitude of shear stress and friction reaching the skin of patients at risk. They can also effectively redirect these forces to wider areas which minimises the mechanical loads upon skeletal prominences. Dressings can redistribute pressure based upon their effective Poisson ratio and larger deflection areas, providing greater load redistribution. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS)

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  1. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  2. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  3. Extinction of aversive taste memory homeostatically prevents the maintenance of in vivo insular cortex LTP: Calcineurin participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Gonsebatt, María E; Escobar, Martha L

    2018-04-06

    Accumulating evidence indicates that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strength to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Our previous studies have shown that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) in vivo. We have also reported that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway modifies the CTA extinction. Memoryextinction involves the formation of a new associativememorythat inhibits a previously conditioned association. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of CTA extinction on the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, 48 h after CTA extinction animals received high frequency stimulation in order to induce IC-LTP. Our results show that extinction training allows the induction but not the maintenance of IC-LTP. In addition, with the purpose of exploring part of the mechanisms involved in this process and since a body of evidence suggests that protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks, we analyzed the participation of this phosphatase. The present results show that extinction training increases the CaN expression in the IC, as well as that the inhibition of this phosphatase reverts the effects of the CTA-extinction on the IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA extinction promotes a homeostatic regulation of subsequent IC synaptic plasticity maintenance through increases in CaN levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical study of inventory management under various maintenance policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, J.; Basten, R.J.I.; Boute, R.N.; Lambrecht, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Capital assets, such as manufacturing equipment, require maintenance to remain functioning. Maintenance can be performed when a component breaks down and needs replacement (i.e., corrective maintenance), or the maintenance and part replacement can be performed preventively. Preventive maintenance

  5. 40 CFR 63.7826 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preventative maintenance schedule and, as applicable, detailed descriptions of the corrective action procedures... compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that apply to me? 63.7826 Section 63.7826... Compliance Requirements § 63.7826 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the operation and maintenance...

  6. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Priority actions of the different Regional Prevention Plans: common features and innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Russo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Prevention Plan (NPP 2010-2012, approved by the Agreement between the Government, the Regions and Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano on 29 April 2010, called for Regions to adopt, by 31/12/2010, the Regional Prevention Plan (RPP for implementing the interventions provided by the NPP 2010-2012.This article has considered and compared the different RPP’s. In an attempt to provide an outlook on the future medical prevention plans over the next few years in Italy, a comparison has been made between the RPP from 19 Regions and the Autonomous Province of Trento. This work has been focused on the actions identified in regional plans as a priority concerning the major common and innovative elements.The analysis of each RPP revealed a common plan to chronic degenerative diseases, because of the aging of the population in every Region of Italy. Other important common targets are: surveillance systems, vaccination programs and screening programs. Toscana and Liguria, more than other Regions, are engaged in the creation of networks involving various social actors. In some Regions there are projects aimed at eliminating social, economic or gender inequities, such as the project “women’s health” in the Region of Puglia. Toscana and Emilia-Romagna Plans pay attention to environment and pollution issues.Despite social, environmental and economic differences, the various Regions have common principles, concerning: life style, surveillance, vaccination and the screening for cancer.

  8. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone open-quotes at faultclose quotes for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that open-quotes all accidents can be prevented.close quotes They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker''s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers'' compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers'' compensation expenditures

  9. [Parents' actions for prevention of arterial hypertension educational technology for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Moreira, Francisco Getúlio Alves

    2011-11-01

    This participatory research aimed to evaluate behavioral changes in fifteen parents of pre-school children to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension, by applying education technology for health that is based on the Health Beliefs Model at a private school in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil. The field research was carried out through educational workshops and data collection through questionnaires and interviews. After organizing the data into categories, analysis was based on the premises of health education. Through the application of education technology for health, significant changes were observed in the parents' habits, besides the roles they assumed as agents of change and multipliers of educational actions in the family. Although difficulties arose in the process of change, the parents were motivated to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension in themselves and their children. Thus, education technology for health based on the Health Beliefs Model proved to be efficient, as significant behavioral changes occurred and the parents were motivated to prevent arterial hypertension by means of a healthy lifestyle.

  10. EPR design for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, U.

    1998-01-01

    Preventive maintenance is very important in achieving high plant availability. For the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) preventive maintenance has been carefully addressed in the design stage. This is particularly necessary because of the traditionally different maintenance strategies employed in France and Germany. This paper emphasizes the following features introduced in the ERP design to minimize the duration of the refueling outage: (1) containment accessibility during power operation; (2) overall plant layout to facilitate inspections and maintenances within the containment; and (3) safety system design for enabling preventive maintenance during power operation. (author)

  11. Born too soon: care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sohni V; Mason, Elizabeth; Howson, Christopher P; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence-based interventions and services for preventing preterm births, reported the findings from research priority exercise, and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk for prematurity and, therefore, preconception care services for all women of reproductive age should address these risk factors through preventing adolescent pregnancy, preventing unintended pregnancies, promoting optimal birth spacing, optimizing pre-pregnancy weight and nutritional status (including a folic acid-containing multivitamin supplement) and ensuring that all adolescent girls have received complete vaccination. Preconception care must also address risk factors that may be applicable to only some women. These include screening for and management of chronic diseases, especially diabetes; sexually-transmitted infections; tobacco and smoke exposure; mental health disorders, notably depression; and intimate partner violence. The approach to research in preconception care to prevent preterm births should include a cycle of development and delivery research that evaluates how best to scale up coverage of existing evidence-based interventions, epidemiologic research that assesses the impact of implementing these interventions and discovery science that better elucidates the complex causal pathway of preterm birth and helps to develop new screening and intervention tools. In addition to research, policy and financial investment is crucial to increasing opportunities to implement preconception care, and rates of prematurity should be included as a tracking indicator in global and national maternal child health assessments.

  12. Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding - evaluation of Scandinavian practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Andersson-sköld, Y. B.; Nyberg, L.; Johansson, M.; Persson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Author: Ramona Bergman, Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Lars Nyberg, Magnus Johansson, Erik Persson Preventive actions can be, and are frequently, taken to reduce accidents and their consequences in different ways. The MSB funded research programme "Effects of Society's Security actions" (ESS, 2009-2013) aims to study the relationship between such actions and their effects. The program is divided into three subgroups: Frequent accidents Natural hazards (such as flooding, erosion and landslide) Chemical and landfill accidents The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion, flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. Therefore, the analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses. In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. The two levels are chosen since policies are taken on national (or international) level, while the key actions and actors are on the municipal level. The interviews cover experiences and potential scenarios. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities. The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard

  13. Prevention of Cervical-Uterine Cancer: A Proposal in Mind, a Campaign in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Larangeira Jácome

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s, the feminist movement has used a variety of communication strategies to broaden the reach of feminist knowledge, ideas and debates. In the 1990s, when communication has become an even more important scenario for political action, it has become imperative for feminists to diversify, and perfect those strategies. One of the most successful examples of innovative communication strategies, the Campaign for Prevention of Cervical-Uterine Cancer, developed by SOS Corpo in the state of Pernambuco, is analyzed in this essay. The author discusses the campaign’s origins and development of each of its strategies and their impacts on the local policies for combating the disease.

  14. Optimization of maintenance policy using the proportional hazard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrout, M. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: mohamad.el_samrout@utt.fr; Chatelet, E. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: chatelt@utt.fr; Kouta, R. [M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort Montbeliard (France); Chebbo, N. [Industrial Systems Laboratory, IUT, Lebanese University (Lebanon)

    2009-01-15

    The evolution of system reliability depends on its structure as well as on the evolution of its components reliability. The latter is a function of component age during a system's operating life. Component aging is strongly affected by maintenance activities performed on the system. In this work, we consider two categories of maintenance activities: corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). Maintenance actions are characterized by their ability to reduce this age. PM consists of actions applied on components while they are operating, whereas CM actions occur when the component breaks down. In this paper, we expound a new method to integrate the effect of CM while planning for the PM policy. The proportional hazard function was used as a modeling tool for that purpose. Interesting results were obtained when comparison between policies that take into consideration the CM effect and those that do not is established.

  15. Structural actions toward HIV/AIDS prevention in Cartagena, Colombia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina; Krumeich, Anja; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Pastrana-Salcedo, Eduardo Manuel; van den Borne, Hubertus

    2011-07-01

    To obtain a thorough understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the social determination of HIV infection among inhabitants of Cartagena, Colombia, as well as their views on necessary actions and priorities. In a five-year ethnography of HIV/AIDS in collaboration with 96 citizens of Cartagena, different methods and data collection techniques were used. Through 40 in-depth interviews and 30 life histories of inhabitants, the scenario of HIV vulnerability was summarized in a diagram. This diagram was evaluated and complemented through group discussions with key representatives of local governmental and nongovernmental organizations and with people who were interested in the epidemic or affected by it. The diagram illustrates the dynamic and complex interrelationships among structural factors (i.e., social determinants) of HIV infection, such as machismo; lack of work, money, and social services; local dynamics of the performance of the state; and international dynamics of the sexual tourism industry. On the basis of the diagram, groups of key representatives proposed prioritizing structural actions such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities and providing access to health care and education. The social determinants displayed in the diagram relate to historic power forces that have shaped vulnerable scenarios in Cartagena. Collaboration between participants and researchers generates conceptual frameworks that make it possible to understand and manage the complexity of HIV's social determination. This way of understanding effectively connects local inequalities with international flows of power such as sexual tourism and makes evident the strengths and limitations of current approaches to HIV prevention.

  16. Ergonomic prevention of musculoskeletal disorders of maintenance workers in the steel industry : Guidelines for the optimum working height of selected maintenance operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, J.; Bolijn, A.J.; Delleman, N.J.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the steel industry musculoskeletal disorders are important determinants of sickness and absenteeism. Prevention of biomechanical risk is therefore important, both for industry and the workers themselves. In this research project, ergonomic guidelines have been developed to reduce high

  17. Smoking uptake among Saudi adolescents: tobacco epidemic indicators and preventive actions needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad Falah; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this cross-sectional school-based study was to assess smoking prevalence, indicators for the smoking epidemic and determinants of smoking among Saudi adolescents. The study included 695 male adolescents from 11 to 16 years of age who filled out self-report questionnaires based on the European Smoking Framework Approach questionnaire, which uses the I-Change model to assess attitude, social influence and the self-efficacy of the participants. Smokers were 275 (39.6%) adolescents. Smokers tended to receive more daily pocket money, live in more affluent families and show lower academic performance. Non-smokers were inclined to believe that smoking may help people to feel relaxed and confident, encountered less social influences to smoke than smokers, but reported low self-efficacy not to smoke when with smoker friends and when offered a cigarette. Smokers reported the lowest self-efficacy not to smoke in all situations assessed. The results suggest the smoking epidemic among male Saudi adolescents may still be in the early stages, providing ample opportunity for preventive actions aimed at halting the further progress of this epidemic. Secondly, smoking prevention programs in Saudi Arabia need to reinforce non-smoking attitudes, address how to resist pressure to smoke, and how to develop high self-efficacy towards non-smoking in various situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction: A call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Dendale, Paul; Frederix, Ines; Prescott, Eva; Schmid, Jean Paul; Cupples, Margaret; Deaton, Christi; Doherty, Patrick; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Graham, Ian; Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Jennings, Catriona; Landmesser, Ulf; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Bueno, Héctor; Fitzsimons, Donna; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide, each year more than 7 million people experience myocardial infarction, in which one-year mortality rates are now in the range of 10%, but vary with patient characteristics. The consequences are even more dramatic: among patients who survive, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The people behind these numbers spur this call for action. Prevention after myocardial infarction is crucial to reduce risk and suffering. Evidence-based interventions include optimal medical treatment with anti-platelets and statins, achievement of blood pressure, lipid and blood glucose targets, and appropriate lifestyle changes. The European Society of Cardiology and its constituent bodies are determined to embrace this challenge by developing a consensus document in which the existing gaps for secondary prevention strategies are reviewed. Effective interventions in relation to the patients, healthcare providers and healthcare systems are proposed and discussed. Finally, innovative strategies in hospital as well as in outpatient and long-term settings are endorsed.

  19. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Liu

    2017-07-01

    Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  20. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b does not prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Poynard, Thierry; Colombo, Massimo; Schiff, Eugene; Burak, Kelly; Heathcote, Elizabeth J L; Berg, Thomas; Poo, Jorge-Luis; Mello, Carlos Brandao; Guenther, Rainer; Niederau, Claus; Terg, Ruben; Bedossa, Pierre; Boparai, Navdeep; Griffel, Louis H; Burroughs, Margaret; Brass, Clifford A; Albrecht, Janice K

    2011-06-01

    Several studies have reported that low doses of interferon can delay the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and progression of chronic hepatitis C. We investigated the incidence of clinical events among participants of the Evaluation of PegIntron in Control of Hepatitis C Cirrhosis (EPIC)3 program. Data were analyzed from an open-label randomized study of patients with chronic hepatitis C who had failed to respond to interferon alfa plus ribavirin. All patients had compensated cirrhosis with no evidence of HCC. Patients received peginterferon alfa-2b (0.5 μg/kg/week; n=311) or no treatment (controls, n=315) for a maximum period of 5 years or until 98 patients had a clinical event (hepatic decompensation, HCC, death, or liver transplantation). The primary measure of efficacy was time until the first clinical event. There was no significant difference in time to first clinical event among patients who received peginterferon alfa-2b compared with controls (hazard ratio [HR], 1.452; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.880-2.396). There was no decrease in the development of HCC with therapy. The time to disease progression (clinical events or new or enlarged varices) was significantly longer for patients who received peginterferon alfa-2b compared with controls (HR, 1.564; 95% CI: 1.130-2.166). In a prospectively defined subanalysis of patients with baseline portal hypertension, peginterferon alfa-2b significantly increased the time to first clinical event compared with controls (P=.016). There were no new safety observations. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b is not warranted in all patients and does not prevent HCC. However, there is a potential clinical benefit of long-term suppressive therapy in patients with preexisting portal hypertension. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Competence within Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Nerland, Annette Smørholm

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance can be a contributing factor to unwanted events, as well as desired events and states. Human competence can be defined as the ability to perform a specific task, action or function successfully, and is therefore a key factor to proper execution of maintenance tasks. Hence,maintenance will have negative consequences if done wrong, and give positive results when done right. The purpose of this report is to study the many aspects of maintenance competence. Endeavoring to improve ...

  2. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  3. Sodium Channel β2 Subunits Prevent Action Potential Propagation Failures at Axonal Branch Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Ha; Panzera, Lauren C; Chin, Morven; Hoppa, Michael B

    2017-09-27

    Neurotransmitter release depends on voltage-gated Na + channels (Na v s) to propagate an action potential (AP) successfully from the axon hillock to a synaptic terminal. Unmyelinated sections of axon are very diverse structures encompassing branch points and numerous presynaptic terminals with undefined molecular partners of Na + channels. Using optical recordings of Ca 2+ and membrane voltage, we demonstrate here that Na + channel β2 subunits (Na v β2s) are required to prevent AP propagation failures across the axonal arborization of cultured rat hippocampal neurons (mixed male and female). When Na v β2 expression was reduced, we identified two specific phenotypes: (1) membrane excitability and AP-evoked Ca 2+ entry were impaired at synapses and (2) AP propagation was severely compromised with >40% of axonal branches no longer responding to AP-stimulation. We went on to show that a great deal of electrical signaling heterogeneity exists in AP waveforms across the axonal arborization independent of axon morphology. Therefore, Na v β2 is a critical regulator of axonal excitability and synaptic function in unmyelinated axons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels are fulcrums of neurotransmission that convert electrical inputs into chemical outputs in the form of vesicle fusion at synaptic terminals. However, the role of the electrical signal, the presynaptic action potential (AP), in modulating synaptic transmission is less clear. What is the fidelity of a propagating AP waveform in the axon and what molecules shape it throughout the axonal arborization? Our work identifies several new features of AP propagation in unmyelinated axons: (1) branches of a single axonal arborization have variable AP waveforms independent of morphology, (2) Na + channel β2 subunits modulate AP-evoked Ca 2+ -influx, and (3) β2 subunits maintain successful AP propagation across the axonal arbor. These findings are relevant to understanding the flow of excitation in the

  4. Experiences in Conducting Participatory Communication Research for HIV Prevention Globally: Translating Critical Dialog into Action through Action Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Warren Martin; Becker-Benton, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Developing communication to support health and well-being of vulnerable communities requires a multifaceted understanding of local perspectives of contextual challenges and potentials for change. While participatory research enhances understanding, robust methodologies are necessary to translate emerging concepts into viable communication approaches. Communicators and change agents need to clarify pathways for change, barriers and enablers for change, as well as the role, orientation, and content of communication to support change. While various approaches to participatory action research with vulnerable communities have been developed, there is a dearth of methodologies that address the formulation of communication concepts that can be applied at scale. The Action Media methodology has been refined over a period of two decades, being applied to addressing HIV, related aspects such as gender-based violence, as well as broader issues, such as maternal and child health, sanitation, and malaria in Africa, The Caribbean, and Asia. The approach employs a sequence of interactive sessions involving communicator researchers and participants from one or more communities that face social or health challenges. Sessions focus on understanding audiences through their engagement with these challenges and leading to shaping of relevant communication concepts that can be linked to mobilization for change. The Action Media methodology contributes to processes of shared learning linked to addressing social and health challenges. This includes determining priorities, identifying barriers and facilitators for change, understanding processes of mobilizing knowledge in relation to context, determining appropriate communication approaches, and integrating indigenous language and cultural perspectives into communication concepts. Emerging communication strategies include support to systematic action and long-term mobilization. Communication to address public health concerns is typically

  5. Born Too Soon: Accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specific health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation's Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are affected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was

  6. Skeletal muscle action of estrogen receptor α is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribas, Vicent; Drew, Brian G; Zhou, Zhenqi

    2016-01-01

    Impaired estrogen receptor α (ERα) action promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unknown. Considering that skeletal muscle is a primary tissue responsible for glucose disposal and oxidative metabolism, we establish...... of dysfunctional mitochondria in MERKO muscle and implicate ERα in the preservation of mitochondrial health and insulin sensitivity as a defense against metabolic disease in women....

  7. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  8. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Hayes, Rachel; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Watkins, Edward; Brejcha, Claire; Cardy, Jessica; Causley, Aaron; Cowderoy, Suzanne; Evans, Alison; Gradinger, Felix; Kaur, Surinder; Lanham, Paul; Morant, Nicola; Richards, Jonathan; Shah, Pooja; Sutton, Harry; Vicary, Rachael; Weaver, Alice; Wilks, Jenny; Williams, Matthew; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah

    2015-07-04

    Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse or recurrence. Maintenance antidepressants for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to medication. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce risk of relapse or recurrence compared with usual care, but has not yet been compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in a definitive trial. We aimed to see whether MBCT with support to taper or discontinue antidepressant treatment (MBCT-TS) was superior to maintenance antidepressants for prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence over 24 months. In this single-blind, parallel, group randomised controlled trial (PREVENT), we recruited adult patients with three or more previous major depressive episodes and on a therapeutic dose of maintenance antidepressants, from primary care general practices in urban and rural settings in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT-TS or maintenance antidepressants (in a 1:1 ratio) with a computer-generated random number sequence with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Participants were aware of treatment allocation and research assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was time to relapse or recurrence of depression, with patients followed up at five separate intervals during the 24-month study period. The primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN26666654. Between March 23, 2010, and Oct 21, 2011, we assessed 2188 participants for eligibility and recruited 424 patients from 95 general practices. 212 patients were randomly assigned to MBCT-TS and 212 to maintenance antidepressants. The time to relapse or recurrence of depression did not differ between MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressants over 24 months (hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·67-1·18

  9. RPA prevents G-rich structure formation at lagging-strand telomeres to allow maintenance of chromosome ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audry, Julien; Maestroni, Laetitia; Delagoutte, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Nakamura, Toru M; Gachet, Yannick; Saintomé, Carole; Géli, Vincent; Coulon, Stéphane

    2015-07-14

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In fission yeast, the Rpa1-D223Y mutation provokes telomere shortening. Here, we show that this mutation impairs lagging-strand telomere replication and leads to the accumulation of secondary structures and recruitment of the homologous recombination factor Rad52. The presence of these secondary DNA structures correlates with reduced association of shelterin subunits Pot1 and Ccq1 at telomeres. Strikingly, heterologous expression of the budding yeast Pif1 known to efficiently unwind G-quadruplex rescues all the telomeric defects of the D223Y cells. Furthermore, in vitro data show that the identical D to Y mutation in human RPA specifically affects its ability to bind G-quadruplex. We propose that RPA prevents the formation of G-quadruplex structures at lagging-strand telomeres to promote shelterin association and facilitate telomerase action at telomeres. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL. Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-α-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis.

  11. Advanced maintenance research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, T.U.; Gelhaus, F.; Burke, R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an idea of the advanced maintenance research program at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). A brief description of the maintenance-related activities is provided as a foundation for the advanced maintenance research projects. The projects can be divided into maintenance planning, preventive maintenance program development and implementation, predictive (or conditional) maintenance, and innovative maintenance techniques. The projects include hardware and software development, human factors considerations, and technology promotion and implementation. The advanced concepts include: the incorporation of artificial intelligence into outage planning; turbine and pump maintenance; rotating equipment monitoring and diagnostics with the aid of expert systems; and the development of mobile robots for nuclear power plant maintenance

  12. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  13. Community College Students' Health Insurance Enrollment, Maintenance, and Talking With Parents Intentions: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Quick, Brian L; Payne, Laura

    2016-05-01

    A primary objective of health care reform is to provide affordable and quality health insurance to individuals. Currently, promotional efforts have been moderately successful in registering older, more mature adults yet comparatively less successful in registering younger adults. With this challenge in mind, we conducted extensive formative research to better understand the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of community college students. More specifically, we examined how each relates to their intentions to enroll in a health insurance plan, maintain their current health insurance plan, and talk with their parents about their parents having health insurance. In doing so, we relied on the revised reasoned action approach advanced by Fishbein and his associates (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010; Yzer, 2012, 2013). Results showed that the constructs predicted intentions to enroll in health insurance for those with no insurance and for those with government-sponsored insurance and intentions to maintain insurance for those currently insured. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the revised reasoned action framework within this context and is discussed with an emphasis on the practical and theoretical contributions.

  14. Preventive and Predictive Maintenance, Warehousing of Spares, Periodic Testing and In-Service Inspection Activities at the Nigerian Research Reactor-1 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusuf, I.; Mati, A. A.; Dewu, B. B.M., [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2014-08-15

    The Nigerian Research Reactor–1, or NIRR-1, is sited at Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Activities on preventive or routine maintenance have been institutionalized since the commissioning of the reactor in February 2004. This has grossly reduced the rates of corrective maintenance activities and helped the reactor management a great deal in predicting failure rates of reactor components and other auxiliary units. Routine maintenance of systems and components are being carried out on a weekly, quarterly and annual basis based on manufacturer’s recommendations, which have been reviewed and improved over the years. The paper presents the implementation of maintenance activities in NIRR-1 from its initial criticality in 2004 till today and the new scheme for periodic testing and in-service-inspection developed after an IAEA Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors mission. The measures put in place are envisaged to reduce the negative impact of ageing on NIRR-1 and its auxiliary systems. (author)

  15. Managing nuclear maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    For utilities operating nuclear powerplants, the rules of the game continue to change. Conflicting regulatory pressures and a tougher competitive environment will make management's job more complicated and difficult in the 1990s. Dealing with these pressures successfully requires greater attention to maintenance effectiveness. Utilities can help shape their future environment by developing a well-planned strategy to guide their actions. Parts of the strategy that are discussed include developing a sound maintenance philosophy, selecting a service company, radiation exposure, and managing spare parts. This article also addresses the Swedish experience in maintenance, German philosophy regarding maintenance and the current maintenance practices of the Electricite de France

  16. Mixed tocopherols prevent mammary tumorigenesis by inhibiting estrogen action and activating PPAR-γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jin; Ju, Jihyeung; Paul, Shiby; So, Jae-Young; DeCastro, Andrew; Smolarek, Amanda; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S.; Newmark, Harold L.; Suh, Nanjoo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants present in vegetable oils. Although the antioxidant and anticancer activities of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) have been studied for decades, recent intervention studies with α-tocopherol have been negative for protection from cancer in humans. The tocopherols consist of 4 isoforms, α, β, γ, and δ variants, and recent attention is being made to other isoforms. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a tocopherol mixture rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols against mammary tumorigenesis. Experimental Design Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), and then fed diets containing 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols rich in γ- and δ-tocopherols for 9 weeks. Tumor burden and multiplicity were determined, and the levels of markers of inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in the serum and in mammary tumors. The regulation of nuclear receptor signaling by tocopherols was studied in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cells. Results Dietary administration of 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols suppressed mammary tumor growth by 38%, 50%, or 80%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced in all three mixed tocopherol groups. Mixed tocopherols increased the expression of p21, p27, caspase-3 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and inhibited AKT and estrogen signaling in mammary tumors. Our mechanistic study found that γ- and δ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, activated PPAR-γ and antagonized estrogen action in breast cancer. Conclusion The results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols may be effective agents for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:19509159

  17. Using heuristic search for optimizing maintenance plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, Teemu

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the maintenance action selection process. Maintenance personnel need to evaluate maintenance actions and costs to keep the machines in working condition. Group of actions are evaluated together as maintenance plans. The maintenance plans as output provide information to the user about which actions to take if any and what future actions should be prepared for. The heuristic search method is implemented as part of general use toolbox for analysis of measurements from movable work machines. Impacts from machine's usage restrictions and maintenance activities are analysed. The results show that once put on a temporal perspective, the prioritized order of the actions is different and provide additional information to the user.

  18. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Optimum policies for a system with general imperfect maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Liao, G.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This study considers periodic preventive maintenance policies, which maximizes the availability of a repairable system with major repair at failure. Three types of preventive maintenance are performed, namely: imperfect preventive maintenance (IPM), perfect preventive maintenance (PPM) and failed preventive maintenance (FPM). The probability that preventive maintenance is perfect depends on the number of imperfect maintenances conducted since the previous renewal cycle, and the probability that preventive maintenance remains imperfect is not increasing. The optimum preventive maintenance time that maximizes availability is derived. Various special cases are considered. A numerical example is given

  20. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  1. Perceptions of students and teachers about institutional actions to prevent school violence in public schools in Cúcuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Santos Rincón-Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in schools is a problem that has worried broad sectors of society, not only because of its immediate effects but also due to the repercussions it may have in the future. In many institutions the violence is not acknowledged, and no actions are taken to prevent it. In contrast other institutions confront the violence head on through preventive and corrective actions that uncomplicated daily coexistence. It is in this context that this paper relays the results of a study on student and teacher attitudes to violence manifestations in the schools of Cucuta, Colombia; and on institutional prevention strategies. The quantitative-type research, executed with a descriptive and exploratory approach, used a sample of 348 students from sixth to eleventh grade, their ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old; and 87 high school teachers. The results highlight the frequently occurring forms of aggression, as well as the preventive strategies and actions schools emplace to handle cases of violence.

  2. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wy; Hung, Maria Sy; Woo, Kevin

    2016-11-25

    A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning), changing (action), and refreezing (results) were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff's practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the revised risk assessment method, the timely and appropriate

  3. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid WY Kwong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. Methods A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning, changing (action, and refreezing (results were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff’s practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. Results The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the

  4. Role of glycolysis in maintenance of the action potential duration and contractile activity in isolated perfused rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Tuschmidt, R; Bricknell, O; Girardier, L

    1980-01-01

    1. Changing substrates from glucose to pyruvate in paced isolated rat hearts, perfused by the Langendorff technique at 65 cm H2O with a Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, produced effects which are opposite to those of ouabain treatment: negative inotropy, decreased work efficiency, hyperpolarization, increased maximum rate of rise and amplitude of the action potential, increased conduction velocity. 2. All the effects resulting from perfusion with pyruvate can be reversed by adding ouabain at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The correlation between various tissue metabolises and change in contractile force (delta F), rate of tension development [maximum + (dF/dt)] and rate of relaxation [maximum -(dF/dt)] was studied by multiple linear regression. No significant correlation was found with either glycogen content and tissue lactate or with cAMP and cGMP. A weak negative correlation was found with ATP and phosphocreatine. The strongest correlation was found 76 to 807 nM/g in passing from glucose- to pyruvate-containing perfusion solution. 4. In vitro tests performed with a solution containing high energy phosphates and magnesium at concentrations equal to their calculated values in the cytosol (pH 7.0) showed that a significant negative correlation exists between citrate concentration (range: 1 and 1500 M) and free calcium concentration in the micromole range. 5. It is concluded that the effects of pyruvate (non glucose substrate) perfusion could be mediated by a decrease in cytosolic-free calcium resulting from an increase in intracellular citrate. The observation that all these effects can be reversed by ouabain is taken as a circumstantial evidence of a common mechanism.

  5. 浅谈医疗设备管理中的预防性维护%On advantages and disadvantages of preventive maintenance for medical equipments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宜江; 焦明阳

    2012-01-01

    目的:医疗设备是医院现代化建设的物质基础,加强医疗设备管理,使医疗设备预防性维护(PM)成为医院现代化管理的一项重要措施.方法:在医院建设中,人才是基础,医疗器械是条件,管理是关键.加强医疗设备管理是医院重点工作之一,在医疗设备管理中维修与保养则是重中之重.结果:做好医疗设备的维护保养对延长仪器寿命、提高诊断准确率起到重要作用.结论:预防性维护是指周期性地对仪器进行一系列科学的维护工作,以确保仪器安全地处于最佳工作状态.%Objective: Hospital medical equipment is the material basis of hospital modernization, and also an important symbol of the modernization. Methods: In hospital construction, talent is the foundation, medical equipment is the condition, management is the key. Strengthen the management of medical equipment is a focal point of the work of the hospital. In the management of medical equipment, repair and maintenance is very important. Results: The maintenance plays an important role in extending equipment life and improving the accuracy of diagnosis. Conclusion: Preventive maintenance is a series of scientific maintenance work for equipments, to ensure that the apparatus securely in the best working condition. This series of maintenance work mainly includes the operating performance test and adjustment, electrical safety testing, cleaning, lubricating, and replacing consumable components.

  6. Building Maintenance, Management, and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawsey, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Australian methods and formulas for funding building maintenance and management are outlined and found to be haphazard. Discussed are: ultimate costs of deferred maintenance, major plant replacements, life cycle costing, types of maintenance programs (including full preventive maintenance), use of computer programs for planning, and organization…

  7. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  8. The Effect of Health Education based on Health Belief Model on Preventive Actions of Synthetic Drugs Dependence in Male Students of Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Findings indicated that by increase of HBM components' average scores, the average score of synthetic drug dependence preventive actions increased too. Therefore, results of the research confirm the effect and efficiency of HBM in making preventive actions of drug dependence. 

  9. 75 FR 81874 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... final rulemaking for what we call the GHG PSD SIP call or, simply, the SIP call,\\2\\ as well as in what...- emitting sources. These actions include what we call the Endangerment Finding,\\4\\ the Light-Duty Vehicle... for PSD SIP submittal. Thus, Executive Order 13132 does not apply to this action. In the spirit of...

  10. Performance-based maintenance of gas turbines for reliable control of degraded power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huadong; Sansavini, Giovanni; Xie, Min

    2018-03-01

    Maintenance actions are necessary for ensuring proper operations of control systems under component degradation. However, current condition-based maintenance (CBM) models based on component health indices are not suitable for degraded control systems. Indeed, failures of control systems are only determined by the controller outputs, and the feedback mechanism compensates the control performance loss caused by the component deterioration. Thus, control systems may still operate normally even if the component health indices exceed failure thresholds. This work investigates the CBM model of control systems and employs the reduced control performance as a direct degradation measure for deciding maintenance activities. The reduced control performance depends on the underlying component degradation modelled as a Wiener process and the feedback mechanism. To this aim, the controller features are quantified by developing a dynamic and stochastic control block diagram-based simulation model, consisting of the degraded components and the control mechanism. At each inspection, the system receives a maintenance action if the control performance deterioration exceeds its preventive-maintenance or failure thresholds. Inspired by realistic cases, the component degradation model considers random start time and unit-to-unit variability. The cost analysis of maintenance model is conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Optimal maintenance strategies are investigated to minimize the expected maintenance costs, which is a direct consequence of the control performance. The proposed framework is able to design preventive maintenance actions on a gas power plant, to ensuring required load frequency control performance against a sudden load increase. The optimization results identify the trade-off between system downtime and maintenance costs as a function of preventive maintenance thresholds and inspection frequency. Finally, the control performance-based maintenance model can reduce

  11. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Batch dan Penjadwalan Preventive Maintenance dengan Kriteria Minimisasi Biaya Simpan, Biaya Setup, Biaya Pm, serta Biaya Rework pada Mesin Stabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a model of batch scheduling involving the unavailability machine to minimize setup costs, cost of preventive maintenance and the cost of rework in a stable machine. This model is considered necessary in order to understand the effect of the unavailability machine for production runs and to understand the effect on the batch production schedule. The results of this study indicate that the first and last run will not give single batch. Given a hypothetical example of how the model and algorithm developed solve the problem instance. 

  12. Regime of preventing, detecting and responding to unauthorized actions in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (M-V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomoll, L.; Gegusch, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the ensuring of safety for the population is at first the task of the countries. It also imposes to minimize the radiation risk to the public. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is a country in northeast of the FRG with coast length of 1470 km and 78 km boundary of European Community. M-V is a sparsely populated area with nearly 2 million people in 23,500 km 2 . Concurrent with law ordinances and regulations by the Federal Government in M-V a system for preventing, detecting and responding to unauthorized actions with radioactive materials is prescribed by ordinance. This regime of preventing, detecting and responding to unlawful uses of radioactive material exists independent of the national system for the accountability, control and security of the materials. 1. Responsibility - The authorities of defence - police and fire service - have to secure the place where the radioactive material is found or laid down together with a bomb. The authorities for atomic supervision are responsible for the clearing and elimination of the radioactive material, to combat illicit situation. 2. To be reachable - In cases of finding, recognizing or blackmailing of/in connection with radioactive material, the information arrives on civil way the police centre in the Internal Ministry. There upon the working staff of defence and the staff of atomic supervision/measurement group being on standby duty on call are mobilized. 3. Equipment - The policemen and firemen have dosimeter for self-safety. The measurement group of the atomic supervision uses instruments and analyser for all different radiation situations. In this kind also there is worth mentioning the connection with remote handling systems of the defuser of munitions. Last kind can be important in cases of blackmailing. 4. Whereabouts of unauthorized material - Unauthorized radioactive material with unknown owners must be storied under separate conditions. Confiscated material, which isn

  13. Early detection and prevention of diabetic nephropathy: a challenge calling for mandatory action for Mexico and the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; González-Michaca, Luis

    2005-09-01

    During the last decades, developing countries have experienced an epidemiologic transition characterized by a reduction of infectious diseases and an increase of chronic degenerative diseases. This situation is generating tormenting public health, financial, and social consequences. Of particular relevance is type 2 diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications, particularly cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy, because mortality of the patient with diabetes is, in most instances, related to these complications. There is a clear need to implement diagnostic and treatment strategies to reduce risk factors for development of diabetes (primary prevention), to detect risk factors of chronic complications in early stages of diabetes (secondary prevention), and to prevent further progression of those that already have renal injury (tertiary prevention). Microalbuminuria is an early marker of renal injury in diabetes, and its early detection can help the timely use of renal preventive measures, which would avoid the extremely high costs of renal replacement treatment for end-stage renal disease as well as that of other cardiovascular complications. Preventive strategies are of very little or no impact, if the primary physician has limited knowledge about the natural history of diabetic nephropathy, the beneficial effect of early preventive maneuvers for delaying its progression, and the social and economic impact of end-stage renal disease. It is therefore imperative to assure in our health systems that general practitioners have the ability and commitment to detect early diabetes complications, in order to promote actions that support regression or retard highly morbid cardiovascular and renal conditions.

  14. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: results of a randomised controlled trial (the PREVENT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Hayes, Rachel; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Watkins, Edward; Morant, Nicola; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial. To establish whether MBCT with support to taper and/or discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) is superior to and more cost-effective than an approach of m-ADM in a primary care setting for patients with a history of recurrent depression followed up over a 2-year period in terms of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence. Secondary aims examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. Single-blind, parallel, individual randomised controlled trial. UK general practices. Adult patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depression and who were taking m-ADM. Participants were randomised to MBCT-TS or m-ADM with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Outcome data were collected blind to treatment allocation and the primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. Process studies using quantitative and qualitative methods examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. The primary outcome measure was time to relapse/recurrence of depression. At each follow-up the following secondary outcomes were recorded: number of depression-free days, residual depressive symptoms, quality of life, health-related quality of life and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. In total, 212 patients were randomised to MBCT-TS and 212 to m-ADM. The primary analysis did not find any evidence that MBCT-TS was superior to m-ADM in terms of the primary outcome of time to depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.18] or for any

  15. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  16. End user interface and knowledge base editing system of CSPAR: a knowledge-based consultation system for preventive maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinohara, Yasusi; Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya

    1988-01-01

    Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-event Recurrence (CSPAR) is a knowledge-based system to analyze the same kind of events to a given fault reported on a nuclear power plant and to give users some informations for effective measures preventing them. This report discusses the interfaces of CSPAR for both end-users and knowledge-base editors. The interfaces are highly interactive and multi-window oriented. The features are as follows: (1) The end-user interfaces has Japanese language processing facility, which enables the users to consult CSPAR with various synonims and related terms for knowledge-base handling; (2) The knowledge-base editing system is used by knowledge-base editors for maintaining the knowledge on both plants' equipments and abnormal events sequences. It has facilities for easy maintenance of knowledge-bases, which includes a graphic oriented browser, a knowledge-base retriever, and a knowledge-base checker. (author)

  17. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PRIORITIES OF NATIONAL ACTION PLAN TO END PREVENTABLE DEATHS OF NEWBORNS WITHIN THE GLOBAL STRATEGY OF THE UN «EVERY WOMAN EVERY CHILD»

    OpenAIRE

    Znamenska, T. K.; Shun’ko, E.; Kovaliova, O.; Pohylko, V.; Mavropulo, T.

    2016-01-01

    To substantiate the priorities of the national action plan to end the preventable deaths of newborns in Ukraine. Spend a content analysis of the UN advisory basis, the Council of Europe in the field of health and WHO to terminate preventable neonatal deaths, as well as the analysis of the database «MATRIX - BABIES» and unified forms of regional neonatologists statements for 2014.The main priorities of the National Plan of Action for cessation of preventable neonatal deaths are: adequate finan...

  18. Optimisation of distributed maintenance: Modelling and application to the multi-factory production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeu-Abazi, Zineb, E-mail: Zineb.Simeu-Abazi@g-scop.inpg.fr [Laboratory G-SCOP, 46 Avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Ahmad, Alali Alhouaij [Laboratory G-SCOP, 46 Avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper concerns the modelling and the cost evaluation of maintenance activities in a distributed context. In this work we study the particular case where the maintenance activities are executed by two workshops: a central maintenance workshop (CMW) and a mobile maintenance workshop (MMW). The CMW concerns the repairing process for the corrective maintenance and the MMW executes all preventive maintenance in several factories according to a defined scheduling. The aim is to take into account the resources (spare parts in the MMW) and maintenance actions for a given operating budget. A modular approach for modelling a multi-site structure is proposed to achieve the aim of improving the availability of facilities on production sites while minimising the cost of maintenance.

  19. Surveillance and maintenance report on decontamination and decommissioning and remedial action activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Sollenberger, M.L.; Sparkman, D.E.; Reynolds, R.M.; Wayland, G.S.

    1996-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Remedial Action (RA) programs are part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Division and are funded by the Office of Environmental Management (EM-40). Building 9201-4 (known as Alpha-4), three sites located within Building 9201-3 (the Oil Storage Tank, the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Fuel Handling Facility, and the Coolant Salt Technology Facility), and Building 9419-1 (the Decontamination Facility) are currently the facilities at the Y-12 Plant included in the D ampersand D program. The RA program provides surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and program management of ER sites at the Y-12 Plant, including selected sites listed in Appendix C of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA), sites listed in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit Solid Waste Management Unit (SWM-U) list, and sites currently closed or undergoing post-closure activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This report communicates the status of the program plans and specific S ampersand M activities for the D ampersand D and RA programs

  20. Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A; Barfield, J P; Brasher, Joel D

    2012-10-01

    Information regarding factors that affect the initial step to exercise behavior change among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions is available in the literature but much less is known regarding perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among those who are regularly active. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among persons with physical disabilities or chronic health conditions within action or maintenance stages of exercise. Participants (n = 152) completed the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS). For data analyses, disabilities and health conditions were grouped as neuromuscular, orthopedic, cardiovascular/pulmonary, or multiple conditions. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine if mean differences on EBBS benefits and barriers scores existed among disability types, between sexes, among age groups, and between physical activity levels. Sum scores were computed to determine the strongest benefit and barrier responses. No significant mean differences in EBBS scores were found between disability types, sexes, age groups, or physical activity levels (p > 0.05). Strongest benefit responses varied by group. Strongest barrier responses were the same for all demographic groups: "Exercise tires me," "Exercise is hard work for me," and "I am fatigued by exercise." EBBS scores were similar across disability/health condition, sex, age, and physical activity level. Primary benefits reported were in the areas of improved physical performance and psychological outlook whereas the primary barriers were in the area of physical exertion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV Prevention Among Transgender Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Evidence for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Malik, Mannat; Scheim, Ayden; Elliott, Ayana

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing. Few interventions address social and structural barriers to HIV prevention, such as stigma, discrimination, and poverty. Evidence-based multi-level interventions that address the structural, biomedical, and behavioral risks for HIV among transgender populations, including transgender men, are needed to address disparities in HIV prevalence. Future research should address not only pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and condom use but also structural barriers that limit access to these prevention strategies.

  2. A public health approach to preventing child abuse in low- and middle-income countries: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.

  3. Lowering the UK domestic radon Action Level to prevent more lung cancers-is it cost-effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A R; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Coskeran, T; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Tornberg, R

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can accumulate within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can cause lung cancer, and recent studies have suggested that this risk remains significant below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Raised radon levels can be reduced by engineering measures, and it has been shown that domestic radon remediation programmes in UK Affected Areas can result in reduced risks to the population and can be cost-effective. We consider here the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, UK, and consider the implications for that programme of reducing the UK Action Level below its present value. A radon remediation programme based on an Action Level above 200 Bq m -3 will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost-effective and will lead to higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the remaining population. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will also be less cost-effective, because remediation of a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will provide only a modest health benefit to occupants. Overall, a completed radon remediation programme of the type implemented in Northamptonshire is most cost-effective for an Action Level between 200 and 300 Bq m -3 . The implications for future health policy are discussed

  4. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people…

  5. JRR-3 maintenance program utilizing accumulated maintenance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Kato, Tomoaki; Kinase, Masami; Torii, Yoshiya; Murayama, Yoji

    2007-07-01

    JRR-3(Japan Research Reactor No.3) has been operated for more than 15 years after the modification, without significant troubles by carrying out maintenance such as the preventive maintenance (mainly time-based maintenance) for the safety-grade equipments and the breakdown maintenance for the non-safety-grade equipments. Unscheduled shutdowns causes by aged non-safety-grade equipments have been increasing, and the resources such as budgets have been decreasing year by year. In this situation, JRR-3 maintenance program was reviewed about safety, reliability and economic efficiency. This report offers the policy of the maintenance review and the future direction of maintenance programs. (author)

  6. Analysis of maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K.

    1998-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation include: (1) an analysis model and methods to evaluate maintenance action programs and the support decision to make changes in them and (2) to understand the maintenance strategies in a systems perspective as a basis for future developments. The subproject showed how systematic models for maintenance analysis and decision support, utilising computerised and statistical tool packages, can be taken into use for evaluation and optimisation of maintenance of active systems from the safety and economic point of view

  7. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  8. Actions of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan

    1981-07-01

    The drastic intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes that is characteristic of cholera is the result of reasonably well understood cellular and biochemical actions of the toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. Based on this understanding it is possible to devise new techniques for the treatment and prophylaxis of cholera to complement those based on fluid replacement therapy and sanitation.

  9. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  11. Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The information presented is a summary with emphasis on those items believed to be…

  12. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  13. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  14. Prevention and control of mental illnesses and mental health: National Action Plan for NCD Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile

    2004-12-01

    As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.

  15. Operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Marquis, Laurent; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    costs including costs due to lost electricity production are minimized. The risk-based approach is compared with an approach where only boats are used and another approach where the target is to minimize the downtime of the device. This article presents a dynamic approach for total operation......Inspection and maintenance costs are a significant contributor to the cost of energy for wave energy converters. There are different operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters. Maintenance can be performed after failure (corrective) or before a breakdown (preventive) occurs....... Furthermore, a helicopter and boats can be used to transport equipment and personnel to the device, or the whole device can be towed to a harbour for operation and maintenance actions. This article describes, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance planning approach where the overall repair...

  16. Determination of Pareto frontier in multi-objective maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Antonella; Galante, Giacomo; Lupo, Toni; Passannanti, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of a maintenance policy generally is the global maintenance cost minimization that involves not only the direct costs for both the maintenance actions and the spare parts, but also those ones due to the system stop for preventive maintenance and the downtime for failure. For some operating systems, the failure event can be dangerous so that they are asked to operate assuring a very high reliability level between two consecutive fixed stops. The present paper attempts to individuate the set of elements on which performing maintenance actions so that the system can assure the required reliability level until the next fixed stop for maintenance, minimizing both the global maintenance cost and the total maintenance time. In order to solve the previous constrained multi-objective optimization problem, an effective approach is proposed to obtain the best solutions (that is the Pareto optimal frontier) among which the decision maker will choose the more suitable one. As well known, describing the whole Pareto optimal frontier generally is a troublesome task. The paper proposes an algorithm able to rapidly overcome this problem and its effectiveness is shown by an application to a case study regarding a complex series-parallel system.

  17. Paracrine action of mesenchymal stromal cells delivered by microspheres contributes to cutaneous wound healing and prevents scar formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Wu, Yan; Gao, Dongyun; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) participate in wound healing to favor tissue regeneration and inhibit fibrotic tissue formation. However, the evidence of MSCs to suppress cutaneous scar is extremely rare, and the mechanism remains unidentified. This study aimed to demonstrate whether MSCs-as the result of their paracrine actions on damaged tissues-would accelerate wound healing and prevent cutaneous fibrosis. For efficient delivery of MSCs to skin wounds, microspheres were used to maintain MSC potency. Whether MSCs can accelerate wound healing and alleviate cutaneous fibrosis through paracrine action was investigated with the use of a Transwell co-culture system in vitro and a murine model in vivo. MSCs cultured on gelatin microspheres fully retained their cell surface marker expression profile, proliferation, differentiation and paracrine potential. Co-cultures of MSCs and fibroblasts indicated that the benefits of MSCs on suppressing fibroblast proliferation and its fibrotic behavior induced by inflammatory cytokines probably were caused by paracrine actions. Importantly, microspheres successfully delivered MSCs into wound margins and significantly accelerated wound healing and concomitantly reduced the fibrotic activities of cells within the wounds and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix as well as the transforming growth factor-β1/transforming growth factor-β3 ratio. This study provides insight into what we believe to be a previously undescribed, multifaceted role of MSC-released protein in reducing cutaneous fibrotic formation. Paracrine action of MSCs delivered by microspheres may thus qualify as a promising strategy to enhance tissue repair and to prevent excessive fibrosis during cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Campus Suicide Prevention and Intervention: Putting Best Practice Policy into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cheryl A.; Mandrusiak, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Findings from biannual American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment surveys have highlighted the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicides on Canadian university campuses and the need for comprehensive suicide prevention programs. This article explores how one large western Canadian university…

  19. 76 FR 2591 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... exists for a rule to take effect in less than 30 days. We find good cause exists here to make this rule... Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Finding of Failure To Submit State Implementation Plan Revision Required of... Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements to greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting sources. By...

  20. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims: The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of…

  1. Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive acti...

  2. Rapid vs Maintenance Vitamin D Supplementation in Deficient Children With Asthma to Prevent Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Davidson, Bruce L; Yousef, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamed, Abdel Nasser H; Alattar, Imad

    2017-09-01

    Whether vitamin D reduces clinically important exacerbations of childhood asthma remains uncertain. We compared rapid to maintenance vitamin D repletion analyzed by baseline vitamin D level. Children presenting to the ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations and vitamin D levels ≤ 25 ng/mL underwent masked randomization, and then open dosing to either IM+oral (the latter daily) therapy or daily oral-only therapy, and were followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was patient-initiated unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations, examined two ways: cumulative proportions with an exacerbation, and average exacerbation frequency. As this was a nutrient study, we analyzed treatment groups by quartile of baseline vitamin D level, collecting repeat levels and clinical observations at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. One hundred and sixteen patients in the IM+oral cohort vs 115 in the oral-only cohort had similar mean (SD) baseline levels: 15.1 (5.4) vs 15.8 (5.2) ng/mL (range, 3-25 ng/mL). There was no difference in the primary outcome over the entire 12-month observation period. However, rapid IM+oral supplementation significantly reduced unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations for children with baseline levels of 3 to 11 ng/mL during the initial 3 months: the relative exacerbation rate for the IM+oral cohort compared with the oral-only cohort at 3 months was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.28-0.89; P = .008); average exacerbation frequency per child analysis, relative rate 0.36 (95% CI, 0.13-0.87; P = .017). Otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups. Rapid compared to maintenance vitamin D supplementation for children with the lowest levels resulted in short- but not long-term reduction in asthma exacerbations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventing an Impending Disaster. WHO DG Chan Urges Global Action to Fight Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The WHO estimates that seven of every ten cancer deaths now occur in the developing world, amounting to 5.5 million cancer deaths annually. Dr. Chan warned that if no action is taken, cancer deaths in the developing world will continue to grow rapidly, reaching nearly 9 million in 2030. In the same period, cancer deaths in wealthy countries are expected to remain fairly stable.

  4. Maintenance of Fish Health in Aquaculture: Review of Epidemiological Approaches for Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Ayalew; Abunna, Fufa

    2018-01-01

    Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture. Among the effective prevention and control strategies, vaccination is one of the key practices. Types of vaccines for use in fish include killed vaccines, attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant technology vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines. Administration techniques of vaccines in fish include oral, injection, or immersion methods. Antibiotics are also in use in aquaculture despite their side effects in the development of drug resistance by microorganisms. Biological and chemical disease control strategies such as using probiotics, prebiotics, and medicinal plants are widely in use. Biosecurity measures in aquaculture can keep the safety of a facility from certain disease-causing agents that are absent in particular system. Farm-level biosecurity measures include strict quarantine measures, egg disinfection, traffic control, water treatments, clean feed, and disposal of mortalities. In conclusion, rather than trying to treat every disease case, it advisable to follow a preventive approach before the event of any disease outbreaks.

  5. Maintenance of Fish Health in Aquaculture: Review of Epidemiological Approaches for Prevention and Control of Infectious Disease of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew Assefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture. Among the effective prevention and control strategies, vaccination is one of the key practices. Types of vaccines for use in fish include killed vaccines, attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, recombinant technology vaccines, and synthetic peptide vaccines. Administration techniques of vaccines in fish include oral, injection, or immersion methods. Antibiotics are also in use in aquaculture despite their side effects in the development of drug resistance by microorganisms. Biological and chemical disease control strategies such as using probiotics, prebiotics, and medicinal plants are widely in use. Biosecurity measures in aquaculture can keep the safety of a facility from certain disease-causing agents that are absent in particular system. Farm-level biosecurity measures include strict quarantine measures, egg disinfection, traffic control, water treatments, clean feed, and disposal of mortalities. In conclusion, rather than trying to treat every disease case, it advisable to follow a preventive approach before the event of any disease outbreaks.

  6. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  7. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-02-04

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome.

  8. Do Coffee Polyphenols Have a Preventive Action on Metabolic Syndrome Associated Endothelial Dysfunctions? An Assessment of the Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from several countries have found that mortality rates associated with the metabolic syndrome are inversely associated with coffee consumption. Metabolic syndrome can lead to arteriosclerosis by endothelial dysfunction, and increases the risk for myocardial and cerebral infarction. Accordingly, it is important to understand the possible protective effects of coffee against components of the metabolic syndrome, including vascular endothelial function impairment, obesity and diabetes. Coffee contains many components, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. Studies have found that coffee polyphenols, such as chlorogenic acids, have many health-promoting properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and antihypertensive properties. Chlorogenic acids may exert protective effects against metabolic syndrome risk through their antioxidant properties, in particular toward vascular endothelial cells, in which nitric oxide production may be enhanced, by promoting endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These effects indicate that coffee components may support the maintenance of normal endothelial function and play an important role in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. However, results related to coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome are heterogeneous among studies, and the mechanisms of its functions and corresponding molecular targets remain largely elusive. This review describes the results of studies exploring the putative effects of coffee components, especially in protecting vascular endothelial function and preventing metabolic syndrome. PMID:29401716

  9. Effectiveness of Relapse Prevention Cognitive-Behavioral Model in Opioid-Dependent Patients Participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Ghazitabatabae, Mahmoud; Moeeni, Maryam; Rajati, Fatemeh; M Razzaghi, Emran

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a relapse prevention cognitive-behavioral model, based on Marlatt treatment approach, in Opioid-dependent patients participating in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in Iran. The study consisted of 92 individuals treated with methadone in Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies (INCAS). Participants were randomized into two groups: educational intervention group (N=46) and control group (N=46). The intervention was comprised of 10 weekly 90 minute sessions, done during a period of 2.5 months based on the most high risk situations determined using Inventory Drug Taking Situation instrument. Relapse was defined as not showing up for MMT, drug use for at least 5 continuous days, and a positive urinary morphine test. While, only 36.4% of the intervention group relapsed into drug use, 63.6% of the control group relapsed. The result of the logistic regressions showed that the odd ratio of the variable of intervention program for the entire follow up period was 0.43 (P<0.01). Further, the odd ratio of this variable in one month, three months, and 195 days after the therapy were 0.48 (P<.03), 0.31 (P<.02), and 0.13 (P<.02) respectively that revealed that on average, the probability of relapse among individuals in the intervention group was lower than patients in control group. Relapse prevention model based on Marlatt treatment approach has an effective role in decreasing relapse rate. This model can be introduced as a complementary therapy in patients treated with methadone maintenance.

  10. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy. The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  11. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea; E. Tolosana-Esteban; E. Roman-Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scie...

  12. Leptin Action on GABAergic Neurons Prevents Obesity and Reduces Inhibitory Tone to POMC Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Vong, Linh; Ye, Chianping; Yang, Zongfang; Choi, Brian; Chua, Streamson; Lowell, Bradford B.

    2011-01-01

    Leptin acts in the brain to prevent obesity. The underlying neurocircuitry responsible for this is poorly understood, in part due to incomplete knowledge regarding first order, leptin-responsive neurons. To address this, we and others have been removing leptin receptors from candidate first order neurons. While functionally relevant neurons have been identified, the observed effects have been small suggesting that most first order neurons remain unidentified. Here we take an alternative appro...

  13. Preventive voltage control actions to securely face load evolution in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano Marcolini, A.; Martinez Ramos, J.L.; Romero Ramos, E.; Trigo Garcia, A.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    One of the main aims of the System Operator (SO) is to maintain in every moment the system parameters between feasible operational margins. In certain periods of the day the load suffers fast changes which cause, specially when it tends to increase, a generalized voltage decrement and a more stressed condition for many reactive resources. In such cases, many devices may arrive to their operational limits, situation which translates into a weaker system. To avoid this negative effect the control variables should be rescheduled to maintain the normal operation conditions in the foreseeable future. This work proposes a useful tool to assist the SO when determining such actions. The main improvements are due to the implementation of a hybrid method that allows the comparison of different kinds of control variables and the inclusion of the operator background and experience in the algorithm that determines the actions. The performance of the proposed method is tested in both the IEEE 14-Bus and 118-Bus test systems. (author)

  14. Overview of Prevention for Water Hammer by Check Valve Action in Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dayong; Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonhoon

    2016-01-01

    Water hammer can cause serious damage to pumping system and unexpected system pressure rise in the pipeline. In nuclear reactor, water hammer can influence on the integrity of safety related system. Water hammer in nuclear reactor have been caused by voiding in normally water-filled lines, steam condensation line containing both steam and water, as well as by rapid check valve action. Therefore, this study focuses on the water hammer by check valve among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. This study focuses on the water hammer by check valve action among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in high velocity and pressure pipe is predicted, the fast response check valve such as tiled disc, dual disc and nozzle check valve should be installed in the system. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in very high velocity and pressure pipe and excessively large revered flow velocity are predicted, the very slowly closing check valve such as controlled closure check valve should be installed in the system

  15. Overview of Prevention for Water Hammer by Check Valve Action in Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dayong; Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonhoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Water hammer can cause serious damage to pumping system and unexpected system pressure rise in the pipeline. In nuclear reactor, water hammer can influence on the integrity of safety related system. Water hammer in nuclear reactor have been caused by voiding in normally water-filled lines, steam condensation line containing both steam and water, as well as by rapid check valve action. Therefore, this study focuses on the water hammer by check valve among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. This study focuses on the water hammer by check valve action among the sources of water hammer occurrence and suggests proper methodology for check valve type selection against water hammer. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in high velocity and pressure pipe is predicted, the fast response check valve such as tiled disc, dual disc and nozzle check valve should be installed in the system. If the inadvertent pump trip or pipe rupture in very high velocity and pressure pipe and excessively large revered flow velocity are predicted, the very slowly closing check valve such as controlled closure check valve should be installed in the system.

  16. Effect of different frequencies of preventive maintenance treatment on dental caries: five-year observations in general dentistry patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Birgitta; Olavi, Göran; Birkhed, Dowen; Edvardsson, Stig; Egelberg, Jan

    2004-10-01

    A long-term study in adults at a public dental clinic in Sweden was initiated to evaluate the relative effectiveness of prophylactic treatments on the progression of dental caries and periodontal discase. With treatments scheduled every 3rd, 6th, 12th or 18th month, this report presents results on caries for the 3-month, 6-month and 18-month groups, and evaluates the impact of various caries-related risk factors. Caries increment over approximately 5 years was determined by adding clinical and radiographic findings of manifest primary and secondary caries during the study. Overall caries activity among all 105 participating individuals was low to moderate. No significant differences for caries on any of the various tooth surfaces or for total caries were observed among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis with 5-year caries increment as dependent variable showed that the following factors had a statistically significant association with caries increment: percentage filled surfaces at baseline examination, dietary score, plaque score, and number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva. Non-significant factors included number of preventive treatments provided during the 5-year interval. The results of this long-term trial suggest that preventive treatments as often as every 3 6 months may not be justified in the case of patients with low to moderate caries activity.

  17. Interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated factors among high-risk drug users enrolled in methadone maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The adoption of mobile technologies for health (mHealth) in healthcare has grown considerably in recent years, but systematic assessment of interest in the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs (PWUD) is lacking. We therefore examined interest in use of mHealth technology in HIV prevention and associated individual-level factors among high-risk PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance program. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors completed a standardized assessment using audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results revealed significant interest in using mHealth-based approaches for specific purposes, including: to receive medication reminders (72.3%), to receive information about HIV risk reduction (65.8%), and to assess HIV risk behaviors (76.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that interest in receiving medication reminders was associated with currently taking medication and being neurocognitively impaired, whereas interest in receiving HIV-risk reduction information was associated with being non-white, married, and perceiving the person was at high-risk for contracting HIV. Similarly, participants' interested in using mHealth for HIV risk behavior assessment was associated with having recently visited a healthcare provider and exhibiting depressive symptoms. Overall, this study demonstrated that high-risk PWUD are interested in using mHealth-based tools as a key part of an HIV prevention approach within a common type of drug treatment settings. Thus, formative research on preferences for design and functionality of mHealth-based HIV prevention tools are now needed, followed by practical development, implementation, and evaluation of these new intervention strategies.

  18. Maintenance risk management in Dayabay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Tong Jiejuan

    2005-01-01

    The importance of proper maintenance to safe and reliable nuclear plant operation has long been recognized by the nuclear utility and regulatory body. This paper presents a process of maintenance risk management developed for a Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The process includes three phases: (I) long term maintenance plan risk management, (II) monthly maintenance plan risk management, and (III) detailed risk management for high risk configuration. A risk matrix is developed for phase I whose purpose is to provide a rough guide for risk management in the making of the annual maintenance plan. For Phase II and Phase III, a software tool named Maintenance- Risk-Monitor is developed based on the internal initiating event, level 1 PSA model. The results of Phase II are the risk information of the all plant configurations caused by the unavailability of the components included the monthly maintenance plan. When the increase of core damage frequency (CDF) or the incremental core damage probability (ICDP) of a configuration is higher than the corresponding thresholds, Phase III is needed for this high risk configuration to get the useful information such as risk-importance components, human actions and initial events, from which appropriate preventive measurements could be derived. It is hoped that the provided process of maintenance risk management, together with the developed software tool, could facilitate the maintenance activities in the NPPs of China. (authors)

  19. A study of foreign object damage (FOD) and prevention method at the airport and aircraft maintenance area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, R.; Ismail, N.; Mustapa, S.

    2016-10-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) is common risk for aviation industry since long time ago and it has contributed to many terrible incidents and fatalities. The cost of FOD cases every year is very high, which is around RM 1.2 billion. Therefore, a proper technique and strategy has to be taken by the designated organizations including airlines to further eliminate the FOD occurrences. It is not easy to control FOD due to some circumstances such as inappropriate working behaviour, poor working environment, insufficient technology and also disorganized housekeeping system. The main purpose of this research is to discuss and explain further about FOD and the techniques to prevent FOD. FOD is a universal concern in aviation industry and it is one of the reasons that contribute to aircraft failure and unwanted damages such as fatalities and causalities. Throughout this research, many information related to FOD problems and their impact on aviation industry are gathered and presented.

  20. Engaging community organizations in falls prevention for older adults: Moving from research to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen F; Dykeman, Catherine S; Reimer, Holly D; Boratto, Lorna J; Goodall, Carol E; McGugan, Jennifer L

    2015-04-29

    Falls prevention (FP) evidence abounds but falls rates remain relatively unaffected. This study aimed to explore community service providers' use of evidence-based FP interventions, attitudes toward implementation, knowledge and capacity for FP engagement, collaboration in FP, and organizational readiness to implement evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the potential for broader integration of FP throughout communities. A purposive sampling of providers (n = 84), in varied roles within diverse senior-serving community organizations (both health and non-health sectors) across disparate geographies, completed a structured survey as part of a larger mixed methods study. Nearly all (90%) reported already implementing at least one evidence-based FP practice. The majority indicated that falls were preventable (82%) and a top concern for older adults (75%), and that FP would be beneficial to their clients (75%). There were, however, notable differences between health and non-health sectors in their: confidence in providing FP activities (86% vs. 47%), desire for future collaboration (86% vs. 56%) and already knowing how best to provide FP activities (49% vs. 36%). Only some (21%) perceived that staff to a great extent had the necessary knowledge and skills, and few (10%) perceived that available resources could support FP activities. Community service providers generally supported FP, but resources limited implementation, particularly in non-health sectors. Translating FP evidence to better fit community settings, and fostering collaboration to bridge resource gaps, suggest a public health role in the broader integration of FP within and across community sectors.

  1. Shared decision making in preventive care in Switzerland: From theory to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Cornuz, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Switzerland with its decentralized, liberal health system and its tradition of direct democracy may be an ideal place for shared decision making (SDM) to take root organically, rather than using top-down regulations seen in other countries. There are now multiple directives and programmes in place to encourage SDM, with the creation of several decision aids and specific training programs in the five Swiss medical schools. There has been an emphasis on preventive care, with the integration of patient preference into an organized colorectal cancer screening program, clear recommendations for prostate cancer screening, and inroads into the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Focusing on the experience of the University of Lausanne, we describe multiple approaches being taken to teaching SDM and the local development of decision aids, drawing on international experience but tailored to local needs. Efforts are being made to further involve patients in not only SDM, but also associated research and quality improvement projects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  3. Fiscal policy to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases: from recommendations to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Downs, Shauna M; Mayes, Christopher; Trevena, Helen; Waqanivalu, Temo; Cawley, John

    2018-03-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended that Member States consider taxing energy-dense beverages and foods and/or subsidizing nutrient-rich foods to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases. Numerous countries have either implemented taxes on energy-dense beverages and foods or are considering the implementation of such taxes. However, several major challenges to the implementation of fiscal policies to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases remain. Some of these challenges relate to the cross-sectoral nature of the relevant interventions. For example, as health and economic policy-makers have different administrative concerns, performance indicators and priorities, they often consider different forms of evidence in their decision-making. In this paper, we describe the evidence base for diet-related interventions based on fiscal policies and consider the key questions that need to be asked by both health and economic policy-makers. From the health sector's perspective, there is most evidence for the impact of taxes and subsidies on diets, with less evidence on their impacts on body weight or health. We highlight the importance of scope, the role of industry, the use of revenue and regressive taxes in informing policy decisions.

  4. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  5. Condition based maintenance in the context of opportunistic maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, Javid; Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Wortmann, Hans; Klingenberg, Warse

    2012-01-01

    Condition based maintenance (CBM) uses the operating condition of a component to predict a failure event. Compared to age based replacement (ABR), CBM usually results in higher availability and lower maintenance costs, since it tries to prevent unplanned downtime and avoid unnecessary preventive

  6. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergies, with an emphasis on mode of delivery and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Satya; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Saha, Shyamali; Rodes, Laetitia; Kahouli, Imen; Malhotra, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    Allergy, also termed type I hypersensitivity, is defined as a "disease following a response by the immune system to an otherwise innocuous antigen". The prevalence of allergies is high and escalating, with almost half the populations of North America and Europe having allergies to one or more common environmental antigens. Although rarely life-threatening allergies cause much distress and pose an important economic burden. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of the commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract, termed the microbiota, in stimulating and modulating the immune system. This goes hand-in-hand with the hygiene hypothesis, proposed by Strachan in 1989. With this in mind, the use of pre- and probiotics has gained interest to prevent and treat allergies through modulation of the gut microbiota and the immune system. Probiotics, namely Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, are live microorganisms that can be incorporated in the diet in the form of functional foods or dietary supplements to beneficially influence the host. In recent studies, probiotic formulations demonstrated the capability to successfully modulate allergic rhinitis, atopic disorders and food-related allergies. A number of probiotic mechanisms of action are involved in controlling hypersensitivity responses, many of which are still not yet understood. Microencapsulation has gained importance as a device for the oral delivery of probiotic cells and may play an important role in the development of a successful probiotic formulation to treat and prevent allergies. Despite the promising research on probiotic biotherapeutics, further investigations are required to develop a successful therapeutic to treat and prevent allergies.

  7. Integrated maintenance program (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemdegs, R.T.; Chout, Q.B.

    1998-01-01

    Approaches to the maintenance of nuclear power plants have undergone significant change in the past several decades. The traditional breakdown approach has been displaced by preventive (calendar-based) maintenance and more recently, by condition-based maintenance (CBM). This is largely driven by the fact that traditional maintenance programs, derived primarily from equipment vendor recommendations, are generally unsuccessful in controlling maintenance costs or equipment failures. Many advances in the maintenance field have taken place since the maintenance plans for Ontario Hydro's nuclear plants were initially established. Ontario Hydro nuclear plant operating costs can be substantially reduced and Incapability Factor improved with the application of modern maintenance processes and tools. Pickering is designated as the lead station for IMP. Of immediate concern is the fact that Pickering Nuclear Division has been experiencing a significant backlog of Operating Preventive Maintenance Callups. This backlog, over 2000, is unacceptable to both station management and the nuclear regulator, the Atomic Energy Control Board. In addition there are over 500 callups in various stages of revision (in hyperspace) without an adequate control nor reporting system to manage their completion. There is also considerable confusion about the classification of l icensing c allups, e.g. callups which are mandatory as a result of legal requirements. Furthermore the ineffectiveness of the Preventive Maintenance (PM) has been the subject of peer audits and Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) findings over the past several years. The current preventive maintenance ratio PM2 /(PM+CM3) at Pickering ND is less than 20%, due to the current high load of equipment breakdown. This past summer, an Independent Integrated Performance Assessment (IIPA) review at Ontario Hydro confirmed these concerns. Over the past several years, Ontario Hydro nuclear staff have evaluated several programs to improve

  8. Recognition and Prevention of Nosocomial Malnutrition: A Review and A Call to Action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Lisa L; Shaughnessy, Erin

    2017-12-01

    Nosocomial malnutrition in hospitalized adults is a morbid, costly, and potentially preventable and treatable problem. Although recognized as contributing to many serious complications of hospitalization, malnutrition is often missed when present on admission and rarely diagnosed if it occurs during hospital stay. Many routine clinical practices such as holding nutrition for testing or failing to address poor intake, when added to acute inflammatory disease states, cause rapid deterioration in nutritional status in up to 70% of inpatients. Malnutrition during hospitalization is associated with increased mortality for years after discharge. In addition, unrecognized (and under-coded) malnutrition is associated with potential lost revenues for hospital systems. Low-cost interventions of recognizing at-risk patients and providing adequate nutrition have the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce health care costs. Physicians must champion implementation of these interventions, using guidance from national organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  10. Maintenance Process Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Stachowiak, A.

    2016-08-01

    The performance and competitiveness of manufacturing companies is dependent on the availability, reliability and productivity of their production facilities. Low productivity, downtime, and poor machine performance is often linked to inadequate plant maintenance, which in turn can lead to reduced production levels, increasing costs, lost market opportunities, and lower profits. These pressures have given firms worldwide the motivation to explore and embrace proactive maintenance strategies over the traditional reactive firefighting methods. The traditional view of maintenance has shifted into one of an overall view that encompasses Overall Equipment Efficiency, Stakeholders Management and Life Cycle assessment. From practical point of view it requires changes in approach to maintenance represented by managers and changes in actions performed within maintenance area. Managers have to understand that maintenance is not only about repairs and conservations of machines and devices, but also actions striving for more efficient resources management and care for safety and health of employees. The purpose of the work is to present strategic analysis based on SWOT analysis to identify the opportunities and strengths of maintenance process, to benefit from them as much as possible, as well as to identify weaknesses and threats, so that they could be eliminated or minimized.

  11. Maintenance technologies for reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Masahiro [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Keihin Product Operations; Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Seiichiro [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corp., Tokyo(Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Toshiba places the highest priority on maintenance technologies for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals in operating nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the status of applied laser maintenance technologies, both preventive and repair. For laser peeing and laser desensitization treatment (LDT) technologies in particular, field applications are also described in detail. In the future, the area of field applications for preventive maintenance, repair, and inspection technologies will be further expanded. (author)

  12. A silicone elastomer vaginal ring for HIV prevention containing two microbicides with different mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherston, Susan M; Boyd, Peter; McCoy, Clare F; McBride, Marcella C; Edwards, Karen-Leigh; Ampofo, Stephen; Malcolm, R Karl

    2013-02-14

    Vaginal rings are currently being developed for the long-term (at least 30 days) continuous delivery of microbicides against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research to date has mostly focused on devices containing a single antiretroviral compound, exemplified by the 25mg dapivirine ring currently being evaluated in a Phase III clinical study. However, there is a strong clinical rationale for combining antiretrovirals with different mechanisms of action in a bid to increase breadth of protection and limit the emergence of resistant strains. Here we report the development of a combination antiretroviral silicone elastomer matrix-type vaginal ring for simultaneous controlled release of dapivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc, a CCR5-targeted HIV-1 entry inhibitor. Vaginal rings loaded with 25mg dapivirine and various quantities of maraviroc (50-400mg) were manufactured and in vitro release assessed. The 25mg dapivirine and 100mg maraviroc formulation was selected for further study. A 24-month pharmaceutical stability evaluation was conducted, indicating good product stability in terms of in vitro release, content assay, mechanical properties and related substances. This combination ring product has now progressed to Phase I clinical testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  14. Bayesian based Prognostic Model for Predictive Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    The operation and maintenance costs of offshore wind farms can be significantly reduced if existing corrective actions are performed as efficient as possible and if future corrective actions are avoided by performing sufficient preventive actions. In this paper a prognostic model for degradation...... monitoring, fault prediction and predictive maintenance of offshore wind components is defined. The diagnostic model defined in this paper is based on degradation, remaining useful lifetime and hybrid inspection threshold models. The defined degradation model is based on an exponential distribution...

  15. Bayesian based Prognostic Model for Predictive Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    monitoring, fault prediction and predictive maintenance of offshore wind components is defined. The diagnostic model defined in this paper is based on degradation, remaining useful lifetime and hybrid inspection threshold models. The defined degradation model is based on an exponential distribution......The operation and maintenance costs of offshore wind farms can be significantly reduced if existing corrective actions are performed as efficient as possible and if future corrective actions are avoided by performing sufficient preventive actions. In this paper a prognostic model for degradation...

  16. Bayesian based Prognostic Model for Predictive Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    monitoring, fault detection and predictive maintenance of offshore wind components is defined. The diagnostic model defined in this paper is based on degradation, remaining useful lifetime and hybrid inspection threshold models. The defined degradation model is based on an exponential distribution......The operation and maintenance costs of offshore wind farms can be significantly reduced if existing corrective actions are performed as efficient as possible and if future corrective actions are avoided by performing sufficient preventive actions. In this paper a prognostic model for degradation...

  17. Prevention of respiratory complications of the surgical patient: actionable plan for continued process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscic, Katarina J; Grabitz, Stephanie D; Rudolph, Maíra I; Eikermann, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs) increase hospitalization time, 30-day mortality and costs by up to $35 000. These outcomes measures have gained prominence as bundled payments have become more common. Results of recent quantitative effectiveness studies and clinical trials provide a framework that helps develop center-specific treatment guidelines, tailored to minimize the risk of PRCs. The implementation of those protocols should be guided by a local, respected, and visible facilitator who leads proper implementation while inviting center-specific input from surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other perioperative stakeholders. Preoperatively, patients should be risk-stratified for PRCs to individualize intraoperative choices and postoperative pathways. Laparoscopic compared with open surgery improves respiratory outcomes. High-risk patients should be treated by experienced providers based on locally developed bundle-interventions to optimize intraoperative treatment and ICU bed utilization. Intraoperatively, lung-protective ventilation (procedure-specific positive end-expiratory pressure utilization, and low driving pressure) and moderately restrictive fluid therapy should be used. To achieve surgical relaxation, high-dose neuromuscular blocking agents (and reversal agents) as well as high-dose opioids should be avoided; inhaled anesthetics improve surgical conditions while protecting the lungs. Patients should be extubated in reverse Trendelenburg position. Postoperatively, continuous positive airway pressure helps prevent airway collapse and protocolized, early mobilization improves cognitive and respiratory function.

  18. The properties of weft knitted fabric medical and preventive treatment action using eco-raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavska, L.; Batrak, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new trend in the world is the clothing production using the new types of ecological raw materials application - milk, pineapple, coconut, hemp, banana, eucalyptus, clams, corn, bamboo, soya, nettle yarn. This makes it possible to create textile materials of new generation with unique antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Such materials have a positive preventive and sometimes therapeutic effect on people, and their health. Eco-raw materials clothing is able to protect the human body from the environment harmful effects: cold, heat, rain, dust, opportunely remove from underclothing layer the steam and gases, sweat; maintain in underclothing layer the necessary microclimate for normal organism functioning. Study of knitwear consumer properties, produced with eco-materials, is an urgent task of the world vector, directed on ecological environmental protection. This paper presents the research results of hygroscopicity and capillarity weft knitted fabrics, what knitted from different types of eco-raw materials: bamboo yarn, yarn containing soybean and nettle yarn. Character of influence of the liquid raising level changes depending on the experiment time and the knitting structure is revealed.

  19. Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-06-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.

  20. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact on quality of life in teachers after educational actions for prevention of voice disorders: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizolato, Raquel Aparecida; Rehder, Maria Inês Beltrati Cornacchioni; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2013-02-27

    Voice problems are more common in teachers due to intensive voice use during routine at work. There is evidence that occupational disphonia prevention programs are important in improving the quality voice and consequently the quality of subjects' lives. To investigate the impact of educational voice interventions for teachers on quality of life and voice. A longitudinal interventional study involving 70 teachers randomly selected from 11 public schools, 30 to receive educational intervention with vocal training exercises and vocal hygiene habits (experimental group) and 40 to receive guidance on vocal hygiene habits (control group control). Before the process of educational activities, the Voice-Related Quality of Life instrument (V-RQOL) was applied, and 3 months after conclusion of the activities, the subjects were interviewed again, using the same instrument. For data analysis, Prox MIXED were applied, with a level of significance α Educational actions for vocal health had a positive impact on the quality of life of the participants, and the incorporation of permanent educational actions at institutional level is suggested.

  2. Events at blood collection area due to nonconforming blood bags and plateletpheresis kits: need for timely corrective and preventive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anupam; Sachan, Deepti; Elhence, Priti; Pandey, Hem; Dubey, Anju

    2012-07-01

    Good blood banking practice requires that every effort should be made to detect any deviation or defect in blood bank products and to identify any potential risk to blood donor or recipient(s). We report the findings of an exercise that provide an insight into why feedback from the user side is crucial. Various events involving blood bags and plateletpheresis kits and the corresponding appropriate actions instituted for remedial measures were recorded. These scattered events were recorded for 6 months following the use of a new batch of improved blood bags with add-on features. Several events related to plateletpheresis kits from three different manufacturers were also recorded for 1 year. The affected blood bags were utilized with no untoward incident. The complaint was closed following satisfactory response from the blood bag manufacturing company that acted in a timely manner in addressing the root causes of the problems. However, corrective and preventive actions (CAPA) could not be implemented for plateletpheresis kits. The rate of undesirable events was higher with plateletpheresis kits as compared with whole blood bags (1.75% vs. 0.06%). As defects or deviations that trigger the need for CAPA can stem from numerous sources, it is important to clearly identify and document the problems and level of risk so that appropriate investigations can be instituted and remedial actions can be taken in a timely manner. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a quality initiative to collate and analyze blood product faults in conjunction with blood product manufacturers. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Maintenance optimization after RCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.K.; Lee, C.-G.; Cho, D.

    2005-01-01

    Variant forms of RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) have been the maintenance optimizing tools of choice in industry for the last 20 years. Several such optimization techniques have been implemented at the Bruce Nuclear Station. Further cost refinement of the Station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data are now being evaluated. The evaluation includes a requirement to demonstrate that earlier optimization projects have long term positive impacts. This proved to be a significant challenge. Eventually a methodology was developed using Crowe/AMSAA (Army Materials Systems Analysis Activity) plots to justify expenditures on further optimization efforts. (authors)

  4. Initiating statistical maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin; Tuomi, Vesa; Rowley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980 s maintenance optimization has been centered around various formulations of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). Several such optimization techniques have been implemented at the Bruce Nuclear Station. Further cost refinement of the Station preventive maintenance strategy includes evaluation of statistical optimization techniques. A review of successful pilot efforts in this direction is provided as well as initial work with graphical analysis. The present situation reguarding data sourcing, the principle impediment to use of stochastic methods in previous years, is discussed. The use of Crowe/AMSAA (Army Materials Systems Analysis Activity) plots is demonstrated from the point of view of justifying expenditures in optimization efforts. (author)

  5. Preventive action of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Haematopoietic organs are markedly sensitive to ionizing radiation due to its proliferate activity. The changes found in the circulating blood are primarily due to damage in the radio sensitive haematopoeitic organs. A very small dose of radiation to a blood forming organ causes an arrest of haematopoiesis with changes in peripheral blood count. Certain trace elements are essential for normal growth and development of organisms but their concentration beyond threshold may produce damage to blood forming organs and tissues thus affecting the peripheral blood. Aloe vera has been claimed to contain several important therapeutic properties including anti cancer effects. Various studies showed the prevention of radiation induced suppression of immunity by Aloe vera components. Having these unique properties, Aloe vera could be used in clinical field as a protector against radiation and heavy metal toxicity in human beings. For the study, six to eight weeks old Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages. The animals were fed with standard mice feed and water was provided to them ad libitum. Cadmium chloride was administered orally to the animals in drinking water at the dose rate of 20 ppm. The animals were exposed to sub lethal doses of 2.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 source. The Aloe vera was given seven days prior to irradiation and continued up to last autopsy day in experimental animals. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 days. The differential leucocytes count was estimated by preparing smear of the blood. The value of lymphocyte decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups thereafter it increased up to day-28 whereas the count decreased up to day-7 in drug treated groups and showed an increasing trend at day-14 which continues up to day-28. The value of monocyte and granulocyte percentage increased up to day-7 in drug treated groups

  6. Interval of Routine Maintenance and Maintenance Performance: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au-Yong Cheong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-rise residential buildings, the quality of facilities management services is significant to the normal operation of the facilities. Unfortunately, lack of concern towards building maintenance, especially preventive maintenance, happens in domestic housing industry in Malaysia. Majority of the maintenance operations of condominiums suffer from lack of planning, lack of proactive maintenance plan, and lack of proper implementation. Thus, this paper reviews the implementation of preventive maintenance strategy, routine maintenance in specific. An extensive review of literature published in 1987 to 2014 is performed for the purpose of this research. The publications are sourced from journal articles, conference proceedings and books. The literature analysis confirms that the routine maintenance of facilities and building services is vital and it can be influential towards the maintenance performance. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is developed, which shows the relationship between routine maintenance of building facilities & services and maintenance performance. The building facilities & services are divided into two categories. They are essential facilities & services that ensure the safety, health, habitability, and operability of buildings; while value-added facilities & services deal with property value, return on investment, and quality living of buildings. Based on the findings, a future research is proposed, which aims to identify the appropriate routine of maintenance for the facilities and services in high-rise residential buildings to improve the maintenance performance.

  7. Maintenance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.

    1990-01-01

    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr

  8. Effect of gender on awareness of cardiovascular risk factors, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health in a group of Austrian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidinger, Teresa; Zweimüller, Martin; Stütz, Lena; Demir, Dondue; Kaider, Alexandra; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in industrialized countries. Preventive action is an important factor in minimizing CVD-associated morbidity and mortality. However, it is not known whether gender differences affect CVD or risk factor awareness influencing self-assessment of personal risk and preventive action. This study was performed to assess individual CVD and risk factor awareness, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health. The study included 573 women and 336 men, randomly chosen to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess individual CVD and risk factor awareness, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health. The data were analyzed using SAS software. Cardiovascular disease was identified in 75% of patients, in both sexes, as the leading cause of death; however, both groups showed significant lack of knowledge about CVD risk factors. Type 2 diabetes was identified correctly in only 27.5%. Preventive action was linked more often to family members in 66.5% of women and 62.8% of men. The primary barrier to cardiovascular health in adults was incorrect assessment of personal CVD risk. More than half of female respondents (56.4%) and male respondents (52.7%) underestimated their risk of CVD. Knowledge about risk factors for CVD needs to be improved in members of both sexes. Because women, in particular, have difficulty in correctly assessing their personal CVD risk, future education programs are warranted to inform both women and men about CVD and its risk factors, thereby helping them to correctly assess their individual risk. However, greater effort is needed to inform men, compared with women, about the various ways in which to prevent CVD and to motivate them to take preventive action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal maintenance policy for a system subject to damage in a discrete time process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2012-01-01

    Consider a system operating over n discrete time periods (n=1, 2, …). Each operation period causes a random amount of damage to the system which accumulates over time periods. The system fails when the cumulative damage exceeds a failure level ζ and a corrective maintenance (CM) action is immediately taken. To prevent such a failure, a preventive maintenance (PM) may be performed. In an operation period without a CM or PM, a regular maintenance (RM) is conducted at the end of that period to maintain the operation of the system. We propose a maintenance policy which prescribes a PM when the accumulated damage exceeds a pre-specified level δ ( ⁎ and N ⁎ and discuss some useful properties about them. It has been shown that a δ-based PM outperforms a N-based PM in terms of cost minimization. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the optimization of this class of maintenance policies.

  10. Aerobic exercise training prevents heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by anti-catabolic, but not anabolic actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo W A Souza

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting.We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS inducing HF in Wistar male rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks of aerobic ET (AS-ET or to an untrained group (AS-UN. At 28 weeks, the AS-UN group presented HF signs in conjunction with high TNF-α serum levels; soleus and plantaris muscle atrophy; and an increase in the expression of TNF-α, NFκB (p65, MAFbx, MuRF1, FoxO1, and myostatin catabolic factors. However, in the AS-ET group, the deterioration of cardiac function was prevented, as well as muscle wasting, and the atrophy promoters were decreased. Interestingly, changes in anabolic factor expression (IGF-I, AKT, and mTOR were not observed. Nevertheless, in the plantaris muscle, ET maintained high PGC1α levels.Thus, the ET capability to attenuate cardiac function during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF was accompanied by a prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy that did not occur via an increase in anabolic factors, but through anti-catabolic activity, presumably caused by PGC1α action. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of aerobic ET to block HF-induced muscle atrophy by counteracting the increased catabolic state.

  11. Forming a cohesive steam generator maintenance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudroux, G.

    1991-01-01

    In older nuclear plants, steam generator tube bundles are the most fragile part of the reactor coolant system. Steam generator tubes are subject to numerous types of loading, which can lead to severe degradation (corrosion and wear phenomena). Preventive actions, such as reactor coolant temperature reduction or increasing the plugging limit and their associated analyses, can increase steam generator service life. Beyond these preventive actions, the number of affected tubes and the different locations of the degradations that occur often make repair campaigns necessary. Framatome has developed and qualified a wide range of treatment and repair processes. They enable careful management of the repair campaigns, to avoid reaching the maximum steam generator tube plugging limit, while optimizing the costs. Most of the available repair techniques allow a large number of affected tubes to be treated. Here we look only at those techniques that should be taken into account when defining a maintenance strategy. (author)

  12. Cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance therapy as HIV prevention in an Indonesian high-prevalence setting: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Joost J G; Siregar, Adiatma Y; Hidayat, Teddy; Raya, Reynie P; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, André J; Baltussen, Rob

    2012-09-01

    Indonesia faces an HIV epidemic that is in rapid transition. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are among the most heavily affected risk populations, with estimated prevalence of HIV reaching 50% or more in most parts of the country. Although Indonesia started opening methadone clinics in 2003, coverage remains low. We used the Asian Epidemic Model and Resource Needs Model to evaluate the long-term population-level preventive impact of expanding Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) in West Java (43 million people). We compared intervention costs and the number of incident HIV cases in the intervention scenario with current practice to establish the cost per infection averted by expanding MMT. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed on costs and epidemiological input, as well as on the cost-effectiveness calculation itself. Our analysis shows that expanding MMT from 5% coverage now to 40% coverage in 2019 would avert approximately 2400 HIV infections, at a cost of approximately US$7000 per HIV infection averted. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the use of alternative assumptions does not change the study conclusions. Our analyses suggest that expanding MMT is cost-effective, and support government policies to make MMT widely available as an integrated component of HIV/AIDS control in West Java. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis via upregulation of bfl-1, maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential and prevention of caspase 3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Yoshiie, Kiyotaka; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis plays a central role in human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Intracellular signalling pathways through which the obligatory intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits the spontaneous apoptosis of human peripheral blood neutrophils were investigated. bfl-1 mRNA levels in uninfected neutrophils after 12 h in culture were reduced to approximately 5-25% of 0 h levels, but remained high in infected neutrophils. The eukaryotic RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, prevented the maintenance of bfl-1 mRNA levels by A. phagocytophilum. Differences in mcl-1, bax, bcl-w, bad or bak mRNA levels in infected versus uninfected neutrophils were not remarkable. By using mitochondrial fluorescent dyes, Mitotracker Red and JC-1, it was found that most uninfected neutrophils lost mitochondrial membrane potential after 10-12 h incubation, whereas A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils maintained high membrane potential. Caspase 3 activity and the degree of apoptosis were lower in dose-dependent manner in A. phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils at 16 h post infection, as compared to uninfected neutrophils. Anti-active caspase 3 antibody labelling showed less positively stained population in infected neutrophils compared to those in uninfected neutrophils after 12 h incubation. These results suggest that A. phagocytophilum inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis via transcriptional upregulation of bfl-1 and inhibition of mitochondria-mediated activation of caspase 3.

  14. Methods and tools in development in the field of maintenance; Methodes et outils pour la maintenance en cours de developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Reverend, D.; Tortolano, M. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), 78 - Chatou (France); Leniaud, F. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nuleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article is dedicated to the maintenance strategy followed by EDF for its nuclear power plants. This strategy is based on the American method RCM (reliability centered method) that has been extended to passive components such as structures and relies on 4 axis. The first axis can be defined as the optimization of maintenance with regard to safety, outage and costs. The aim is to set the border between preventive maintenance and remedial maintenance. The second axis is the condition based maintenance that is the maintenance action that is triggered by the real state of the equipment. This type of maintenance implies the search for reliable and accurate diagnostics. The third axis is the design of simulation and planning tools required for the management of the moving of tools, machinery and spare-parts on a maintenance work site. The fourth axis is the design of tools able to repair some important equipment, this way may be a valid alternative to the replacement of equipment in terms of cost and outage time. (A.C.)

  15. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Rachel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a depression free days, (b residual depressive symptoms, (c antidepressant (ADM usage, (d psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e quality of life, and (f cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences

  16. Maintenance Action Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Maintenance Action Work Plan has been prepared to document the activities and procedures for the remediation of four inactive, low-level radioactive tanks at Waste Area Grouping 1, from the Category D list of tanks in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (EPA et al. 1994). The four tanks to remediated are tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Three of the tanks (3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30) will be physically removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associted with excavation and site access, the fourth tank (3013) will be grouted in place and permanently closed

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  18. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  19. CAME-Computer Aided Maintenance Engineering: a new methodology to reduce maintenance life cycle cost pipelines (repair level, spares, preventive/scheduled/inspection and resources) by modeling, analysis and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bot, Yizhak [BQR Reliability Engineering Ltd. (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    In today's insecure and uncertain climate in the high-tech industry, where money is less accessible, companies are constantly searching for ways to cut expenses. Two important financial factors to consider are maintenance and down time when the equipment/system/processes are not functioning/operating. In this paper we shall describe a new technology, which will help designers and operators of complex systems to improve the reliability of the products and to reduce the maintenance cost, when they are used in field. These set of tools are interfaced to exist CAD/CAE and ERP/CMMS systems concurrently. (author)

  20. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  1. Model of Management (Mo.Ma) for the patient with schizophrenia: crisis control, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The

  2. Modeling of the maintenance policy of an offshore wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddens, L.; Labeau, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy has a key position in the market of renewable electricity production means. Offshore wind farms offer additional surfaces to exploit this form of energy, together with more favourable wind conditions. Yet offshore windmills ask for higher investment and maintenance costs. Optimising the latter costs should therefore turn out to be particularly beneficial for this technology. The present paper summarizes the main modelling aspects of the maintenance of a typical offshore wind farm, such as the accessibility of the wind turbines and the impact of weather conditions, the cost of the different transport resources, the number of maintenance teams, a tolerated unavailability of part of the windmills, the opportunity to combine corrective and preventive maintenance actions on one or several windmills. All these features were embedded in a Petri net model of the maintenance policy of the farm, allowing to estimate the maintenance costs entailed by several strategies. Advantages and drawbacks of using Petri nets for the modelling of such a maintenance strategy are finally discussed. (authors)

  3. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  4. Heel pressure ulcer, prevention and predictors during the care delivery chain - when and where to take action? A descriptive and explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Engström, Maria; Gunningberg, Lena; Bååth, Carina

    2016-11-14

    Hazardous healthcare settings, for example acute care, need to focus more on preventing adverse events and preventive actions across the care delivery chain (i.e pre-hospital and emergency care, and further at the hospital ward) should be more studied. Pressure ulcer prevalence is still at unreasonably high levels, causing increased healthcare costs and suffering for patients. Recent biomedical research reveals that the first signs of cell damage could arise within minutes. However, few studies have investigated optimal pressure ulcer prevention in the initial stage of the care process, e.g. in the ambulance care or at the emergency department. The aim of the study was to describe heel pressure ulcer prevalence and nursing actions in relation to pressure ulcer prevention during the care delivery chain, for older patients with neurological symptoms or reduced general condition. Another aim was to investigate early predictors for the development of heel pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain. Existing data collected from a multi-centre randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of using a heel prevention boot to reduce the incidence of heel pressure ulcer across the care delivery chain was used. Totally 183 patients participated. The settings for the study were five ambulance stations, two emergency departments and 16 wards at two hospitals in Sweden. A total of 39 individual patients (21 %) developed heel pressure ulcer at different stages across the care delivery chain. Findings revealed that 47-64 % of the patients were assessed as being at risk for developing heel pressure ulcer. Preventive action was taken. However, all patients who developed pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain did not receive adequate pressure ulcer prevention actions during their hospital stay. In the ambulance and at the emergency department, skin inspection seems to be appropriate for preventing pressure ulcer. However, carrying out risk assessment with a validated

  5. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  6. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  7. Contract Service for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Preventive maintenance can extend useful equipment life in a school building and keep systems running more efficiently. Points to consider before selecting a comprehensive energy management package are listed. (Author/MLF)

  8. Water and soil maintenance of forests, and advancement of retaining and increasing technique of disaster preventing function. Shinrin no suido hozenter dot bosai kino no ijiter dot zoshin gijutsu no kodoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-25

    This paper is a research report concerning the water and soil maintenance and the technical advance of disaster preventing function of forests. As for the water maintenance control to clarify the water maintenance function of forests and to advance retaining and increasing technique, amount of precipitation on valleys and ridges, amount of evapotranspiration in a summer rainy season, underground water in woodlands and water circulating characteristics in montane zones were studied. The amount of evapotranspiration and the crown interception in water drainage area in Tsukuba forest of Japan were surveyed. A formula to estimate the flow rate was derived by surveying the change of flow rate through cutting forests at a riverhead in a heavy snow area and by analyzing data at 29 drainage areas. As for the clarification of the occurring mechanism of a soil disaster and the development of forest conservation technique, a simulation of boulder flow flood at a practical damaged district was carried out and it could be estimated by a tank model that the water level at a collector well fallen down in a landslide area. As for the survey of disaster preventing function of forests and the improvement of disaster preventing means, if damaged trees in frozen damage and discoloration area are pruned, the discoloration becomes very slight. The arborescent trees were selected from the standing tree density or forest physiognomy for the frequent land of full-depth avalanche. Japanese beeches, maples, oaks and Magnolia hypoleuca are suitable for a heavy snowarea. 1 tab.

  9. Maintenance Mentor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, John

    2003-01-01

    Maintenance Mentor (MXM) is a research effort conducted by a joint AFRL/HESR and Northrop Grumman Information Technology team to identify the basic, high-level requirements necessary for improving flight line diagnostic capabilities...

  10. Condition-based maintenance for complex systems : Coordinating maintenance and logistics planning for the process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Keizer, Minou Catharina Anselma

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance planning in the process industries is extremely complex for various reasons. Plants often run nonstop, allowing little time for performing preventive maintenance. Failures should be prevented, however, as they can lead to system downtime and high losses of revenue. Corrective maintenance

  11. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.

    2000-01-01

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  12. The use of lifetime functions in the optimization of interventions on existing bridges considering maintenance and failure costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung-Ie [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: yangsione@dreamwiz.com; Frangopol, Dan M. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: dan.frangopol@colorado.edu; Kawakami, Yoriko [Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, Kobe Maintenance Department, 16-1 Shinko-cho Chuo-ku Kobe City, Hyogo, 650-0041 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoriko-kawakami@hepc.go.jp; Neves, Luis C. [Department of Civil, Enviromental, and Architectural Enginnering, University of Colorado, Campus Box 428, Boulder, CO 80309-0428 (United States)]. E-mail: lneves@civil.uminho.pt

    2006-06-15

    In the last decade, it became clear that life-cycle cost analysis of existing civil infrastructure must be used to optimally manage the growing number of aging and deteriorating structures. The uncertainties associated with deteriorating structures require the use of probabilistic methods to properly evaluate their lifetime performance. In this paper, the deterioration and the effect of maintenance actions are analyzed considering the performance of existing structures characterized by lifetime functions. These functions allow, in a simple manner, the consideration of the effect of aging on the decrease of the probability of survival of a structure, as well as the effect of maintenance actions. Models for the effects of proactive and reactive preventive maintenance, and essential maintenance actions are presented. Since the probability of failure is different from zero during the entire service life of a deteriorating structure and depends strongly on the maintenance strategy, the cost of failure is included in this analysis. The failure of one component in a structure does not usually lead to failure of the structure and, as a result, the safety of existing structures must be analyzed using a system reliability framework. The optimization consists of minimizing the sum of the cumulative maintenance and expected failure cost during the prescribed time horizon. Two examples of application of the proposed methodology are presented. In the first example, the sum of the maintenance and failure costs of a bridge in Colorado is minimized considering essential maintenance only and a fixed minimum acceptable probability of failure. In the second example, the expected lifetime cost, including maintenance and expected failure costs, of a multi-girder bridge is minimized considering reactive preventive maintenance actions.

  13. The use of lifetime functions in the optimization of interventions on existing bridges considering maintenance and failure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung-Ie; Frangopol, Dan M.; Kawakami, Yoriko; Neves, Luis C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, it became clear that life-cycle cost analysis of existing civil infrastructure must be used to optimally manage the growing number of aging and deteriorating structures. The uncertainties associated with deteriorating structures require the use of probabilistic methods to properly evaluate their lifetime performance. In this paper, the deterioration and the effect of maintenance actions are analyzed considering the performance of existing structures characterized by lifetime functions. These functions allow, in a simple manner, the consideration of the effect of aging on the decrease of the probability of survival of a structure, as well as the effect of maintenance actions. Models for the effects of proactive and reactive preventive maintenance, and essential maintenance actions are presented. Since the probability of failure is different from zero during the entire service life of a deteriorating structure and depends strongly on the maintenance strategy, the cost of failure is included in this analysis. The failure of one component in a structure does not usually lead to failure of the structure and, as a result, the safety of existing structures must be analyzed using a system reliability framework. The optimization consists of minimizing the sum of the cumulative maintenance and expected failure cost during the prescribed time horizon. Two examples of application of the proposed methodology are presented. In the first example, the sum of the maintenance and failure costs of a bridge in Colorado is minimized considering essential maintenance only and a fixed minimum acceptable probability of failure. In the second example, the expected lifetime cost, including maintenance and expected failure costs, of a multi-girder bridge is minimized considering reactive preventive maintenance actions

  14. Maintenance Staffing Standards for Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Discusses school preventive maintenance and the variables associated with maintenance staffing standards that address a zero-based budgeting environment. Explores preventive-maintenance measurement for staffing requirements, defines staffing levels and job descriptions, and outlines the factors to consider when creating a maintenance program and…

  15. Sensitivity of Risk-Based Maintenance Planning of Offshore Wind Turbine Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance expenses cover a considerable part of the cost of energy from offshore wind turbines. Risk-based maintenance planning approaches are a powerful tool to optimize maintenance and inspection actions and decrease the total maintenance expenses. Risk-based planning is based...... on many input parameters, which are in reality often not completely known. This paper will assess the cost impact of this incomplete knowledge based on a case study following risk-based maintenance planning. The sensitivity study focuses on weather forecast uncertainties, incomplete knowledge about...... the needed repair time on the site as well as uncertainties about the operational range of the boat and helicopter used to access the broken wind turbine. The cost saving potential is estimated by running Crude Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, corrective and preventive (scheduled and condition...

  16. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on CANDU maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings record the information presented at the 4th International Conference on CANDU Maintenance held November 16-18,1997 in Toronto, Canada. The papers for these proceedings were prepared on component maintenance, human performance, steam generator leak detection, fuel channel inspections, rotating equipment maintenance, surveillance programs, inspection techniques, valve maintenance, steam generator repairs and performance, reactor aging management and preventative maintenance

  17. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on CANDU maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    These proceedings record the information presented at the 4th International Conference on CANDU Maintenance held November 16-18,1997 in Toronto, Canada. The papers for these proceedings were prepared on component maintenance, human performance, steam generator leak detection, fuel channel inspections, rotating equipment maintenance, surveillance programs, inspection techniques, valve maintenance, steam generator repairs and performance, reactor aging management and preventative maintenance.

  18. The baby or the bath water? Lessons learned from the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention Research Prioritization Task Force literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis Molock, Sherry; Heekin, Janet M; Matlin, Samantha G; Barksdale, Crystal L; Gray, Ekwenzi; Booth, Chelsea L

    2014-09-01

    The Research Prioritization Task Force of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention conducted a comprehensive literature review of suicide prevention/intervention trials to assess the quality of the scientific evidence. A literature "review of reviews" was conducted by searching the most widely used databases for mental health and public health research. The quality of the reviews was evaluated using the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews system; the quality of the scientific evidence for the suicide preventions/interventions was assessed using U.S. Preventive Services Task Force criteria. The reviews were limited to peer-reviewed publications with human subjects published in English. Ninety-eight systematic reviews and 45 primary sources on suicide prevention/interventions published between January 2000 and September 2012 were evaluated. The results suggest that the quality of both the systematic reviews and the scientific evidence for suicide preventions/interventions were mixed. The majority of the systematic reviews and prevention/interventions were evaluated as fair to poor in quality. There are many promising suicide prevention/intervention trials, but research findings are often inconclusive because of methodologic problems. Methodologic problems across systematic reviews include not conducting hand searches, not surveying gray literature, and being unable to aggregate data across studies. Methodologic problems with the scientific quality of the prevention/intervention trials include paucity of information on sample demographic characteristics, poorly defined outcomes, and excluding actively suicidal participants. Suggestions for ways to improve the quality of the systematic reviews and suicide preventions/interventions are provided. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Maintenance of radiation monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei

    2001-01-01

    As the safety and quality of atomic power facilities are more strongly required, the reliability improvement and preventive maintenance of radiation monitoring systems are important. This paper describes the maintenance of radiation monitoring systems delivered by Fuji Electric and the present status of preventive maintenance technology. Also it introduces the case that we developed a fault diagnosis function adopting a statistics technique and artificial intelligence (AI) and delivered a radiation monitoring system including this function. This system can output a fault analysis result and a countermeasure from the computer in real time. (author)

  20. Applying the Action-Research Method to Develop a Methodology to Reduce the Installation and Maintenance Times of Information Security Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Olmo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Society is increasingly dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMS, and having these kind of systems has become vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs. However, these companies require ISMS that have been adapted to their special features and have been optimized as regards the resources needed to deploy and maintain them, with very low costs and short implementation periods. This paper discusses the different cycles carried out using the ‘Action Research (AR’ method, which have allowed the development of a security management methodology for SMEs that is able to automate processes and reduce the implementation time of the ISMS.

  1. Development of plant maintenance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Jinji; Ike, Masae; Nakayama, Kenji; Kato, Hisatomo

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is making active efforts for the continuing improvement of reliability and maintainability of operating nuclear power plants. As a part of these efforts, the company has developed new maintenance administration systems, diagnostic monitoring facilities for plant equipments, computer-aided expert systems, and remote-controlled machines for maintenance work. The maintenance administration systems provide efficient work plans and data acquisition capabilities for the management of personnel and equipments involved in nuclear power plant maintenance. The plant diagnostic facilities monitor and diagnose plant conditions for preventive maintenance, as well as enabling rapid countermeasures to be carried out should they be required. Expert systems utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology are also employed. The newly developed remote-controlled machines are useful tools for the maintenance inspection of equipment which can not be easily accessed. (author)

  2. Paranal maintenance and CMMS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Nelson

    2004-10-01

    During the last four years of operations, low technical downtime has been one of the relevant records of the Paranal Observatory. From the beginning of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project, European Southern Observatory (ESO) has considered the implementation of a proper maintenance strategy a fundamental point in order to ensure low technical down time and preserve the Observatory's assets. The implementation of the maintenance strategy was based on the following aspects: - Strong maintenance sense during the design stage. Line Replacement Unit (LRU) concept, standardization and modularity of the Observatory equipment - Creation of a dedicated team for Maintenance - The implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System After four operational years, the result of these aspects has exceeded the expectations; the Observatory has been operating with high availability under a sustainable strategy. The strengths of the maintenance strategy have been based on modern maintenance concepts applied by regular production companies, where any minute of down time involves high cost. The operation of the actual Paranal Maintenance System is based mainly on proactive activities, such as regular inspections, preventive maintenance (PM) and predictive maintenance (PdM) plans. Nevertheless, it has been necessary to implement a strong plan for corrective maintenance (CM). The Spare Parts Strategy has also been an important point linked to the Maintenance Strategy and CMMS implementation. At present, almost 4,000 items related to the Observatory spare parts are loaded into the CMMS database. Currently, we are studying the implementation of a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project in one of our critical systems The following document presents the actual status of the Paranal Maintenance Strategy and which have been the motivations to implement the established strategy.

  3. ACTIONS DEVELOPED BY THE HEALTH TEAM FAMILY FOR MAINTENANCE OF MEMBERSHIP OF PREGNANT WOMEN IS LINKED TO THE PROGRA M O F PROTECTION FOR PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Chaves Rondon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the need to capture pregnant women, and find a better way to have her support, the teamhas confronted many difficulties in the execution. This study objective is describe theactivities made with pregnant women at the program SISPRENATAL by the professionals inthe PSF units in Valparaiso deGoiáscity. The results show the professionals profile, thatwork on health family strategyconstituted by 29% of nurses, 4% of doctors, 15% of technicalnursing and 52% of community agents. Most of the staffdidn'treceive the necessary trainingto make a good work.Many aspects was mentioned about the facilities found in the program,especiallyspeed of results and the accessibility. The avoidance of pregnant women is a majordifficulty justifying the lack of time and distance from the unit to her house. The high staffturnover has hindered the development of the actions, demonstratingthe importance ofcontinuing education for the development of new skills for the professional, to implementtheir actions in the pursuit of excellence in customer service

  4. Joint optimization of maintenance, buffers and machines in manufacturing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    This article considers a series manufacturing line composed of several machines separated by intermediate buffers of finite capacity. The goal is to find the optimal number of preventive maintenance actions performed on each machine, the optimal selection of machines and the optimal buffer allocation plan that minimize the total system cost, while providing the desired system throughput level. The mean times between failures of all machines are assumed to increase when applying periodic preventive maintenance. To estimate the production line throughput, a decomposition method is used. The decision variables in the formulated optimal design problem are buffer levels, types of machines and times between preventive maintenance actions. Three heuristic approaches are developed to solve the formulated combinatorial optimization problem. The first heuristic consists of a genetic algorithm, the second is based on the nonlinear threshold accepting metaheuristic and the third is an ant colony system. The proposed heuristics are compared and their efficiency is shown through several numerical examples. It is found that the nonlinear threshold accepting algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm and ant colony system, while the genetic algorithm provides better results than the ant colony system for longer manufacturing lines.

  5. Collaborative learning in condition based maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koochaki, J.; Ao, SI; Gelman, L; Hukins, DWL; Hunter, A; Korsunsky, AM

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of reliable and consistent production equipments has increased. As a result, companies are shifting their maintenance policy from preventive maintenance towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Despite the growing trend in this area and success stories of CBM

  6. A production model and maintenance planning model for the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a model is developed to simultaneously plan preventive maintenance and production in a process industry environment, where maintenance planning is extremely important. The model schedules production jobs and preventive maintenance jobs, while minimizing costs associated with

  7. Maintenance operation by divers on a swimming-pool type reactor (Osiris, CEN Saclay). Technical and medical prevention: an example of multidisciplinary ergonomic step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, C.; Martin, L.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance works in a swimming-pool reactor was performed by a team of divers. A multidisciplinary ergonomic study had previously defined the working procedure. The ergonomic approach is analysed. The divers' working techniques are described. After work, medical tests showed that previsions were verified and proved the methods as safe. This technique by divers' interventions should open new possibilities in nuclear industry [fr

  8. Predictive maintenance strategy in the graphics departament of a tobacco company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Francez Toazza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to describe the implementation of a strategy for Predictive Maintenance in the graphics department of the company Souza Cruz SA after the techniques of Vibration Analysis, Thermography, Ferrography and Inspection Sensitive. The research method was the action-research. The proposed study is the application of a management Predictive Maintenance acting strategically within the context in which it is embedded. The article reviews the theoretical concepts and Predictive Maintenance techniques mentioned above. In the survey, were raised in the information system of the company, the rate of breakdown of equipment (downtime, waste energy costs, maintenance costs and availability of H / h (man / hour and availability of equipment for the production the period prior to the implementation of a predictive maintenance management and consistent compared with results after this deployment. From the results obtained, it was evident that only preventive maintenance, combined with a model predictive maintenance is not poor enough to maintain the desired reliability in a department of great importance to your company. So, it is possible to say that the implementation of a predictive maintenance strategy can make the Maintenance sector to work strategically with common goals to the company as a whole.

  9. Maintenance management for nuclear power plant 'Integrated valve maintenance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, P.; Zanner, G.

    2001-01-01

    The deregulation of Europe's power market does force many utilities, and especially nuclear power plant operators, to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order to be able to compete within this new environment. The optimization of plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing e.g. expenditure on maintenance. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, in cooperation with plant operators, is currently implementing new and improved service concepts which can have a major effect on the way in which maintenance will be performed in the future. Innovative service packages for maintenance in nuclear power plants are available which can be used to perform a time- and cost-effective maintenance. The concepts encompass optimization of the overall sequence from planning in advance to the individual measures including reduction of the scope of maintenance activities, identification of cost cutting potential and bundling of maintenance activities. The main features of these maintenance activities are illustrated here using the examples of outage planning and integrated valve maintenance. In nuclear power plants approx. 5000 valves are periodically preventively, condition-based or breakdown-based maintained. Because of this large number of valves to be maintained a high potential of improvements and cost reductions can be achieved by performing an optimized, cost-effective maintenance based on innovative methods and tools. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH has developed and qualified such tools which allow to reduce service costs while maintaining high standards of safety and availability. By changing from preventive to predictive (condition-based) maintenance - the number of valves to be maintained may be reduced considerably. The predictive maintenance is based on the Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH diagnostic and evaluation method (ADAM). ADAM is used to monitor the operability of valves by analytical verification of

  10. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  11. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C

    2009-01-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing pr...

  12. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  13. North American nuclear maintenance best practices compared to Japanese utility maintenance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, M.L.; Ferguson, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the best practices in North America concerning Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) or Preventive Maintenance Optimization (PMO) with the time-directed maintenance philosophies utilized by Japanese utilities, and how the Japanese utilities are considering (and some have begun) adopting North American ways of doing business. Preventive Maintenance Living Programs are also discussed, along with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations AP-913 process, Equipment Reliability Process. Also, a cost benefit analysis will be demonstrated showing how major cost savings can be achieved by shifting from a predominantly time-directed maintenance philosophy to a predominantly predictive strategy utilizing vibration analysis, lubricating oil analysis, thermography and other predictive technologies to better utilize resources, reduce spare part consumption and to minimize maintenance induced errors. As a result of the strides made while incorporating these new philosophies, we no longer advocate tearing apart perfectly good equipment. (author)

  14. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  15. Isosteviol prevents the prolongation of action potential in hypertrophied cardiomyoctyes by regulating transient outward potassium and L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhuo; Lv, Nanying; Luo, Xiao; Tan, Wen

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a thickening of the heart muscle that is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. It occurs initially as an adaptive process against increased workloads and often leads to sudden arrhythmic deaths. Studies suggest that the lethal arrhythmia is attributed to hypertrophy-induced destabilization of cardiac electrical activity, especially the prolongation of the action potential. The reduced activity of I to is demonstrated to be responsible for the ionic mechanism of prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogeneity. Isosteviol (STV), a derivative of stevioside, plays a protective role in a variety of stress-induced cardiac diseases. Here we report effects of STV on rat ISO-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. STV alleviated ISO-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes by decreasing cell area of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. STV application prevented the prolongation of action potential which was prominent in hypertrophied cells. The decrease and increase of current densities for I to and I CaL observed in hypertrophied myocytes were both prevented by STV application. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR suggested that the changes of electrophysiological activity of I to and I CaL are correlated to the alterations of the mRNA transcription level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  17. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  18. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  19. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  20. The efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic saline for parenteral fluid therapy given at low maintenance rate in preventing significant change in plasma sodium in post-operative pediatric patients: protocol for a prospective randomized non-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stigzelius Shayarina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+ declines to levels below 125 mmol/L in vs. restricted rate of infusion and the composition of solutions used for parenteral maintenance fluid therapy (hypotonic vs. isotonic solutions contribute to the development of hyponatremia. So far, there is no definitive pediatric data to support a particular choice of parenteral fluid for maintenance therapy in post-surgical patients. Methods/Design Our prospective randomized non-blinded study will be conducted in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 14 years who have been operated for acute appendicitis. Patients will be randomized either to intravenous hypotonic (0.23% or 0.40% sodium chloride in glucose, respectively or near-isotonic (0.81% sodium chloride in glucose solution given at approximately three-fourths of the average maintenance rate. The main outcome of interest from this study is to evaluate 24 h post-operatively whether differences in p-Na+ between treatment groups are large enough to be of clinical relevance. In addition, water and electrolyte balance as well as regulatory hormones will be measured. Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic fluid therapy in preventing a significant decrease in p-Na+. Finally, by means of careful electrolyte and water balance and by measuring regulatory hormones our results will also contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathology of post-operative changes in p-Na+ in a population at risk for hyponatremia. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the current controlled trials registry; registry number: ISRCTN43896775.

  1. A solution approach based on Benders decomposition for the preventive maintenance scheduling problem of a stochastic large-scale energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Muller, Laurent Flindt; Petersen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Benders decomposition-based framework for solving the large scale energy management problem that was posed for the ROADEF 2010 challenge. The problem was taken from the power industry and entailed scheduling the outage dates for a set of nuclear power plants, which need...... to be regularly taken down for refueling and maintenance, in such away that the expected cost of meeting the power demand in a number of potential scenarios is minimized. We show that the problem structure naturally lends itself to Benders decomposition; however, not all constraints can be included in the mixed...

  2. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  3. Modified technology in new constructions, and cost effective remedial action in existing structures, to prevent infiltration of soil gas carrying radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Schmied, H.; Clavensjoe, B.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles and mechanism of how soil gas infiltrates and carries radon from the foundation bed and subsoil into buildings are discussed. The Swedish Building Research Council has funded experiments and evaluation of cost effective remedial actions. The work has concerned existing dwellings with high concentration of radon, resulting from infiltrating soil gas and/or exhalation from building materials. A review and evaluation is given of experience and results acquired up to the summer of 1984. 100 dwellings have been constructed with consideration of possible infiltration of soil gas. In general minor modifications are sufficient to prevent infiltration. (Author)

  4. A Participatory Action Research Approach to Developing Youth-Friendly Strategies for the Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Hendricks, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy among school-going youth is a concern worldwide, but in socially-economically challenged environments it is a result of, and contributory factor to, a complex web of social injustice. In South Africa, most of the school-based prevention interventions to date have been adult-designed and imparted, with the voice of the target…

  5. Does the Empirical Literature Inform Prevention of Dropout among Students with Emotional Disturbance? A Systematic Review and Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Sadeh, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the dropout rate for students with emotional disturbance has hovered around 50%, a rate substantially higher than the dropout rate for students with other disabilities and the general population. This systematic review evaluated the literature published between 1990 and 2013 on the effectiveness of dropout prevention and…

  6. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  7. Improved quality of input data for maintenance optimization using expert judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, Knut

    1998-01-01

    Most maintenance optimization models need an estimate of the so-called 'naked' failure rate function as input. In practice it is very difficult to estimate the 'naked' failure rate, because overhauls and other preventive maintenance actions tend to 'corrupt' the recorded lifelengths. The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of utilizing the knowledge of maintenance engineers, i.e., expert judgment, in addition to recorded equipment lifelengths, in order to get credible input data. We have shown that without utilizing expert judgment, the estimated mean time to failure may be strongly biased, often by a factor of 2-3, depending on the life distribution that is assumed. We recommend including a simple question about the mean remaining lifelength on the work-order forms. By this approach the knowledge of maintenance engineers may be incorporated in a simple and cost-effective way

  8. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  9. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  10. Mechanisms of anti-D action in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: what can we learn from rodent models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinc, Davor; Denomme, Gregory A; Lazarus, Alan H

    2009-11-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn can be effectively prevented by administration of anti-D to the mother. In this setting, the IgG purified from the plasma of D-alloimmunized donors prevents the maternal immune response to D-positive red blood cells (RBC). Several monoclonal anti-D antibodies have recently been developed for potential use in the setting of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; the functional assays used to assess the potential success of these antibodies have often assumed antigen clearance as the predominant mechanism of anti-D. Unfortunately, the in-vivo success of these monoclonal antibodies has thus far been limited. A similar inhibitory effect of IgG has been observed in animal models with a vast array of different antigens, referred to as antibody-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Here, studies of AMIS are reviewed and the relevance of these findings for anti-D-mediated immunoprophylaxis is discussed. In animal models of AMIS, IgG-mediated antigen clearance was not sufficient for prevention of the antibody response to RBC. Furthermore, anti-RBC IgG inhibited B-cell priming to foreign RBC, but failed to prevent a T-cell response and immunological memory. The applicability of AMIS models for determining the true mechanism of anti-D, though uncertain, may nevertheless provide knowledge as to potential mechanisms of action of anti-RBC antibodies.

  11. Plant inspection and maintenance technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Masatoshi; Kanazawa, Masafumi

    1995-01-01

    The article reports on information systems and related tools that support routine inspection and preventive maintenance activities, which contribute to safer plant operation and increase plant operating duty. Tools include the Mitsubishi Electric Reliability and Availability Upgrade Program-Nuclear (MELRAP-N), which supports the general evolution of industry operating experiences, periodic component replacement management, management of discontinued and modified components, periodic inspection item management, and periodic inspection workplace management. The article also introduces a comprehensive preventive maintenance management system currently under development. (author)

  12. How Community and Peer Perceptions Promote College Students' Pro-Social Bystander Actions to Prevent Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafason, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential

  14. 78 FR 26383 - Environmental Assessment of the Proposed Increase in Operation, Maintenance and Replacement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Proposed Increase in Operation, Maintenance and Replacement Activities Associated With the Wasatch County... of potential impacts associated with a proposed change in Operation, Maintenance and Replacement..., Maintenance, and Replacement Proposed Action includes: stabilizing canal banks; lining, piping, or enclosing...

  15. 340 Facility maintenance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the 340 Facility. This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1994), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4B guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at the 340 Facility. Primary responsibility for the performance and oversight of maintenance activities at the 340 Facility resides with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Maintenance at the 340 Facility is performed by ICF-Kaiser Hanford (ICF-KH) South Programmatic Services crafts persons. This 340 Facility MIP provides interface requirements and responsibilities as they apply specifically to the 340 Facility. This document provides an implementation schedule which has been developed for items considered to be deficient or in need of improvement. The discussion sections, as applied to implementation at the 340 Facility, have been developed from a review of programs and practices utilizing the graded approach. Biennial review and additional reviews are conducted as significant programmatic and mission changes are made. This document is revised as necessary to maintain compliance with DOE requirements

  16. 340 Facility maintenance implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the 340 Facility. This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1994), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4B guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at the 340 Facility. Primary responsibility for the performance and oversight of maintenance activities at the 340 Facility resides with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Maintenance at the 340 Facility is performed by ICF-Kaiser Hanford (ICF-KH) South Programmatic Services crafts persons. This 340 Facility MIP provides interface requirements and responsibilities as they apply specifically to the 340 Facility. This document provides an implementation schedule which has been developed for items considered to be deficient or in need of improvement. The discussion sections, as applied to implementation at the 340 Facility, have been developed from a review of programs and practices utilizing the graded approach. Biennial review and additional reviews are conducted as significant programmatic and mission changes are made. This document is revised as necessary to maintain compliance with DOE requirements.

  17. Mechanisms of anti-D action in the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinc, Davor; Lazarus, Alan H

    2009-01-01

    Anti-D is routinely and effectively used to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by the antibody response to the D antigen on fetal RBCs. Anti-D is a polyclonal IgG product purified from the plasma of D-alloimmunized individuals. The mechanism of anti-D has not been fully elucidated. Antigenic epitopes are not fully masked by anti-D and are available for immune system recognition. However, a correlation has frequently been observed between anti-D-mediated RBC clearance and prevention of the antibody response, suggesting that anti-D may be able to destroy RBCs without triggering the adaptive immune response. Anti-D-opsonized RBCs may also elicit inhibitory FcgammaRIIB signaling in B cells and prevent B cell activation. The ability of antigen-specific IgG to inhibit antibody responses has also been observed in a variety of animal models immunized with a vast array of different antigens, such as sheep RBCs (SRBC). This effect has been referred to as antibody-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). In animal models, IgG inhibits the antibody response, but the T-cell response and memory may still be intact. IgG does not mask all epitopes, and IgG-mediated RBC clearance or FcgammaRIIB-mediated B-cell inhibition do not appear to mediate the AMIS effect. Instead, IgG appears to selectively disrupt B cell priming, although the exact mechanism remains obscure. While the applicability of animal models of AMIS to understanding the true mechanism of anti-D remains uncertain, the models have nevertheless provided us with insights into the possible IgG effects on the immune response.

  18. National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy and its implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy (NIMS) was approved by Cabinet in 2006. This Strategy sets overarching policy for sector-based initiatives and describes the framework for a coordinated programme of actions. It is an essential part...

  19. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic computer model for simulating the actions and behavior of nuclear power plant maintenance personnel is described. The model considers personnel, environmental, and motivational variables to yield predictions of maintenance performance quality and time to perform. The mode has been fully developed and sensitivity tested. Additional evaluation of the model is now taking place

  20. Condition-Based Maintenance Strategy for Production Systems Generating Environmental Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider production systems which generate damage to environment as they get older and degrade. The system is submitted to inspections to assess the generated environmental damage. The inspections can be periodic or nonperiodic. In case an inspection reveals that the environmental degradation level has exceeded the critical level U, the system is considered in an advanced deterioration state and will have generated significant environmental damage. A corrective maintenance action is then performed to renew the system and clean the environment and a penalty has to be paid. In order to prevent such an undesirable situation, a lower threshold level L is considered to trigger a preventive maintenance action to bring back the system to a state as good as new at a lower cost and without paying the penalty. Two inspection policies are considered (periodic and nonperiodic. For each one of them, a mathematical model and a numerical procedure are developed to determine simultaneously the preventive maintenance (PM threshold L∗ and the inspection sequence which minimize the average long-run cost per time unit. Numerical calculations are performed to illustrate the proposed maintenance policies and highlight their main characteristics with respect to relevant input parameters.

  1. Acciones educativas de prevención del pie diabético Educational actions to prevent diabetic foot complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vejerano García

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Diabetes Mellitus y sus complicaciones son causas de hospitalización, invalidez y afectación económica. Este trabajo hace referencia a la experiencia camagüeyana en prevención, seguimiento y control del pie diabético. Dicha experiencia demostró que la pobre educación para prevenir las complicaciones del pie diabético, se convierte en un factor de riesgo sociocultural modificable. Una consulta de mayor alcance como la Clínica del Pie Diabético, pone al territorio en condiciones ventajosas para atender la transición epidemiológica de la diabetes y sus complicaciones.Diabetes Mellitus and its complications are causes of hospitalization, disability, and financial problems. This paper deals with the experience in prevention, monitoring, and control of diabetic foot in the province of Camagüey. This experience proved that a poor education in the prevention of diabetic foot complications is a modifiable sociocultural risk factor. As an example of more comprehensive consultation, the Diabetic Foot Clinic has benefitted the territory in the assistance of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.

  2. Bayesian based Diagnostic Model for Condition based Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgarpour, Masoud; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    Operation and maintenance costs are a major contributor to the Levelized Cost of Energy for electricity produced by offshore wind and can be significantly reduced if existing corrective actions are performed as efficiently as possible and if future corrective actions are avoided by performing...... sufficient preventive actions. This paper presents an applied and generic diagnostic model for fault detection and condition based maintenance of offshore wind components. The diagnostic model is based on two probabilistic matrices; first, a confidence matrix, representing the probability of detection using...... for a wind turbine component based on vibration, temperature, and oil particle fault detection methods. The last part of the paper will have a discussion of the case study results and present conclusions....

  3. The impact of the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" on PM2.5 concentrations in Jing-Jin-Ji region during 2012-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siyi; Wang, Yangjun; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Chang, Xing; Hao, Jiming

    2017-02-15

    In order to cope with heavy haze pollution in China, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan including phased goals of the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was issued in 2013. In this study, China's emission inventories in the baseline 2012 and the future scenarios of 2017 and 2020 have been developed based on this Action Plan. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, one of the most polluted regions in China, was taken as a case to assess the impact of phased emission control measures on PM 2.5 concentration reduction using WRF-CMAQ model system. With the implementation of the Action Plan, the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ) , PM 2.5 , non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH 3 ) in 2017 will decrease by36%, 31%, 30%,12%, and -10% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. In 2020, the emissions of SO 2 , NO X, PM 2.5 , NMVOC, and NH 3 will decrease by 40%, 44%, 40%, 22%, and -3% from the 2012 levels in Jing-Jin-Ji, respectively. Consequently, the ambient annual PM 2.5 concentration under the scenarios of 2017 and 2020 will be 28.3% and 37.8% lower than those in 2012, respectively. The Action Plan provided an effective approach to alleviate PM 2.5 pollution level in Jing-Jin-Ji region. However, emission control of NMVOC and NH 3 should be paid more attention and be strengthened in future. Meanwhile, emission control of NO x , SO 2 , NH 3 and NMVOC synergistically are highly needed in the future because multiple pollutants impact on PM 2.5 and O 3 concentrations nonlinearly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Condition-based maintenance at both scheduled and unscheduled opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalosi, S.; Kapodistria, S.; Resing, J.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service and maintenance practices we consider a single component subject to replacements at failure instances and two types of preventive maintenance opportunities: scheduled, which occur due to periodic system reviews of the equipment, and

  5. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: potential mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W M A D B; Martins, Ian J; Goozee, K G; Brennan, Charles S; Jayasena, V; Martins, R N

    2015-07-14

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain, and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Coconut is classified as a highly nutritious 'functional food'. It is rich in dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals; however, notably, evidence is mounting to support the concept that coconut may be beneficial in the treatment of obesity, dyslipidaemia, elevated LDL, insulin resistance and hypertension - these are the risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes, and also for AD. In addition, phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) found in coconut may assist in preventing the aggregation of amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of the present review was to explore the literature related to coconut, outlining the known mechanistic physiology, and to discuss the potential role of coconut supplementation as a therapeutic option in the prevention and management of AD.

  6. Graded Approach to the Development of a Contingency Plan for On-Line Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hee Seung; Kim, Jung Wun; Song, Tae Young

    2012-01-01

    Many utilities perform preventive maintenance for safety systems during power operation to improve equipment reliability so as to focus on the work activities more easily and improve the quality of maintenance. Such a strategy can also reduce outage work activities, thus allowing resources to be utilized effectively. Preventive maintenance during power operation, known as on-line maintenance (OLM), requires an assessment and mitigation of risk, which can increase owing to out-of-service safety systems. One of the mitigation action plans is a contingency plan. EPRI recommends the development of a contingency plan for all planned system outages which include factors that strongly affect safety. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) undertook the preventive maintenance of the Essential Chilled Water System (ECWS) of a Westinghouse plant as a pilot OLM implementation. During the preparation of the work activities, a contingency plan was a pertinent issue during the discussions with regulators, especially regarding the scope and depth of the plan. This paper discusses the purpose of a contingency plan, including as examples some cases of US utilities, and proposes a graded approach to develop a contingency plan for OLM in consideration of the risks

  7. The relation between preventive maintenance and energy saving, planning and production control; La relacion entre el mantenimiento preventivo y el ahorro de energia planeacion y control de la produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazarez, Mario [Coorporacion de ingenieros en aire acondicionado y mantenimiento en general (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper the importance that the preventive maintenance has as an important ingredient of the internal policies of the companies for the promotion of the energy saving is discussed. It considers that the department of planning and production control must take into account very seriously the importance of programmed preventive maintenance in order to maintain the continuity of the production process and with this eliminate the bottle necks that adversely affect it and consequently the the company's image before the clients, besides contributing positively the promotion of energy saving. The faults that stop the production process inflict losses of income and adversely affect the yield of the company, in addition, they increase the production cost or the plant expenses associated to the repair of the damaged equipment, in the worst of the cases, important penalties will have to be paid for the delayed delivery of the product to the client. By keeping the correct operation of the equipment, increasing its availability and assuring that all the safeties of these operate correctly we will be contributing to the optimal operation of the enterprise system and avoiding the additional consumption of energy associated to the failure of an equipment and interruption of the production line. The preventive maintenance also promotes, the order and the cleanliness, the safety and hygiene in the work centers and the protection to the environment. Once the prevention has won the battle to the correction, one enters the field of diagnosis, handling the service periods in an optimal way in benefit of the production line. In this stage it can be spoken of entering the application of Total Productive Maintenance. [Spanish] En este trabajo se discute la importancia que tiene el mantenimiento preventivo como un ingrediente importante de las politicas internas de las empresas para la promocion del ahorro de energia. Considera que el departamento de planeacion y control de la

  8. The relation between preventive maintenance and energy saving, planning and production control; La relacion entre el mantenimiento preventivo y el ahorro de energia planeacion y control de la produccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Cazarez, Mario [Coorporacion de ingenieros en aire acondicionado y mantenimiento en general (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper the importance that the preventive maintenance has as an important ingredient of the internal policies of the companies for the promotion of the energy saving is discussed. It considers that the department of planning and production control must take into account very seriously the importance of programmed preventive maintenance in order to maintain the continuity of the production process and with this eliminate the bottle necks that adversely affect it and consequently the the company's image before the clients, besides contributing positively the promotion of energy saving. The faults that stop the production process inflict losses of income and adversely affect the yield of the company, in addition, they increase the production cost or the plant expenses associated to the repair of the damaged equipment, in the worst of the cases, important penalties will have to be paid for the delayed delivery of the product to the client. By keeping the correct operation of the equipment, increasing its availability and assuring that all the safeties of these operate correctly we will be contributing to the optimal operation of the enterprise system and avoiding the additional consumption of energy associated to the failure of an equipment and interruption of the production line. The preventive maintenance also promotes, the order and the cleanliness, the safety and hygiene in the work centers and the protection to the environment. Once the prevention has won the battle to the correction, one enters the field of diagnosis, handling the service periods in an optimal way in benefit of the production line. In this stage it can be spoken of entering the application of Total Productive Maintenance. [Spanish] En este trabajo se discute la importancia que tiene el mantenimiento preventivo como un ingrediente importante de las politicas internas de las empresas para la promocion del ahorro de energia. Considera que el departamento de planeacion y control de la

  9. Spacing extinction sessions as a behavioral technique for preventing relapse in an animal model of voluntary actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Gámez, A Matías; Nieto, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Instrumental extinction has been proposed as a model for understanding the suppression of problematic voluntary actions. Consequently, it has been suggested that response recovery after extinction could model relapse. Four experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore the impact of spacing extinction sessions on spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition of extinguished lever-pressing. Initially, in all experiments, hungry rats were trained to perform two responses (R1 and R2) for food. Then, all responses underwent extinction. For R1, rats experienced a longer intersession interval (72 h) than for R2 (24 h). During the final restoration test, it was observed that using spaced extinction sessions reduced spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement. However, implementing a longer intersession interval throughout extinction exposure did not slow the rate of reacquisition of operant responses. The present findings suggest that in most cases extinction is more enduring when the extinction sessions are spaced. Since expanding the intersession interval during extinction might be interpreted as conducting extinction in multiple temporal contexts, the overall pattern of results was explained based on contextual modulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of condition monitoring information for maintenance planning and decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, K.; Rosqvist, T. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Paulsen, J.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-12-01

    A survey is presented outlining the use of condition monitoring information in three Nordic nuclear power plants. The questions of the survey relate to the role of condition monitoring in strategic, as well as operative, maintenance planning and decision-making. The survey indicates that condition monitoring is increasingly implemented at nuclear power plants, but very selectively and in a rather slow pace for predictive maintenance. A combined strategy of condition based maintenance and predetermined preventive maintenance is applied for important equipment such as main circulation pumps and steam turbines. A realistic aim is to reduce the number of costly or error prone maintenance and disassembling inspection activities by condition monitoring given that the approach enables a good diagnosis and prediction. Systematic follow-up and analysis of such condition monitoring information followed by a case-specific planning and decision making of timely and rightly directed maintenance actions can justify an extension of the intervals of a number of predetermined inspection, maintenance or periodic testing tasks. (au)

  11. Improving industrial maintenance contract relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Unavailability of technical systems, such as aircraft, is expensive. Technical systems require maintenance to prevent and to remedy defects that cause unavailability. Users of technical systems usually bear the consequences of the risk of unavailability, in particular the loss of productivity. This

  12. Experiences and wisdom behind the numbers: qualitative analysis of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Chelsea L

    2014-09-01

    The Research Prioritization Task Force of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention conducted a stakeholder survey including 716 respondents from 49 U.S. states and 18 foreign countries. To conduct a qualitative analysis on responses from individuals representing four main stakeholder groups: attempt and loss survivors, researchers, providers, and policy/administrators. This article focuses on a qualitative analysis of the early-round, open-ended responses collected in a modified online Delphi process, and, as an illustration of the research method, focuses on analysis of respondents' views of the role of life and emotional skills in suicide prevention. Content analysis was performed using both inductive and deductive code and category development and systematic qualitative methods. After the inductive coding was completed, the same data set was re-coded using the 12 Aspirational Goals (AGs) identified by the Delphi process. Codes and thematic categories produced from the inductive coding process were, in some cases, very similar or identical to the 12 AGs (i.e., those dealing with risk and protective factors, provider training, preventing reattempts, and stigma). Other codes highlighted areas that were not identified as important in the Delphi process (e.g., cultural/social factors of suicide, substance use). Qualitative and mixed-methods research are essential to the future of suicide prevention work. By design, qualitative research is explorative and appropriate for complex, culturally embedded social issues such as suicide. Such research can be used to generate hypotheses for testing and, as in this analysis, illuminate areas that would be missed in an approach that imposed predetermined categories on data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Counterterrorism: Policy of Preemptive Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ... our counterterrorism policy and it's ability to prevent future acts of terrorism. The specific focus during this counterterrorism policy review is the terrorism prevention concept of preemptive action...

  14. Practical use of povidone-iodine antiseptic in the maintenance of oral health and in the prevention and treatment of common oropharyngeal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C

    2015-11-01

    To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Are the effects of drugs to prevent and to treat heart failure always concordant? The statin paradox and its implications for understanding the actions of antidiabetic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Milton

    2018-03-22

    Most treatments for chronic heart failure are effective both in preventing its onset and reducing its progression. However, statins prevent the development of heart failure, but they do not decrease morbidity and mortality in those with established heart failure. This apparent discordance cannot be explained by an effect to prevent interval myocardial infarctions. Instead, it seems that the disease that statins were preventing in trials of patients with a metabolic disorder was different from the disease that they were treating in trials of chronic heart failure. The most common phenotype of heart failure in patients with obesity and diabetes is heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this disorder, the anti-inflammatory effects of statins might ameliorate myocardial fibrosis and cardiac filling abnormalities, but these actions may have little relevance to patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), whose primary derangement is cardiomyocyte loss and stretch. These distinctions may explain why statins were ineffective in trials that focused on HFrEF, but have been reported to produce with favourable effects in observational studies of HFpEF. Similarly, selective cytokine antagonists were ineffective in HFrEF, but have been associated with benefits in HFpEF. These observations may have important implications for our understanding of the effects of antihyperglycaemic medications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have had neutral effects on heart failure events in people at risk for HFpEF, but have exerted deleterious actions in HFrEF. Similarly, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, which exert anti-inflammatory effects and reduce heart failure events in patients who are prone to HFpEF, may not be effective in HFrEF. The distinctions between HFrEF and HFpEF may explain why the effects of drugs on heart failure events in diabetes trials may not be relevant to their use in patients with systolic dysfunction

  16. Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program Reduces Reward Region Response to Thin Models; How Actions Shape Valuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Stice

    Full Text Available Research supports the effectiveness of a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program wherein high-risk young women with body dissatisfaction critique the thin ideal, which reduces pursuit of this ideal, and the theory that dissonance induction contributes to these effects. Based on evidence that dissonance produces attitudinal change by altering neural representation of valuation, we tested whether completing the Body Project would reduce response of brain regions implicated in reward valuation to thin models. Young women with body dissatisfaction were randomized to this intervention or an educational control condition, completing assessments and fMRI scans while viewing images of thin versus average-weight female models at pre and post. Whole brain analyses indicated that, compared to controls, Body Project participants showed greater reductions in caudate response to images of thin versus average-weight models, though participants in the two conditions showed pretest differences in responsivity of other brain regions that might have contributed to this effect. Greater pre-post reductions in caudate and putamen response to thin models correlated with greater reductions in body dissatisfaction. The finding that the Body Project reduces caudate response to thin models provides novel preliminary evidence that this intervention reduces valuation of media images thought to contribute to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders, providing support for the intervention theory by documenting that this intervention alters an objective biological outcome.

  17. Analysis of the possibility of applying a condition-based maintenance model on an example of tank weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor J. Epler

    2013-12-01

    the safety degree on the observed sections. Comparing the actual level of safety with the projected level, we can decide on the action of maintenance to be implemented in order to prevent failure. The data from Table 1 and the methodology for the selection of maintenance strategies (Figure 1, in the case of a weakened or damaged magnets for electric firing on the tank 7.62 mm machine gun indicate the possibilities of the condition-based maintenance model with the control of reliability levels. Conclusion The introduction of the condition-based maintenance model would minimize overall costs because the “reliability reserve” of components or representative tank weapons would be used to the maximum. On the other hand, the current maintenance system of tank weapons would experience some changes. The intensity of preventive maintenance actions could be reduced and particular maintenance levels might be omitted  as well as specific types of maintenance (easy maintenance, medium maintenance

  18. Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanier, Bruno; Rausand, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

  19. A modeling framework for deteriorating control system and predictive maintenance of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeron, Y.; Grall, A.; Barros, A.

    2015-01-01

    Actuators play a central role in industrial automation systems. They are costly, and therefore studying their dependability needs all attention. Usually, an actuator is inserted in a feedback control system, and its mission is to implement a control action delivered by a controller. In this paper, a monotonic actuator deterioration is considered and it is assumed that a relationship exists between the control action and the physical actuator's deterioration. A modeling framework is proposed including a non-decreasing stochastic degradation process driving the inability for an actuator to fully implement its role. The prognosis of the actuator's residual useful lifetime is derived and used to update the controller's setting. The controller reconfiguration completes the maintenance corrective and preventive actions. This new action is suggested as an alternative for maintenance strategy. - Highlights: • A degrading control system model is proposed focusing on actuator deterioration. • It is assumed a relationship between this degradation and its loss of efficiency. • The actuator RUL is quantified as a quantile of its conditional survival function. • RUL prognosis is used to reconfigure the control input law. • This new action is suggested as an alternative for maintenance strategy

  20. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…