The WHO´s aims regarding healthcare for the European region are mainly based on health promotion and preventive as well as supporting health education. The Ottawa Charta declares health promotion as a process to provide all people with a higher degree of self-determination regarding their health and thereby enabling them to increase it. General practitioners are of major importance regarding the medical area of behaviour oriented prevention by promoting health and acting preventive. ...
Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark
Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
McGough, Ellen; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability. Through the use of common clinical tests to identify cognitive and noncognitive functional markers of disease, detection and intervention can occur at earlier stages, including preclinical stages of disease. Physical activity and exercise interventions to address modifiable risk factors and impairments can play a pivotal role in the prevention and delay of functional decline, ultimately reducing the incidence of dementia. This article discusses prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation in the context of preserving brain health and preventing Alzheimer disease and related dementias in aging adults. Rehabilitation professionals have opportunities to slow disease progression through research, practice, and education initiatives. From a clinical perspective, interventions that target brain health through lifestyle changes and exercise interventions show promise for preventing stroke and associated neurovascular diseases in addition to dementia. Physical therapists are well positioned to integrate primary health promotion into practice for the prevention of dementia and other neurological conditions in older adults.
Evans, Marion W
To describe the importance of health promotion techniques and use of active disease prevention techniques as part of chiropractic practice through a selective review of literature using a mnemonic device. There is evidence that doctors of chiropractic use some health promotion techniques in practice such as instruction on exercise, dietary advice, smoking cessation recommendations and the encouraging of preventive chiropractic visits. Healthy People goals for the nation suggest that providers encourage preventive services, work toward better access to care and stress disease prevention. However, information on how this can be routinely done in chiropractic practice is fragmented. This article suggests ways to implement health promotion into the everyday management of the chiropractic patient. Health promotion and disease prevention can be easily performed in chiropractic practice. The nature of the chiropractic supportive or maintenance visit gives doctors a unique platform on which they can launch full-scale health promotion efforts on their patients.
Schwarte, Liz; Ngo, Samantha; Banthia, Rajni; Flores, George; Prentice, Bob; Boyle, Maria; Samuels, Sarah E
Local health departments (LHDs) are dedicating resources and attention to preventing obesity and associated chronic diseases, thus expanding their work beyond traditional public health activities such as surveillance. This study investigated practices of local health departments in California to prevent obesity and chronic disease. We conducted a web-based survey in 2010 with leaders in California's LHDs to obtain diverse perspectives on LHDs' practices to prevent obesity and chronic disease. The departmental response rate for the 2010 survey was 87% (53 of California's 61 LHDs). Although staff for preventing obesity and chronic disease decreased at 59% of LHDs and stayed the same at 26% of LHDs since 2006, LHDs still contributed the same (12%) or a higher (62%) level of effort in these areas. Factors contributing to internal changes to address obesity and chronic disease prevention included momentum in the field of obesity prevention, opportunities to learn from other health departments, participation in obesity and chronic disease prevention initiatives, and flexible funding streams for chronic disease prevention. LHDs that received foundation funding or had a lead person or organizational unit coordinating or taking the lead on activities related to obesity and chronic disease prevention were more likely than other LHDs to engage in some activities related to obesity prevention. California LHDs are increasing the intensity and breadth of obesity and chronic disease prevention. Findings provide a benchmark from which further changes in the activities and funding sources of LHD chronic disease prevention practice may be measured.
Ko, Celine M.
Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...
Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda
Full Text Available Objectives: to know the preventive practices adopted by adult men in daily life and to identify health support networks. Methods: a descriptive qualitative study, made during the months of November and December 2012, at two emergency units, along with 32 men aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis with thematic modality. Results: men highlighted different preventive practices such as sanitizing hands, eating properly, having screening tests, avoiding psychoactive substance abuse, using personal protective equipment at work and condoms during sex. Most of the participants had nuclear family and its members were their primary support network regarding the health-disease process. Conclusion: it is for health team members to try to leverage the adoption of preventive practices by adult men from the support networks they consider significant.
Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J
Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada. Findings emphasise that poor life conditions undermine personal investment in preventive health and weight loss, showing the importance for policy makers to bring stronger consideration on upstream determinants of health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Herr, Scott W.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Stone, Gregory E.
Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the United States with individuals between the ages of 13 and 19 years being especially vulnerable for infection. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of high school health teachers toward teaching HIV prevention.…
Morillas, Rosa María; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Fuertes, Alba
Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Improvement and Prevention Study (HIPS study aims to evaluate the capacity of general practice to identify patients at high risk for developing vascular disease and to reduce their risk of vascular disease and diabetes through behavioural interventions delivered in general practice and by the local primary care organization. Methods/Design HIPS is a stratified randomized controlled trial involving 30 general practices in NSW, Australia. Practices are randomly allocated to an 'intervention' or 'control' group. General practitioners (GPs and practice nurses (PNs are offered training in lifestyle counselling and motivational interviewing as well as practice visits and patient educational resources. Patients enrolled in the trial present for a health check in which the GP and PN provide brief lifestyle counselling based on the 5As model (ask, assess, advise, assist, and arrange and refer high risk patients to a diet education and physical activity program. The program consists of two individual visits with a dietician or exercise physiologist and four group sessions, after which patients are followed up by the GP or PN. In each practice 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years are invited to participate in the study, with the expectation that 40 will be eligible and willing to participate. Evaluation data collection consists of (1 a practice questionnaire, (2 GP and PN questionnaires to assess preventive care attitudes and practices, (3 patient questionnaire to assess self-reported lifestyle behaviours and readiness to change, (4 physical assessment including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, (5 a fasting blood test for glucose and lipids, (6 a clinical record audit, and (7 qualitative data collection. All measures are collected at baseline and 12 months except the patient questionnaire which is also collected at 6 months. Study outcomes before and after the
Full Text Available The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21st century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1 how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2 the role of prevention culture at the national level.
The workplace can be concerned by all types and all levels of addictive practices: consumption of alcohol or psychoactive substances, work addiction, internet addiction and technology addiction. Addictions can be related to multiple factors, both within and outside the workplace. With the employer, responsible for occupational health and safety, the multidisciplinary team of the inter-company occupational health service must today implement a collective and global prevention policy with regard to addictions, in addition to the traditional follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.
Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918
Bassoff, B Z; Willis, W O
The study was a test of the feasibility of mandating training in preventive health practices for child day care providers in California. Three approaches were taken to determining the feasibility of mandatory training. They were (a) to identify persons and groups with the capability to provide training, (b) to identify systems and networks for communication and collaboration on health issues related to day care at the local level, and (c) to determine the child day care providers' concerns, needs, and future interests regarding child health. Information was collected on relevant courses offered by universities, colleges, and adult education programs; on training offered by child health authorities; and on formal curriculums offered by local and national sources. Day care center and family day care home providers were surveyed to determine their knowledge of child health issues, their concerns, and their future needs. The providers surveyed cared for a total of 14,340 children. Information on local networks was obtained from the surveys, from interviews, and from a special task force that had been set up to advise the State legislature. Study results supported the conclusion that a coordinated system of State-wide training was feasible, given the existing networks of training and educational resources, the number of day care providers who had already been motivated to seek some training in child health practices, and the almost unanimous interest among day care providers in obtaining training. Mandating training in child health for day care providers will require a commitment in the form of new legislation outlining basic requirements and allocating funding. The implementation and costs of such a mandate at the State and local level are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Prevention of breeding of Aedes mosquito is an effective method for dengue control. Practice of source reduction to prevent breeding depends on the knowledge of the community, which can be improved by health education. Objectives: Our objective was to ascertain the knowledge and practice of the community regarding dengue and its prevention, and to assess the effectiveness of individual health education on practice of dengue prevention. Methodology: In urban service area of JIPMER, using Street-wise cluster sampling pre and post intervention data collection was done. Intervention was “Individual health education on the practice of dengue prevention”. Main outcome measures were Awareness and practice regarding dengue prevention. McNemar’s test was used in the analysis. Results: A total of 351 respondents were studied of whom 89% knew that dengue was spread by mosquitoes. Only one-fourths knew about the correct biting time and breeding condition of Aedes mosquitoes. Practice regarding draining of unused tyres, coolers, flower vases, disposal of coconut shells and keeping unused flower pots upturned were found to improve significantly after health education. Conclusions: Individual health education was effective in improving the practice of source reduction in a community with poor knowledge of vector biting and breeding habits.
Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.
This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424
Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B
This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.
Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul
for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases...... could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...
Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.
This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of ...
Valdez, Rodolfo; Yoon, Paula W; Qureshi, Nadeem; Green, Ridgely Fisk; Khoury, Muin J
Family history is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Professional guidelines usually include family history to assess health risk, initiate interventions, and motivate behavioral changes. The advantages of family history over other genomic tools include a lower cost, greater acceptability, and a reflection of shared genetic and environmental factors. However, the utility of family history in public health has been poorly explored. To establish family history as a public health tool, it needs to be evaluated within the ACCE framework (analytical validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; and ethical, legal, and social issues). Currently, private and public organizations are developing tools to collect standardized family histories of many diseases. Their goal is to create family history tools that have decision support capabilities and are compatible with electronic health records. These advances will help realize the potential of family history as a public health tool.
Ferreira,Marcos Santos; Castiel,Luis David
Based on the multiple meanings, "empowerment" can be identified with either conservative or critical Health Promotion approaches. From a conservative approach, the concept is viewed as an essentially individual phenomenon, centered on the provision of information and the external transfer of power in the name of the collective good. From this approach, the relationship between "psychological" and "community" empowerment is not considered. From a critical approach, the concept is viewed as a r...
Marcos Santos Ferreira
Full Text Available Based on the multiple meanings, "empowerment" can be identified with either conservative or critical Health Promotion approaches. From a conservative approach, the concept is viewed as an essentially individual phenomenon, centered on the provision of information and the external transfer of power in the name of the collective good. From this approach, the relationship between "psychological" and "community" empowerment is not considered. From a critical approach, the concept is viewed as a relational phenomenon that manifests itself in the dialectic conflict of interests between individuals, groups, and social classes. From this approach, "psychological" and "community" empowerment are seen as micro and macro levels of analysis, and social transformations are the result of simultaneous changes at these levels. The use of the notion of empowerment without critical reflection or political analysis of power relations in society disseminates vague, romantic, and homogeneous views of "community". Therefore, to assume the relational nature of empowerment means to accept its interdependence with the notion of participation, without which there can be no social transformation. Thus, one should be vigilant about multiple meanings that empowerment can given in Health Promotion discourse.
Ferreira, Marcos Santos; Castiel, Luis David
Based on the multiple meanings, 'empowerment' can be identified with either conservative or critical Health Promotion approaches. From a conservative approach, the concept is viewed as an essentially individual phenomenon, centered on the provision of information and the external transfer of power in the name of the collective good. From this approach, the relationship between 'psychological' and 'community' empowerment is not considered. From a critical approach, the concept is viewed as a relational phenomenon that manifests itself in the dialectic conflict of interests between individuals, groups, and social classes. From this approach, 'psychological' and 'community' empowerment are seen as micro and macro levels of analysis, and social transformations are the result of simultaneous changes at these levels. The use of the notion of empowerment without critical reflection or political analysis of power relations in society disseminates vague, romantic, and homogeneous views of 'community'. Therefore, to assume the relational nature of empowerment means to accept its interdependence with the notion of participation, without which there can be no social transformation. Thus, one should be vigilant about multiple meanings that empowerment can given in Health Promotion discourse.
Lawrence, Shawn A; Zittel-Palamara, Kimberley M; Wodarski, Lois Ann; Wodarski, John
The public health problems in the new millennium are largely related to lifestyle. The illness industry has seen a large growth in the United States with health care expenditure accounting for 14% of the gross national product. The field of behavioral medicine seeks to include individual responsibility in the prevention of chronic disease. There are great possibilities for lifestyle change through behavioral interventions. This manuscript outlines various applications of behavioral techniques and interventions utilized for smoking and obesity. Prevention paradigms and implications for social workers are also outlined.
Islam, Noreen; Flores, Yvonne N; Ramirez, Paula; Bastani, Roshan; Salmerón, Jorge
To assess the knowledge and preventive practices regarding hepatitis and liver disease among a sample of participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 892 participants from Cuernavaca, Mexico. Demographic characteristics, knowledge about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver disease in general, as well as information about prevention practices were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Participants were grouped into categories that were created using information about their professional background and patient contact status. Knowledge and prevention practices were compared within these categories. Inadequate levels of knowledge and preventive practices were found, even within the more highly educated group. Nearly 57 % of the participants had inadequate knowledge about liver disease in general, while 76 and 79 % had inadequate knowledge about Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. For general liver disease, the mean knowledge score increased significantly with education, history of HCV screening, and low alcohol consumption. Health workers should be better educated about hepatitis and liver disease so they can reduce their own risk and share their knowledge of how to prevent liver disease with patients.
Fortinsky, Richard H; Baker, Dorothy; Gottschalk, Margaret; King, Mary; Trella, Patricia; Tinetti, Mary E
This study determined the extent to which fall risk assessment and management practices for older patients were implemented in Medicare-certified home health agencies (HHAs) in a defined geographic area in southern New England that had participated in evidence-based fall prevention training between October 2001 and September 2004. The standardized in-service training sessions taught home health nurses and rehabilitation therapists how to conduct assessments for five evidence-based risk factors for falls in older adults--mobility impairments, balance disturbances, multiple medications, postural hypotension, and home environmental hazards--using techniques shown to be efficacious in clinical trials. Twenty-six HHAs participated in these in-service training sessions; 19 of these participated in a survey of nurses and rehabilitation therapists between October 2004 and September 2005. Self-reported assessment and management practices implemented with older patients during home healthcare visits were measured in this survey, and HHA-level measures for each fall risk factor were constructed based on proportions of clinicians reporting assessment and management practices that were recommended in the fall prevention training sessions. For all fall risk factors except postural hypotension, 80% or more of clinicians in all HHAs reported implementing recommended fall risk management practices. Greater variation was found regarding fall risk assessment practices, with fewer than 70% of clinicians in one or more HHAs reporting recommended assessment practices for all risk factors. Results suggest that evidence-based training for home healthcare clinicians can stimulate fall risk assessment and management practices during home health visits. HHA-level comparisons hold the potential to illustrate the extent of diffusion of evidence-based fall prevention practices within and between agencies.
Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine
Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health
Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.
Rupert, R L
To investigate the primary care, health promotion activities associated with what has historically been called "maintenance care" (MC) as used in the practice of chiropractic in the United States. This includes issues such as investigating the purpose of MC, what conditions and patient populations it best serves, how frequently it is required, what therapeutic interventions constitute MC, how often it is recommended, and what percent of patient visits are for prevention and health promotion services. It also investigates the economic impact of these services. Postal survey of a randomized sample of practicing US chiropractors. The questionnaire was structured with a 5-point ordinal Likert scale (28 questions) and brief fill-in questionnaire (12 questions). The 40-question survey was mailed to 1500 chiropractors selected at random from a pool of chiropractors with active practices in the United States. The National Directory of Chiropractic database was the source of actively practicing chiropractors from which doctor selection was made. The sample was derived by using the last numbers composing the zip codes assigned by the US Postal Service. This sampling method assured potential inclusion of chiropractors from all 50 states, from rural areas and large cities, and assured a sample weighting based on population density that might not have been afforded by a simple random sample. Six hundred and fifty-eight (44%) of the questionnaires were completed and returned. US chiropractors agreed or strongly agreed that the purpose of MC was to optimize health (90%), prevent conditions from developing (88%), provide palliative care (86%), and minimize recurrence or exacerbations (95%). MC was viewed as helpful in preventing both musculoskeletal and visceral health problems. There was strong agreement that the therapeutic composition of MC placed virtually equal weight on exercise (96%) and adjustments/manipulation (97%) and that other interventions, including dietary
Student attitudes and behaviour towards their own oral health status could reflect their understanding of the importance of oral health promotive activities. This was a qualitative and exploratory study designed to gain a deeper understanding of the extent to which the undergraduate curriculum could act as an enabler for student oral health self-care practices. Data collection comprised of document analysis (curriculum review) and in-depth face-to-face interviews with undergraduate dental therapy and oral health students and academic staff at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Ten students volunteered to participate in the study while five academic staff were purposively selected. A separate interview schedule was developed for students and staff, respectively. The emergent themes from document analysis were compared to the analysed data from the interviews. The curriculum was underpinned by a strong foundation in prevention, and there was consensus among respondents that the curriculum met the needs for undergraduate training in preventive dentistry. The following themes emerged from data analysis: curriculum support for self-care practices; depth and scope of clinical training; role of clinical supervisors and challenges in clinical training. Respondents agreed that the curriculum could influence students' attitudes towards self-care practices such as toothbrushing and flossing but that academic responsibilities and clinical contact time placed constraints on these practices. The undergraduate curriculum does provide support for enabling student knowledge acquisition and positive attitudes, but more effort is required to enable oral health behavioural modifications among students. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'.Design. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP......-assessed overweight at the 5-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Results. Out of 1135 children attending the 5-year PCHE, 171 were assessed overweight by the GP. According to the Danish body mass index (kg/m(2)) growth charts, 147 children were overweight. The GPs addressed their concern about the child......% of cases.Conclusion. Various care activities were carried out for most children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year PCHE. However, the GP did not raise concern about the child's weight with the parents in almost one third of the children. It seems that there is a potential for improving...
S. A. Francis
Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies. Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness. Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.
Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610
Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.
Matthew Lee eSmith
Full Text Available Among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths and emergency department visits, and the incidence of falls in the United States is rising as the number of older Americans increases. Research has shown that falls can be reduced by modifying fall risk factors using multifactorial interventions implemented in clinical settings. However, the literature indicates many providers feel they do not know how to conduct fall risk assessments or do not have adequate knowledge about fall prevention To help healthcare providers incorporate older adult fall prevention (i.e., falls risk assessment and treatment into their clinical practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC Injury Center has developed the STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries tool kit. This study was conducted to identify the practice characteristics and providers’ beliefs, knowledge, and fall-related activities before they received training on how to use the STEADI tool kit. Data were collected as part of a larger State Fall Prevention Project funded by CDC’s Injury Center. Completed questionnaires were returned by 38 medical providers from 11 healthcare practices within a large New York health system. Healthcare providers ranked falls as the lowest priority of five conditions, after diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mental health, and musculoskeletal conditions. Less than 40% of the providers asked most or all of their older patients if they had fallen during the past 12 months. Less than a quarter referred their older patients to physical therapists for balance or gait training, and less than 20% referred older patients to community-based fall prevention programs. Less than 16% reported they conducted standardized functional assessments with their older patients at least once a year. These results suggest that implementing the STEADI tool kit in clinical settings could address knowledge gaps and provide the necessary
A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…
Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
The purpose of this study was to analyse general practitioners' (GPs) care for children with a weight-for-height above normal based on the GPs' clinical evaluation, that is, 'GP-assessed overweight'. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting GPs' care for children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Out of 1135 children attending the 5-year PCHE, 171 were assessed overweight by the GP. According to the Danish body mass index (kg/m(2)) growth charts, 147 children were overweight. The GPs addressed their concern about the child's weight to the parents in 58% of the 171 cases with GP-assessed overweight. The national guideline was reported consulted in 6% of the cases. Diet, physical activity and dispositions were evaluated by the GPs in 68%, 57% and 34% of cases, respectively. An appointment for a follow-up was made in 12% of cases. Various care activities were carried out for most children with GP-assessed overweight at the 5-year PCHE. However, the GP did not raise concern about the child's weight with the parents in almost one third of the children. It seems that there is a potential for improving the overweight care at the 5-year PCHE beginning with the involvement of the parents.
Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane
This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions. Interns completed a survey before (n = 37) and after (n = 22) the interventions. The survey included 12 Likert scale questions about attitudes and intentions toward wellness and health promotion models. The interventions consisted of classroom lectures, clinical training, and online information pertaining to health promotion and wellness. The interns initially favored wellness models, perceived a need for them, and felt partially prepared to administer them, with mean Likert scores 4 or greater on a 1 to 5 scale. Afterward, the average scores were higher and the interns reported some benefit from this short course of training. The initial survey demonstrated that interns had some understanding of wellness, health promotion, and preventive services, and favored utilization of these services. The follow-up survey suggested that a short educational intervention could have a positive impact on these attitudes and future utilization of wellness procedures in their practices.
Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harper, Cynthia C; Henderson, Jillian T; Schalet, Amy; Becker, Davida; Stratton, Laura; Raine, Tina R
Abstinence-only education has had little demonstrable impact on teenagers' sexual behaviors, despite significant policy and funding efforts. Given the struggle over resources to improve teenagers' reproductive health outcomes, the views of clinicians serving teenagers at high risk for unintended pregnancy and STDs merit particular attention. In 2005, a qualitative study with 31 clinicians serving low-income, at-risk patients was conducted. A semistructured interview guide was used to ask clinicians about adolescent pregnancy, HIV and STD prevention counseling, and when they include abstinence. Thematic content analysis was used to examine the content of the counseling and the techniques used in different situations. Providers reported offering comprehensive counseling, presenting abstinence as a choice for teenagers, along with information about contraceptives and condoms. Several providers mentioned that with young, sexually inexperienced teenagers, they discuss delaying sexual activity and suggest other ways to be affectionate, while giving information on condoms. Providers explained how they assess whether teenagers feel ready to be sexually active and try to impart skills for healthy relationships. Some described abstinence as giving teenagers a way to opt out of unwanted sexual activity. Many support abstinence if that is the patient's desire, but routinely dispense condoms and contraceptives. Overall, providers did not give abstinence counseling as a rigid categorical concept in their preventive practices, but as a health tool to give agency to teenagers within a harm reduction framework. Their approach may be informative for adolescent policies and programs in the future.
Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne
After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella
national and community oral health programmes. Twenty-two invitees from 15 countries attended in addition to WHO staff. The first day was devoted to presentations of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes from around the world. During the second day, WHO staff at Headquarters in Geneva discussed aspects of evaluation of public health programmes. Two working groups were formed to discuss agreed topics, and the reports from their deliberations, together with the general discussion, resulted in the presentation of emerging key issues and recommendations. In summary, it was agreed that evaluation of oral health promotion and disease prevention programmes should integrate, whenever possible, with general health programmes. While the design and advantages of RCTs in clinical evaluations are well documented, the relevance of this design in evaluation of community oral disease preventive programmes and oral health promotion programmes are much less clearly defined. Subsequently, the conduct of such programmes may be inappropriately evaluated in systematic reviews. There is a need for more research into appropriate immediate, interim and ultimate outcome measures, as well as process evaluation, an assessment that is poorly understood and practised less often than outcome evaluation. Guidance on potential design, conduct, and especially the evaluation, of community oral disease prevention programmes and oral health promotion programmes should be developed and updated regularly. WHO Collaborating Centres could have a role in promoting good practice, training and collaboration between teams throughout the world. Centres undertaking systematic reviews should consider the guidelines given in the proposed WHO document when defining their evaluation criteria.
Grand, Stephen; Morehouse-Grand, Kenice; Carter, Shane
Objective: This pilot study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of a group of chiropractic interns concerning health promotion, wellness, and preventive services before and after a series of brief educational interventions.
Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ruzek, Sheryl B; Wolak, Caitlin; Rovito, Michael J; Ruggieri, Dominique G; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Greener, Judith
Preventive health messages are often tailored to reach broad sociodemographic groups. However, within groups, there may be considerable variation in perceptions of preventive health practices, such as colorectal cancer screening. Segmentation analysis provides a tool for crafting messages that are tailored more closely to the mental models of targeted individuals or subgroups. This study used cluster analysis, a psychosocial marketing segmentation technique, to develop a typology of colorectal cancer screening orientation among 102 African American clinic patients between the ages of 50 and 74 years with limited literacy. Patients were from a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital, a subpopulation known to have high rates of colorectal cancer and low rates of screening. Preventive screening orientation variables included the patients' responses to questions involving personal attitudes and preferences toward preventive screening and general prevention practices. A k-means cluster analysis yielded three clusters of patients on the basis of their screening orientation: ready screeners (50.0%), cautious screeners (30.4%), and fearful avoiders (19.6%). The resulting typology clearly defines important subgroups on the basis of their preventive health practice perceptions. The authors propose that the development of a validated typology of patients on the basis of their preventive health perceptions could be applicable to a variety of health concerns. Such a typology would serve to standardize how populations are characterized and would provide a more accurate view of their preventive health-related attitudes, values, concerns, preferences, and behaviors. Used with standardized assessment tools, it would provide an empirical basis for tailoring health messages and improving medical communication.
Seibert, Dorothy J; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Oh, Kyeung Mi; DeVoe, Mary C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
Health care workers (HCWs) play a critical role in prevention of health care-associated infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but glove and gown contact precautions and hand hygiene may not be consistently used with vulnerable patients. A cross-sectional survey of MRSA knowledge, attitudes/perceptions, and practices among 276 medical, nursing, allied health, and support services staff at an acute-care hospital in the eastern United States was completed in 2012. Additionally, blinded observations of hand hygiene behaviors of 104 HCWs were conducted. HCWs strongly agreed that preventive behaviors reduce the spread of MRSA. The vast majority reported that they almost always engage in preventive practices, but observations of hand hygiene found lower rates of adherence among nearly all HCW groups. HCWs who reported greater comfort with telling others to take action to prevent MRSA transmission were significantly more likely to self-report adherence to recommended practices. It is important to reduce barriers to adherence with preventive behaviors and to help all HCWs, including support staff who do not have direct patient care responsibilities, to translate knowledge about MRSA transmission prevention methods into consistent adherence of themselves and their coworkers to prevention guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.
Blackwell, Cindy DeRuiter; Bilics, Andrea
Directors of entry-level occupational therapy (OT) programs were surveyed regarding how their programs prepare students to become mental health practitioners in schools. Analysis of quantitative data included descriptive statistics to examine participants' ratings of their program's ability to prepare students for mental health practice. We found…
Fitzgerald, Nurgul; Morgan, Kathleen T; Slawson, Deborah Leachman
Food intake, lifestyle behaviors, and obesity are linked to the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and cardiovascular diseases. It is recognized that physical and social environment influences individuals' behaviors, and some population subgroups such as racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with low socioeconomic status or limited literacy or language abilities seem to be especially vulnerable to disparities in disease risk factors, disease prevalence, or health outcomes. Certain life cycle phases appear to be especially important for health promotion and disease prevention as the development of chronic diseases can take several decades. Such complex health issues often require system-wide, multifactorial, and multidisciplinary solutions. Social ecological models, with approaches spanning from individual level to macro policy level, can provide registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs) with a comprehensive framework to promote health and to prevent chronic diseases. Furthermore, the Nutrition Care Process can be utilized in carrying out the health promotion and disease prevention efforts. RDs and DTRs have the training and requisite skills to be leaders and active members of multidisciplinary teams to promote health and prevent chronic diseases across the life span. The position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that primary prevention is the most effective, affordable method to prevent chronic disease, and that dietary intervention positively impacts health outcomes across the life span. RDs and DTRs are critical members of health care teams and are essential to delivering nutrition-focused preventive services in clinical and community settings, advocating for policy and programmatic initiatives, and leading research in disease prevention and health promotion. In concordance with the Academy's position, this practice paper provides an overview of practice examples, effective
Hawk, Cheryl; Schneider, Michael; Evans, Marion Willard; Redwood, Daniel
The purposes of this project were to develop consensus definitions for a set of best practices that doctors of chiropractic may use for promoting health and wellness and preventing disease and to describe the appropriate components and procedures for these practices. A multidisciplinary steering committee of 10 health care professionals developed seed statements based on their clinical experience and relevant literature. A Delphi consensus process was conducted from January to July 2011, following the RAND methodology. Consensus was reached when at least 80% of the panelists were in agreement. There were 44 Delphi panelists (36 doctors of chiropractic, 6 doctors of philosophy, 1 doctor of naturopathy, 1 registered nurse). The statements developed defined the terms and practices for chiropractic care to promote health and wellness and prevent disease. This document describes the procedures and features of wellness care that represent a reasonable approach to wellness care and disease prevention in chiropractic clinical practice. This living document provides a general framework for an evidence-based approach to chiropractic wellness care. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Jareño, Mari Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; de Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta
Although routine workers' health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers' health examinations in Catalonia (Spain) in terms of its occupational preventive aim. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal). The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168), representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services - that covered the great majority of Catalan employees - was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health and safety of workers in relation to work is fulfilled. Other countries with
Mari Cruz Rodríguez-Jareño
Full Text Available Objectives: Although routine workers’ health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers’ health examinations in Catalonia (Spain in terms of its occupational preventive aim. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal. Results: The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168, representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services – that covered the great majority of Catalan employees – was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. Conclusions: This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health
Bradshaw, Catherine P
Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Chawla, Neetu; Kepka, Deanna L; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M; Horne, Hisani N; Felix, Ashley S; Luhn, Patricia; Pelser, Colleen; Barkley, Jonathan; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M
The National Cancer Institute Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course is a 4-week course encompassing a variety of cancer prevention and control topics that is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions around the world. Themes related to the challenges health disparities present to cancer prevention efforts and potential solutions to these issues emerged from facilitated group discussions among the 2012 course participants. Small-group discussion sessions with participants (n = 85 from 33 different countries) and facilitators (n = 9) were held once per week throughout the 4-week course. Facilitators prepared open-ended questions related to course topics. Participants provided responses reflecting their opinions of topics on the basis of experiences in their countries. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore themes emerging from the discussion groups. The varied influences of health disparities on cancer prevention efforts among > 30 countries represented prominent themes across discussion groups. Participants discussed the interplay of individual characteristics, including knowledge and culture, interpersonal relationships such as family structure and gender roles, community and organizational factors such as unequal access to health care and access to treatment, and national-level factors including policy and government structure. The ideas and solutions presented here are from a geographically and professionally diverse group of individuals. The collective discussion highlighted the pervasiveness of health disparities across all areas represented by course participants and suggested that disparities are the largest impediment to achieving cancer prevention goals.
Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.
Ian W Holloway
Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128
Garcia, Robert A; Spitzer, Eric D; Kranz, Barbara; Barnes, Sue
The scientific literature indicates that blood culture contamination often leads to inappropriate antimicrobial treatment, adverse patient occurrences, and potential reporting of false-positive central line-associated bloodstream infections. The findings of a national infection prevention survey of blood culture practices and related interventions in hospitals support the need for infection preventionists to expand their participation in the review of topics related to the ordering and collection of blood for culture. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M
The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C
This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.
Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati
Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working
Taranum Ruba Siddiqui
Full Text Available Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan.In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted.We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years; 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.71; p = 0.005, self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77-4.76; p = 0.000, and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97-5.17; p = 0.000. Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02-2.19; p = 0.036, self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34-2.91; p = 0.000, and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05-2.37; p = 0.028.Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self-efficacy.
Cambon, Linda; Petit, Audrey; Ridde, Valery; Dagenais, Christian; Porcherie, Marion; Pommier, Jeanine; Ferron, Chrisine; Minary, Laetitia; Alla, François
Evidence-based decision-making and practice are pivotal in public health. However, barriers do persist and they relate to evidence properties, organisations and contexts. To address these major knowledge transfer (KT) issues, we need to rethink how knowledge is produced and used, to enhance our understanding of decision-making processes, logics and mechanisms and to examine the ability of public health services to integrate research findings into their decisions and operations. This article presents a realist evaluation protocol to assess a KT scheme in prevention policy and practice at local level in France. This study is a comparative multiple case study, using a realist approach, to assess a KT scheme in regional health agencies (ARS) and regional non-profit organisations for health education and promotion (IREPS), by analysing the configurations contexts/mechanisms/outcomes of it. The KT scheme assessed is designed for the use of six reviews of systematic reviews concerning the following themes: nutrition, alcohol, tobacco smoking, physical activity, emotional and sexual life and psychosocial skills. It combines the following activities: supporting the access to and the adaptation of scientific and usable evidences; strengthening professionals' skills to analyse, adopt and use the evidences in the course of their practices and their decision-making process; facilitating the use of evidence in the organisations and processes. RAMESE II reporting standards for realist evaluations was used. The aims of this study are to experiment and characterise the factors related to the scheme's ability to enable public health stakeholders to address the challenges of KT and to integrate scientific knowledge into policy and practice. We will use the realist approach in order to document the parameters of successful KT strategies in the specific contexts of preventive health services in France, while seeking to determine the transferability of such strategies.
Korber, Katharina; Becker, Christian
Determining what constitutes "good practice" in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic) evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents' thought that determinants of a program's success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators' unfamiliarity with a program's contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive approach of evaluation targeting measures in children and adolescents.
Müthing, Jannis; Jäschke, Thomas; Friedrich, Christoph M
Mobile health (mHealth) apps show a growing importance for patients and health care professionals. Apps in this category are diverse. Some display important information (ie, drug interactions), whereas others help patients to keep track of their health. However, insufficient transport security can lead to confidentiality issues for patients and medical professionals, as well as safety issues regarding data integrity. mHealth apps should therefore deploy intensified vigilance to protect their data and integrity. This paper analyzes the state of security in mHealth apps. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) identification of relevant transport issues in mHealth apps, (2) development of a platform for test purposes, and (3) recommendation of practices to mitigate them. Security characteristics relevant to the transport security of mHealth apps were assessed, presented, and discussed. These characteristics were used in the development of a prototypical platform facilitating streamlined tests of apps. For the tests, six lists of the 10 most downloaded free apps from three countries and two stores were selected. As some apps were part of these top 10 lists in more than one country, 53 unique apps were tested. Out of the 53 apps tested from three European App Stores for Android and iOS, 21/53 (40%) showed critical results. All 21 apps failed to guarantee the integrity of data displayed. A total of 18 apps leaked private data or were observable in a way that compromised confidentiality between apps and their servers; 17 apps used unprotected connections; and two apps failed to validate certificates correctly. None of the apps tested utilized certificate pinning. Many apps employed analytics or ad providers, undermining user privacy. The tests show that many mHealth apps do not apply sufficient transport security measures. The most common security issue was the use of any kind of unprotected connection. Some apps used secure connections only for selected tasks
Fung, Christina; Kuhle, Stefan; Lu, Connie; Purcell, Megan; Schwartz, Marg; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J
Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted fro...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.
Chan, Sophia S C; So, Winnie K W; Wong, David C N; Lee, Angel C K; Tiwari, Agnes
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong posed many challenges for health promotion activities among a group of older adults with low socio-economic status (SES). With concerns that this vulnerable group could be at higher risk of contracting the disease or spreading it to others, the implementation of health promotion activities appropriate to this group was considered to be essential during the epidemic. To assess the effectiveness of delivering a telephone health education programme dealing with anxiety levels, and knowledge and practice of measures to prevent transmission of SARS among a group of older adults with low SES. Pretest/posttest design. Subjects were recruited from registered members of a government subsidized social service center in Hong Kong and living in low-cost housing estates. The eligibility criteria were: (1) aged 55 or above; (2) able to speak Cantonese; (3) no hearing impairment, and (4) reachable by telephone. Of the 295 eligible subjects, 122 older adults completed the whole study. The interviewers approached all eligible subjects by telephone during the period of 15-25 May 2003. After obtaining the participants' verbal consent, the interviewer collected baseline data by use of a questionnaire and implemented a health education programme. A follow-up telephone call was made a week later using the same questionnaire. The level of anxiety was lowered (t=3.28, p<0.001), and knowledge regarding the transmission routes of droplets (p<0.001) and urine and feces (p<0.01) were improved after the intervention. Although statistical significant difference was found in the practice of identified preventive measures before and after intervention, influence on behavioral changes needed further exploration. The telephone health education seemed to be effective in relieving anxiety and improving knowledge of the main transmission routes of SARS in this group, but not the practice of preventing SARS. Telephone contact appears
H P Suma Sogi
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of “oral health care” in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs among parents of children in Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. Results: The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of “good” practices and “bad” practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
Suma Sogi, H. P.; Hugar, Shivayogi M.; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of “oral health care” in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. Results: The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of “good” practices and “bad” practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices. PMID:27843829
Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining what constitutes “good practice” in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Methods Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. Results The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents’ thought that determinants of a program’s success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators’ unfamiliarity with a program’s contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. Conclusion While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive
Akinlolu Tolulope Jegede
Conclusion: A large number of dentists practicing in the tertiary hospital had good oral health practices and good oral health knowledge. However, the proportion of dentists with good caries prevention practices was low.
Kanagalingam, J; Feliciano, R; Hah, J H; Labib, H; Le, T A; Lin, J-C
To better inform medical practitioners on the role of antiseptics in oropharyngeal health and disease, this article focuses on povidone-iodine (PVP-I), an established and widely-available antiseptic agent. Review of the anti-infective profile, efficacy and safety of PVP-I in managing common upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold, influenza and tonsillo-pharyngitis, as well as oral complications resulting from cancer treatment (oral mucositis), and dental conditions (periodontitis, caries). Antiseptics with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity and low resistance potential offer an attractive option in both infection control and prevention. While there is some evidence of benefit of antiseptics in a variety of clinical settings that include dental and oral hygiene, dermatology, oncology, and pulmonology, there appears to be discordance between the evidence-base and practice. This is especially apparent in the management and prevention of oropharyngeal infections, for which the use of antiseptics varies considerably between clinical practices, and is in marked contrast to their dermal application, where they are extensively used as both a prophylaxis and a treatment of skin and wound infections, thus minimising the use of antibiotics. The link between oral and oropharyngeal health status and susceptibility to infection has long been recognised. The high rates of antibiotic misuse and subsequent development of bacterial resistance (e.g. increasing vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) in large parts of the world, especially across Asia Pacific, highlight the need for identifying alternative antimicrobials that would minimise the use of these medications. This, together with recent large-scale outbreaks of, for example, avian and swine influenza virus, further underline the importance of an increasing armamentarium for infection prevention and control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comino, Elizabeth Jean; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Krastev, Yordanka; Haas, Marion; Christl, Bettina; Furler, John; Raymont, Anthony; Harris, Mark F
Although primary health care (PHC) is a key component of all health care systems, services are not always readily available, accessible or affordable. This systematic review examines effective strategies to enhance access to best practice processes of PHC in three domains: chronic disease management, prevention and episodic care. An extensive search of bibliographic data bases to identify peer and non-peer reviewed literature was undertaken. Identified papers were screened to identify and classify intervention studies that measured the impact of strategies (singly or in combination) on change in use or the reach of services in defined population groups (evaluated interventions). The search identified 3,148 citations of which 121 were intervention studies and 75 were evaluated interventions. Evaluated interventions were found in all three domains: prevention (n = 45), episodic care (n = 19), and chronic disease management (n = 11). They were undertaken in a number of countries including Australia (n = 25), USA (n = 25), and UK (n = 15). Study quality was ranked as high (31% of studies), medium (61%) and low (8%). The 75 evaluated interventions tested a range of strategies either singly (n = 46 studies) or as a combination of two (n = 20) or more strategies (n = 9). Strategies targeted both health providers and patients and were categorised to five groups: practice re-organisation (n = 43 studies), patient support (n = 29), provision of new services (n = 19), workforce development (n = 11), and financial incentives (n = 9). Strategies varied by domain, reflecting the complexity of care needs and processes. Of the 75 evaluated interventions, 55 reported positive findings with interventions using a combination of strategies more likely to report positive results. This review suggests that multiple, linked strategies targeting different levels of the health care system are most likely to improve access to best
Poorolajal, Jalal; Cheraghi, Parvin; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Rezapur-Shahkolai, Forouzan
Injuries are the first leading but predictable, avoidable and preventable cause of death among under five-year children worldwide. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with mothers' beliefs and practices concerning injury prevention in under five-year children. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2011 in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, enrolling 580 mothers with at least one under five-year child. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire including 85 questions regarding demographic characteristics; knowledge; practices; Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs; and history of injury occurrence among the children. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by a pilot study using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data had been collected through interview with mothers, by trained interviewers. Almost 22.59% of mothers reported at least one injury in their under five-year children. Of 131 injuries occurred, 85 cases were mild, 23 cases were moderate, and 23 cases were severe. About 52.67% of injuries occurred in boys, 37.41% in less than one-year children, 73.28% at home, and 61.07% when the children were playing game. Fall (24.28%), burn (20.61%) and poisoning (14.50%) were the common causes of injuries. There was a positive correlation between mothers' practices and knowledge, perceived benefits, cues to action and self-efficacy and a negative correlation between mothers' practices and perceived susceptibility, severity, and barriers. Knowledge, perceived severity, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of mothers toward the injuries in children were among the most important predictive constructs, which may be used for planning educating programs.
Honigh - de Vlaming, R.
Concerns about the ageing population and formal responsibilities of local governments to promote social cohesion and to enhance participation of vulnerable groups in society placed loneliness prevention high on the local policy agenda of Dutch municipalities in the past decade.
Honigh - de Vlaming, R.
Concerns about the ageing population and formal responsibilities of local governments to promote social cohesion and to enhance participation of vulnerable groups in society placed loneliness prevention high on the local policy agenda of Dutch municipalities in the past decade.
Knierim, Kyle E; Fernald, Douglas H; Staton, Elizabeth W; Nease, Donald E
Prevention plays an important role in achieving the triple aim of decreasing per capita health care costs, improving the health of populations, and bettering the patient experience. Primary care is uniquely positioned to provide preventive services. External forces are aligning to support the transition of primary care from traditional models focused on disease-specific, acute episodes of care to new ways of organizing that are more patient centered, team based, and quality driven. By aligning leadership, building change capacity, and selectively choosing relevant processes to change, those practicing primary care can successfully organize their practice environment to deliver preventive services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In a nutshell SPA is something old and good, but nowadays enriched with the miraculous impact of the water culture and aqua practices. But in our opinion is very important to know that the SPA is the health prevention of a healthy people for their recovery from social and professional everyday stress. In most European countries and it became another kind of SPA effects called a short - Medical SPA. Our working hypothesis is based on the assumption that the development of modules for practicing aquaspinning will allow to optimize the proposed relaxing and procreative prevention programs and promoting the health and beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity of the effects aquaspinning through the application of current methods of prevention and health promotion.
Disease prevention and health promotion can be understood as being complementary to each other in the context of stress reduction (disease prevention) and strengthening of resources (health promotion). This implies change. The desired improvement aims at personal behaviour, concomitant resources and conditions and political processes. In line with this aim, there is exchange and transfer at the interfaces science-practice, science-politics and politics-practice, which are often not successful. With reference to results of the working groups on practice transfer and policy transfer of the cooperation for sustainable prevention research, 10 theses are formulated for an effective transfer management. An explicit and explicitly funded transfer research in disease prevention and health promotion is advisable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.
The health status of the populations of developed countries has never been as satisfactory, but will it stay that way? Research on the subject is difficult due to the complex interactions between our environment and our health, with risks inherent to each noxious agent. Preventing the risks proven to be linked to the quality of our living environments is usually the responsibility of authorities, but individuals can also adopt precautionary practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lipton, Beth A; Hopkins, Sharon G; Koehler, Jane E; DiGiacomo, Ronald F
To determine the extent to which practicing veterinarians in King County, Washington, engaged in commonly recommended practices for the prevention of zoonotic diseases. Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population-Licensed veterinarians practicing clinical medicine in King County, Washington. A survey was sent between September and November 2006 to 454 licensed veterinarians practicing clinical medicine in King County. 370 valid responses were received. A high proportion (280/362 [77%]) of respondents agreed that it was very important for veterinarians to educate clients on zoonotic disease prevention, but only 43% (158/367) reported that they had initiated discussions about zoonotic diseases with clients on a daily basis, and only 57% (203/356) indicated that they had client educational materials on zoonotic diseases available in their practices. Thirty-one percent (112/360) of respondents indicated that there were no written infection-control guidelines for staff members in the practice, and 28% (105/371) reported having been infected with a zoonotic disease in practice. Results illustrated that veterinarians recognize their important role in zoonotic disease prevention and suggested that veterinarians would welcome stronger partnerships with public health agencies and other health professionals in this endeavor. Methods to increase veterinarians' involvement in zoonotic disease prevention include discussing zoonotic diseases more frequently with clients, physicians, and public health agencies; encouraging higher risk individuals to discuss zoonotic diseases; having educational materials on zoonotic diseases available for clients; improving infection-control practices; and ensuring that continuing education courses on zoonotic diseases are regularly available.
Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.
As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels o...
Flávia Romariz Ferreira
Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.
Pressure ulcers are a largely preventable problem, but the incidence can impact negatively on the ability of the health service to deliver effective and quality care. Pressure ulcers commonly occur in the very old, the malnourished and those with acute illness. As pressure ulcers most commonly occur in the hospital setting, this can increase both length of stay and costs to the health service. As a result, prevention and management strategies should be core components in the strategic planning of healthcare services. This article discusses the importance of education and knowledge in pressure ulcers, and the onus of the nurse to put theory into practice in order to prevent this problem.
Anh Tran Thi Quynh
Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.
Infection prevention practices in adult intensive care units in a large community hospital system after implementing strategies to reduce health care-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Moody, Julia; Septimus, Edward; Hickok, Jason; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Gombosev, Adrijana; Terpstra, Leah; Avery, Taliser; Lankiewicz, Julie; Perlin, Jonathan B
A range of strategies and approaches have been developed for preventing health care-associated infections. Understanding the variation in practices among facilities is necessary to improve compliance with existing programs and aid the implementation of new interventions. In 2009, HCA Inc administered an electronic survey to measure compliance with evidence-based infection prevention practices as well as identify variation in products or methods, such as use of special approach technology for central vascular catheters and ventilator care. Responding adult intensive care units (ICUs) were those considering participation in a clinical trial to reduce health care-associated infections. Responses from 99 ICUs in 55 hospitals indicated that many evidenced-based practices were used consistently, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and use of contact precautions for MRSA-positive patients. Other practices exhibited wide variability including discontinuation of precautions and use of antimicrobial technology or chlorhexidine patches for central vascular catheters. MRSA decolonization was not a predominant practice in ICUs. In this large, community-based health care system, there was substantial variation in the products and methods to reduce health care-associated infections. Despite system-wide emphasis on basic practices as a precursor to adding special approach technologies, this survey showed that these technologies were commonplace, including in facilities where improvement in basic practices was needed. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella
Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... and/or qualitative), limitations of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design for evaluation of public health interventions, the need to match evaluation methods with the nature of intervention, development of outcome measures appropriate for the nature of intervention, importance of developing...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella
Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health interven...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella
a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... and/or qualitative), limitations of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design for evaluation of public health interventions, the need to match evaluation methods with the nature of intervention, development of outcome measures appropriate for the nature of intervention, importance of developing...... in evaluating oral health intervention programmes implemented at national or community levels in developing and developed countries and (4) develop guidelines for quality evaluation of national and community oral health programmes. Twenty-two invitees from 15 countries attended in addition to WHO staff...
Objective: To analyse the infection prevention practices in handling of injections by nurses in Rift Valley Provincial Hospital in Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Rift Valley Provincial hospital which is a level five health facility situated in Nakuru County, Kenya. Subjects: A sample of 386 injection ...
Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), injections 116 (46.6%) herbs 5 (2.0%) and unspecified 5(2.0%). In the event of ... Sustained health education especially to less educated women is strongly advocated to enhance to knowledge of malaria and practice of preventive measures.
Bárbara Ferreira dos Santos
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2016v13n24p138 This article reports experiences of undergraduates and university teatchers with the community in an extension project developed from March to December of 2015. In this article, the practices of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Diseases and Obesity were discussed, with guidelines and demonstrations for the population at school, restaurant and university. The interventions were initiated by talking with the participants about means of prevention, reduction of diseases, healthy recipes and modifications in the habits of life. Practices to combat hypertension and diabetes have addressed ways to minimize diseases through eating and the ones to combat obesity and cardiovascular diseases were performed through dynamics. The practices revealed public interest in changing lifestyles and brought to extensionists practical knowledge, because they were able to put into practice content learned in class, which is one of the objectives of university extension.
Gschwind, Yves J; Kressig, Reto W; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pfenninger, Barbara; Granacher, Urs
With increasing age neuromuscular deficits (e.g., sarcopenia) may result in impaired physical performance and an increased risk for falls. Prominent intrinsic fall-risk factors are age-related decreases in balance and strength / power performance as well as cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to develop specifically tailored exercise programs for older adults that can easily be implemented into clinical practice. Thus, the objective of the present trial is to assess the effects of a fall prevention program that was developed by an interdisciplinary expert panel on measures of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognition, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy in healthy older adults. Additionally, the time-related effects of detraining are tested. Healthy old people (n = 54) between the age of 65 to 80 years will participate in this trial. The testing protocol comprises tests for the assessment of static / dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., Sharpened Romberg Test, instrumented gait analysis), proactive balance (i.e., Functional Reach Test; Timed Up and Go Test), reactive balance (i.e., perturbation test during bipedal stance; Push and Release Test), strength (i.e., hand grip strength test; Chair Stand Test), and power (i.e., Stair Climb Power Test; countermovement jump). Further, body composition will be analysed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. In addition, questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial (i.e., World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment-Bref), cognitive (i.e., Mini Mental State Examination), and fall risk determinants (i.e., Fall Efficacy Scale - International) will be included in the study protocol. Participants will be randomized into two intervention groups or the control / waiting group. After baseline measures, participants in the intervention groups will conduct a 12-week balance and strength / power exercise intervention 3 times per week, with each training session lasting 30 min
Abstract. Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda.
Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...
Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn
Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.
Charles Dalcanale Tesser
Full Text Available Abstract: This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people. The distinction in focus is based on: (a management of uncertainty (more flexible when caring for ill persons; (b guarantee of benefit (required only in prevention; (c harm tolerance (nil or minimal in prevention. This implies attitudinal differences in the decision-making process: greater skepticism, scientism and resistance towards preventive action. These should be based on high-quality scientific evidence of end-outcomes that displays a net positive harm/benefit ratio.
Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Lenhart, Audrey; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Sihuincha, Moises; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S; Astete, Helvio; McCall, Philip J
As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Conte, Kathleen P; Groen, Sisse; Loblay, Victoria; Green, Amanda; Milat, Andrew; Persson, Lina; Innes-Hughes, Christine; Mitchell, Jo; Thackway, Sarah; Williams, Mandy; Hawe, Penelope
The effectiveness of many interventions to promote health and prevent disease has been well established. The imperative has therefore shifted from amassing evidence about efficacy to scale-up to maximise population-level health gains. Electronic implementation monitoring, or 'e-monitoring', systems have been designed to assist and track the delivery of preventive policies and programs. However, there is little evidence on whether e-monitoring systems improve the dissemination, adoption, and ongoing delivery of evidence-based preventive programs. Also, given considerable difficulties with e-monitoring systems in the clinical sector, scholars have called for a more sophisticated re-examination of e-monitoring's role in enhancing implementation. In the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the Population Health Information Management System (PHIMS) was created to support the dissemination of obesity prevention programs to 6000 childcare centres and elementary schools across all 15 local health districts. We have established a three-way university-policymaker-practice research partnership to investigate the impact of PHIMS on practice, how PHIMS is used, and how achievement of key performance indicators of program adoption may be associated with local contextual factors. Our methods encompass ethnographic observation, key informant interviews and participatory workshops for data interpretation at a state and local level. We use an on-line social network analysis of the collaborative relationships across local health district health promotion teams to explore the relationship between PHIMS use and the organisational structure of practice. Insights will be sensitised by institutional theory, practice theory and complex adaptive system thinking, among other theories which make sense of socio-technical action. Our working hypothesis is that the science of getting evidence-based programs into practice rests on an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the on
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) remain an important public health challenge among Nigerian students. Abuja University is located in a region of high STDs prevalence. However, it is not clear what students do to minimize their risk of contracting STDs. The purpose of the study was to explore sexual practices that ...
Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...
Klement, A; Omler, M; Lautenschläger, C; Bretschneider, K; Haerting, J
The topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum in the context of quality assurance, a continuous evaluation by the target group is necessary. Of importance are particularly the subjective success in learning and its interdependence to invested time, achievement expenditure and perceived relevance of the topics. Medical students (N=660) of the fifth academic years of 2007-2009 at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg were asked about their opinion after completing their Q10 curriculums by means of a standardised questionnaires. Emphasis of the questioning was placed on self estimates about success in learning, expenditure of time, evaluation of instruction elements, perceived relevance of prevention topics and the motivation for further occupation with the topic field. The collection instruments covered multiple choice questions, decimal number data and 5-point Likert scales. 510 questionnaires (77% return) could be evaluated. The curriculum "prevention and health promotion" was continuously evaluated over 3 years with increasingly indicated performance requirements and expenditure of time regarding instruction elements and success in learning. The invested time in lecture visits correlated positively with relevance-attribution (r=0.16, pevaluation of the instruction elements (r=0.65, pevaluations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the public health services. The "Protection against infection act" places all medical institutions and facilities for children (kindergartens and schools) under the obligation to assume responsibility and to cooperate. Duties of the institutions are described, and public health services are obliged to perform hygiene control visits.Regarding medical institutions, the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control have to be observed, and the counties were obliged to publish hygiene enactments. Subsequently, good improvements in hygiene management in medical institutions were achieved. In schools, however, severe hygienic problems (i.e. sanitary hygiene, indoor air hygiene) are detected, without any improvement - obviously due to a missing sense of responsibility in the school community. Causes for poor behaviour prevention (hand hygiene, ventilation) and missing situational prevention (i.e. cleaning) are discussed. Without reversion to the obviously needed but nearly forgotten subject school hygiene, obligatory guidelines and the assuming of responsibility, permanent improvements cannot be achieved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Overweight in children is more prevalent than ever before. What can parents do to try to promote health and prevent obesity in their own children? The present paper reviews research related to parenting and childhood obesity. The review describes what food-related parenting practices may be helpful: modeling healthy eating behaviors, making time for family meals, making sure healthy food is available and accessible, becoming aware of appropriate portion sizes, encouraging children to eat breakfast, and limiting soda and fast food intake. The paper also discusses food-related parenting practices that may not work to help prevent obesity: pressure to eat, food rewards, restriction, permissiveness, and modeling of unhealthy eating behaviors. Additional parenting practices such as supporting and engaging in physical activity, encouraging an adequate amount of sleep, and limiting television and other screen-media may also help children to maintain healthy weights. Suggestions are also given for professionals working with youth.
Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Acuña-Reyes, Raquel; Cigarroa-Martínez, Didier; Ureña-Bogarín, Enrique; Orgaz-Fernández, Jose David
Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish) was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01). Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1) than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8). The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population.
Kressin, N R; Boehmer, U; Nunn, M E; Spiro, A
Prior research has rarely examined the impact of ADA-recommended preventive practices on tooth retention. We hypothesized that better oral hygiene leads to increased tooth retention. We examined the association of cross-sectional and long-term assessments of preventive practices, as well as various combinations of hygiene practices, with tooth retention. Among 736 male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study, we utilized cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reports of toothbrushing, dental floss use, annual prophylaxis, and combinations of such behaviors, and examined their association with clinically assessed numbers of teeth. Baseline and long-term hygiene behaviors (except brushing) were associated with an increased baseline number of teeth and decreased subsequent tooth loss. Use of multiple hygiene behaviors was associated with greater tooth retention, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Adherence to ADA recommendations for preventive care leads to better oral health, and consistently practicing preventive behaviors over the long term confers greater benefits than doing so over the short term.
Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding
McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer; Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most harmful health care-associated infections and a major patient safety concern. Nationally, CLABSI rates have been reduced through the implementation of evidence-based interventions; thus far, however, hospitals still differ substantially in their success implementing these practices. Prior research on high-performance work practices (HPWPs) suggests that these practices may explain some of the differences health systems experience in the success of their quality improvement efforts; however, these relationships have not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, we sought to explore the potential role HPWPs may play in explaining differences in the success of CLABSI reduction efforts involving otherwise similar organizations and approaches. To form our sample, we identified eight hospitals participating in the federally funded "On the CUSP: Stop BSI" initiative. This sample included four hospital "pairs" matched on organizational characteristics (e.g., state, size, teaching status) but having reported contrasting CLABSI reduction outcomes. We collected data through site visits as well as 194 key informant interviews, which were framed using an evidence-informed model of health care HPWPs. We found evidence that, at higher performing sites, HPWPs facilitated the adoption and consistent application of practices known to prevent CLABSIs; these HPWPs were virtually absent at lower performing sites. We present examples of management practices and illustrative quotes categorized into four HPWP subsystems: (a) staff engagement, (b) staff acquisition/development, (c) frontline empowerment, and (d) leadership alignment/development. We present the HPWP model as an organizing framework that can be applied to facilitate quality and patient safety efforts in health care. Managers and senior leaders can use these four HPWP subsystems to select, prioritize, and communicate about management
Maria C. Dolce
Full Text Available Millions of Americans have unmet oral healthcare needs and profound oral health disparities persist in vulnerable and underserved populations, especially poor children, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities. Nurses can play a significant role in improving the quality of oral health including access to care with appropriate education and training. The purpose of this paper is to describe New York University College of Nursing’s response to this challenge. The Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP program is a national initiative aimed at preparing a nursing workforce with the competencies to prioritize oral disease prevention and health promotion, provide evidence-based oral healthcare in a variety of practice settings, and collaborate in interprofessional teams across the healthcare system. The overarching goal of this national initiative is to create an educational infrastructure for the nursing profession that advances nursing’s contribution to reducing oral health disparities across the lifespan.
Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.
Ma, Wei-Fen; Chao, Fen-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chiang, Li-Chi
As adolescent girls have specific healthcare needs, this paper was designed to provide a better understanding of their healthcare needs in both physical and psychosocial terms. After conducting a targeted review of the literature on children and adolescents, we identified factors of importance to physical health as body weight, physical activity, menstruation, sexual knowledge and attitude and to psychosocial health as anxiety, interpersonal relationships, depression, and suicide behavior. Reflecting these factors, this paper presents four preventive suggestions to clinical practice, education, and research to facilitate improvements in adolescent girl's health. These suggestions include: 1) strengthening health education and media responsibility with regard to adolescent girl health; 2) improving awareness of the needs of adolescent girls within healthcare and education organizations; 3) making health guidelines for promoting proper health behavior in adolescent girls; and 4) mobilizing nurses to assert the health of adolescent girls in clinical, education, and research fields. This is the first paper that focuses on the health needs of adolescent Taiwanese girls. The authors hope that more people become involved in the care of adolescent girl's health in Taiwan.
Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J
While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2-10) at pharmacies, 3 (1-3) at private clinics and 5 (2-17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes.
Mugo, Peter M; Duncan, Sarah; Mwaniki, Samuel W; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Gichuru, Evanson; Okuku, Haile Selassie; van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J
Background While bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important cofactors for HIV transmission, STI control has received little attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya. Methods In 2011 we assessed quality of case management for male urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya using simulated visits at pharmacies and interviews at pharmacies and health facilities. Quality was assessed using Ministry of Health guidelines. Results Twenty (77%) of 26 pharmacies, 20 (91%) of 22 private clinics and all four government facilities in the study area took part. The median (IQR) number of adult urethritis cases per week was 5 (2–10) at pharmacies, 3 (1–3) at private clinics and 5 (2–17) at government facilities. During simulated visits, 10% of pharmacies prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations and, during interviews, 28% of pharmacies and 27% of health facilities prescribed recommended antibiotics at recommended dosages and durations. Most regimens were quinolone-based. HIV testing was recommended during 10% of simulated visits, 20% of pharmacy interviews and 25% of health facility interviews. Conclusions In an area of high STI burden, most men with urethritis seek care at pharmacies and private clinics. Most providers do not comply with national guidelines and very few recommend HIV testing. In order to reduce the STI burden and mitigate HIV transmission, there is an urgent need for innovative dissemination of up-to-date guidelines and inclusion of all health providers in HIV/STI programmes. PMID:23698510
Levison, M M; Elliott, S J; Karanja, D M S; Schuster-Wallace, C J; Harrington, D W
Almost 1 billion individuals lack access to improved water supplies, with 2.6 billion lacking adequate sanitation. This leads to the propagation of multiple waterborne diseases. The objective of this study was to explore local knowledge, attitudes and practices to understand the mechanisms and pre-conditions for sustainable uptake and use of these facilities. Data collection took place in a rural Kenyan community in September 2009. A qualitative approach was taken, with 4 focus groups and 25 in-depth interviews conducted. Participant characteristics varied by age, gender, education, marital status, employment and community standing. Few participants reported current access to improved water and sanitation facilities. Though they expressed desire for latrines and water sources, barriers including lack of funds and social capital, decrease the ability for installation. Participants understood that there was a link between the quality of water and their health, however, perceived benefits of current contaminated sources outweigh the potential health impacts and proliferate their continued use. While water-health links are understood to varying degrees within the community, contextual (physical environment), compositional (individual) and collective (community) factors interact to influence health. Community challenges, such as lack of unity, lack of education and lack control were identified as the main barriers to initiating change, despite a desire for increased access to safe water and sanitation.
The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY) project protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice.
Sanci, Lena; Grabsch, Brenda; Chondros, Patty; Shiell, Alan; Pirkis, Jane; Sawyer, Susan; Hegarty, Kelsey; Patterson, Elizabeth; Cahill, Helen; Ozer, Elizabeth; Seymour, Janelle; Patton, George
There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. clinicians' detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people's intention to change and reduction of risk taking. pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff's self-perceived competency in young people's care and clinicians' detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14-24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking behaviour and emotional distress three and 12 months post consultation. The PARTY trial is the
The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY project protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. Main outcomes: clinicians’ detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people’s intention to change and reduction of risk taking. Secondary outcomes: pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. Methods PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff’s self-perceived competency in young people’s care and clinicians’ detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14–24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking
Andersen, John Sahl; Lindberg, Laura Maria Glahder; Nixon, Michael Simon
Introduction: In Denmark about 600,000 persons are treated for hypertension and more than 300,000 people are receiving cholesterol lowering drugs. The prevalence of hypertension in people aged 80 years is 70%. For antidepressants the defined daily doses/1000 aged >80 years/day exceed 200. By far...... the most preventive drugs are prescribed in general practice. Special considerations exist in relation to medication of elderly patients. The prevalence of polypharmacy and the subsequent increased risk of side effects and drug interactions is high. Drug-related problems represent the fifth leading cause...... of death in the United States. The public expenses to drug treatment are constantly increasing. The possibility to withdraw the medication must be taken into account but the decision to discontinue drugs is complex and poorly understood. Planned studies: 1. Patients’ views upon discontinuation...
Elouyse Fernandes Leitão
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.
David A. Sleet
Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering . Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts .
Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo
Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.
The emergence of moral dilemmas in health care practices, in view of the rapid demographic transition in developing countries, and skyrocketing public health care costs, is discussed. The focus is on two aspects of health care that have occupied an important place in the generation of these dilemmas. On the one hand, the tension between commercial strategies involving the health products market and the expansion of access to them and, on the other, the growth of techno-sciences in health care practices. In conclusion, the importance of the political, social and juridical arbitration on the ethical codifi cation of those dilemmas and the role of a Democratic State of Law in that arbitration is discussed.
Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta
The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances). During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer's post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, speech disturbances. During her hospitalisation at the neurological unit ischemic stroke with transient mixed type aphasia was diagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the head revealed subacute ischemia. After an analysis of the accident circumstances, the employer’s post accidental team decided that ischemic stroke had been an accident at work, because it was a sudden incident due to an external cause inducing work-related traumatic stroke. As a primary cause tough stress and emotional strain due to the situation developed while attending the customer were acknowledged. During control medical check up after 5 months the patient was found to be fit for work, so she could return to work. However, it should be noted that such a check up examination of subjects returning to work after stroke must be holistic, including the evaluation of job predispositions and health education aimed at secondary prevention of heart and vascular diseases with special reference to their risk factors. Med Pr 2015;66(4:595–599
Olson, C. M.
In the last 10 to 15 years, nutrition has become a major component of health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Two widely recommended strategies for incorporating nutrition education directed toward children and youth into health promotion and disease prevention efforts are school-based nutrition education and the integration of nutritional care into health care. School-based nutrition education programs targeted toward very specific eating behaviors are showing very promising results in regard to behavior and attitude change of children and adolescents. Substantial changes in health care providers' attitudes and practices and in the funding and financing of health care will be needed if nutrition education delivered in the context of routine health care is to be a major force in health promotion and disease prevention for youth. PMID:2629968
... and management, integrative health care practices, and health promotion. Membership and Designation... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health...
de Koning, Johan S.; Klazinga, Niek; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Prins, A. D.; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Objective. To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. Design. This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the Rotterdam region.
J.S. de Koning (Johan); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Prins (Ad); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between elements of practice organization related to stroke prevention in general practice, and suboptimal preventive care preceding the occurrence of stroke. DESIGN: This study was conducted among 69 Dutch general practitioners in the
This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.
This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance
Although major mental disorders do not have a central position in many criminological theories, there seems to be an evident relationship between these disorders and criminal behavior. In daily practice police officers and mental health care workers work jointly to prevent nuisance and crime and to
Hauer, Jody; Bombach, Valerie; Mohr, Caryn; Masse, Ann
This report identifies seven strategic practices for effectively managing preventive maintenance of Minnesota school district, city, and county buildings; and profiles local jurisdictions currently using them. The following best practices for preventive maintenance are recommended: (1) inventory building components and assess their conditions; (2)…
... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...
... Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This Diabetes Month, Don’t Forget About the Importance of Exercise for People with Type 1 Diabetes In honor ...
Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.
Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Daley, Christine Makosky
Clinical practice guidelines on pressure ulcer (PU)prevention have been written primarily for inpatient settings,but we currently lack data as to how these guidelines have been adapted for use in home health care. The purpose of this study was to delineate interventions and activities used to prevent PU in home health care. Focus group study using text analysis. A focus group was conducted with 9 certified wound care nurses who practiced in home health care at least 50% of the time. Most of the participants had 10 or more years of home health experience and 5 or more years of wound care experience. The single 75-minute focus group was convened by teleconference and audiotaped. A semistructured moderator's guide was used to lead the discussion. Transcribed data were analyzed using standard text analysis. Preliminary results were distributed to focus group participants for review, comment, or clarification, and refined as needed. Certified wound care nurse participants used an array of interventions, including those recommended by clinical practice guidelines, to prevent PU in home health patients.However, specific activities differed from those performed in hospitals and nursing homes. Interventions unique to homehealth care included (1) assessment of patients' economic and insured status to determine implementation options, (2) assessment of caregiving resources and caregivers' ability to manage PU prevention, and (3) collaboration with community resources and health care vendors to obtain needed prevention materials and supplies. Findings provide insight into guideline adaptation in home health care and suggest that PU prevention in the homehealth care setting is more complex than that in hospitals and nursing homes and requires significant skills in communication and collaboration.
This study aimed at investigating the animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units. A questionnaire was used to assess the veterinary practices including the administration of antibiotics and other veterinary inputs to promote growth, prevent and treat diseases. Sixty-five (65) respondents were involved in ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly
Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher
The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to
Bevinahalli N Raveesh
Full Text Available The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient–doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has made it like any other business, and the medical profession is increasingly being guided by the profit motive rather than that of service. On the other hand, a well-publicized malpractice case can ruin the doctor's career and practice. The law, like medicine, is an inexact science. One cannot predict with certainty an outcome of cases many a time. It depends on the particular facts and circumstances of the case, and also the personal notions of the judge concerned who is hearing the case. The axiom “you learn from your mistakes” is too little honored in healthcare. The best way to handle medico-legal issues is by preventing them, and this article tries to enumerate the preventive measures in safeguarding the doctor against negligence suit.
This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
Background: Several behavioural studies have shown a direct correlation between oral health awareness and practices. Awareness of individuals regarding their periodontal health status when accompanied with knowledge about the periodontal disease process can help improve self oral healthcare and prevent ...
Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J
Excess weight and menopause are two major factors increasing aging women's vulnerability to chronic diseases. However, social position and socioeconomic status have also been identified as major determinants influencing both health behaviors and the development of such diseases. This study focuses on the socioeconomic variations of behavioral risk factors of chronic diseases in aging women. By drawing on Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 40 semistructured interviews were conducted to investigate preventive health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women from contrasting socioeconomic classes living in Canada. Findings emphasize class-based differences with respect to long-term health and preventive practices according to three major themes: priority to long-term time horizons, attention given to risk factors of diseases, and control over future health. Health care providers should strive to work in concert with all subgroups of women to better understand their values, worldviews, and needs to decrease health inequalities after menopause.
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer
The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the…
Junge, Anne Gram; Kirkegaard, Pia; Thomsen, Janus Laust
Background: In 2006 an arranged preventive consultation (0106-service) was implemented in Danish general practice. The purpose of the consultation is an attempt to improve the systematic prevention of the main chronic lifestyle diseases. Aim: This study examines the GP's experiences...... with the arranged preventive consultation with focus on facilitators and barriers in the implementation of the consultation. Material & Method: Semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs and nurses in general practice. Results & Conclusions: Economically lucrative services are not an isolated motivation for the GPs....../nurses, but must be accompanied with a basic belief in the effect of preventive consultations in general practice. The better payment of the 0106-service is used to spend more time per consultation and it makes the GPs/nurses feel rewarded for the preventive work they perform. The consultation frames a social...
Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A
Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrzej Marcinkiewicz; Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa
The classification of an acute vascular episode, both heart infarct and stroke, as an accident at work poses difficulties not only for post accidental teams, but also to occupational health professionals, experts and judges at labor and social insurance courts. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old office worker, whose job involved client services. While attending a very aggressive customer she developed solid stress that resulted in symptoms of the central nervous system (headache,...
Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.
Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L
The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.
prof Berno van Meijel; Tamara Berends; A. Elburg
The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the application of the Anorexia Relapse Prevention Guidelines in nursing practice. In a single case report, the implementation of the intervention was described. A purposive use of the Anorexia Relapse Prevention Guidelines provides insight into the
... lifestyle-based chronic disease prevention and management, integrative health care practices, and health... HUMAN SERVICES Re-Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative... Services announces re- establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative...
Mar 1, 2018 ... Female. 383. 63.3. Marital status. Married. 238. 39.3. Single. 367. 60.7. Profession. Nurse/Midwife. 425. 70.2. Health Officer. 65. 10.7. Lab technicians. 58 ... Pediatrics ward. 36. 6.0. OR and Minor-OR. 29. 4.8. Other **. 97. 16.0. Service year in healthcare facility (years). 7. 52.
Over years of research on control of grapevine trunk diseases, field trials identified cultural and chemical practices that prevent and limit infections of pruning wounds by the spores. These practices include delayed pruning, double pruning, and applications of pruning-wound protectants (e.g., thio...
Ramirez, Amelie G; Wildes, Kimberly A; Nápoles-Springer, Anna; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo; Talavera, Greg; Rios, Elena
Findings are inconsistent regarding physician gender differences in general prevention practices and cancer-specific attitudes and practices. We analyzed cross-sectional data from randomly selected physicians (N = 722) to test associations of gender with prevention practices and attitudes. Chi-square analyses (P gender differences for 14% (7/49) of the general and cancer-specific practices and attitudes tested. Multivariate analyses revealed that gender significantly (P gender predicted discussion of physical activity, violence, and use of substances. Male gender predicted belief in effectiveness of prostate-specific antigen screening. Overall, male and female physicians showed more similarities than differences, but physician gender was associated with a number of important general and cancer-specific prevention services. Female physicians were more likely to discuss general health prevention activities than male physicians, especially issues considered sensitive. We discuss implications for research and education.
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences. Journal Home ... Interdental cleaning was highly deficient with only 19% performing this procedure. The dental visiting ... Level of knowledge of common oral diseases such as periodontal disease was unsatisfactory among this group of students. It is recommended that ...
Lehna, Carlee; Todd, Julie A; Keller, Rachel; Presley, Lynn; Jackson, Jessica; Davis, Stephanie; Hockman, Kristi; Phillips-Payne, Charles; Sauer, Sarah; Wessemeier, Sarah
The purpose of this project was to evaluate a standardized, interactive, home fire safety program for elementary school students. Senior baccalaureate nursing students in their pediatric clinical rotation taught burn prevention techniques using Hazard House, a model house filled with common household fire hazards (Hazard House, 2006, Ref. 1). Elementary school students were encouraged to identify the hazards and discuss ways in which the house could be made safer. Local firemen then briefly presented what to do if a fire occurred, how firemen may look during a rescue, and the importance of working smoke alarms in the home. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The three groups of participants included 128 kindergarten students, 311 students in grades 1-2, and 61 students in grades 3-4. The tests and interventions were tailored appropriately for each age group. There was no difference in pre- and post-test scores for the students in kindergarten and grades 3-4 (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference for students in grades 1-2 (pimproving the understanding of fire safety for students in grades 1-2. Future studies may need to include a larger sample of students for the other grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet
Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis.
Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores
This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Palmaro, Aurore; Rougé-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Gauthier, Martin; Despas, Fabien; Moulis, Guillaume; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse
The risk of venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in multiple myeloma is particularly increased. Current guidelines recommend systematic VTE prophylaxis with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or low weight molecular heparin (LWMH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) in high-risk patients, based on treatment received [e.g. use of IMiDs (thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide), alkylating agents or erythropoietin] and individual risk factors (e.g. history of VTE). The aim of this study was to describe strategy of VTE prophylaxis and prescribing of other antithrombotic agents during the first 6 months of multiple myeloma therapy, with stratification on IMiD-based regimens and drug and disease-related risk factors. A retrospective cohort study of French beneficiaries from the health insurance database (SNIIRAM, Système National d'Information Inter-Régime de l'Assurance Maladie) was designed in the Midi-Pyrénées area (South West France). Patients starting a treatment for multiple myeloma in the period 2011-2014 were identified through hospital and chronic disease diagnoses. Among the 236 incident multiple myeloma patients, 56% male (n = 133), 67% >65 years (n = 159) and 47% (n = 110) patients received an IMiD-based regimen. In these patients, 63% (n = 69) were identified as high-risk patients with indication for low molecular weight heparin or equivalent, and 37% (n = 41) were identified as low-risk with aspirin recommended. Among the high-risk IMiDs patients, 43% (30/69) currently received a VTE prophylaxis after starting their first regimen: 70% LWMH (21/30), 40% VKA (12/30), 10% UFH (3/30) and 13% (4/30) other drugs (rivaroxaban and fondaparinux); 33% of the patients (23/69) received an antiplatelet drug only, and 23% (16/69) did not receive any antithrombotic drug. These results revealed lack of implementation of VTE prophylaxis in one out of high-risk multiple myeloma patients with IMiD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...
... health practice for IBS, here are 6 tips: Hypnotherapy (hypnosis). This practice involves the power of suggestion by ... IBS. According to reviews of the scientific literature, hypnotherapy may be a helpful treatment for managing IBS ...
Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Valuck, Robert J
To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge about a framework of quality improvement (QI) interventions to implement evidence-based practices for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Summarize the process of creating and initiating the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention.2. Identify the domains and QI interventions for the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention. Pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention is a priority issue in US hospitals. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel endorses an evidence-based practice (EBP) protocol to help prevent PrUs. Effective implementation of EBPs requires systematic change of existing care units. Quality improvement interventions offer a mechanism of change to existing structures in order to effectively implement EBPs for PrU prevention. The best-practice framework developed by Nelson et al is a useful model of quality improvement interventions that targets process improvement in 4 domains: leadership, staff, information and information technology, and performance and improvement. At 2 academic medical centers, the best-practice framework was shown to physicians, nurses, and health services researchers. Their insight was used to modify the best-practice framework as a reference tool for quality improvement interventions in PrU prevention. The revised framework includes 25 elements across 4 domains. Many of these elements support EBPs for PrU prevention, such as updates in PrU staging and risk assessment. The best-practice framework offers a reference point to initiating a bundle of quality improvement interventions in support of EBPs. Hospitals and clinicians tasked with quality improvement efforts can use this framework to problem-solve PrU prevention and other critical issues.
Mihic, J.; Novak, M.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Domitrovich, C.
While the availability of mental health promotion and prevention programs worldwide is growing, there is divergence in their level of effectiveness that has led to increasing interest in the development of 'effect management' strategies. Mental health promotion and prevention science and practice
Koplan, Jeffrey; Liverman, Catharyn T; Kraak, Vivica I
... for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract No. 200-2000-00629, T.O. #14 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, T.O. #126 with the National Institutes of Health; and by Grant No. 04...
Pâmela Ferreira Todendi
Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.
Ahmad J. Abdulsalam
Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. Results: A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%. The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001 and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001. High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002, DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026 and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015. Conclusion: Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al-Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Kostantinos
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%). The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001) and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001). High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002), DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026) and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015). Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Anna Anatolyevna Glukhova
Full Text Available Objective to determine which of the effective methods of corruption prevention implemented by different countries can be used in the modern Russian conditions. Methods a systemicstructural approach to the analysis of the object of research comparative legal comparativehistorical and logical methods. Results the specifics of the struggle against corruption in Denmark Germany and Australia is analyzed the dependence is demonstrated that exists between the territory of the state its structure size of the population and areas of greatest concentration of corruption crimes the conclusion is made about the dependence of the methods of preventing corruption in a particular state not only on its geographical features population size and density but also on sociopolitical and economic stability customs and traditions the role of religion the measures for the corruption prevention are listed which the authors consider possible to use under the modern Russian conditions. Scientific novelty for the first time the article comprehensively examines the different methods of corruption prevention implemented in different countries and provides practical recommendations on measures for effective corruption prevention in Russia on the basis of national and international experience. Practical significance basing on the study of the theoretical foundations and practical examples the authors made suggestions for improving the existing methods of effective corruption prevention in Russia taking into account national and international experience. nbsp
Raza, N.; Seir, F.; Qadir, S.N.R.
To find out views and practice of dermatologists regarding prevention of preventable skin diseases. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was set up in Apr-May 2010 at PAF Hospital Faisal, Karachi, Pakistan. Material and Methods: A close-ended questionnaire was sent to 100 dermatologists through resource persons at different places throughout the country. It included basic information about them, their views and practice regarding prevention of these diseases. Data was managed and analyzed using SPSS-17. Results: Fifty dermatologists thought that frequency of preventable skin diseases in their clinical practice is 26-50%. Fifty-six observed educated community as the most important link for prevention, 46 held governments responsible and 42 consider busy schedule as barrier to educate community. Thirty dermatologists delivered talk to general public, 11 at schools, colleges and factories, 07 appeared on mass media and 08 prepared leaflets, pamphlets and brochures regarding preventive aspects of skin diseases at least once during last one year. Conclusion: Dermatologists in Pakistan are aware of magnitude of the problem and understand importance of public education; however only a few dermatologists have endeavored to take up this task. (author)
Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro
... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well- being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
South Sudan Medical Journal. Vol 4. No 4. ... (1). NCDs are difficult to prevent and their complications usually require hospital based care. While acknowledging the vital importance of Primary Health Care (PHC) in health promotion and ... ownership. Better health can only be achieved through appropriate financing of an.
Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.
Lamberti, J Steven
Criminal justice system involvement is common among persons with serious mental illness in community treatment settings. Various intervention strategies are used to prevent criminal recidivism among justice-involved individuals, including mental health courts, specialty probation, and conditional release programs. Despite differences in these approaches, most involve the use of legal leverage to promote treatment adherence. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of leverage-based interventions at preventing criminal recidivism is mixed, however, with some studies suggesting that involving criminal justice authorities in mental health treatment can increase recidivism rates. The effectiveness of interventions that utilize legal leverage is likely to depend on several factors, including the ability of mental health and criminal justice staff to work together. Collaboration is widely acknowledged as essential in managing justice-involved individuals, yet fundamental differences in goals, values, and methods exist between mental health and criminal justice professionals. This article presents a six-step conceptual framework for optimal mental health-criminal justice collaboration to prevent criminal recidivism among individuals with serious mental illness who are under criminal justice supervision in the community. Combining best practices from each field, the stepwise process includes engagement, assessment, planning and treatment, monitoring, problem solving, and transition. Rationale and opportunities for collaboration at each step are discussed.
Haveman-Nies, A.; Jansen, M.; Oers, van J.A.M.; Veer, van 't P.
Over the past decades, epidemiology has made a relevant contribution to public health by identifying health problems and analysing their determinants. Recent developments call for new and applied methods to support the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health policies and programmes.
Haveman-Nies, A.; Jansen, S.; Oers, van H.; Veer, van 't P.
Over the past decades, epidemiology has made a relevant contribution to public health by identifying health problems and analysing their determinants. However, recent developments call for new and applied methods to support the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health policies and
Saúde bucal no contexto do Programa Saúde da Família: práticas de prevenção orientadas ao indivíduo e ao coletivo Oral health in the context of the Family Health Program: preventive practices targeting individual and public health
Gilmara Celli Maia de Almeida
Full Text Available As práticas profissionais refletem a estruturação dos serviços de saúde, relacionando-se aos princípios norteadores do modelo de atenção vigente. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se conhecer as práticas preventivas e educativas em saúde bucal realizadas pelos dentistas do Programa Saúde da Família de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Realizou-se entrevista estruturada com 80 dentistas e análise documental no SIA-SUS (Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais do SUS e no Sistema de Informação de Atenção Básica. As atividades individuais de orientação de higiene bucal e de aplicação tópica de flúor, entre todos os entrevistados, corresponderam a 87,5% e 95%, respectivamente. Em âmbito coletivo, todos que atuavam nas escolas (91,2% realizavam aplicação tópica de flúor, enquanto 86,2% desenvolviam ações educativas. Nos registros do SIA-SUS, as atividades preventivas representaram 41% do total de procedimentos. Dentre essas, aplicação tópica de flúor gel por sessão correspondeu a 24,4% e escovação supervisionada, a 31%. Quanto às atividades educativas, 57,4% realizaram-se no estabelecimento de saúde e 42,6%, na comunidade. Diante dos resultados, constatou-se que as práticas preventivas direcionam-se à cárie dentária, com maior atenção aos escolares, sendo necessária ampliação para diferentes problemas bucais, grupos e espaços sociais.Professional practices reflect the structuring of health services and are related to the underlying principles of the prevailing health care model. This study focused on preventive and educational practices by dentists in the Family Health Program in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. A structured interview was held with 80 dentists, in addition to analysis of documents from the Outpatient Database of the Unified National Health System (SIA-SUS and the Primary Care Database. Individual activities involving orientation for oral hygiene and topical application of fluoride
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates
This study is exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among child bearing women aged between 15- 45 years old in Laroo division in Gulu municipality. The goal of the study was to determine the level of attitude as well ...
Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in women in Nigeria. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, perception, and practice of cervical cancer prevention among female public secondary school teachers in Mushin, Lagos. Methods: This was a ...
Davis, Sean; Huebner, Angela; Piercy, Fred; Shettler, Lauren; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Matheson, Jennifer
The present researchers used a multi-wave Delphi methodology to determine what 14 knowledgeable substance abuse professionals believe are the most appropriate smoking prevention practices for female adolescents. While there was some agreement with the emerging literature, particularly on weight control issues and parental involvement, there was…
Mikawa, James K.; And Others
Among 190 Hispanic Americans in Nevada, condom use as an AIDS prevention measure appeared to be a male prerogative associated with "being the one who buys the condoms" (mostly males) and machismo practices such as protection of women. Adherence to Hispanic cultural traits was related to education and acculturation. (SV)
... on the nature of the (crime) problem. On the basis of our analysis, we propose three design principles to be followed if we, South Africans are to establish crime prevention as a central focus of our security governance. These design principles articulate what might be thought of as 'best thinking' rather than 'best practice'.
In this study we explored the level of awareness and practice on HIV prevention among married couples from selected communities in. Malawi. Methods ... The problem with this approach is that it ignores the dynamic nature of sexual behavior, which means that HIV risk reduction is not fully controlled by either partner8.
A total of 360 primigravidae were studied at AKTH. 180 each of similar age and socioeconomic status were used as cases and controls in a prospective study. There was no statistically significant difference in their practice of malarial prevention at booking. The prevalence of malaria in their blood smears at booking was ...
Souza, Marcy J
Zoonoses make up approximately ¾ of today’s emerging infectious diseases; many of these zoonoses come from exotic pets and wildlife. Recent outbreaks in humans associated with nondomestic animals include Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Ebola virus, salmonellosis, and monkeypox. Expanding human populations, increased exotic pet ownership and changes in climate may contribute to increased incidence of zoonoses. Education and preventive medicine practices can be applied by veterinarians and other health professionals to reduce the risk of contracting a zoonotic disease. The health of humans, animals, and the environment must be treated as a whole to prevent the transmission of zoonoses.
Valéria Peixoto Bezerra
Full Text Available Objective: To know the vulnerability of the elderly to the HIV infection in the context of preventive practices. Method: Exploratory qualitative study, lead from December 2012 to May 2013, with 37 nursing Coexistence Groups in João Pessoa - Paraiba. The Focus Group was elected as the research technique, and the empirical material obtained was subjected to a Content Analysis Technique, thematic modality. Results: The elderly recognize the importance of preventive practices, but they face difficulties in its use when their emotional relationships with their partners do not favor preventive behavior, resulting in vulnerability. The elderly showed the population groups most vulnerable to HIV and do not recognize themselves as such. Conclusion: The complexity of the various contexts experienced by the elderlies of this study indicate the need for more research that allows advances in the understanding of subjectivity imposed in relations that underlie the aging process and the experience of sexuality in this age group.
Yuen, Hon K
Adherence to annual preventive care (foot, eye, and dental examinations) in this group of study participants with diabetes (n=253) was suboptimal. Participants were 2.6-5.8 times more likely to have a specific preventive care in the past 12 months if they were told to do so by a health care professional. Copyright © 2011 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Healthy lifestyle and clinical preventive activities have been shown to improve health status of individuals. However routine health promotion and preventive services is limited in medical practice due to time and cost constraint. This study examines how physicians themselves try to promote their own health. Ninety doctors ...
Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami
This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...
Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip
Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features
Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Background Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. Results A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51–100 (of a possible score of 0–100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0–18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44–0.92 vs. score 19–36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1–5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21–3.53, vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24–0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22–0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1–5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33–0.89 vs. score of 6–10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Conclusion Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli
Josephine Rebecca Chandren
Full Text Available Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013.A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4% had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 0-100. Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0-18 were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44-0.92 vs. score 19-36, P = 0.015 to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1-5 were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.53, vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.008 to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24-0.99, P = 0.045 or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22-0.75, P = 0.004 had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1-5 were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33-0.89 vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.018 to practice dengue prevention measures.Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli. More outreach on mosquito control campaigns should be
Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Dengue is prevalent among Malaysia's indigenous peoples, known as the Orang Asli, and it poses a serious health threat to them. The study aims to look at the socio-demographic factors, health beliefs, and knowledge about dengue and its association to dengue prevention practices among Orang Asli communities in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 randomly selected Orang Asli villages from eight states in Peninsular Malaysia from April 2012 until February 2013. A total of 560 Orang Asli were interviewed and 505 completed the survey. Slightly above half of the participants (n = 280, 55.4%) had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 0-100). Multivariate analysis findings showed dengue knowledge, perceived barriers to perform dengue prevention, fogging frequency, and perceived susceptibility to dengue fever as significant factors associated to dengue prevention practices. Participants with a lower dengue knowledge score (score 0-18) were less likely (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.44-0.92 vs. score 19-36, P = 0.015) to practice dengue prevention. Participants with low perceived barriers to prevent dengue (score of 1-5) were more likely (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.53, vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.008) to practice dengue prevention. Villages that were not fogged (OR = 0.49, 95%CI = 0.24-0.99, P = 0.045) or rarely fogged (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.22-0.75, P = 0.004) had lower dengue prevention practices than villages that were fogged often. Participants with low perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue (score of 1-5) were less likely (OR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.33-0.89 vs. score of 6-10, P = 0.018) to practice dengue prevention measures. Findings imply that educational and health programmes should focus on enhancing dengue knowledge and perceived susceptibility of acquiring dengue and reducing perceived barriers to performing dengue prevention practices among the Orang Asli. More outreach on mosquito control campaigns should be carried
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Rijckevorsel, J.L.A. van; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
Contributions to this volume discuss the application of statistics in public health and prevention, dealing with subjects in the field of working conditions and occupational health, sexually transmissible disease, dental health, public health tables, the geographical distribution of diseases,
Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Sprenger, Martin; Rohrauer-Näf, Gerlinde; Ropin, Klaus; Martinel, Evelyn; Dorner, Thomas
Promoting mental health is a central public health issue since the Jakarta statement in 1997. In Austria, the nationwide organisation for health promotion is the 'Fonds Gesundes Österreich' (FGÖ), which has been established in 1998. The FGÖ funds and supports workplace health promotion projects; therefore, it co-operates with the Austrian Network on Workplace Health Promotion. In 2011, among others, two Austrian companies were honoured as best practice models for promoting mental health in the project 'Work. In tune with life. Move Europe'. One of their central key success factors are the provision of equal opportunities, engagement, their focus on overall health as well as the implementation of behavioural and environmental preventive measures. Since mental health problems in the population are still rising, public health promotion projects which orientate on the best practice models have to be established in Austria.
Sharon S. Laing
Full Text Available We assessed knowledge, attitude, and provision of recommended fall prevention (FP practices by employees of senior-serving organization and participation in FP practices by at-risk elders. The Washington State Department of Health administered structured telephone surveys to 50 employees and 101 elders in Washington State. Only 38% of employees felt “very knowledgeable” about FP, and a majority of their organizations did not regularly offer FP services. Almost half (48% of seniors sustained a fall within the past 12 months; however, one-third perceived falling to be among their least important health concerns, and most had minimal working knowledge of proven FP practices. Seniors who perceived avoiding falls as important to their well-being were more likely to participate in practices about which they had the least knowledge (risk assessment, medication management. Increased awareness and availability of FP services might help engage older adults in FP practices and reduce the adverse effects of falls.
Laing, Sharon S.; Silver, Ilene F.; York, Sally; Phelan, Elizabeth A.
We assessed knowledge, attitude, and provision of recommended fall prevention (FP) practices by employees of senior-serving organization and participation in FP practices by at-risk elders. The Washington State Department of Health administered structured telephone surveys to 50 employees and 101 elders in Washington State. Only 38% of employees felt “very knowledgeable” about FP, and a majority of their organizations did not regularly offer FP services. Almost half (48%) of seniors sustained a fall within the past 12 months; however, one-third perceived falling to be among their least important health concerns, and most had minimal working knowledge of proven FP practices. Seniors who perceived avoiding falls as important to their well-being were more likely to participate in practices about which they had the least knowledge (risk assessment, medication management). Increased awareness and availability of FP services might help engage older adults in FP practices and reduce the adverse effects of falls. PMID:21915377
Brazier, A S A; Balneaves, L G; Seely, D; Stephen, J E; Suryaprakash, N; Taylor-Brown, J W
Cancer patients are increasingly known to use complementary medicine (CAM) during conventional treatment, but data are limited on how Canadian oncology health professionals attempt to assist patients with their use of cam in the context of conventional cancer care. As part of a larger qualitative study assessing the perceptions of Canadian oncology health professionals regarding integrated breast cancer care, we undertook an exploration of current integrative practices of oncology health professionals. Using an interpretive description research design and a purposive sampling, we conducted a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with various oncology health professionals recruited from provincial cancer agencies, hospitals, integrative clinics, and private practice settings in four Canadian cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Halifax. A total of 16 oncology health professionals participated, including medical and radiation oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists. Findings highlighted two main strategies used by oncology health professionals to create a more integrative approach for cancer patients: acting as an integrative care guide, and collaborating with other health professionals. Although few clear standards of practice or guidance material were in place within their organizational settings, health professionals discussed some integrative roles that they had adopted, depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, in supporting patients with cam decisions. Given that cancer patients report that they want to be able to confer with their conventional health professionals, particularly their oncologists, about their cam use, health professionals who elect to adopt integrative practices are likely offering patients much-welcomed support.
Downie, Fiona; Perrin, Anne-Marie; Kiernan, Martin
The implementation of a care bundle approach to delivering fundamental care in practice is now a recognised and effective way of translating research into practice, offering consistent care with resulting positive outcomes for the patient. A care bundle consists ofa relatively small number of interventions for every patient to whom the bundle is applied. However, there must be evidence behind each individual intervention to indicate, if delivered, how it will reduce the risk to the patient. This paper reports on a strategy for developing and implementing a pressure ulcer (PU) combined prevention care bundle/ care plan into practice. The effectiveness of the care bundle can be measured when it is in use in the practice setting with an audit tool.
There was no statistical significance between tribes in relation to phobia from using ITNs (x2= 1.921, d= 4, p = 0.750). Since malaria does not appear to be decreasing in spite of preventive measure being used, the disease still remains a serious health challenge in Makurdi. Stakeholders must be persuaded to embrace and ...
Conclusion: Mothers of children under five in Kuje had poor knowledge of the cause of malaria and its prevention method, and were not using the recommended drug by the Federal Government of Nigeria (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However adequate health education to women especially in the ...
Scriven, Angela; Hodgins, Margaret
...: www.sagepublications.comHealth Promotion Settings Principles and Practice Edited by Angela Scriven and Margaret HodginsEditorial arrangement, Introduction to Part II © Angela Scriven and Margaret...
Schwarz, Peter E H
Many countries are struggling to meet the health care needs of a rapidly growing number of individuals with common chronic illnesses, especially diabetes mellitus. Incorporating the evidence from prevention trials into clinical practice represents one of the major challenges for public health, and the medical community is still learning how this can best be achieved at a population level. A 4-level public health initiative has been initiated that provides guidance for establishing milestones and strategies for such a program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slatt, L M; Frasier, P Y; Strayhorn, G; Kowlowitz, V
Before implementing a new prevention curriculum, the authors assessed the prevention practices and attitudes of community family physicians in North Carolina who precepted third-year family medicine clerkship students. An 18-item questionnaire was mailed to 165 preceptors during the 1995-96 academic year. The questionnaire explored the preceptors' levels of preparation to counsel patients, the types of prevention services they offered, and their levels of success in modifying patients' behaviors. The survey was re-sent to non-respondents. The response rate was 70% (n = 112); of these 75% were men and 55% had graduated after 1987. Over 60% of the preceptors "almost always" offered services in smoking cessation, exercise, diet and nutrition, and age-specific services (range 62-86%). Over 50% felt "very prepared" to counsel patients regarding smoking cessation, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, exercise, alcohol use, and age-specific services (range 53-74%). However, the preceptors in this study felt pessimistic about their success in getting patients to change their behaviors. Preceptors who had graduated more recently offered more preventive services for smoking cessation, alcohol use, and illicit drugs than did earlier graduates. Although North Carolina preceptors were pessimistic about their success in changing patients' behaviors regarding prevention, they were confident about their knowledge and skills to provide these services. This information was used to modify a prevention curriculum for third-year medical students.
Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Method: Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Results: Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Final considerations: Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care.
Th essence of management is obtaining results through the efforts of other people. The efforts obtained, or performance, are enhanced by those who practice management with certain understandings of the work, role and behavior of management, who have the will to manage, and who have requisite skill and aptitude. Discussion of managerial work, role, and behavior comprises the major part of the following paper. The paper concludes with the suggestion that ineffective management is not the result of lack of knowledge about managing, rather ineffective management is more often the result of a lack of will to manage
In Brazil, alternative religious approaches are being used to spread the message of AIDs prevention. The concepts and practices of traditional Afro--Brazilian religion are being used in a newly released booklet for religious leaders of Candomble, a traditional spirit cult that traces its origins to the Yoruba of western Africa. There is a fusion of this spirit cult with Catholicism. The practice of all night dancing ceremonies where initiates appeal to orixas for guidance is coupled with private daily obligations. Orixas offer to cure the spirit and the body and are often used after Western medicine has failed to provide a cure. Candomble and Umbanda are the most widely observed religions in Brazil. There is a saying that everyone in Brazil is Catholic, but believers in Afro-Brazilian religion. Catholic parishes account for 19,000 places of worship throughout the country, but in 3 of the largest states, excluding the most "African" state Bahia, there are 55,000 Afro--Brazilian religious centers. 30,000 are in Rio de Janeiro, 16,00 in Sao Paulo, and 11,700 in Rio Grande do Sul. Although these religious centers are part of Brazilian identity and culture, government officials and the Catholic Church have repressed or looked unfavorably upon them. The group, Religious Support Against AIDS (ARCA), sponsored by the Institute for Religious Studies, provides education and consciousness raising through religious and social activities. ARCA hosted a meeting with Candomble religious leaders in May 1989 to explore options for dealing with AIDs, since their contact was with the poorer segments of the population and they possessed knowledge of traditional cures and medicinal plants. The meeting was successful, and ARCA was asked to provide educational materials. The problem was that ceremonial, rites were private and an AIDs stigma might emerge among the priests and priestesses, who were thought to be mainly homosexuals. With the expertise of anthropologist and a historian
Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; de Carvalho Dekon, Stefan Fiuza; Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina
The objective of the study was to report the prevention of facial reinjury of a volleyball player using a custom-made protective facial shield. A custom-made protective partial facial shield was fabricated using polymethylmethacrylate and was fitted with a soft lining material to provide additional comfort and protection to the injured area. Facial protection provides greater security against possible facial injuries and allows injured areas to recover during sports practice.
Full Text Available Interoception can be broadly defined as the sense of signals originating within the body. As such, interoception is critical for our sense of embodiment, motivation and well-being. And yet, despite its importance, interoception remains poorly understood within modern science. This paper reviews interdisciplinary perspectives on interoception, with the goal of presenting a unified perspective from diverse fields such as neuroscience, clinical practice, and contemplative studies. It is hoped that this integrative effort will advance our understanding of how interoception determines well-being, and identify the central challenges to such understanding. To this end, we introduce an expanded taxonomy of interoceptive processes, arguing that many of these processes can be understood through an emerging predictive coding model for mind-body integration. The model, which describes the tension between expected and felt body sensation, parallels contemplative theories, and implicates interoception in a variety of affective and psychosomatic disorders. We conclude that maladaptive construal of bodily sensations may lie at the heart of many contemporary maladies, and that contemplative practices may attenuate these interpretative biases, restoring a person’s sense of presence and agency in the world.
Ierodiakonou, C S
Preventive mental health measures can be properly planned only if the various factors leading to the adolescent's personality structure are extensively investigated. Starting with the specific attitudes of a couple towards genetic counselling, the disadvantages of urbanization and of the dissolution of the traditional extended family are discussed with regard to their effect on the younger members. Data are produced concerning the child-rearing practices of Greek in comparison to American parents and their effect on the adolescent's emotional life. Extreme dependence on the family, pressure for school achievements, lack of sexual education, etc. are characteristic of the stresses a Greek adolescent undergoes. Socio-cultural conditions, like immigration, adoption, etc. are shown to have a different psychological effect on an adolescent in Greece than in America. Specific stresses regarding the adolescent's future, like preparing for university entrance examinations, are discussed and preventive measures are proposed.
... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...
Zerwekh, J V
The author uses an anecdotal style to convey the practical knowledge shown by public health nurses since the days of Lillian Wald on New York City's Henry Street in the 1890s. Public health nurses have had to work with high-risk families--a fact that often requires a common-sense approach.
Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.G.W.
Last year, at the request of the Directorate-General of Labour of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out an investigative, qualitative survey of the legislation, policy and practices concerning prevention of stress at work in
These approaches have been variously guided by best field practice and theoretical frameworks developed to understand health-related behaviours and behaviour change. This article reviews the dominant theoretical approaches used to develop behaviour change interventions and strategies and presents the theoretical ...
Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Yeskey, Kevin; Miller, Aubrey; Arnesen, Stacey; Goolsby, Craig
We review aspects of the recently released National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report A National Trauma Care System: Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths After Injury most relevant to disaster health, particularly the concepts of focused empiricism and building a learning health system. The article references battlefield success utilizing these concepts and the emerging Disaster Research Response Program. We call upon disaster health researchers to apply the report's recommendations to their work. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:510-511).
Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J
Diagnosis and prevention are among the most frequently provided services in Australian private general dental practice, and have increased over recent times. The aims of this study were to examine the provision of examinations, radiographs, prophylaxis and topical fluoride, and to assess whether these services varied by patient, visit and oral health characteristics. Data were collected by a mailed survey of a random sample of dentists from each State/Territory in Australia in 1998-99 with a response rate of 71%. Data were collected from a log of service items provided on a typical day. Multivariate analyses of services showed that emergency visits were associated with higher rates [RR = Rate ratio, 95%CI] of radiographs (RR = 1.32, 1.06-1.66) but lower rates of prophylaxis (RR = 0.37, 0.29-0.48) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.20, 0.08-0.47) compared to non-emergency visits. Capital city patients had a higher rate of topical fluoride (RR = 2.06, 1.17-3.64) services than non-capital city patients. Patients with decayed teeth had a lower rate of prophylaxis services (RR = 0.82, 0.68-0.99) than patients with no decay. Compared to the reference of caries, patients with aesthetic problems had lower rates of radiographs (RR = 0. 19, 0.08-0.47) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.24, 0.08-0.71), those with cuspal fracture/failed restoration also had lower rates of radiographs (RR = 0.54, 0.37-0.80) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.52, 0.28-0.95), those with denture problems had lower rates of examinations (RR = 0.53, 0.32-0.87), radiographs (RR = 0.05, 0.01-0.28), prophylaxis (RR = 0.13, 0.04-0.37) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.04, 0.01-0.32), those with periodontal disease had higher rates of examinations (RR = 1.45, 1.13-1.85) and prophylaxis (RR = 2.39, 1.79-3.19), those with pulpal/periapical infection had lower rates of examination (RR = 0.55, 0.42-0.74) and prophylaxis (RR = 0.36, 0.19-0.66), but higher rates of radiographs (RR = 1.92, 1.48-2.50), those with recall
Saied, Khaled G; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Altaire, Abdulrahman; Alqadsi, Ala; Alariqi, Enas F; Hassaan, Maha
In recent years there have been several reports of outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) in Yemen. This study aimed to describe the prevailing knowledge, attitude and preventive practices regarding DF, and to investigate the factors associated with poor preventive practices in rural areas of Yemen. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 804 randomly selected heads of household. A pretested, structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors independently associated with poor practice. Out of 804 participants, 753 (93.7%) were aware of the symptoms of DF and 671 (83.4%) knew that DF was transmitted by mosquito bites. Only 420 (52.2%) knew that direct person-to-person transmission was not possible. Furthermore, 205 (25.5%) thought that someone with DF should be avoided and 460 (57.2%) thought the elimination of breeding sites was the responsibility of health authorities. Poor knowledge of DF and a low level of education were significantly associated with poor preventive practices. In rural areas of Yemen, people have a vague understanding of DF transmission and a negative attitude towards preventative practices. Efforts should be made to correct misconceptions about transmission of the disease and to highlight the importance of community participation in control activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Marjaneh M. Fooladi
Full Text Available With access to multimedia through social networks at global level, one wonders why some of the preventive healthcare services such as children and adult immunizations, annual screening for men and women, prenatal and dental care for childbearing women and adolescents are not provided at a 100% rate. Community awareness is a crucial aspect of preventative healthcare and perhaps those responsible for implementing the national health initiatives seek to realize other key factors influencing community health. In a study of 190 community health nurses caring for blacks, Puerto Ricans and Southeast Asians, the confidence scores for cultural self-efficacy was high when nurses cared for blacks and they were low when they cared for Asians and Latinos. The lowest scores belonged to items related to knowledge of health beliefs and practices regarding respect, authority and modesty within each culture. Scores were higher when interpreters were used correctly to convey meaningful messages. Researchers concluded that nurses lacked confidence when caring for culturally diverse patients and found weaknesses across the nursing curriculum preparing nurses to care for various demographic groups.1 In most countries, including Iran, governmental agencies have the budget and the man- power to apply preplanned initiatives and provide community-based preventive healthcare services to address the majority of the preventable health related issues through satellite clinics, health department and outpatient facilities. Meanwhile, private sectors in metropolitan cities offer cure-based services to urban and suburban communities. Remote and rural areas should be the focus of primary care and preventive health services, because access to multimedia is limited, healthcare providers refuse to work in outreach areas, and unpaved roads are barriers to easy access to the locals and outsiders. To implement an effective community-based preventive program, recognition of resiliency
The current article reviews selected complementary health approaches for the treatment of depressive symptoms. Complementary and integrative health (CIH) focuses on the whole person with the goal of optimal health-body, mind, and spirit. Patient use of integrative health practices and products is increasing; therefore, providers must understand these practices and products and be able to recommend or advise for or against their use based on research and guidelines. Difficulty with the current limitations of research on CIH practices is discussed, as these studies often may not have the same rigor or scientific weight as conventional treatment research. Although some individuals may use certain treatment options alone, such as massage therapy, meditation, and supplements to diet, the article discusses ways to combine CIH with allopathic care. Nurse practitioners should be open to considering complementary practices for health care and knowledgeable to guide patients in making safe health decisions. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(12), 22-33.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo
of social actors in environmental management and housing, supported by the Public Health Technology Development Project of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was employed as a tool of environmental education and healthy housing. The purpose of this study was to construct an integrated and participatory model of environment management. The methodology included training, research and evaluation of participants, from 21 to 50 years of age, who participated in building Thematic Learning Books and Community Guides about water quality monitoring. Participants'evaluations emphasized the training process, encouraging them to become multiplier agents of environmental education in their communities and to continue learning how to bring together sectors for problems solving. The Potentially Healthy Districts' Network (RMPS) aimed at increasing knowledge and building capacity to develop actions which originate from each of the local units, based on their characteristics and practices. Developed by the Preventive and Social Department of Campinas State University with PAHO/WHO and the Society Special Research Institute (IPES), RMPS's mission was to cooperate in the construction of healthy public policies in a participatory and articulated way through different municipal representatives. The network offered tools to municipal administrations to develop integrated projects that brought together government, managers, technicians, academy and organizations for the construction of public policies aimed at health promotion and quality of life. The methodology is based in the construction of knowledge and action networks by social actors, stimulating trans-sectorial and inter-district actions. The outcome evaluation is based on case studies, focus groups, oral stories, documents and image analyses.
Mental and physical health of operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is directly related to normal and safe operation of NPPs. The cognitive process, volitional character, attention, emotion, feeling and personality are important factors that affect operators' safe behavior. Alcohol, medical drugs and operators' biological rhythm are can also make great effects on their psychological health. By means of job-fitness psychological test, better candidates for operators could be primarily selected from point of psychological view. Psychological follow-up of post skill training, simulator training and practical work of operators can make NPPs prevent from operational accidents due to human errors to the greatest extent. It is helpful for NPPs to find and solve some psychological problems by means of psychological counseling, regulation or psychotherapy. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories of behavior change indicate that an analysis of barriers to change is helpful when trying to influence professional practice. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to practice change by eliciting nurses' opinions with regard to barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation of a Fall Prevention clinical practice guideline in five acute care hospitals in Singapore. Methods Nurses were surveyed to identify their perceptions regarding barriers to implementation of clinical practice guidelines in their practice setting. The validated questionnaire, 'Barriers and facilitators assessment instrument', was administered to nurses (n = 1830 working in the medical, surgical, geriatric units, at five acute care hospitals in Singapore. Results An 80.2% response rate was achieved. The greatest barriers to implementation of clinical practice guidelines reported included: knowledge and motivation, availability of support staff, access to facilities, health status of patients, and, education of staff and patients. Conclusion Numerous barriers to the use of the Fall Prevention Clinical Practice Guideline have been identified. This study has laid the foundation for further research into implementation of clinical practice guidelines in Singapore by identifying barriers to change in acute care settings.
Clark, Melinda; Quinonez, Rocio; Bowser, Jonathan; Silk, Hugh
Oral diseases are very prevalent across the lifespan and impact overall health, yet are largely preventable. The Smiles for Life (SFL) curriculum was created to educate healthcare providers about oral disease and support integration of oral health and primary care. This study examines SFL's influence on clinical practice and education. Surveys were sent to registered users of SFL. Users who self-identified as direct care providers (DCPs), or educators, were included in the analysis. Survey response rate was 18 percent, with 87 percent identifying as DCPs and 13 percent as educators. Across professions, 85 percent of DCPs reported SFL influencing their practice to some degree, with variance among profession type and experience. DCPs most commonly reported that SFL led them to improve how they conduct oral health activities, with 60 percent performing the activity more skillfully following completion of SFL. Fluoride varnish application was the most common practice behavior initiated, and caries risk assessments was the oral health activity affected to the greatest degree. A majority of educators (94 percent) reported that SFL led them to incorporate or enhance oral health in their teaching. SFL helped educators emphasize the importance of oral health, improved their ability to teach content, raised motivation, and reduced barriers to teaching oral health. Data supports that SFL is positively influencing oral health practice across professions, especially in areas of caries risk assessment and fluoride varnish application. SFL improves the frequency and quality with which DCPs and educators participate in oral health activities, and facilitates oral health inclusion in primary care. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
... 13544 of June 10, 2010 Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council... of Health and Human Services, the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council..., the public health system, and integrative health care in the United States; (b) develop, after...
Welch, Laura S; Russell, Dustin; Weinstock, Deborah; Betit, Eileen
Construction continues to be a dangerous industry, yet solutions that would prevent injury and illness do exist. Prevention of injury and illness among construction workers requires dissemination, adoption, and implementation of these effective interventions, or "research to practice" (r2p). CPWR recruited participants with experience and insight into effective methods for diffusion of health and safety technologies in this industry for a symposium with 3 group sessions and 3 breakout groups. The organizers reviewed session notes and identified 141 recommendations, which were then assigned to 13 over-arching themes. Recommendations included a guide for researchers on patenting and licensing, a business case model, and in-depth case studies including development, testing, manufacturing, marketing, and diffusion. A more comprehensive understanding of the health and safety technology transfer landscape, the various actors, and their motivators and goals will help to foster the successful commercialization and diffusion of health and safety innovations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and Clinical Support Centers Program Announcement Type...' oral health by directly addressing the perceived needs of dental personnel and Area or regional dental... clinic-based and community-based oral health promotion/disease prevention (HP/DP) initiatives. Centers...
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Full Text Available Context: Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year and its impact on human life and public health can only be tackled and reversed only by sound prevention strategies. Aim: This paper aims to provide the reader about different types of prevention strategies that are effective and practiced in various countries with special emphasis on evidence for success. It also highlights the importance of to the evidence based medicine& strategies. It describes about the importance of combination prevention, which encompasses complementary behavioral, biomedical and structural prevention strategies. Methods & Materials: Searches for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted using the search engines to gather the information from databases of medicine, health sciences and social sciences. Information for each strategy is organized & presented systematically with detailed discussion. Results: For a successful reduction in HIV transmission, there is a great need for combined effects of radical & sustainable behavioral changes among individuals who are potentially at risk. Second, combination prevention is essential for HIV prevention is neither simple nor simplistic. Reductions in HIV transmission need widespread and sustained efforts. A mix of communication channels are essential to disseminate messages to motivate people to engage in various methods of risk reduction. Conclusions: The effect of behavioral strategies could be increased by aiming for many goals that are achieved by use of multilevel approaches with populations both uninfected and infected with HIV. Combination prevention programs operate on different levels to address the specific, but diverse needs of the populations at risk of HIV infection.
Full Text Available Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01, sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01, participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01, and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01. As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Kruschke, Cheryl; Butcher, Howard K
Falls are a major cause of injury and death annually for millions of individuals 65 and older. Older adults are at risk for falls for a variety of reasons regardless of where they live. Falls are defined as any sudden drop from one surface to a lower surface. The purpose of this fall prevention evidence-based practice guideline is to describe strategies that can identify individuals at risk for falls. A 10-step protocol including screening for falls, comprehensive fall assessment, gait and balance screening when necessary, and an individualized fall intervention program addressing specific fall risks is presented. Reassessing fall risk and fall prevention programs will ensure a proactive approach to reducing falls in the aging population. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(11), 15-21.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Trujillo, Angelia C; Delapp, Tina D; Hendrix, Thomas J
Interpersonal violence (IPV) is a pervasive issue across the United States, affecting one in five women and costing the nation up to $750 billion per year in additional healthcare spending. Prevention of IPV by forensic nurses may be an underrecognized and underutilized activity as forensic nursing emphasizes collection of evidence and provision of acute care to victims of violence. The "Upstream Adage" parable has been used to identify activities that can be applied to the care of victims. Forensic nurses can expand their practice activities into an "upstream" focus by targeting communities and individuals at different levels of risk and participating in key interventions before violence occurs. The role for forensic nurses to inform, participate, and implement primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities can have positive influences on the problem of IPV that extends well beyond the provision of direct care.
MELGUIZO HERRERA, ESTELA; ALZATE POSADA, MARTHA LUCÍA
The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that ...
Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of ministry of health primary health care physicians in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross sectional study in the Al Hasa District of Saudi Arabia, 2010. AT Khan, NA Lateef, MAB Khamseen, MAA Alithan, SA Khan, IA Ibrahim ...
Fairbrother, Hannah; Curtis, Penny; Goyder, Elizabeth
Children's health and wellbeing is high on the research and policy agenda of many nations. There is a wealth of epidemiological research linking childhood circumstances and health practices with adult health. However, echoing a broader picture within child health research where children have typically been viewed as objects rather than subjects of enquiry, we know very little of how, in their everyday lives, children make sense of health-relevant information. This paper reports key findings from a qualitative study exploring how children understand food in everyday life and their ideas about the relationship between food and health. 53 children aged 9-10, attending two socio-economically contrasting schools in Northern England, participated during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in schools through interviews and debates in small friendship groups and in the home through individual interviews. Data were analysed thematically using cross-sectional, categorical indexing. Moving beyond a focus on what children know the paper mobilises the concept of health literacy (Nutbeam, 2000), explored very little in relation to children, to conceptualise how children actively construct meaning from health information through their own embodied experiences. It draws on insights from the Social Studies of Childhood (James and Prout, 2015), which emphasise children's active participation in their everyday lives as well as New Literacy Studies (Pahl and Rowsell, 2012), which focus on literacy as a social practice. Recognising children as active health literacy practitioners has important implications for policy and practice geared towards improving child health.
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common...
Wissow, Lawrence S
While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.
Harris, Mark F; Harris, Elizabeth
In Australia, partnership working between public health and primary healthcare for the prevention and management of chronic disease has been developing incrementally since the 2003 consensus statement developed by the Joint Advisory Group of the General Practice Partnership Advisory Council and the National Public Health Partnership Group.
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito
According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.
Gilkes, Lucy A; Liira, Helena; Emery, Jon
Medical students benefit from their contact with clinicians and patients in the clinical setting. However, little is known about whether patients and clinicians also benefit from medical students. We developed an audit and feedback intervention activity to be delivered by medical students to their general practice supervisors. We tested whether the repeated cycle of audit had an effect on the preventive care practices of general practitioners (GPs). The students performed an audit on topics of preventive medicine and gave feedback to their supervisors. Each supervisor in the study had more than one student performing the audit over the academic year. After repetitive cycles of audit and feedback, the recording of social history items by GPs improved. For example, recording alcohol history increased from 24% to 36%. This study shows that medical students can be effective auditors, and their repeated audits may improve their general practice supervisors' recording of some aspects of social history.
Green, Carla A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Perrin, Nancy A; Anderson, Bradley M; Weisner, Constance M
Chronic diseases and injuries are elevated among people with substance use problems/dependence, yet heavier drinkers use fewer routine and preventive health services than non-drinkers and moderate drinkers, while former drinkers and abstainers use more than moderate drinkers. Researchers hypothesize that drinking clusters with attitudes and practices that produce better health among moderate drinkers and that heavy drinkers avoid doctors until becoming ill, subsequently quitting and using more services. Gender differences in alcohol consumption, health-related attitudes, practices, and prevention-services use may affect these relationships. A stratified random sample of health-plan members (7884; 2995 males, 4889 females) completed a mail survey that was linked to 24 months of health-plan records. Data were used to examine relationships between alcohol use, gender, health-related attitudes/practices, health, and prevention-service use. Controlling for attitudes, practices, and health, female lifelong abstainers and former drinkers were less likely to have mammograms; individuals with alcohol use disorders and positive AUDIT scores were less likely to obtain influenza vaccinations. AUDIT-positive women were less likely to undergo colorectal screening than AUDIT-positive men. Consistent predictors of prevention-services use were: self-report of having a primary care provider (positive); disliking visiting the doctor (negative); smoking cigarettes (negative), and higher BMI (negative). When factors associated with drinking are controlled, patterns of alcohol consumption have limited effects on preventive service use. Individuals with stigmatized behaviors (e.g., hazardous/harmful drinking, smoking, or high BMIs) are less likely to receive care. Making care experiences positive and carefully addressing stigmatized health practices could increase preventive service use.
A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators
Raveesh, Bevinahalli N.; Nayak, Ragavendra B.; Kumbar, Shivakumar F.
The medical profession is considered to be one of the noblest professions in the world. The practice of medicine is capable of rendering noble service to humanity provided due care, sincerity, efficiency, and professional skill is observed by the doctors. However, today, the patient–doctor relationship has almost diminished its fiduciary character and has become more formal and structured. Doctors are no longer regarded as infallible and beyond questioning. Corporatization of health care has ...
Søndergaard, Anne; Christensen, Bo; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
.The purpose of our study is to describe GPs' attitudes towards and concerns about providing preventive health checks and to describe their experiences with the health checks that they provide in daily practice. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted based on three semi-structured focus group...... interviews with 16 GPs from Central Region, Denmark. The focus group interviews took place at the Department of Public Health, Section for General Practice, Aarhus University in November 2010. RESULTS: We found that the participating GPs all conducted some kind of preventive health checks, but also...... concerned whether the health checks would benefit the "right" patients. The GPs felt a need for further documentation of the benefits for the patients before a possible future implementation of systematic health checks. Some GPs found that health checks could be performed in other settings than general...
Methods: A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair ...
This study aimed at documenting the perception and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst health workers in Lagos State. It also tried to identify the reasons for underreporting and steps that could be adapted to increase reporting rates in Nigeria. The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. Multistage ...
Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2017; 17(4): 12904-12915. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand. ANIMAL HEALTH MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZERO GRAZING ... food animals results in antibiotic residues in both tissues and products of animals  and, ..... Quattrocchi U CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants:.
Stevens, Judy A; Phelan, Elizabeth A
Falls among people aged ≥65 years are the leading cause of both injury deaths and emergency department visits for trauma. Research shows that many falls are preventable. In the clinical setting, an effective fall intervention involves assessing and addressing an individual's fall risk factors. This individualized approach is recommended in the American and British Geriatrics Societies' (AGS/BGS) practice guideline. This article describes the development of STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries), a fall prevention tool kit that contains an array of health care provider resources for assessing and addressing fall risk in clinical settings. As researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Injury Center, we reviewed relevant literature and conducted in-depth interviews with health care providers to determine current knowledge and practices related to older adult fall prevention. We developed draft resources based on the AGS/BGS guideline, incorporated provider input, and addressed identified knowledge and practice gaps. Draft resources were reviewed by six focus groups of health care providers and revised. The completed STEADI tool kit, Preventing Falls in Older Patients-A Provider Tool Kit, is designed to help health care providers incorporate fall risk assessment and individualized fall interventions into routine clinical practice and to link clinical care with community-based fall prevention programs.
Russell, Stephen T; Lee, Faye C H
In the United States, the pregnancy rate and birthrate of Hispanic teenagers are higher than those of other races and ethnicities. Although recommendations for culturally appropriate pregnancy prevention programs are commonplace, little is known about how practitioners address such recommendations. In individual interviews, 58 teenage pregnancy prevention practitioners who work primarily with Mexican American female teenagers from two regions in California were asked about their understanding of recommendations for best practices and discussed the strategies they have used and challenges they have faced in implementing the recommendations. Qualitative methods were used to categorize responses and identify themes. Practitioners indicated that knowledge and awareness of Hispanic culture are essential, as is commitment to teenagers and their needs. They regard activities that encourage educational and career achievement as critical program components, and view both male partners' and family members' involvement in programs as important but challenging. Furthermore, practitioners feel that the implicit program goals of continued education and female self-sufficiency are often at odds with traditional Hispanic cultural values. Practitioners have valuable insight into the reality of implementing culturally sensitive programs. Programs need to balance the often competing values and goals of prevention programs with those of Hispanic youth culture and experiences.
Warner, Julia; Ann Raible, Mary; Hajduk, Gina; Collavo, Jacqueline
The State of Pennsylvania Hospital Engagement Network, in collaboration with a hospital system in Southwestern Pennsylvania, established a goal of reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by 20%. A 6-month unfavorable trend of nurse-sensitive clinical indicators called for immediate process improvement. A retrospective chart review resulted in identification of predominant risk factors placing the burn patient at high risk for pressure ulcer formation. Implementations of pressure ulcer prevention measures were inconsistent. Nurses demonstrated varied levels of knowledge about products used for prevention. It became imperative to examine processes within the unit and provide nursing with education, access to skin care supplies, and advanced skin/wound care products for maintaining skin integrity. Creation of evidence-based guidelines was necessary to improve patient outcomes. A collaborative team approach influenced nursing and physician awareness of pressure ulcer risk. Evidence-based prevention guidelines were developed, and consistency in early intervention was achieved, supporting our culture of safety. A change in interprofessional collaborative practice and positive trend in pressure ulcer incidence data supports the success of our program.
Goh Kai Chen
Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.
Shahin, Eman S M; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud J G
Pressure ulcers are a potential problem in intensive care patients, and their prevention is a major issue in nursing care. This study aims to assess the allocation of preventive measures for patients at risk for pressure ulcers in intensive care and the evidence of applied pressure ulcer preventive measures in intensive care settings in respect to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) and Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention. The design of this study was a cross-sectional study (point prevalence). Setting The study setting was intensive care units. The sample consisted of 169 patients - 60 patients from surgical wards, 59 from interdisciplinary wards and 50 from medical intensive care wards. The study results revealed that pressure reducing devices like mattresses (alternating pressure air, low air loss and foam) are applied for 58 (36.5%) patients, and all of these patients are at risk for pressure ulcer development. Most patients receive more than one nursing intervention, especially patients at risk. Nursing interventions applied are skin inspection, massage with moisture cream, nutrition and mobility (81.8%, 80.5%, 68.6% and 56.6%) respectively. Moreover, all applied pressure ulcer preventive measures in this study are in line with the guidelines of the EPUAP and AHCPR except massage which is applied to 8.8% of all patients. The use of pressure reducing devices and nursing interventions in intensive care patients are in line with international pressure ulcer guidelines. Only massage, which is also being used, should be avoided according to the recommendation of national and international guidelines.
Beth S. Brodsky
Full Text Available Suicide is reaching epidemic proportions, with over 44,000 deaths by suicide in the US, and 800,000 worldwide in 2015. This, despite research and development of evidence-based interventions that target suicidal behavior directly. Suicide prevention efforts need a comprehensive approach, and research must lead to effective implementation across public and mental health systems. A 10-year systematic review of evidence-based findings in suicide prevention summarized the areas necessary for translating research into practice. These include risk assessment, means restriction, evidence-based treatments, population screening combined with chain of care, monitoring, and follow-up. In this article, we review how suicide prevention research informs implementation in clinical settings where those most at risk present for care. Evidence-based and best practices address the fluctuating nature of suicide risk, which requires ongoing risk assessment, direct intervention and monitoring. In the US, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention has put forth the Zero Suicide (ZS Model, a framework to coordinate a multilevel approach to implementing evidence-based practices. We present the Assess, Intervene and Monitor for Suicide Prevention model (AIM-SP as a guide for implementation of ZS evidence-based and best practices in clinical settings. Ten basic steps for clinical management model will be described and illustrated through case vignette. These steps are designed to be easily incorporated into standard clinical practice to enhance suicide risk assessment, brief interventions to increase safety and teach coping strategies and to improve ongoing contact and monitoring of high-risk individuals during transitions in care and high risk periods.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R
Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.
This is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention from 1984 to the present day. It demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation which is produced via changes in social practices and norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in behaviours of individuals. My colleagues and I developed a 'social health' model of social transformation that involves enabling communities to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.
Levkoff, Sue; And Others
Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…
Full Text Available Children's health and wellbeing is high on the research and policy agenda of many nations. There is a wealth of epidemiological research linking childhood circumstances and health practices with adult health. However, echoing a broader picture within child health research where children have typically been viewed as objects rather than subjects of enquiry, we know very little of how, in their everyday lives, children make sense of health-relevant information.This paper reports key findings from a qualitative study exploring how children understand food in everyday life and their ideas about the relationship between food and health. 53 children aged 9-10, attending two socio-economically contrasting schools in Northern England, participated during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in schools through interviews and debates in small friendship groups and in the home through individual interviews. Data were analysed thematically using cross-sectional, categorical indexing.Moving beyond a focus on what children know the paper mobilises the concept of health literacy (Nutbeam, 2000, explored very little in relation to children, to conceptualise how children actively construct meaning from health information through their own embodied experiences. It draws on insights from the Social Studies of Childhood (James and Prout, 2015, which emphasise children's active participation in their everyday lives as well as New Literacy Studies (Pahl and Rowsell, 2012, which focus on literacy as a social practice. Recognising children as active health literacy practitioners has important implications for policy and practice geared towards improving child health. Keywords: Children, Health literacy, Qualitative, UK
Ordonez Gomez, M
A 1993 survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexually transmitted diseases and other conditions included a series of questions for women on vaginal cytology. The survey was based on a subsample of the PROFAMILIA master sample. 15,080 persons were interviewed, including 6949 women 18-69 years old. The section on vaginal cytology began with a description of the procedure before the questions were asked. Among the total sample, 66.2% reported having undergone cervical cytology while 33.8% had not. 4.8% did not request the results. For the 61.4% of the sample that requested the results, 49.4% were normal, 11.1% were abnormal, and 0.9% did not know or were not given their results. Of those with abnormal results, 9.3% returned for another consultation and 1.8% did not. The proportion of women having cervical cytology exceeded 80% for women 30-49 years old. 69.9% of urban and 54.2% of rural women had been tested. 28.9% underwent the most recent test due to a personal decision, 24.7% on medical recommendation, 23.2% because of symptoms, 12.0% to prevent cancer, 3.2% for safety, 2.0% because a year had passed since the last test, 2.0% in response to a campaign, 1.6% because a friend suggested it, and 1.1% because they had never had it done. The symptoms that motivated the test were a discharge for 31.4%, pain for 30.0%, bleeding for 11.8%, itching for 5.5%, postpartum problems for 2.8%, burning for 2.5%, and cyst for 1.9%. Abnormal results were obtained in 40% of the women who had the test because of symptoms. The average number of times in the past 5 years that the test was done was 2.8. 9% of respondents had not had a test in the past 5 years, 26% had 1, 18% had 2, 12% had 3, 7% had 4, 16% had 5, and 11% had 6 or more. 64.4% of women under 25 and 39% over 60 had never had vaginal cytology. Rural women and the less educated were less likely to have had the procedure.
de la Cruz, A M; de Rojas, V
Pediculosis is an endemics that has recently intensified world wide and also in Cuba as of 1970. A study was performed in the schools located in the health area of the Vedado Polyclinics in the City of Havana to find out the level of knowledge acquired and the practices followed that may have an effect on the control of this disease. Two qualitative techniques i.e. group analysis and non-participatory observation allowed to gather information. Wrong pieces of knowledge and ill practices were detected such as the belief that nits can fly, the use of a drug called Lindano 1% to treat children as a preventive method while they are in class, application of products in a wrong way, use of harmful products and no taking out of nits in a systematic way. These mistaken concepts and practices affect the analysis of cases and thus, they should be taken into consideration to increase the efficiency of the control program.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the fastest growing non communicable diseases worldwide. Management of diabetic patients during surgical and critically illness is of paramount challenge to anesthesiologist and intensivist. Among its major acute complications, hypoglycemia has been given lesser attention as compared to other major acute complications; diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non ketotic coma. However, newer studies and literary evidence have established the serious concerns of morbidity and mortality, both long- and short-term, related to hypoglycemia. basis. Invariably, diabetic patients are encountered in our daily routine practice of anesthesia. During fasting status as well as the perioperative period, it is hypoglycemia that is of high concern to anesthesiologist. Management has to be based on clinical, pharmacological, social, and psychological basis, so as to completely prevent the complications arising from an acute episode of hypoglycemia. This review aims to highlight various aspects of hypoglycemia and its management both from endocrine and anesthesia perspective.
Sakamoto, Fumie; Sakihama, Tomoko; Saint, Sanjay; Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Tokuda, Yasuharu
Limited data exist on the use of infection prevention practices in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey to examine the use of recommended infection prevention strategies and factors affecting their use in Japanese hospitals. Between April 1, 2012, and January 31, 2013, we surveyed 971 hospitals in Japan. The survey instrument assessed general hospital and infection prevention program characteristics and use of infection prevention practices, including practices specific to preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Logistic regression models were used to examine multivariable associations between hospital characteristics and the use of the various prevention practices. A total of 685 hospitals (71%) responded to the survey. Maintaining aseptic technique during catheter insertion and maintenance, avoiding routine central line changes, and using maximum sterile barrier precautions and semirecumbent positioning were the only practices regularly used by more than one-half of the hospitals to prevent CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP, respectively. Higher safety-centeredness was associated with regular use of prevention practices across all infection types. Although certain practices were used commonly, the rate of regular use of many evidence-based prevention practices was low in Japanese hospitals. Our findings highlight the importance of fostering an organization-wide atmosphere that prioritizes patient safety. Such a commitment to patient safety should in turn promote the use of effective measures to reduce health care-associated infections in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.
Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...
Rinke, Michael L.; Bundy, David G.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Deuber, Kristin; Chen, Allen R.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Miller, Marlene R.
Background A study was conducted to investigate home health care agency central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) definitions and prevention policies and compare them to the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG.07.04.01), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CLABSI prevention recommendations, and a best-practice central line care bundle for inpatients. Methods A telephone-based survey was conducted in 2011 of a convenience sample of home health care agencies associated with children’s hematology/oncology centers. Results Of the 97 eligible home health care agencies, 57 (59%) completed the survey. No agency reported using all five aspects of the National Healthcare and Safety Network/Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology CLABSI definition and adjudication process, and of the 50 agencies that reported tracking CLABSI rates, 20 (40%) reported using none. Only 10 agencies (18%) had policies consistent with all elements of the inpatient-focused NPSG.07.04.01, 10 agencies (18%) were consistent with all elements of the home care targeted CDC CLABSI prevention recommendations, and no agencies were consistent with all elements of the central line care bundle. Only 14 agencies (25%) knew their overall CLABSI rate: mean 0.40 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.61). Six agencies (11%) knew their agency’s pediatric CLABSI rate: mean 0.54 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days (95% CI, 0.06 to 1.01). Conclusions The policies of a national sample of home health care agencies varied significantly from national inpatient and home health care agency targeted standards for CLABSI definitions and prevention. Future research should assess strategies for standardizing home health care practices consistent with evidence-based recommendations. PMID:23991509
... activities you enjoy, from brisk walking to ballroom dancing. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, ... lifestyle also might play a role in preventing Alzheimer's disease. Women are more vulnerable than men to ...
A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators. (PMA)
Pigeot, Iris; De Henauw, Stefaan; Foraita, Ronja; Jahn, Ingeborg; Ahrens, Wolfgang
Primary prevention programmes are of increasing importance to reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the individual, institutional and societal level. However, most initiatives that develop and implement primary prevention programmes are not evaluated with scientific rigor. On the basis of three different projects we discuss necessary steps on the road to evidence-based primary prevention. We first discuss how to identify suitable target groups exploiting sophisticated statistical methods. This is illustrated using data from a health survey conducted in a federal state of Germany. A literature review is the more typical approach to identify target groups that is demonstrated using a European project on the prevention of childhood obesity. In the next step, modifiable risk factors and realistic targets of the intervention have to be specified. These determine the outcome measures that in turn are used for effect evaluation. Both, the target groups and the outcome measures, lay the ground for the study design and the definition of comparison groups as can be seen in our European project. This project also illustrates the development and implementation of a prevention programme. These may require active involvement of participants which can be achieved by participatory approaches taking into account the socio-cultural and living environment. Evaluation is of utmost importance for any intervention to assess structure, process and outcome according to rigid scientific criteria. Different approaches used for this are discussed and illustrated by a methodological project developed within a health promotion programme in a deprived area. Eventually the challenge of transferring an evidence-based intervention into practice and to achieve its sustainability is addressed. This article describes a general roadmap to primary prevention comprising (1) the identification of target groups and settings, (2) the identification of modifiable risk factors and endpoints, (3) the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Persons with diabetes are at increased risk for serious complications including CVD, stroke, retinopathy, amputation, and nephropathy. Minorities have the highest incidence and prevalence of diabetes and related complications compared to other racial groups. Preventive care practices such as smoking cessation, eye examinations, feet examinations, and yearly checkups can prevent or delay the incidence and progression of diabetes related complications. The purpose of this study was to examine racial/ethnic differences in diabetes preventive care practices by several socio-demographic characteristics including social class. Methods Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for 1998–2001 were used for analyses. The study population consisted of persons who indicated having diabetes on the BRFSS, 35 yrs and older, and Non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or Hispanic persons. Logistic regression was used in analyses. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, Blacks and Hispanics engaged in preventive care more frequently than Whites. Whites were less likely to have seen a doctor in the previous year, less likely to have had a foot exam, more likely to smoke, and less likely to have attempted smoking cessation. Persons of lower social class were at greatest risk for not receiving preventive care regardless of race/ethnicity. Persons with no health care coverage were twice as likely to have not visited the doctor in the previous year and twice as likely to have not had an eye exam, 1.5 times more likely to have not had a foot exam or attempted smoking cessation. Conclusion This study showed that persons of lower social class and persons with no health insurance are at greatest risk for not receiving preventive services.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programmes are of increasing importance to reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the individual, institutional and societal level. However, most initiatives that develop and implement primary prevention programmes are not evaluated with scientific rigor. On the basis of three different projects we discuss necessary steps on the road to evidence-based primary prevention. Discussion We first discuss how to identify suitable target groups exploiting sophisticated statistical methods. This is illustrated using data from a health survey conducted in a federal state of Germany. A literature review is the more typical approach to identify target groups that is demonstrated using a European project on the prevention of childhood obesity. In the next step, modifiable risk factors and realistic targets of the intervention have to be specified. These determine the outcome measures that in turn are used for effect evaluation. Both, the target groups and the outcome measures, lay the ground for the study design and the definition of comparison groups as can be seen in our European project. This project also illustrates the development and implementation of a prevention programme. These may require active involvement of participants which can be achieved by participatory approaches taking into account the socio-cultural and living environment. Evaluation is of utmost importance for any intervention to assess structure, process and outcome according to rigid scientific criteria. Different approaches used for this are discussed and illustrated by a methodological project developed within a health promotion programme in a deprived area. Eventually the challenge of transferring an evidence-based intervention into practice and to achieve its sustainability is addressed. Summary This article describes a general roadmap to primary prevention comprising (1 the identification of target groups and settings, (2 the
Touch, Sothy; Oh, Jin-Kyoung
There is little information concerning the preventive behaviors against cervical cancer among women in Cambodia, a country without organized cervical cancer screening programs and national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policies. We aimed to examine the cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as cervical cancer prevention methods among Cambodian women. A community-based cross-sectional survey on cervical cancer prevention was conducted. We conducted a face-to-face interview survey for women aged 20-69 years who lived in Kampong Speu Province. The data collection was conducted by a nurse and a trained health worker using a structured questionnaire from January 8 to February 19, 2016. The questionnaire comprised 46 questions on demographic and reproductive characteristics, knowledge of cervical cancer, related risk factors and preventive methods, and attitudes toward and practices of Pap test and HPV vaccination. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between preventive behaviors against cervical cancer and related factors such as age, education, income, and knowledge of cervical cancer. Among the 440 respondents, 74 and 34% of women had heard about cervical cancer and the Papanicolaou (Pap) Smear test, respectively, and 7% of women had ever been screened by a Pap test. The participants showed high willingness to undergo a Pap test (74%). Furthermore, 35% of women were aware that cervical cancer is preventable by vaccination and 62% of women were willing to get the HPV vaccine, but only 1% of women had been vaccinated against HPV. Women of a younger age (odds ratio: 76.7; 95% confidence interval: 19.2-306.5 among women aged 20-29 years compared to 60-69 years, P-for-trendCambodia had a low awareness of cervical cancer screening and rarely practiced cervical cancer screening. However, the willingness to get Pap test and HPV vaccination is high.
... can significantly lower your risk of these common killers. Take charge of your health by making better ... other substances, and don't drive while sleepy. Suicide is another leading men's health risk. An important ...
Burris, Scott; Ashe, Marice; Levin, Donna; Penn, Matthew; Larkin, Michelle
Public health law has roots in both law and science. For more than a century, lawyers have helped develop and implement health laws; over the past 50 years, scientific evaluation of the health effects of laws and legal practices has achieved high levels of rigor and influence. We describe an emerging model of public health law that unites these two traditions. This transdisciplinary model adds scientific practices to the lawyerly functions of normative and doctrinal research, counseling, and representation. These practices include policy surveillance and empirical public health law research on the efficacy of legal interventions and the impact of laws and legal practices on health and health system operation. A transdisciplinary model of public health law, melding its legal and scientific facets, can help break down enduring cultural, disciplinary, and resource barriers that have prevented the full recognition and optimal role of law in public health.
Weine, Stevan M; Stone, Andrew; Saeed, Aliya; Shanfield, Stephen; Beahrs, John; Gutman, Alisa; Mihajlovic, Aida
New community-based initiatives being developed to address violent extremism in the United States are utilizing mental health services and leadership. This article reviews current approaches to preventing violent extremism, the contribution that mental illness and psychosocial problems can make to violent extremism, and the rationale for integrating mental health strategies into preventing violent extremism. The authors describe a community-based targeted violence prevention model and the potential roles of mental health professionals. This model consists of a multidisciplinary team that assesses at-risk individuals with comprehensive threat and behavioral evaluations, arranges for ongoing support and treatment, conducts follow-up evaluations, and offers outreach, education, and resources for communities. This model would enable mental health professionals in local communities to play key roles in preventing violent extremism through their practice and leadership.
Høj, Kirsten; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
Background: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases morbidity and mortality risks. Routine CRF assessment in clinical practice has thus been advocated, but little is known about the effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of CRF assessment on CRF in a preventive health check...... programme. Methods: We used a randomised design, in which we invited 4153 middle-aged adults and included 2201 participants who received a preventive health check with CRF assessment (intervention) or without CRF assessment (control). After 1 year, participants were examined. The primary outcomes were....... Conclusion: Preventive health checks with CRF assessment did not provide higher CRF levels at 1-year follow-up than preventive health checks without CRF assessment....
Kanno, N B; Dixit, K A
Health education in Nepal, according to the Long Term Health Plan (1975- 1990) emphasizes an integrated, intersectorial approach, committed to providing minimum health care to the maximum number of people. Nepal has about 16 million people, 90% of them rural, growing at over 2.7% yearly, with a rising growth rate, a 12.2% infant mortality rate, a 50% child mortality rate, and life expectancies of 46 for men and 42.5 for women. 2 health projects based on community volunteers are described: the urban Bhaktapur Development Project and the rural Jumla Project. The Bhaktapur Project employs Community Health Leaders, Village Health Workers, and Panchayat Based Health Workers to provide basic health care and health education, emphasizing prevention. These workers visit households daily, and teach sanitation, latrine construction, water supply development, first aid, detect deficiency diseases, and refer people to clinics. The Jumla Project supplies a densely populated but inaccessible mountainous region where food supplies have to be airlifted, the per capita income averages $140, firewood must be brought from may kilometers away, and local streams are used for drinking water, livestock, bathing and latrines. In the 1st 2 years of the project, 11 pit latrines and 2 gravity fed water systems were constructed. Now latrines are being built all over the region with materials supplied by the International Human Assistance Programme.
Siu, Natalie P Y; Too, L C; Tsang, Caroline S H; Young, Betty W Y
There is increasing evidence that supports the close relationship between childhood and adult health. Fostering healthy growth and development of children deserves attention and effort. The Reference Framework for Preventive Care for Children in Primary Care Settings has been published by the Task Force on Conceptual Model and Preventive Protocols under the direction of the Working Group on Primary Care. It aims to promote health and prevent disease in children and is based on the latest research, and contributions of the Clinical Advisory Group that comprises primary care physicians, paediatricians, allied health professionals, and patient groups. This article highlights the comprehensive, continuing, and patient-centred preventive care for children and discusses how primary care physicians can incorporate the evidence-based recommendations into clinical practice. It is anticipated that the adoption of this framework will contribute to improved health and wellbeing of children.
Robson , Anthony ,
International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...
Varga, Z M; Murray, K N
In this chapter we review the components of the fish health program at the Zebrafish International Resource Center. We describe health-monitoring strategies to assess individual and colony health, practices to prevent the spread of pathogens within the fish colony, and a biosecurity program designed to prevent entry of new fish pathogens. While this program is designed for a facility on a recirculating water system with expectations of high volumes of import and export, many of the components can be directly applied or modified for application in facilities of different sizes and with other programmatic goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thorpe, Kenneth E; Ogden, Lydia L
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act represents a major opportunity to achieve several key goals at once: improving disease prevention; reforming care delivery; and bending the cost curve of health spending while also realizing greater value for the dollars spent. Reform-based initiatives could produce major gains in a relatively short time. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services should develop an action plan detailing how the programs that the health reform law sets into motion throughout various agencies can work synergistically. It should also detail how best practices in finance and payment, in the organization and delivery of care, and in prevention can be expanded nationally.
Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki
In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu
Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.
Rakowski, William; And Others
This issue on preventive health care and health promotion for older adults includes 14 articles on history and definition, development of guidelines, responsibility, implementation of programs for the elderly and how it differs from that for other populations, programs for minorities, access to health care information, and a description of a…
Hall, Michael; Elise, Eifert
Morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases are a primary concern of health professionals, including Health Educators. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over one half of the adult population in the United States suffer from one or more chronic conditions. Understanding the health risk behaviors that contribute to…
Fakhrul Razi Ahmadun; Guan, Chuan Teong; Mohd Halim Shah Ismail
Ignorance, carelessness or improper practices in the laboratory or the improper handling of hazardous or toxic materials may lead to work accidents and work-related ill-health. Laboratory users and administrators cannot afford to overlook these possible consequences due to the misconduct of laboratory practices and should decide how best to manage the health and safety aspects in the laboratory. This book has been written for safety representatives of colleges and universities, for lectures, teachers and students, and for researchers working in laboratories. It is also for everyone responsible for laboratory safety, laboratory accidents and their consequences. The emphasis is on hazards to health and safety, with the focus on the general hazards in the laboratory, how they arise and how to prevent, how to eliminate and control them. Special hazards will also be discussed such as radiation hazards and human factors. This book also provides information on governmental and non-governmental agencies and authorities, emergency contact numbers of relevant authorities, a list of Malaysia occupational safety and health related legislation and some useful occupational safety and health web sites. Readers will find that the information contained in this book will serve as the foundation for laboratory users safety policy. A set of Laboratory Safety Forms for a typical laboratory is also available in the appendix for reference. Laboratory users can use and adapt these forms for their own laboratory requirements. (author)
van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; de Brouwer, Carin P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Kant, IJmert
Given large changes in working conditions and society, occupational health care has to prioritize its efforts towards fostering health and functioning of workers and as such promote work participation. This requires that more emphasis is given on the application of biopsychological models in the care of workers. Although a biopsychological approach is often mentioned as essential part of occupational health care, it's application is often hampered in practice, by practical barriers and lack of practical knowledge. This is illustrated by a study that uncovered facilitating and hindering factors in the implementation process of a preventive strategy, proven effective in reducing the risk of long term sickness absence. To facilitate the use of biopsychological models in occupational health care, it is shown that setting up a training curriculum is possible, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) grafted on available training in evidence based practice skills is possible. Furthermore, there is a need for elaboration of the personal factors relevant for workers and the relevant work-related environmental factors to support practical application of ICF in occupational health care. A paradigm shift in occupational health care can facilitate widespread implementation of the biopsychosocial approach in occupational health and may stimulate occupational health professionals to further integrate this approach in their daily practice.
Bielitz, Harald; Hertel, Frank; Mertens, Elke; Halfens, Ruud
Pressure ulcers are still a common health problem. Prevention and therapy of pressure ulcers require extensive nursing resources. Based on epidemiological data the use of preventive interventions and devices in hospital patients at risk was analysed. One object of this study was to compare the nursing practice with the recommendations given by a national practice guideline about pressure ulcer prevention by the German Network for Quality Development in Nursing (DNQP). Since 2002 each year a study has been conducted in order to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers in German hospitals. For the present study data of 9159 patients at pressure ulcer risk collected in three years (from 2002 to 2004) were analysed. In the course of the investigated period interventions and devices were increasingly adjusted to the recommendations of the guideline. This trend appears to be slightly, but it is noticeable. The number of process requirements realised for each patient increased particularly if patients showed a high risk or a pressure ulcer was already present. To improve the quality of care preferably all process criteria according to the guideline should be considered if preventive measures are planned.
Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J
Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.
Appropriate feeding practices in the early months and years of life are important to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Awareness of the important role that breastfeeding plays in preventing malnutrition needs to be increased. The IAEA is supporting Member States in using stable isotope techniques to evaluate activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices.
Appropriate feeding practices in the early months and years of life are important to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Awareness of the important role that breastfeeding plays in preventing malnutrition needs to be increased. The IAEA is supporting Member States in using stable isotope techniques to evaluate activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices.
Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V
We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once
Lamster, Ira B; Myers-Wright, Noreen
The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system. This change is based on the realization that a healthy mouth is essential for a healthy life, including proper mastication, communication, esthetics, and comfort. Two types of primary care are proposed: screenings for medical conditions that are directly affected by oral disease (and may modify the provision of dental care), and a broader emphasis on prevention that focuses on lifestyle behaviors. Included in the former category are screenings for NCDs (e.g., the risk of cardiovascular disease and identification of patients with undiagnosed dysglycemia or poorly managed diabetes mellitus), as well as identification of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis C. Reducing the risk of disease can be accomplished by an emphasis on smoking cessation and dietary intake and the prevention of obesity. These activities will promote interprofessional health care education and practice. While change is always challenging, this new practice paradigm could improve both oral health and health outcomes of patients seen in the dental office. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy
In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, “The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War.” Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health’s ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association’s Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy. PMID:24825229
Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B
To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is catastrophic, and the opportunity costs of diverting
Oliveira, Karla Regina Dias de; Liberal, Márcia Mello Costa de; Zucchi, Paola
To identify the financial resources and investments provided for preventive medicine programs by health insurance companies of all kinds. Data were collected from 30 large health insurance companies, with over 100 thousand individuals recorded, and registered at the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar. It was possible to identify the percentage of participants of the programs in relation to the total number of beneficiaries of the health insurance companies, the prevention and promotion actions held in preventive medicine programs, the inclusion criteria for the programs, as well as the evaluation of human resources and organizational structure of the preventive medicine programs. Most of the respondents (46.7%) invested more than US$ 50,000.00 in preventive medicine program, while 26.7% invested more than US$ 500,000.00. The remaining, about 20%, invested less than US$ 50,000.00, and 3.3% did not report the value applied.
Guy, Heidi; Downie, Fiona; McIntyre, Lyn; Peters, Jeremy
Pressure ulcers (PUs), their cause and prevention have been discussed in the literature for many decades. Their prevention and management has been the core of a tissue viability nurse's daily clinical and strategic workload. The important point to acknowledge is that not all PUs can be prevented but it is believed most of them can and all preventative measures must be implemented and evaluated. Initial efforts focused on establishing a baseline of incidence and prevalence. More recently, the Department of Health has proposed that PUs could be eliminated in 95% of all NHS patients and incentivised the measurement of PUs and other harms by use of the NHS Safety Thermometer through the introduction of a new initiative. A research company was commissioned to explore which communications interventions would be effective in helping health professionals to prevent and treat PUs. A campaign was subsequently set in motion to educate and inform clinical staff on the cause and prevention of PUs.
Hande, Karen A
A gastroenterology practice lacked quality measures to evaluate the practice's colorectal cancer prevention efforts. Colonoscopy performance data were gathered from a retrospective review of 90 charts using a modified Colorectal Cancer Prevention Data Collection Form. Practice stakeholders and project leader reviewed the data, identified practice deficiencies, conducted root cause analysis, and developed practice changes. Implementing the prioritized recommendations and routinely benchmarking care were warranted to ensure effective practice to improve outcomes for colorectal cancer prevention. Achieving higher-value care has led to increased efforts to improve systems for measuring care, using these measures for quality improvement and directly linking quality outcomes to reimbursement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Minossi, José Guilherme
Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped
Faruqi, Nighat; Lloyd, Jane; Ahmad, Raghib; Yeong, Lin-Lee; Harris, Mark
The objective of the study was to explore the feasibility of an intervention that enhances preventive care for primary care patients with low health literacy. A mixed method study was conducted in four Sydney general practices in areas of socioeconomic disadvantage. The intervention included screening for low health literacy in patients aged 40-69 years, clinical record audits of care for prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and provider training and meetings. Surveys and interviews were conducted to identify providers' approaches to, and delivery of, preventive care for people with low health literacy. Our study found variable response rates and prevalence of low health literacy. Of the eligible patients screened, 29% had low health literacy. Providers described three approaches to preventive care, which remained largely unchanged. However, they demonstrated recognition of the importance of better communication and referral support for patients with low health literacy. Fewer patients with low health literacy were identified than expected. Despite improved awareness of the need for better communication, there was limited evidence of change in providers' approach to providing preventive care, suggesting a need for more attention towards providers' attitudes to support these patients.
Like any discipline, psychoanalysis has evolved considerably since its inception by Freud over a century ago, and a multitude of different psychoanalytic traditions and schools of theory and practice now exist. However, some of Freud's original ideas, such as the dynamic unconscious, a developmental approach, defence mechanisms, and transference and countertransference remain essential tenets of psychoanalytic thinking to this day. This Review outlines several areas within modern mental health practice in which contemporary adaptations and applications of these psychoanalytic concepts might offer helpful insights and improvements in patient care and management, and concludes with an overview of evidence-based psychoanalytically informed treatments and the links between psychoanalysis, attachment research, and neuroscience. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Debate, Rita Digioacchino; Vogel, Elizabeth; Tedesco, Lisa A; Neff, James Alan
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex differences among dentists pertaining to current behaviors and behavioral beliefs with regard to eating disorders. The authors collected data via a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire from a randomized sample of 350 practicing male and female dentists. The results showed a low level of practice regarding secondary prevention (that is, measures leading to early diagnosis and prompt intervention) of eating disorders. The authors found statistically significant differences, with more female than male dentists reporting that they assessed patients for oral cues (P eating disorders (P = .028). They also found sex differences with regard to mediating factors. Female dentists had greater knowledge of oral manifestations of eating disorders (P = .001), greater knowledge of physical cues of anorexia nervosa (P physical cues of bulimia nervosa (P health care provider to assess oral effects of eating disorders, his or her involvement may be influenced in part by sex and sex-related health beliefs. Female dentists may be more sensitive to oral cues related to women's health issues. Further research is warranted to explore the mediating factors regarding secondary prevention of eating disorders.
The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of pressure ulcer prediction and prevention in home health care. Randomly selected Medicare-certified home care agencies in four midwestern states were surveyed. The overall response rate was 44% (n = 128). Approximately half (57.8%) of the responding agencies assessed all patients for pressure ulcer risk upon admission; another 4.7% assessed only chair or bed-bound patients. Clinical nursing judgment was the most commonly (72%) used method for assessing risk; only 21% of the agencies used a validated tool such as the Braden Scale or the Norton Scale to identify those at risk. Approximately one third of the reporting agencies had prediction and/or prevention policies. Only 18.0% of home health care agencies identified recommended interventions in a pressure ulcer prevention protocol. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in pressure ulcer prediction and prevention practice in home health care.
Cheon, Jeong Woong
Substance use among youth remains a major public health and safety concern. One fundamental way to address youth substance use prevention is to keep young people on a positive trajectory by engaging them in positive activities from early years of their childhood. In this article, the author offers a best practice analysis of systematic review…
... risks are shaped by many factors beyond your sexual orientation and practices — including family history and age — it's ... trichomoniasis — can spread between women. Oral sex and sexual behavior involving digital-vaginal or digital-anal contact, particularly ...
child transmission of HIV. This study assessed health workers' knowledge of the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Methodology: The study design was a descriptive ...
Howitt, Peter J; Kerr, Karen; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Mohamed Husain Ali, Faleh; Knuth, Alexander; Darzi, Ara
The World Health Organization recommends that all countries develop a cancer control program. Qatar is the first country in the Gulf Cooperation Council to develop such a plan, with its National Cancer Strategy 2011-2016. Three years into implementation, meaningful progress has been made, particularly in reducing patient waiting times, creating a multidisciplinary approach to cancer treatment, and fostering international research collaboration. Challenges include attracting sufficient numbers of trained health care workers, reaching a diverse population with messages tailored to their needs, and emphasizing cancer prevention and early detection in addition to research and treatment. Qatar's example shows that best practices developed in North America, Western Europe, and Australasia can be assimilated in a very different demographic and cultural context when such approaches are tailored to local characteristics and circumstances. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Ahn, H G
This study attempted to identify the factors related to health behavior and the degree of health practice among the employee of security investment companies in Pusan. The survey data used in the study were collected from 203 white collar employee in 21 companies. The factors considered in the health behavior and the degree of health practice were selected from Pender's model of health promoting behavior and Backer's model of health preventive behavior model. The major findings of the study could be summarized as followings: 1. The most closely associated factors with health behavior were identified as perceived control of disease (r = .393), importance of health (r = .350), pattern of family health care (r = .302), and options of health promotion (r = .215). 2. The study explored that the most closely related factors to the degree of health care practice were annual physical examination and the control of illegal and habitual drug in order. Other behaviors such as hand washing at each return to home, avoidance of indirect smoking, no exchange of glasses, regular exercise, stop or reduction of drinking and smoking, control of high cholesterol food were identified as less effective in the health promotion. 3. The most important factors associated with the less effective behaviors for health promotion were identified as their laziness in continuous practice and the limited time for their habituation. 4. The most important agent contributing to the knowledge and practice of health was identified as mass media.
Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor
Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health
Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)
The third sector we need to examine ~ garding progress in prevention is the activities of the dental profeSSionals themselves. As part of the continuing education programme, all dental assistants have attended a workshop' on epidemiology, health education and planning of preventive programmes. They accepted this new.
Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention of malaria. Chirdan O. O. et al. Page | 115 taken at home and dangers of self treatment. Part 3: Treatment of uncomplicated malaria and prevention of malaria. Posters and chloroquine drug charts were used as teaching aids. Post intervention impact assessment.
The increasing scourge of drug abuse among adolescents is a major challenge facing mankind. As the importance of health education in disease prevention is enormous, drug misuse prevention programme requires introducing innovations, flexibility and reinforcement which will be effective in shortest possible time among ...
... newsletter with evidence-based information on complementary and integrative practices and a health condition All News & Events About ... Safety Information Message From the Director: Complementary and Integrative Health Practices in the Real World (08/05/14) In ...
de Jager, Pieter; Rees, David; Kisting, Sophia; Kgalamono, Spo; Ndaba, Mpume; Stacey, Nicolas; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen
Currently, in some countries occupational health and safety policy and practice have a bias toward secondary prevention and workers' compensation rather than primary prevention. Particularly, in emerging economies, research has not adequately contributed to effective interventions and improvements in workers' health. This article, using South Africa as a case study, describes a methodology for identifying candidate fiscal policy interventions and describes the policy interventions selected for occupational health and safety. It is argued that fiscal policies are well placed to deal with complex intersectoral health problems and to focus efforts on primary prevention. A major challenge is the lack of empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of fiscal policies in improving workers' health. A second challenge is the underprioritization of occupational health and safety partly due to the relatively small burden of disease attributed to occupational exposures. Both challenges can and should be overcome by (i) conducting policy-relevant research to fill the empirical gaps and (ii) reconceptualizing, both for policy and research purposes, the role of work as a determinant of population health. Fiscal policies to prevent exposure to hazards at work have face validity and are thus appealing, not as a replacement for other efforts to improve health, but as part of a comprehensive effort toward prevention.
The limitations of what physical therapists can differ from country to country. In Japan, physical therapists are national licensed health care professionals who can help patients improve or restore their mobility. Most Japanese physical therapists provide care for people in health care facilities, medical-welfare transitional facilities, and welfare facilities for the elderly. Currently, physical therapists are unable to sufficiently contribute to primary preventive health care in Japan. However, there are many health problems that physical therapists could help alleviate. For example, low back pain (LBP) more likely than any other condition prevents people from working; thus, making the establishment of effective measures to prevent and reduce LBP vital. An estimated 20,500,000 Japanese individuals have diabetes mellitus (DM) or are at a high risk of developing the disease. DM commonly accompanies stroke and/or heart disease, and is characterized by complications that result from chronic hyperglycemia. Evidence-based physical therapy is effective for the prevention and treatment of LBP and DM. The Japanese Physical Therapy Association established the Japanese Society of Physical Therapy (JSPT) in June 2013. The JSPT has 12 departmental societies and 10 sections. We believe that the JSPT will advance the study of the potential role of physical therapists in primary preventive health care. In the future, it is expected that Japanese physical therapists will contribute to primary preventive health care.
Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn
To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.
Yoong, Sze Lin; Finch, Meghan; Nathan, Nicole; Wiggers, John; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Jones, Jannah; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke
Despite ongoing investments to improve the obesogenic environments of childcare settings, little is known regarding how these services have changed their physical activity and nutrition-promoting practices. This study aims to describe changes in the proportion of Australian childcare services that have adopted best-practice healthy eating and physical activity practices between 2006 and 2013 and to assess whether adoption varied by socio-economic status and locality. A randomly selected sample of nominated supervisors (n = 358) from childcare services located in New South Wales, Australia, participated in a telephone survey in 2006, 2009, 2010 and 2013. Supervisors reported on their service's adoption of six practices: (i) having written nutrition and physical activity policies; (ii) staff trained in physical activity and nutrition in the past year; (iii) scheduled time for fundamental movement skills and (iv) outdoor play; (v) weekly or less screen time opportunities; and (vi) serving only non-sweetened beverages. A significant increase in the prevalence of services adopting all but one practice, between 2006 and 2013 was identified. Ninety one percent of services adopted four or more practices, a significant increase from 38% in 2006. There were no differences in the proportion of services adopting each practice by locality and socio-economic status. Government investment in obesity prevention programmes can equitably improve childcare service's adoption of healthy eating and physical activity promoting practices on a jurisdiction-wide basis. The establishment of a routine system to monitor adoption of a broader range of practices by childcare services is warranted. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids
Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein
Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Krist Alex H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices. Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results
Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. Objective: To determine the ...
... such as condom use every time you have sex. Gay men and men who have sex with men might be at higher risk of ... long-term health. Makadon HJ. Primary care of gay men and men who have sex with men. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. ...
Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…
Bhuiya, Nazmim S; Crowley, Jacqueline; Fletcher, Erica; McAdoo, Sarah Perez; Middleton, Dawn; Hallum-Montes, Rachel; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
Health care practices can play a key role in reducing teen pregnancies, though current health care systems do not adequately meet adolescents' reproductive health needs. To address this gap, Youth First, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded, community-wide initiative in Holyoke and Springfield (Massachusetts) established partnerships with nine local health care practices to increase adolescent access to health services. However, we had limited knowledge about their reproductive health services and policies. To address this gap, assessments were conducted with staff using structured interviews and surveys to inform targeted efforts to enhance the quality and youth friendliness of adolescent reproductive health services. Findings revealed that many of the youth-friendly services best practices recommended by the CDC were not routinely implemented by all health care practices. Findings from this assessment can be used to support health care practices to facilitate widespread adoption of best practices related to meeting adolescents' reproductive health needs.
Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S
The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors
Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K
Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lina M. Gomez Vasquez
Full Text Available Social media platforms have changed the way people stayinformed, communicate with others, and share ideas. These interactive social platforms are used for many purposes from being in contact with family and friends to promote products and services. However, little is known about the use and importance of social media for health prevention, especially for communication among Hispanic communities.The purpose of this paper is to analyze how social media platforms, especially Twitter, are used for health prevention and communication in Hispanic communities. In doing so, a quantitative content analysis was performed on 3000 tweets with the hashtag #prevención (prevention. Results indicate that most of the prevention messages shared among organizations and users on Twitter were informational messages and very few users promoted interactive communication and mobilization. Mass media and governmental institutions posted more messages to encourage health prevention, especially about publichealth and healthy cities. This study stresses the many social media platforms’ potentialities and functionalities, especially Twitter, that contribute to health prevention and communication. Findings are useful for organizations and users when planning prevention content or campaigns through these platforms.
Brønsted, Lone Bæk
students/teachers, student/student and through experiences with diversity. Yet, critical educational research challenges the idea of welfare institutions as a protective factor by demonstrating how institutional practice produces social and cultural categorizations marking what are legitimate......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...
Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge and practice of the participants towards coronary artery disease. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between study variables and the workers knowledge level. The results of this study showed that 49% of the workers were in a good level of knowledge and according to the regression analysis, the female gender, age above 28, education level higher than high school diploma, body mass index above 25 kilograms per square meters, history of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, daily activity and exercise, were significantly related to a good knowledge towards coronary artery disease. In addition, the mean score of the participants' performance in preventing coronary artery disease was 4.66 out of 9. The results of this study showed that increasing level of knowledge of labors in order to prevent missing specialized work force, leads to imposition of health costs to the industry and the labor society.
received training on the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, .... collection techniques. The purpose of the training was to ensure uniformity in techniques of data ..... HIV/AIDS Division- Federal. Ministry of Health, 2011:1-3. Available. a t : h t t p ...
The role of religiosity in preventive health behaviour has received relatively little systematic research attention. Even so, extant literature suggests that religion may play complex and varied roles in enhancing people‗s health. However, the evidence has been both diverse and fragmentary One hundred and sixty unmarried ...
Jeelani, S; Sabesan, S; Subramanian, S
To ascertain the knowledge, attitudes and practices of adult population in Puducherry, India, regarding Dengue Fever (DF). A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess the Knowledge, Awareness and Preventive practices (KAP) among a selected community in Puducherry on DF, following a major dengue outbreak in 2012. Between October 2012 & February 2013, an epidemiological survey was conducted among 400 households (HHs) from the most affected areas during dengue outbreak, which came under eight health delivery jurisdictions i.e. Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Puducherry. Knowledge of dengue and the use of preventive measures were assessed by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association between different levels of education and income status with the knowledge of DF. The DF knowledge map was created based on the results achieved through the questionnaire using Arc GIS 10.2 software. Although about 86% of the participants had heard of dengue, although there was no adequate knowledge on dengue vector breeding habitat as 68% of the respondents thought drains & garbage as breeding places of dengue vectors. Only 25% of participants were aware of clean water as a breeding habitat. Insufficient knowledge of disease symptoms was found, with fever (59%) being the most common symptom. There is a lack of in-depth knowledge on dengue epidemiology in the Puducherry community and observation revealed that more needs to be done by the Government as well as community members to prevent vector mosquito breeding. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahir, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar; Mussawar, Arsalan
The aim of this study was to determine the role of community participation in prevention of dengue fever in The Swat district located in the Northern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which experienced a dengue fever outbreak in August, 2013. A total number of 8,963 dengue cases with 0.4% case fatality ratio were registered during the outbreak. A sample size of 354 respondents were proportionally allocated to each residential colony and then randomly selected. The association of independent variable (Community participation) and dependent variable (practices for control) were tested by using Chi Square test. Results regarding perception of practices for dengue control with community participation showed that: practices for control had significant association with organization of people to eradicate dengue mosquitoes (p=0.00), community leaders (p=0.04), community efforts (p≤0.01), use of insecticides by community people (p=0.00) and involvement of community people in awareness campaign (p=0.00). Similarly, significant associations were found between practices for control and community shared information during dengue outbreak (p=0.00), community link with health department, NGO, Other agencies (p=0.02). We conclude that the spread of dengue epidemic was aided by the ignorance, laziness of the community people and government agencies. However, the people, religious scholars, leaders and government agencies were not organized to participate in dengue prevention and eradication, hence, the chances of dengue infection increased in community. The study recommends mobilizing local communities and activating local leadership with active participation of Government and non-government organizations for initiation of preventive strategies.
Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard
Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... and Fellowship Programs Millennial Health Leaders Summit Previous Millennial Health Leaders Summits CUPS Funding Opportunity Announcement Resources Student Highlights Publications OMHHE Authors Journal of Public Health Management & Practice Contact OMHHE Get ...
Williams, Carolyn L.; Berry, J. W.
Summarizes research suggesting that refugees, being an at-risk population, are especially suited to primary mental health prevention. Describes research on stress and acculturation and its importance to prevention in refugee mental health. Examples of primary prevention programs at the local, national, and international levels are given. (CJS)
Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Awan, Sara A; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately. Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and
Fatima, Syeda H; Naseem, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Haider; Ali, Zainab; Khan, Najeeb A
Introduction In most healthcare models, the first interaction of a patient is with a general physician. The inspection of the oral cavity is a mandatory component of the general physical examination performed by a physician. This helps detect any oral pathology and make suitable referrals. Therefore, adequate oral health awareness is essential for physicians. Our study aimed at evaluating the oral health practices among physicians working in a private teaching setup in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 144 physicians teaching undergraduate medical students at Shifa College of Medicine and its affiliated hospital, Shifa International Hospital, was conducted. Participants were interviewed through a self-designed questionnaire. Later, each participant demonstrated their teeth brushing technique on a standard model of the oral cavity, which was assessed against a checklist conforming to the modified bass technique. A video clip showing the aforementioned brushing technique was shown at the end of the interview. The collected data was analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results Toothpaste was the top choice (97.2%) of teeth cleaning tool with 69% participants brushing their teeth two times a day and 56.9% using toothbrushes with bristles of medium texture. The use of mouthwash (32.6%) and dental floss (11.1%) was considerably low. Dental caries and teeth discoloration were seen in 46.5% and 43.8% physicians, respectively. An alarmingly low number of physicians (31.9%) claimed to have read guidelines regarding oral health. This translated into most participants (78.5%) visiting a dentist only when needed. Only 4.9% participants performed all components of the modified bass technique to clean teeth on the oral cavity model, with up to 22.9% unable to perform a single step accurately. Conclusion The oral health knowledge and practices of physicians were found to be suboptimal and
Bagny, A; Bathaix Yao, F; Bangoura, D; Kouame, D H; Kacou Ya Kissi-Anzouan, H; De, O; Diallo, K; Lawson-Ananisoh, L M; Mahassadi, K A; Attia Koffi, A; Ndri-Yoman, T
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) assumes and requires good practices by midwives. The objective of this study was to evaluate their practices for this prevention. This prospective, descriptive study in Abidjan took place from January 2 to May 31, 2014 and included the midwives in Abidjan (recruited from university hospitals, general hospitals, and peripheral health care facilities) at the time of the survey who agreed to complete this written survey. Univariate analyses were done with Pearson Chi 2 tests or Fisher's test, as appropriate, Ppractices, including HBsAg testing (P = 0.023) and immunization of the newborn at birth (P = 0.005). Midwives' practices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Abidjan are improving.
Background: Studies have shown that strong knowledge on oral health demonstrates better oral care practice and an association between increased knowledge and better oral health exists. Aim: To assess the influence of oral health knowledge and oral care practices to oral health status of secondary school students in ...
Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.
Hahn, Joan Earle
To describe the most frequently reported and the most central nursing interventions in an advance practice registered nurse (APRN)-led in-home preventive intervention model for adults aging with developmental disabilities using the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) system. A descriptive data analysis and a market basket analysis were conducted on de-identified nominal nursing intervention data from two home visits conducted by nurse practitioners (NPs) from October 2010 to June 2012 for 80 community-dwelling adults with developmental disabilities, ages 29 to 68 years. The mean number of NIC interventions was 4.7 in the first visit and 6.0 in the second visit and last visit. NPs reported 45 different intervention types as classified using a standardized language, with 376 in Visit One and 470 in Visit Two. Approximately 85% of the sample received the Health education intervention. The market basket analysis revealed common pairs, triples, and quadruple sets of interventions in this preventive model. The NIC nursing interventions that occurred together repeatedly were: Health education, Weight management, Nutrition management, Health screening, and Behavior management. Five NIC interventions form the basis of an APRN-led preventive intervention model for individuals aging with lifelong disability, with health education as the most common intervention, combined with interventions to manage weight and nutrition, promote healthy behaviors, and encourage routine health screening. Less frequently reported NIC interventions suggest the need to tailor prevention to individual needs, whether acute or chronic. APRNs employing prevention among adults aging with developmental disabilities must anticipate the need to focus on health education strategies for health promotion and prevention as well as tailor and target a patient-centered approach to support self-management of health to promote healthy aging in place. These NIC interventions serve not only as a guide for
Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W
Narratives have become an increasingly common health communication tool in recent years. Vivid, engaging writing can help audiences identify with storytellers and understand health messages, but few public health practitioners are trained to create such stories. A transdisciplinary perspective, informed by both creative writing advice and evidence-based public health practices, can help public health professionals use stories more effectively in their work. This article provides techniques for creating written narratives that communicate health information for chronic disease prevention. We guide public health professionals through the process of soliciting, writing, and revising such stories, and we discuss challenges and potential solutions.
Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.
The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…
Maher, D; Smeeth, L; Sekajugo, J
Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing health transition as increased globalization and accompanying urbanization are causing a double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Rates of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in Africa are the highest in the world. The impact of noncommunicable diseases is also increasing. For example, age-standardized mortality from cardiovascular disease may be up to three times higher in some African than in some European countries. As the entry point into the health service for most people, primary care plays a key role in delivering communicable disease prevention and care interventions. This role could be extended to focus on noncommunicable diseases as well, within the context of efforts to strengthen health systems by improving primary-care delivery. We put forward practical policy proposals to improve the primary-care response to the problems posed by health transition: (i) improving data on communicable and noncommunicable diseases; (ii) implementing a structured approach to the improved delivery of primary care; (iii) putting the spotlight on quality of clinical care; (iv) aligning the response to health transition with health system strengthening; and (v) capitalizing on a favourable global policy environment. Although these proposals are aimed at primary care in sub-Saharan Africa, they may well be relevant to other regions also facing the challenges of health transition. Implementing these proposals requires action by national and international alliances in mobilizing the necessary investments for improved health of people in developing countries in Africa undergoing health transition.
Karen D. Hidalgo
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the lifestyle behaviors and health promoting practices of physicians, nurses, and community health workers in Brazil. Methods A random sample of primary health care units in Brazil was selected, and a pretested questionnaire was administered via phone interviews, in 2011, to 182 physicians, 347 nurses, and 269 community health workers, totaling 798 health professionals. The total initial sample included 1600 eligible health professionals. Variables measured included physical activity, alcohol intake, hours of sleep, diet, and perceived self-efficacy to provide preventive counseling on related lifestyle behaviors. Results More than 25 % of physicians, nurses, and community health workers reported eating 0–2 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. In terms of cervical and breast cancer, nurses reported to be ‘very prepared’ to advise patients on these topics more frequently than physicians. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 4.9 % among nurses to 7.4 % among community health workers. The proportion of physical inactivity ranged from 40.3 % among nurses to 52.1 % among community health workers. Conclusion A reasonably high proportion of physicians, nurses, and community health workers report not engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors that impact chronic diseases, thus, they may be less likely to encourage such behaviors in their patients.
The directive implements the OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response) Integrated Health and Safety Standards Operating Practices in conjunction with the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) Worker Protection Standards, replacing the OSWER Integrated Health and Safety Policy
... Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says ... chemically identical to the active ingredient in the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. Available evidence on the cholesterol- ...
Background:Investigating the interdisciplinary relationships between stakeholders engaged in arts and health practice in the UK and Denmark, specifically with regard to institutional logics theory. The identified stakeholders: health professionals, museum educators and mental health service users...
Philip J. Morgan
Full Text Available Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.
Zero, Domenick T; Brennan, Michael T; Daniels, Troy E; Papas, Athena; Stewart, Carol; Pinto, Andres; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Navazesh, Mahvash; Rhodus, Nelson; Sciubba, James; Singh, Mabi; Wu, Ava J; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Tracy, Sharon; Fox, Philip C; Ford, Theresa Lawrence; Cohen, Stephen; Vivino, Frederick B; Hammitt, Katherine M
Salivary dysfunction in Sjögren disease can lead to serious and costly oral health complications. Clinical practice guidelines for caries prevention in Sjögren disease were developed to improve quality and consistency of care. A national panel of experts devised clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes format and included use of fluoride, salivary stimulants, antimicrobial agents, and nonfluoride remineralizing agents. The panel conducted a systematic search of the literature according to pre-established parameters. At least 2 members extracted the data, and the panel rated the strength of the recommendations by using a variation of grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation. After a Delphi consensus panel was conducted, the experts finalized the recommendations, with a minimum of 75% agreement required. Final recommendations for patients with Sjögren disease with dry mouth were as follows: topical fluoride should be used in all patients (strong); although no study results link improved salivary flow to caries prevention, the oral health community generally accepts that increasing saliva may contribute to decreased caries incidence, so increasing saliva through gustatory, masticatory, or pharmaceutical stimulation may be considered (weak); chlorhexidine administered as varnish, gel, or rinse may be considered (weak); and nonfluoride remineralizing agents may be considered as an adjunct therapy (moderate). The incidence of caries in patients with Sjögren disease can be reduced with the use of topical fluoride and other preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosano, Aldo; Dauvrin, Marie; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Ronda, Elena; Tafforeau, Jean; Dias, Sonia
Preventive health services (PHSs) form part of primary healthcare with the aim of screening to prevent disease. Migrants show significant differences in lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared with the native populations. This can have a significant impact on migrants' access to health systems and participation in prevention programmes. Even in countries with widely accessible healthcare systems, migrants' access to PHSs may be difficult. The aim of the study was to compare access to preventive health services between migrants and native populations in five European Union (EU) countries. Information from Health Interview Surveys of Belgium, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain were used to analyse access to mammography, Pap smear tests, colorectal cancer screening and flu vaccination among migrants. The comparative risk of not accessing PHSs was calculated using a mixed-effects multilevel model, adjusting for potential confounding factors (sex, education and the presence of disability). Migrant status was defined according to citizenship, with a distinction made between EU and non-EU countries. Migrants, in particular those from non-EU countries, were found to have poorer access to PHSs. The overall risk of not reporting a screening test or a flu vaccination ranged from a minimum of 1.8 times (colorectal cancer screening), to a high of 4.4 times (flu vaccination) for migrants. The comparison among the five EU countries included in the study showed similarities, with particularly limited access recorded in Italy and in Belgium for non-EU migrants. The findings of this study are in accordance with evidence from the scientific literature. Poor organization of health services, in Italy, and lack of targeted health policies in Belgium may explain these findings. PHSs should be responsive to patient diversity, probably more so than other health services. There is a need for diversity-oriented, migrant-sensitive prevention. Policies oriented to removing
Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita
This essay has the objective of revisiting the intellectual output of Ricardo Bruno Mendes-Gonçalves (1946-1996), Professor of the Department of Preventive Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo and one of the theoreticians who participated in the construction of the field of Brazilian Collective Health during the years 1970-1990. On the basis of brief biographical and bibliographical information, as well as relevant aspects regarding the historical context in which his output is located, I examine the principal works of the author, their effects on the lines of investigation of investigation of his students and his legacy of contributions and challenges for Collective Health. I highlight the genesis and development of his Theory of the Health Work Process and its impact on the understanding and empirical investigation of the socio-historical dimensions of health practices and on the reconstruction of knowledge and technologies in the context of the Brazilian Health Sector Reform. In particular, I highlight his concern with the ethical perspective of academic praxis and in this sense, with hope as a human value which is historically objectified and intersubjectively constructed.
Lynch, Frances L
Suicide is a leading cause of death in the U.S. and results in immense suffering and significant cost. Effective suicide prevention interventions could reduce this burden, but policy makers need estimates of health outcomes achieved by alternative interventions to focus implementation efforts. To illustrate the utility of health outcome models to help in achieving goals defined by the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force. The approach is illustrated specifically with psychotherapeutic interventions to prevent suicide reattempt in emergency department settings. A health outcome model using decision analysis with secondary data was applied to estimate suicide attempts and deaths averted from evidence-based interventions. Under optimal conditions, the model estimated that over 1 year, implementing evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions in emergency departments could decrease the number of suicide attempts by 18,737, and if offered over 5 years, it could avert 109,306 attempts. Over 1 year, the model estimated 2,498 fewer deaths from suicide, and over 5 years, about 13,928 fewer suicide deaths. Health outcome models could aid in suicide prevention policy by helping focus implementation efforts. Further research developing more sophisticated models of the impact of suicide prevention interventions that include a more complex understanding of suicidal behavior, longer time frames, and inclusion of additional outcomes that capture the full benefits and costs of interventions would be helpful next steps. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Sessa, Alessandra; Abbate, Rossella; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat) and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico
Vector-borne diseases constitute a diversified group of illnesses, which are caused by a multitude of pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, and sand flies. Proper management of these diseases is important from both human and veterinary medicine standpoints, given that many of these pathogens are transmissible to humans and dogs, which often live in close contact. In this review, we summarize the most important vector-borne diseases of dogs and humans and the best practices for their prevention. The control of these diseases would ultimately improve animal and human health and wellbeing, particularly in developing countries in the tropics, where the risk of these diseases is high and access to health care is poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia
This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.
Fowler, Jim; Chevannes, Mel
Nursing is a growing area of higher education, in which an introduction to statistics is an essential component. There is currently a gap in the market for a 'user-friendly' book which is contextulised and targeted for nursing. Practical Statistics for Nursing and Health Care introduces statistical techniques in such a way that readers will easily grasp the fundamentals to enable them to gain the confidence and understanding to perform their own analysis. It also provides sufficient advice in areas such as clinical trials and epidemiology to enable the reader to critically appraise work published in journals such as the Lancet and British Medical Journal. * Covers all basic statistical concepts and tests * Is user-friendly - avoids excessive jargon * Includes relevant examples for nurses, including case studies and data sets * Provides information on further reading * Starts from first principles and progresses step by step * Includes 'advice on' sections for all of the tests described.
A legal analysis of the use of ionising radiation in medical hospital practice: an inquiry into the influence of prevention and precaution on health protection and liability. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2004
, following the risk characterisation and assessment which has to be introduced once a scientific or societal problem occurs with regard to medical practices, already subject to the legal duty of Justification and of Informed Consent. For some specific cases, as paediatric CT doses, the 2003 report of the Belgian Health Council gives a clear warning and refers to collective doses that are significantly higher than in the neighbouring countries. It cannot be denied that such a repeated warning urges decision makers and hospitals to take corrective actions, in particular when poor optimisation is put in place. Causality in the nuclear field is another complex problem, where worldwide alternatives are under consideration, such as probability of causation. However, such a concept, based on statistical proof, can hardly be implemented in Belgian law since our tort- and insurance-system is based on the individual relationship between liable actor and victim
Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Dulmen, S. van; Berg, M. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Slobbe, L.C.J.
BACKGROUND: Considering the scarcity of health care resources and the high costs associated with cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the spending on cardiovascular primary preventive activities and the prescribing behaviour of primary preventive cardiovascular medication (PPCM) in Dutch family
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…
Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.
To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…
Edmondson, Lynne; Zeman, Laura Dreuth
This article examines state-level school laws that emerged over the last decade with regard to bully prevention. The purpose is to determine, among states that legally mandate public schools to address bullying, how extensively they have incorporated language representing the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention levels. State bully laws…
The screening rate amongst the workers was very low. The findings of this survey warrant a very strong recommendation for the setting-up of workplace policies and mechanisms for cervical cancer education, screening and prevention interventions. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Awareness, Prevention, Workplace ...
Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an occupational hazard for them and a leading cause of death globally. Prevention strategies include vaccination and observance of standard precaution. However, available reports claim utilization of the prevention ...
Ravasco, Paula; Ferreira, Catarina; Camilo, Maria Ermelinda
. These are the interventions and attitudes that make a difference and that are actually effective in preventing and/or treating many chronic diseases. Hence it is possible to improve health and quality of health services provided to the population (public health scope) and that of patients (clinical practice scope) as well as to optimize costs in health.
... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...
Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L
The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso.The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS. In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1 preventive measures, 2 causes and 3 symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%.A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41. About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge
Yaya, Sanni; Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu
Malaria remains a major public health issue in most southern African countries as the disease remains hyper endemic. Burkina Faso continues to face challenges in the treatment of malaria, as the utilization of preventive measures remains low on a national scale. While it has been acknowledged that understanding women's health-seeking behaviours, perception of malaria and its preventive measures will aid in the control of malaria, there is paucity of information on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among women in the reproductive age of 15-49 years in Burkina Faso. This study investigated women's knowledge of malaria, attitudes towards malaria, and practices of malaria control in order to create a synergy between community efforts and governmental/non-governmental malaria control interventions in Burkina Faso. The analysis used data from the 2014 Burkina Faso Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS). In total 8111 women aged between 15-49 years were included in the present study. We assessed women's knowledge about 1) preventive measures, 2) causes and 3) symptoms of malaria, as well as malaria prevention practices for their children and during pregnancy. The socio-demographic characteristics were considered for Age, Religion, Education, Wealth index, Number of household members, Sex of household head, Household possession of radio, TV and Received antenatal care. Data were analyzed using STATA, version 14. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square and logistic regression, with the level of statistical significance set at 95%. A preponderant proportion of respondents were aged 15-29 years (mean age was 28.63±9.41). About three-quarters of the respondents had no formal education. An estimated two-third of the participants were of Islamic faith, while access to media and behavioural communication were generally poor. The level of knowledge was 53% for rural women and 68.2% for urban dwellers. In sum, there was 56.1% level of accurate knowledge of malaria
Gaffar, B O; El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; AlAgl, A S
This study assessed the association between oral health knowledge and practices of pregnant Saudi women selected from visitors to a government hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia in 2014. Women answered questions on oral health knowledge during pregnancy and knowledge of infant oral health. Most women (> 70%) knew that dental caries in children can be prevented, that pregnancy affects oral health and that dental treatment during pregnancy can negatively affect infants. Most women (> 80%) performed oral hygiene procedures but only 18% regularly visited the dentist. In a regression analysis, oral health knowledge was not significantly associated with reported oral hygiene practices. Women who visited the dentist regularly were more likely to know how to prevent caries in children, and that dental treatment during pregnancy and infant health were associated.
Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test...... the Prevent model by applying it to a synthetic cohort in which the development is unaffected by concealed factors....
Lewis, Sarah R
The Practice of Health Program Evaluation provides an overview of the evaluation process for public health programs while diving deeper to address select advanced concepts and techniques. The book unfolds evaluation as a three-phased process consisting of identification of evaluation questions, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of results and recommendations. The text covers research design, sampling methods, as well as quantitative and qualitative approaches. Types of evaluation are also discussed, including economic assessment and systems research as relative newcomers. Aspects critical to conducting a successful evaluation regardless of type or research design are emphasized, such as stakeholder engagement, validity and reliability, and adoption of sound recommendations. The book encourages evaluators to document their approach by developing an evaluation plan, a data analysis plan, and a dissemination plan, in order to help build consensus throughout the process. The evaluative text offers a good bird's-eye view of the evaluation process, while offering guidance for evaluation experts on how to navigate political waters and advocate for their findings to help affect change.
Ono, Sarah S.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Green, Larry A.; Kaufman, Arthur; Solberg, Leif I.; Miller, William L.; Woodson, Tanisha Tate; Sweeney, Shannon M.; Cohen, Deborah J.
Health care extension is an approach to providing external support to primary care practices with the aim of diffusing innovation. EvidenceNOW was launched to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular preventive care in the primary care setting. Seven regional grantee cooperatives provided the foundational elements of health care extension—technological and quality improvement support, practice capacity building, and linking with community resources—to more than two hundred primary care practices in each region. This article describes how the cooperatives varied in their approaches to extension and provides early empirical evidence that health care extension is a feasible and potentially useful approach for providing quality improvement support to primary care practices. With investment, health care extension may be an effective platform for federal and state quality improvement efforts to create economies of scale and provide practices with more robust and coordinated support services. PMID:29401016
Ono, Sarah S; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Hemler, Jennifer R; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Edwards, Samuel T; Green, Larry A; Kaufman, Arthur; Solberg, Leif I; Miller, William L; Woodson, Tanisha Tate; Sweeney, Shannon M; Cohen, Deborah J
Health care extension is an approach to providing external support to primary care practices with the aim of diffusing innovation. EvidenceNOW was launched to rapidly disseminate and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular preventive care in the primary care setting. Seven regional grantee cooperatives provided the foundational elements of health care extension-technological and quality improvement support, practice capacity building, and linking with community resources-to more than two hundred primary care practices in each region. This article describes how the cooperatives varied in their approaches to extension and provides early empirical evidence that health care extension is a feasible and potentially useful approach for providing quality improvement support to primary care practices. With investment, health care extension may be an effective platform for federal and state quality improvement efforts to create economies of scale and provide practices with more robust and coordinated support services.
O'Neill, Barbara; Xiao, Jing Jian; Ensle, Karen
This study explored relationships between the practice of following a hand-written or computer-generated budget and the frequency of performance of positive personal health and financial practices. Data were collected from an online quiz completed by 942 adults, providing a simultaneous assessment of individuals' health and financial practices.…
This study was carried out among general medical practitioners in Ogun state to assess their attitude to and practice of health promotion in clinical practice. Although 91.1% of them indicated that health promotion is very important in clinical practice, only a quarter or less of them routinely asked or counseled their patients ...
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
Joseph-Shehu, Elizabeth M; Ncama, Busisiwe P
Introduction Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a key role in improving health and maintaining health promoting behaviours. ICTs are therefore one potential solution for promoting healthy lifestyles. In addition, they can assist in the reduction and control of the menace of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. This study will map evidence of interventions that demonstrate the effect of ICTs on health-promoting lifestyle practices that can prevent and control di...
Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio; Green, Alexander R; Maina, Angela
The Latino population of the United States is expected to increase substantially in the next 25 years. Although recent health promotion and disease prevention interventions have improved the health of the majority of Americans, the Latino community has derived less benefit from these advances. This is due to a number of interrelated factors, including a disproportionate representation of Latino Americans in the low socioeconomic strata and in the uninsured population. Even when insured, Latino Americans face significant barriers to health promotion and disease prevention. This policy analysis identifies barriers at the organizational and structural level of health care delivery, as well as at the level of the medical encounter. It provides a practical framework for intervention that is founded on the recruitment of Latino Americans into the health care workforce and leadership, the restructuring of health systems to be more responsive to the needs of diverse populations, and health care provider education on how to improve cross-cultural understanding and communication. By investing in a multifaceted approach that addresses barriers to health promotion and disease prevention in the Latino population, we can improve the quality of care delivered to this population and help eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care.
Oct 4, 2011 ... patient, date and demographic characteristics including age, sex, educational qualification ... was at P 8. 3. 0.6. The various preventive measures used by these patients against malaria were insecticide.
Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies
de Franco, Chiara; Rodt, Annemarie Peen
reactions to the 2011 Libyan crisis, we investigate whether a “European practice of mass atrocity prevention” is emerging and if so how this relates—or not—to R2P. We do this by investigating EU practices seeking to protect people from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes and crimes against humanity...
Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.
At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out a comparative survey of regulations, policies and practices in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work
Full Text Available The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cholera prevention and preparedness in Ga-Mampuru village (Limpopo, South Africa. Interviewers collected data using a two-pronged method, namely a household questionnaire (open- and closed-ended questions to assess knowledge and attitudes about cholera and observations to assess practices in the prevention and management of the disease. Additionally, interviewers took pictures with the respondents’ permission. Ninety-six respondents were interviewed. Most respondents (86% indicated they knew how cholera was contracted with 84% indicating contaminated water as a source. Ninety percent of the respondents indicated they knew how to prevent contracting cholera. All respondents generally knew that cholera could be treated with medicine received at a health-care facility or worker. Fewer respondents (58% had specific knowledge such as the use of rehydration solutions. The respondents’ high level of prevention practices could be biased. Interviewers observed that many practices were not adhered to, like not washing hands, not using toilet paper and throwing waste in respondents’ yards. Therefore, the community of Ga-Mampuru had not reached a stage of adequate cholera prevention and preparedness in spite of the fact that they were aware of cholera risks and risk-reduction measures.
Rodríguez-Jareño, Maria Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; de Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta
Despite no evidence in favour, routine workers' health examinations, mostly pre-employment and periodic, are extensively performed worldwide with important allocation of resources. In Spain they are performed within a theoretical job-specific health surveillance system. Our objective was to ascertain their occupational preventive usefulness from the perspective of occupational health professionals. Cross sectional study. Online survey addressed to all physicians and nurses members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine (n=539) in 2011. Univariate and bivariate analyses of prevalence and prevalence differences of answers. Response rate 53% (n=285). According to more than 70% of respondents the health surveillance system isn't cost-effective, doesn't meet the goal of early detection of health damage related to work, and doesn't contribute to improve the occupational risk prevention system. Further deficiencies were identified regarding specificity and scientific basis for health examinations, quality of collective health surveillance and referral of suspected cases to mutual insurance companies for diagnosis and treatment. Bivariate analysis showed a significantly more negative opinion for several items amongst physicians (versus nurses) and amongst professionals working in external prevention services (versus internal services). This study raises serious concerns about how health examinations are performed within our workers' health surveillance system, which should be reviewed to ensure the fulfilment of its occupational preventive objective. Our results might encourage other countries with similar practices to assess them in order to assure their fitness for purpose. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Mario Ferreira Junior
Full Text Available Objectives: To introduce a basic webliography to access highly qualified evidence-based material on health promotion and disease prevention, aiming at the continuing education of health professionals. Methods: By means of Google® browser, applying the descriptors in sequence to progressively refine the search on Internet and key concepts to be learned, all previously defined by the authors themselves, we proceeded a qualitative analyses of the 20 first listed links for each searched issue and the final selection of the most scientifically relevant ones. Results: The 34 selected links are presented in 4 groups: 23 portals, 5 guides and recommendations, 4 scientific journals and 3 blogs that allow free access to health promotion and disease prevention related subjects, such as: concepts; national and international public policies; epidemiology, statistics and health indicators; diseases screening and prophylaxis; counseling for behavior change of health related habits; and interdisciplinary work. Among the selected links 10 (29% are written in English while the others are in Portuguese. Conclusions: The identification of reading materials on health promotion and disease prevention available on Internet, many in Portuguese, allowed us toselect relevant scientifically qualified literature and turn it accessible to health professionals, enabling the acquisition of new knowledge or quick update.
Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M
The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the
Obstetric referrals: the practice by community health workers. ... Highland Medical Research Journal ... This cross-sectional study documents the practice of referral of obstetric patients and the challenges faced by community health extension workers attending a Community Health Officers Training programme in a teaching ...
Strengthening the capacity of rural health practice centers to deliver health services to people in their domain is very vital in this regard. The peculiar characteristics of practicing health care in rural communities such as small defined geographical areas and the corresponding sociocultural mileu can be harnessed to improve ...
Seiffert, Andrea; Zaror, Carlos; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Ormeño, Andrea; Martínez-Zapata, María José; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
To evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for dental caries prevention in children and adolescents MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of CPGs on caries preventive measures between 2005 and 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, TripDatabase, websites of CPG developers, compilers of CPGs, scientific societies and ministries of health. We included CPGs with recommendations on sealants, fluorides and oral hygiene. Three reviewers independently assessed the included CPGs using the AGREE II instrument. We calculated the standardised scores for the six domains and made a final recommendation about each CPG. Also, we calculated the overall agreement among calibrated reviewers with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Twenty-two CPGs published were selected from a total of 637 references. Thirteen were in English and nine in Spanish. The overall agreement between reviewers was very good (ICC = 0.90; 95%CI 0.89-0.92). The mean score for each domain was the following: Scope and purpose 89.6 ± 12%; Stakeholder involvement 55.0 ± 15.6%; Rigour of development 64.9 ± 21.2%; Clarity of presentation 84.8 ± 14.1%; Applicability 30.6 ± 31.5% and Editorial independence 59.3 ± 25.5%. Thirteen CPGs (59.1%) were assessed as "recommended", eight (36.4%) "recommended with modifications" and one (4.5%) "not recommended". The overall quality of CPGs in caries prevention was moderate. The domains with greater deficiencies were Applicability, Stakeholder involvement and Editorial independence. Clinicians should use the best available CPGs in dental caries prevention to provide optimal oral health care to patients.
Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; Verhaak, P.; Mheen, D. van de
Background: As part of health policy aiming to improve early detection and treatment of mental illness in general practices, from 2008 mental health practice nurses were gradually introduced in general practices in the Netherlands. The current study aims to investigate the effect of the
Conclusions: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This package includes a clinical practice guideline, quick reference guide for clinicians, and patient's guide to predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults. The clinical practice guideline includes the following: overview of the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers; clinical practice guideline (introduction, risk assessment tools…
Sharps, P W; Koziol-McLain, J; Campbell, J; McFarlane, J; Sachs, C; Xu, X
Homicide of women (femicide) by intimate partners is the most serious form of violence against women. The purpose of this analysis of a larger multisite study was to describe health care use in the year prior to murder of women by their intimate partner in order to identify opportunities for intervention to prevent femicide. A sample of femicide cases was identified from police or medical examiner records. Participants (n = 311) were proxy informants (most often female family members) of victims of intimate partner femicide from 11 U.S. cities. Information about prior domestic abuse and use of health care and other helping agencies for victims and perpetrators was obtained during structured telephone interviews. Most victims had been abused by their partners (66%) and had used health care agencies for either injury or physical or mental health problems (41%). Among women who had been pregnant during the relationship, 23% were beaten by partners during pregnancy. Among perpetrators with fair or poor physical health, 53% had contact with physicians and 15% with fair or poor mental health had seen a doctor about their mental health problem. Among perpetrators with substance problems, 5.4% had used alcohol treatment programs and 5.7% had used drug treatment programs. Frequent contacts with helping agencies by victims and perpetrators represent opportunities for the prevention of femicide by health care providers. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Elfimova, E V; Elfimov, M A; Berezkin, A S
Working in conditions of physical and psychological overload, occupational hazard makes health workers vulnerable to the development of burnout syndrome. Currently, 67.6% of physicians in Russia suffer from emotional burnout syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a certain symptoms, which have their predictors. Prevention and treatment of emotional burnout syndrome - a complex problem that can be solved with the participation of heads of medical institutions, full- time psychologists and psychotherapists with the direct involvement of health professionals.
The work is dealing with problems of safety aspects of welding in conjunction with connected preventive provisions. The work seeks to outline complex problem particularly by integration of information from obtainable sources dealing with only alone part of the wide range topic. From technological point of view there are briefly described different welding processes with their summary of health hazards referring to welding. It contains provisions relation impeding health during welding activit...
Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Cammafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Armario, Pedro; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Cortés, Olga; Serrano, Benilde; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Pérez, Antonio; Maiques, Antonio; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Castro, Almudena; Alegría, Eduardo; Baeza, Ciro; Herranz, María; Sans, Susana; Campos, Pilar
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Camafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P
The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test...
Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.
Selker, Leopold; And Others
This article addresses the concept of "special needs" as it applies to health promotion and disease prevention. The three sections of this article deal with three special subgroups of the general population: the elderly, those with disabilities, and those with cultural heritages that are not the same as the majority population's. (Author/CT)
Objective: To determine the level of health-care workers' compliance with Infection Prevention Guidelines and identify factors that influence compliance at Ronald Ross General Hospital, Mufulira District. Methods: A quantitative study was carried out in 2007. Convenient sampling method was used. Data was obtained using ...
Bailie, Jodie; Matthews, Veronica; Laycock, Alison; Schultz, Rosalie; Burgess, Christopher P; Peiris, David; Larkins, Sarah; Bailie, Ross
Like other colonised populations, Indigenous Australians experience poorer health outcomes than non-Indigenous Australians. Preventable chronic disease is the largest contributor to the health differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, but recommended best-practice preventive care is not consistently provided to Indigenous Australians. Significant improvement in health care delivery could be achieved through identifying and minimising evidence-practice gaps. Our objective was to use clinical audit data to create a framework of the priority evidence-practice gaps, strategies to address them, and drivers to support these strategies in the delivery of recommended preventive care. De-identified preventive health clinical audit data from 137 primary health care (PHC) centres in five jurisdictions were analysed (n = 17,108 audited records of well adults with no documented major chronic disease; 367 system assessments; 2005-2014), together with stakeholder survey data relating to interpretation of these data, using a mixed-methods approach (n = 152 responses collated in 2015-16). Stakeholders surveyed included clinicians, managers, policy officers, continuous quality improvement (CQI) facilitators and academics. Priority evidence-practice gaps and associated barriers, enablers and strategies to address the gaps were identified and reported back through two-stages of consultation. Further analysis and interpretation of these data were used to develop a framework of strategies and drivers for health service improvement. Stakeholder identified priorities were: following-up abnormal test results; completing cardiovascular risk assessments; timely recording of results; recording enquiries about living conditions, family relationships and substance use; providing support for clients identified with emotional wellbeing risk; enhancing systems to enable team function and continuity of care. Drivers identified for improving care in these areas included
Michau, Lori; Horn, Jessica; Bank, Amy; Dutt, Mallika; Zimmerman, Cathy
This Series paper describes programming to prevent violence against women and girls, and emphasises the importance of systematic, sustained programming across the social ecology (ie, the delicate equilibrium of interacting social, institutional, cultural, and political contexts of people's lives) to transform gender-power inequalities. Effective prevention policy and programming is founded on five core principles: first, analysis and actions to prevent violence across the social ecology (individual, interpersonal, community, and societal); second, intervention designs based on an intersectional gender-power analysis; third, theory-informed models developed on the basis of evidence; fourth, sustained investment in multisector interventions; and finally, aspirational programming that promotes personal and collective thought, and enables activism on women's and girls' rights to violence-free lives. Prevention programming of the future will depend on all of us having a vision of, and a commitment to, gender equality to make violence-free lives for women and girls a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objectives: To assess insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use, other malaria prevention measures, knowledge of malaria and diffusion of information about ITNs by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in Mali. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Four villages in Mopti region, Mali that had participated ...
The higher number of preventive consultations had an impact on a statistically significant decrease in mean blood pressure and mean SCORE value. The year-long cardiovascular disease prophylaxis programme proved less effective than expected, and neither a decrease in body weight nor an improvement in lipid metabolism was achieved in any of the groups.
Assessing and analyzing local malaria problems are a prerequisite for successful control interventions. We sought to assess the knowledge of the symptoms of malaria, attitude towards preventive measures as well as treatment seeking behaviors among members of the Ile-Ife community in southwestern Nigeria. A cross ...
The provision of adolescent preventive services (APS) is imperative globally among clinicians, especially paediatricians. Adolescents are at a developmental stage that is characterised by experimentation and risk-taking owing to their emerging cognitive abilities and social experiences.[1,2] They are therefore vulnerable ...
As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat ...
Yang, Le; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tan, Tengfei; Cheng, Jingmin
Ancient China emphasized disease prevention. As a Chinese saying goes, 'it is more important to prevent the disease than to cure it'. Traditional Chinese medicine posits that diseases can be understood, thus, prevented. In today's China, the state of people's health seems worse than in the past. Thus the Chinese government undertook the creation of a new health system. Alas, we believe the results are not very satisfactory. The government seems to have overlooked rational allocation between resources for treatment and prevention. Public investment has been gradually limited to the domain of treatment. We respond to this trend, highlighting the importance of prevention and call for government and policymakers to adjust health policy and work out a solution suitable for improving the health of China's people.
Full Text Available Purpose : To develop practical recommendations for the prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes to improve the effectiveness of training and competitive activities, and accelerate recovery processes. Material: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature on the exchange of iron, as well as ways of prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes. Results: It was found that iron deficiency in the body athletes may reduce sports (general and special capacity and the situation of overtraining. The basic approaches on how to prevent and correct iron deficiency in athletes through nutrition. Conclusions: practical recommendations for the prevention and correction of iron deficiency in athletes.
Walsh, Liz; Freshwater, Dawn
Prison health care is undergoing significant organisational change. This article highlights the potential for practice development in this setting, giving two examples of ongoing developments undertaken as part of a programme of research and development in mental health.
Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem
Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik
Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.
Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M; Wormley, Molly
Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].
Jayashree S Gothankar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.
Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R
In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry.
Full Text Available The childhood obesity epidemic can be best tackled by means of an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies, or Health in All Policies. Integrated policies are developed through intersectoral collaboration between local government policy makers from health and nonhealth sectors. Such intersectoral collaboration has been proved to be difficult. In this study, we investigated which resources influence intersectoral collaboration. The behavior change wheel framework was used to categorize motivation-, capability-, and opportunity-related resources for intersectoral collaboration. In-depth interviews were held with eight officials representing 10 non-health policy sectors within a local government. Results showed that health and non-health policy sectors did not share policy goals, which decreased motivation for intersectoral collaboration. Awareness of the linkage between health and nonhealth policy sectors was limited, and management was not involved in creating such awareness, which reduced the capability for intersectoral collaboration. Insufficient organizational resources and structures reduced opportunities for intersectoral collaboration. To stimulate intersectoral collaboration to prevent childhood obesity, we recommend that public health professionals should reframe health goals in the terminology of nonhealth policy sectors, that municipal department managers should increase awareness of public health in non-health policy sectors, and that flatter organizational structures should be established.
Full Text Available Aim: to assess the importance of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, in the early detection of risk factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases and the development of a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. On the basis of the Health Center of Engels Center for Medical Prevention in the Saratov Region, the detection of risk factors for 2011-2015 was analyzed according to statistical reporting (form No. 68 and health cards (form025-CZ/y of 207 patients. To assess the satisfaction of visitors with the work of the Center, a specially developed questionnaire was conducted, which included 22 questions that characterize the patient profile, his attitude to the organization and the results of the survey, and the motivation to modify the way of life. Results. The study confirmed the important role of the Centers of Health in the organization and provision of preventive care to the population, the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the early detection of diseases and risk factors for their development. Conclusion. Only joint efforts of medical institutions, authorities, educational organizations, mass media can lead to the formation of the population's responsibility for their health and readiness to modify the way of life.
Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate human resources (HR needed to deliver prevention and health promotion actions to the population of 20 years and more in units of primary health care (UPHC. Materials and methods. We included 20 UPHC; one urban and one rural for each of the ten selected Mexican states. HR were estimated based on the time to do prevention and health promotion activities, from which a budget was calculated. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were reported, using the ANOVA test and the Wilcoxon test. Results. The number of health professionals estimated in UPHC with spent time is less than the number estimated with required time. Conclusions. The estimated density of health professionals per population needed to offer prevention and health promotion activities for people 20 years and more in UPHC is greater than the current density of health professionals.
Nozmi, Noramira; Samsudin, Suhailah; Sukeri, Surianti; Shafei, Mohd Nazri; Wan Mohd, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Idris, Zawaha; Arifin, Wan Nor; Idris, Norazlin; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Abdullah, Nurul Munirah; Abdul Wahab, Zainudin; Tengku Jamaluddin, Tengku Zetty Maztura; Abd Rahman, Hejar; Masri, Siti Norbaya; Daud, Aziah; Osman, Malina; Awang Hamat, Rukman
Little is known on the knowledge, attitudes and preventive practices (KAP) of leptospirosis worldwide. This study embarked on assessing the KAP of leptospirosis among rural communities in Malaysia. A total of 444 participants (223 male; 221 female) aged between 18 and 81 years old were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. A majority of participants had poor knowledge level (57.0%), unacceptable attitudes (90.3%) and unacceptable preventive practices (69.1%) on leptospirosis, and only 29.7% knew "rat-urine disease" as leptospirosis. Only 34.2% of the participants knew the bacteria could enter via wound lesions. Ethnicity and income were strongly associated with knowledge level and preventive practices, respectively ( p -values floods. By logistic regression analysis, ethnicity was the only significant predictor for both knowledge level (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.222-0.680) and preventive practices (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.204-2.734). Ethnicity (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.239-0.665), income (AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.041-2.385) and education type (AOR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.237-10.986) were strong predictors for attitudes. Among the KAP variables, attitude (AOR = 4.357, 95% CI = 2.613-7.264) was the only predictor for the preventive practices by logistic regression analysis. The KAP elements on leptospirosis are still lacking and poor health seeking behavior and attitudes are of our utmost concern. Thus, effective strategies should be planned to impart knowledge, and develop proactive approaches and good preventive modules on leptospirosis to this leptospirosis-prone community.
Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.
Marutani, Miki; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Kodama, Shimpei
Suicide is a major health issue worldwide, including in Japan. Japanese public health nurses (PHNs) play a distinctive role in suicide prevention, although few studies have delineated this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework that elucidates PHNs' activities for suicide prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2012-2013 with 15 PHNs who worked in Tokyo metropolitan regions. Data were analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory, and a conceptual framework with seven categories was developed. Three phases that depict the PHNs' suicide prevention activities emerged. Phase I, Pursuing to understand suicide cases, included two categories: tracing back individual suicide cases and raising consciousness among the general public. Phase II, Spreading a web of care, included three categories: knitting a caring network, weaving regular programs into the web, and continuing to be a member of the web. Phase III, Maintaining motivation and commitment, included two categories: legitimatizing suicide prevention and cultivating continued commitment in the community. The activities of suicide prevention by PHNs included a process of developing a caring network that lead to the enhancement of the caring capacity of the community as a whole. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is the normative standards for infant nutrition, exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge in the general population of newborns are still suboptimal. Besides many other psychological, social, economical, cultural factors, breastfeeding success is also significantly influenced by maternity practices that have the potential to foster or otherwise to hinder breastfeeding physiology during postpartum hospital stay. On their part, health professionals need to improve their knowledge on lactation, to acquire better skills to manage breastfeeding problems and to commit themselves to prepare evidence based clinical protocols that support breastfeeding and the use of human milk. At the Institute for Maternal and Child Health in Trieste (Italy, we have developed two surveillance protocols related to situations that commonly challenge health professionals to give their qualified advice to the breastfeeding dyad. Particularly, we have documented the feasibility of a protocol on the management of skin to skin contact between mother and his/her newborn infant. This protocol is applied in the delivery room in the context of the prevention of sudden unexpected postnatal collapse. The second protocol refers to the management of early neonatal weight loss. Finally, we believe that combining an effective promotion of breastfeeding with good clinical practice is appropriated and safe and we recognize that both the competence and the attitude of staff have an essential role in the success of the initiation of breastfeeding. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…
Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…
Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in Nigeria and women of low socio-economic status are at high risk of this condition. A study was conducted on the awareness of cervical cancer, attitude towards the disease and screening practice of women residing in two urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria.
Results: All the respondents were aware of HIV but their awareness of PMTCT specifically was not as high. Only 8.3% of the respondents had good level of knowledge about HIV and PMTCT and up to 13% of them claimed to be able to cure HIV using native remedies. The practices of HIV counseling of patients and referral ...
Stol, Yrrah H; Asscher, Eva C A; Schermer, Maartje H N
Health checks identify (risk factors for) disease in people without symptoms. They may be offered by the government through population screenings and by other providers to individual users as 'personal health checks'. Health check providers' perspective of 'good' health checks may further the debate on the ethical evaluation and possible regulation of these personal health checks. In 2015, we interviewed twenty Dutch health check providers on criteria for 'good' health checks, and the role these criteria play in their practices. Providers unanimously formulate a number of minimal criteria: Checks must focus on (risk factors for) treatable/preventable disease; Tests must be reliable and clinically valid; Participation must be informed and voluntary; Checks should provide more benefits than harms; Governmental screenings should be cost-effective. Aspirational criteria mentioned were: Follow-up care should be provided; Providers should be skilled and experienced professionals that put the benefit of (potential) users first; Providers should take time and attention. Some criteria were contested: People should be free to test on any (risk factor for) disease; Health checks should only be performed in people at high risk for disease that are likely to implement health advice; Follow up care of privately funded tests should not drain on collective resources. Providers do not always fulfil their own criteria. Their reasons reveal conflicts between criteria, conflicts between criteria and other ethical values, and point to components in the (Dutch) organisation of health care that hinder an ethical provision of health checks. Moreover, providers consider informed consent a criterion that is hard to establish in practice. According to providers, personal health checks should meet the same criteria as population screenings, with the exception of cost-effectiveness. Providers do not always fulfil their own criteria. Results indicate that in thinking about the ethics of health
Chen, Zhuo (Adam); Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A
Objective To examine the association between bodyweight status and provision of population-based prevention services. Data Sources The National Association of City and County Health Officials 2005 Profile survey data, linked with two cross-sections of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey in 2004 and 2005. Study Design Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the association between provision of obesity-prevention services and the change in risk of being obese or morbidly obese among BRFSS respondents. The estimation sample was stratified by sex. Low-income samples were also examined. Falsification tests were used to determine whether there is counterevidence. Principal Findings Provision of population-based obesity-prevention services within the jurisdiction of local health departments and specifically those provided by the local health departments are associated with reduced risks of obesity and morbid obesity from 2004 to 2005. The magnitude of the association appears to be stronger among low-income populations and among women. Results of the falsification tests provide additional support of the main findings. Conclusions Population-based obesity-prevention services may be useful in containing the obesity epidemic. PMID:22816510
On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.
Smith, Kevin; Williams, Pat [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)
Our industry has taken grand interest in improving safety in the last few decades, particularly of our process operations. This has resulted in significant improvements in overall industry safety statistics. Despite this improvement in our efforts, incidents still occur where people are injured, and these tragic incidents may even be fatal. Organizations have implemented various programs to lessen the chance of these incidents occurring, three of which are most commonly: check the box, minimize legal liability, and take a practical approach. Most often it is the practical approach that proves to influence the most improvements because it is an approach focused on the employees and the organizations business needs together. The plants that show the most safety are to no surprise run by reliable individuals. Usually, the causes of incidents stem from a failure to perform and maintain basic procedures. The answers to each plant's safety dilemmas are not found in any one program, but instead lie in understanding the anatomy of what it means to be safe. Only when that is understood can a solution be constructed and catered to the entire physiology of the problem. There are three basic tenants that need to be considered in any safety improvement strategy in order for it to be effective: capability, awareness and motivation. The third is further comprised of two factors that should not be overlooked: desire and accountability. Therefore, process safety is not driven by fancy software or rigid structure programs. It is apparent that several factors come into play when implementing safer practices. The focus of these practices should be on manufacturing employees. When improvement efforts are focused on activities and behaviors whose implementation is practical in a plant environment and address the three main areas of the anatomy, the likelihood of success increases substantially. (author)
Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D
The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.
Full Text Available AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle. The survey comprised standardised measures of anxiety and burnout as well as a questionnaire developed for this study concerning perceptions and attitudes to suicide and suicide prevention.ResultsFactor analysis of 12 retained items of the questionnaire identified three factors: 1 preventability beliefs (beliefs about suicide being always and/or permanently preventable; 2 associated distress (stress/anxiety about managing suicidal behaviour; and 3 the prevention role (covering views about personal roles and responsibilities in preventing suicidal behaviours. Analysis of these factors found that many MH workers experience an elevation of stress/anxiety in relation to their role in managing suicidal behaviours. This distress was associated with the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Measures showed adverse responses were higher for outpatient than inpatient workers; for those who had received generic training in suicide prevention: and for those who had experienced a workplace related client suicide.ConclusionThere is a need for the development of appropriate self-care strategies to alleviate stress in MH workers exposed to suicide.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas
programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...
Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia
In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive
Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C
Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel. Following the description of each of these, this article then turns to possible approaches to measuring, tracking, and understanding the impact of these forces of change on public health practice, including the use of evidence-based public health, practice-based research, and policy surveillance.
Simeon J.A. Visscher
Full Text Available This article provides both qualitative and quantitative data on practice variation amongst preventive child healthcare professionals in the prevention of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. Qualitative data consist of topics identified during interviews with 11 experts (with quotes, resulting in an online survey. The quantitative data are survey responses from 1104 doctors and nurses working in 29 preventive child healthcare organizations. Additionally, the interview topic list, the qualitative data analysis methodology, the survey (in English and Dutch and anonymized raw survey data (http://hdl.handle.net/10411/5LJOGH are provided as well. This data-in-brief article accompanies the paper âVariation in prevention of child maltreatment by Dutch child healthcare professionalsâ by Simeon Visscher and Henk van Stel .
Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality...... and prevention practices for malaria among pregnant women. The main study outcome was the proportion of private health facilities who prescribe treatment of fever among pregnant women as recommended in the guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 70.5 % were registered drug......-pyrimethamine and quinine were commonly prescribed, often without consideration of gestational age. The majority of providers (>75 %) at all private facilities prescribed SP for intermittent preventive treatment but artemisinin-based combination therapy was prescribed: 8.3, 6.9 and 8.3 % respectively at drug shops, private...
... Act Expands Prevention Coverage for Women’s Health and Well-Being The Affordable Care Act – the health insurance reform ... preventive services are necessary for women’s health and well-being and therefore should be considered in the development ...
Michaelis, Martina; Jarczok, Marc N.; Balint, Elisabeth M.; Lange, Rahna; Zipfel, Stephan; Gündel, Harald; Junne, Florian
Collaboration among occupational health physicians, primary care physicians and psychotherapists in the prevention and treatment of common mental disorders in employees has been scarcely researched. To identify potential for improvement, these professions were surveyed in Baden-Württemberg (Germany). Four hundred and fifty occupational health physicians, 1000 primary care physicians and 700 resident medical and psychological psychotherapists received a standardized questionnaire about their experiences, attitudes and wishes regarding activities for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of common mental disorders in employees. The response rate of the questionnaire was 30% (n = 133) among occupational health physicians, 14% (n = 136) among primary care physicians and 27% (n = 186) among psychotherapists. Forty percent of primary care physicians and 33% of psychotherapists had never had contact with an occupational health physician. Psychotherapists indicated more frequent contact with primary care physicians than vice versa (73% and 49%, respectively). Better cooperation and profession-specific training on mental disorders and better knowledge about work-related stress were endorsed. For potentially involved stakeholders, the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration for better prevention and care of employees with common mental disorders is very high. Nevertheless, there is only little collaboration in practice. To establish quality-assured cooperation structures in practice, participants need applicable frameworks on an organizational and legal level. PMID:29415515
Rosa Maria de Albuquerque Freire
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to acknowledge and compare the health promotion and complications' prevention practices performed by nurses working in hospital and primary health care contexts. Methods: descriptive, exploratory and crosscutting study, performed with 474 nurses selected by convenience sampling. It was used a form that encompassed two categories of descriptive statements about quality in the professional exercise of nurses. This study had ethical committee approval. Results: the nurses' population was mainly women (87,3% with an average age of 35,5 years. There was more practices of the hospital's nurses related to the identification of potential problems of the patient (p=0.001 and supervision of the activities that put in place the nursing interventions and the activities that they delegate (p=0.003. Conclusion: the nurses perform health promotion and complications' prevention activities, however not in a systematic fashion and professional practices differ by context. This study is relevant as it may promote the critical consciousness of the nurses about the need of stressing quality practices.
Background: Attitude and practice of health care professionals toward autopsy are important as they will give information regarding factors that contribute to the low rate of autopsies in children under five years. Objective: To evaluate the attitude and practice of health care providers towards autopsies in children under five ...
The request for and performance of autopsy have been on the decline despite its obvious merits to medical practice, the patients and public health. Several surveys have exposed some reasons for this decline. Method: This work is a review of the role of forensic pathology to medical practice and public health. The author ...
Chin, Ming-Kai, Ed.; Edginton, Christopher R.
"Physical Education and Health: Global Perspectives and Best Practice" draws together global scholars, researchers, and practitioners to provide a review and analysis of new directions in physical education and health worldwide. The book provides descriptive information from 40 countries regarding contemporary practices, models, and…
Optometric services are well integrated in health insurance programs in the developed world. This study was designed to assess the level of participation of optometric practices in health insurance systems in Nigeria. By convenience, 40 optometric practices in the country were interviewed directly, or by telephone or email ...
The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area
Provost, Sylvie; Gaulin, Colette; Piquet-Gauthier, Blandine; Emmanuelli, Julien; Venne, Sylvie; Dion, Réjean; Grenier, Jean-Luc; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Dubuc, Martine
Among the factors influencing travelers to seek preventive health advice before departure, the travel agent's recommendation plays an important role. The objective of our study was to document the practices and needs of travel agents in Québec (Canada) in relation to the prevention of health problems among travelers. In June 2000, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among travel agents from all travel agencies in Québec. One agent per agency was asked to answer our questions. Data were collected using a 32-item telephone questionnaire. Altogether, 708 travel agents from the 948 agencies contacted answered our questionnaire (participation rate: 75%). Most respondents (81%) believed that the travel agent has a role to play in the prevention of health problems among travelers, especially to recommend that travelers consult a travel clinic before departure. Although over 80% of the agents interviewed mentioned recommending a visit to a travel clinic before an organized tour to Thailand or a backpacking trip in Mexico, less than half said they make the same recommendation for a stay in a seaside resort in Mexico. The majority of respondents were acquainted with the services offered in travel health clinics, and these clinics were the source of travel health information most often mentioned by travel agents. However, nearly 60% of the agents questioned had never personally consulted a travel clinic. When asked about the best way to receive information about travelers' health, more than 40% of respondents favoured receiving information newsletters from public health departments regularly whereas 28% preferred the Internet. Despite the limits of this study, our results should help the public health network better target its interventions aimed to inform travel agents on prevention of health problems among travelers.
Alcaide, Maria L; Chisembele, Maureen; Mumbi, Miriam; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah
Intravaginal practices (IVP) are the introduction of products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. The influence of men and Alengizis, traditional marriage counselors for girls, in promoting IVP has not been explored. We conducted gender-concordant focus groups and key informant interviews with Alengizis. The responses were conducted grouped into three themes: (1) cultural norms, (2) types and reasons for IVP, and (3) health consequences. We found that IVP were used by all participants in our sample and were taught from generation to generation by friends, relatives, or Alengizis. The reasons for women to engage in IVP were hygienic, though men expect women to engage in IVP to enhance sexual pleasure. Approximately 40% of women are aware that IVP can facilitate genital infections, but felt they would not feel clean discontinuing IVP. All men were unaware of the vaginal damage caused by IVP, and were concerned about the loss of sexual pleasure if women discontinued IVP. Despite the health risks of IVP, IVP continue to be widespread in Zambia and an integral component of hygiene and sexuality. The frequency of IVP mandates exploration into methods to decrease or ameliorate their use as an essential component of HIV prevention.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.
Preterm birth can result in adverse outcomes for the neonate and\\/or his\\/her family. The accurate prediction and prevention of preterm birth is paramount. This study describes and critically analyses practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland.
Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.
INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent
Background and purpose: Considering the role of folic acid in preventing congenital malformation and other problems it is rutinely prescribed in Iran. In this study, knowledge and practice of Mazandaran health and therapeutic staff about folic acid were assessed in 2004.Materials and methods : This is a descriptive study on 400 health and therapeutic staff about folic acid. Data were collected via questionair check list. The subjects were divided into three categories of; good, medium and wea...
Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S
The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K
Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…
Harting, Janneke; van Assema, Patricia; van der Molen, Henk T.; Ambergen, Ton; de Vries, Nanne K.
Quality assessments of interventions are seen as essential in optimizing their implementation, interpreting their effectiveness, and illuminating their underlying processes. In Hartslag Limburg, a cardiovascular prevention project, the quality of a health counseling intervention was assessed as part
Austin, S Bryn
The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader range of preventive strategies and perspectives needed to
Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W
Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were
Ferrinho, Paulo; Van Lerberghe, Wim; Fronteira, Inês; Hipólito, Fátima; Biscaia, André
This paper reports on income generation practices among civil servants in the health sector, with a particular emphasis on dual practice. It first approaches the subject of public-private overlap. Thereafter it focuses on coping strategies in general and then on dual practice in particular.To compensate for unrealistically low salaries, health workers rely on individual coping strategies. Many clinicians combine salaried, public-sector clinical work with a fee-for-service private clientele. This dual practice is often a means by which health workers try to meet their survival needs, reflecting the inability of health ministries to ensure adequate salaries and working conditions.Dual practice may be considered present in most countries, if not all. Nevertheless, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about the extent to which health workers resort to dual practice, about the balance of economic and other motives for doing so, or about the consequences for the proper use of the scarce public resources dedicated to health.In this paper dual practice is approached from six different perspectives: (1) conceptual, regarding what is meant by dual practice; (2) descriptive, trying to develop a typology of dual practices; (3) quantitative, trying to determine its prevalence; (4) impact on personal income, the health care system and health status; (5) qualitative, looking at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices; and (6) possible interventions to deal with dual practice.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports on income generation practices among civil servants in the health sector, with a particular emphasis on dual practice. It first approaches the subject of public–private overlap. Thereafter it focuses on coping strategies in general and then on dual practice in particular. To compensate for unrealistically low salaries, health workers rely on individual coping strategies. Many clinicians combine salaried, public-sector clinical work with a fee-for-service private clientele. This dual practice is often a means by which health workers try to meet their survival needs, reflecting the inability of health ministries to ensure adequate salaries and working conditions. Dual practice may be considered present in most countries, if not all. Nevertheless, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about the extent to which health workers resort to dual practice, about the balance of economic and other motives for doing so, or about the consequences for the proper use of the scarce public resources dedicated to health. In this paper dual practice is approached from six different perspectives: (1 conceptual, regarding what is meant by dual practice; (2 descriptive, trying to develop a typology of dual practices; (3 quantitative, trying to determine its prevalence; (4 impact on personal income, the health care system and health status; (5 qualitative, looking at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices; and (6 possible interventions to deal with dual practice.
... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' that appeared in... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food'' with a 120-day...
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a public health problem and hospital workers may serve as a repository of knowledge for the lay public and for themselves in the management and treatment of STIs. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional survey was carried out to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and ...
Felt needs of all the farmers include training on fish health management and provision of subsidized good quality feeds and drugs. Recommended measures in boosting aquaculture in the state in particular and Nigeria as a whole include good quality feeds and drugs. Recommended measures in boosting aquaculture in ...
Ashikeni M.A1*, Envuladu E.A2, Zoakah A.I2. 1Department of Disease Control, FCT Primary Health Care Board, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department of Community Medicine, .... presentation depicting the dangers of malaria in children. After twenty weeks the women were reassessed again to determine their knowledge, perception ...
Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter
Social differences in health and illness are well documented in Denmark. However, little is known about how health practices are manifested in the everyday lives of different social classes. We propose acts of resistance and formation of health subjectivities as helpful concepts to develop our understanding of how dominant health discourses are appropriated by different social classes and transformed into different practices promoting health and preventing illness. Based on fieldwork in two different social classes, we discuss how these practices both overtly and subtly challenge the normative power of the health promotion discourse. These diverse and ambiguous forms of everyday resistance illustrate how and when situated concerns move social actors to subjectively appropriate health promotion messages. Overall, the different forms of resistance elucidate how the standardized awareness and education campaigns may perpetuate the very inequalities they try to diminish. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
Harmon, A Lisa; Westerberg, Alice L; Bond, Dale S; Hoy, Kristyn N; Fries, Elizabeth A; Danish, Steven J
The Bridge to Better Health (BRIDGE) project is a program that focuses on providing rural high school youth with motivation, knowledge, and skills essential to cancer prevention. In this pilot intervention, we used instruction in personal health genealogy as a means of increasing awareness and knowledge of health risk and motivation to change several screening and cancer-related behaviors. We administered a Bridge to Better Health survey to 173 ninth- and 10th-grade students from a rural Southeastern Virginia high school before and after delivery of the BRIDGE pilot intervention. Significant preintervention to postintervention changes were observed for general genealogy knowledge, personal health genealogy, self-efficacy, and intention to practice self-examinations (breast, testicular, and skin) and eating a high-fiber and low-fat diet. These project results demonstrate the importance of theory-driven interventions for increasing cancer knowledge and changing cancer-related dietary and screening behaviors.
Ernandes Gonçalves Dias
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.
St John, Julie A; Shubert, Tiffany E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosemond, Cherie A; Howell, Doris A; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Ory, Marcia G
This perspective paper describes processes in the development of an evidence-based fall prevention curriculum for community health workers/promotores (CHW/P) that highlights the development of the curriculum and addresses: (1) the need and rationale for involving CHW/P in fall prevention; (2) involvement of CHW/P and content experts in the curriculum development; (3) best practices utilized in the curriculum development and training implementation; and (4) next steps for dissemination and utilization of the CHW/P fall prevention curriculum. The project team of CHW/P and content experts developed, pilot tested, and revised bilingual in-person training modules about fall prevention among older adults. The curriculum incorporated the following major themes: (1) fall risk factors and strategies to reduce/prevent falls; (2) communication strategies to reduce risk of falling and strategies for developing fall prevention plans; and (3) health behavior change theories utilized to prevent and reduce falls. Three separate fall prevention modules were developed for CHW/P and CHW/P Instructors to be used during in-person trainings. Module development incorporated a five-step process: (1) conduct informal focus groups with CHW/P to inform content development; (2) develop three in-person modules in English and Spanish with input from content experts; (3) pilot-test the modules with CHW/P; (4) refine and finalize modules based on pilot-test feedback; and (5) submit modules for approval of continuing education units. This project contributes to the existing evidence-based literature by examining the role of CHW/P in fall prevention among older adults. By including evidence-based communication strategies such as message tailoring, the curriculum design allows CHW/P to personalize the information for individuals, which can result in an effective dissemination of a curriculum that is evidence-based and culturally appropriate.
Blouin, Chantal; Dubé, Laurette
To date the global health diplomacy agenda has focused primarily on infectious diseases. Policymakers have not dedicated the same level of attention to chronic diseases, despite their rising contribution to the global burden of disease. Negotiation of the Framework convention on tobacco control provides an apt example from global health diplomacy to tackle diet-related chronic diseases. What lessons can be learned from this experience for preventing obesity? This article looks at why a global policy response is necessary, at the actors and interests involved in the negotiations, and at the forum for diplomacy.
Virginia Ross; Anoop Sankaranarayanan; Terry J. Lewin; Mick Hunter
AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH) workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle...
Background: The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 16 billion injections are administered in developing countries annually. Injection safety is therefore critical in preventing occupational exposure and infection from blood borne pathogens, hence prevention is a vital part of any comprehensive plan for ...
Shah, P M
Some 5-15% of children aged 3 to 15 years in both developing and developed countries suffer from mental handicaps. There may be as many as 10-30 million severely and about 60-80 million mildly or moderately mentally retarded children in the world. The conditions causing mental handicaps are largely preventable through primary health care measures in developing countries. Birth asphyxia and birth trauma are the leading causes of mental handicaps in developing countries where over 1.2 million newborns die each year from moderate or severe asphyxia and an equal number survive with severe morbidity due to brain damage. The other preventable or manageable conditions are: infections such as tuberculous and pyogenic meningitides and encephalopathies associated with measles and whooping cough; severe malnutrition in infancy; hyperbilirubinaemia in the newborn; iodine deficiency; and iron deficiency anaemia in infancy and early childhood. In addition, recent demographic and socioeconomic changes and an increase in the number of working mothers tend to deprive both infants and young children of stimulation for normal development. To improve this situation, the primary health care approach involving families and communities and instilling the spirit of self-care and self-help is indispensable. Mothers and other family members, traditional birth attendants, community health workers, as well as nurse midwives and physicians should be involved in prevention and intervention activities, for which they should be trained and given knowledge and skills about appropriate technologies such as the risk approach, home-based maternal record, partograph, mobilogram (kick count), home-risk card, icterometer, and mouth-to-mask or bag and mask resuscitation of the newborn. Most of these have been field-tested by WHO and can be used in the home, the health centre or day care centres to detect and prevent the above-mentioned conditions which can cause mental handicap.
Allen, Claire L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hannon, Peggy A.; Parrish, Amanda T.; Hammerback, Kristen; Craft, John; Gray, Bruce
As the Affordable Care Act unfolds, federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) will likely experience an influx of newly insured, low-income patients at disparate risk for cancer. Cancer-focused organizations are seeking to collaborate with FQHCs and the Primary Care Associations (PCAs) that serve them, to prevent cancer and reduce disparities. To guide this collaboration, we conducted 21 interviews with representatives from PCAs and FQHCs across four western states. We asked about: FQHC prio...
Krein, Sarah L; Greene, M Todd; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Sakamoto, Fumie; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Sakihama, Tomoko; Fowler, Karen E; Ratz, David; Saint, Sanjay
Numerous evidence-based practices for preventing device-associated infections are available, yet the extent to which these practices are regularly used in acute care hospitals across different countries has not been compared, to our knowledge. Data from hospital surveys conducted in Japan, the United States, and Thailand in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively, were evaluated to determine the use of recommended practices to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The outcomes were the percentage of hospitals reporting regular use (a score of 4 or 5 on a scale from 1 [never use] to 5 [always use]) of each practice across countries and identified hospital characteristics associated with the use of selected practices in each country. Survey response rates were 71% in Japan and the United States and 87% in Thailand. A majority of hospitals in Japan (76.6%), Thailand (63.2%), and the United States (97.8%) used maximum barrier precautions for preventing CLABSI and semirecumbent positioning to prevent VAP (66.2% for Japan, 86.7% for Thailand, and 98.7% for the United States). Nearly all hospitals (>90%) in Thailand and the United States reported monitoring CLABSI, VAP, and CAUTI rates, whereas in Japan only CLABSI rates were monitored by a majority of hospitals. Regular use of CAUTI prevention practices was variable across the 3 countries, with only a few practices adopted by >50% of hospitals. A majority of hospitals in Japan, Thailand, and the United States have adopted certain practices to prevent CLABSI and VAP. Opportunities for targeting prevention activities and reducing device-associated infection risk in hospitals exist across all 3 countries. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Al-Niaimi, F; Chiang, Y Z; Chiang, Y N; Williams, J
Healthcare workers and patients are often exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL) through contact with gloves and various healthcare products, which can potentially cause allergic reactions, with varying degrees of severity. In 2008, the Royal College of Physicians published their first evidence-based guidance on occupational health interventions for latex allergy, which emphasized the importance of healthcare workers having knowledge of latex allergy. This study aimed to survey the knowledge of healthcare workers (n = 156) about latex gloves and NRL allergy, routine prevention practice and the appropriate use of gloves in patient care. Healthcare workers in a large teaching hospital were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. We found that only 1% of healthcare workers were able to correctly match the appropriate gloves to the specifically designed procedure. More than half (n = 74.53%) were unable to recognize the presentation of type 1 allergy to NRL. Of the 156 participants, 131 (84%) considered that they would benefit from training about NRL allergy and the use of different types of gloves in clinical care. This survey indicates the importance of education regarding appropriate use of gloves and prevention of NRL allergy among healthcare workers, and dermatologists should play an important role in facilitating this. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
Interprofessional Relations; Primary Health Care/Organization & Administration; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/Prevention & Control; Primary Prevention/Methods; Risk Reduction Behavior; Randomized Controlled Trial; Life Style
Nathan, N.; Wolfenden, L.; Williams, C. M.; Yoong, S. L.; Lecathelinais, C.; Bell, A. C.; Wyse, R.; Sutherland, R.; Wiggers, J.
Despite significant investment in many countries, the extent of schools' adoption of obesity prevention policies and practices has not been widely reported. The aims of this article are to describe Australian schools' adoption of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices over an 8-year period and to determine if their adoption…
Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.
A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)
Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...
Kim, Eric S; Strecher, Victor J; Ryff, Carol D
Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99-1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18-1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society.
Kim, Eric S.; Strecher, Victor J.; Ryff, Carol D.
Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99–1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16–1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18–1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society. PMID:25368165
Olson, Debra; Hoeppner, Mary; Larson, Susan; Ehrenberg, Anne; Leitheiser, Agnes T
In 2002, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health (UMNSPH) adopted an approach that supports basic, advanced, and continuing education curricula to train current and future public health workers. This model for lifelong learning for public health practice education allows for the integration of competency domains from the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice's core public health workforce competency levels and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Bioterrorism and Emergency Readiness Competencies. This article describes how UMNSPH has implemented the model through coordination with state planning efforts and needs assessments in the tristate region of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. In addition, we discuss methods used for credentialing practitioners who have achieved competency at various levels of performance to enhance the capacity of the public health preparedness systems.
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
Dregan, Alex; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Ashworth, Mark; Charlton, Judith; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony; Yardley, Lucy; Gulliford, Martin C; Trial Steering Committee
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the remote introduction of electronic decision support tools into family practices improves risk factor control after first stroke. This study also aimed to develop methods to implement cluster randomized trials in stroke using electronic health records. Family practices were recruited from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and allocated to intervention and control trial arms by minimization. Remotely installed, electronic decision support tools promoted intensified secondary prevention for 12 months with last measure of systolic blood pressure as the primary outcome. Outcome data from electronic health records were analyzed using marginal models. There were 106 Clinical Practice Research Datalink family practices allocated (intervention, 53; control, 53), with 11 391 (control, 5516; intervention, 5875) participants with acute stroke ever diagnosed. Participants at trial practices had similar characteristics as 47,887 patients with stroke at nontrial practices. During the intervention period, blood pressure values were recorded in the electronic health records for 90% and cholesterol values for 84% of participants. After intervention, the latest mean systolic blood pressure was 131.7 (SD, 16.8) mm Hg in the control trial arm and 131.4 (16.7) mm Hg in the intervention trial arm, and adjusted mean difference was -0.56 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -1.38 to 0.26; P=0.183). The financial cost of the trial was approximately US $22 per participant, or US $2400 per family practice allocated. Large pragmatic intervention studies may be implemented at low cost by using electronic health records. The intervention used in this trial was not found to be effective, and further research is needed to develop more effective intervention strategies. http://www.controlled-trials.com. Current Controlled Trials identifier: ISRCTN35701810. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...
Jardim, Jaquelline Maria; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Soares, Naury de Jesus Danzi; Nunes, Bruna Kosar
The aim of this study was to observe clinical procedures in order to evaluate the practices used for the control and prevention of bloodstream infections associated with short-term central venous catheters (BSI-ACVC). The study data came from 5877 assessments distributed among selected practices. The results revealed the following adherence rates among the practices selected: 91.6% for recording the indication and permanence time of the CVC, 51.5% for adhering to the care and maintenance of the dressing at the CVC insertion site and its devices, 10.7% for hand hygiene practices while performing procedures related to the CVC, and 0.0% for the practices related to the insertion of the central venous catheter (CVC). The results demonstrate the need for further elaboration of strategies that ensure sustainable compliance practices for prevention and control BSI-ACVC in the institution being assessed.
Kajula, Lusajo J; Darling, Nancy; Kaaya, Sylvia F; De Vries, Hein
Parenting styles and practices are suggested to be important predictors of adolescent sexual health, mostly in Europe and North America. Limited research has been conducted on these processes in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has different patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and family traditions. This study qualitatively explored parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Tanzania, with 12 adolescents and 12 parents of adolescents. The themes we identified from the data included parental monitoring, preventive, and punitive behaviors. Parents were reported to use mostly punitive behaviors to correct or prohibit sexual behavior; parents also set clear rules about appropriate sexual behavior (e.g., modesty and abstinence). Parents were also reported to closely monitor their adolescent children's friendships and sexual behavior to minimize sexual behavior. However, some parents also engaged in positive preventive practices aimed at protecting their adolescent children.