Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition
Kensche, A; Reich, M; Kümmerer, K; Hannig, M; Hannig, C
There is still a great demand for the improvement of oral prophylaxis methods. One repeatedly described approach is rinsing with edible oils. The aim of the present review paper was to analyze the role of lipids in bioadhesion and preventive dentistry. Despite limited sound scientific data, extensive literature search was performed to illustrate possible effects of lipids in the oral cavity. It is to be assumed that lipophilic components modulate the process of bioadhesion to the oral hard tissues as well as the composition and ultrastructure of the initial oral biofilm or the pellicle, respectively. Thereby, lipids could add hydrophobic characteristics to the tooth surface hampering bacterial colonization and eventually decreasing caries susceptibility. Also, a lipid-enriched pellicle might be more resistant in case of acid exposure and could therefore reduce the erosive mineral loss. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects on the oral soft tissues were described. However, there is only limited evidence for these beneficial impacts. Neither the lipid composition of saliva and pellicle nor the interactions of lipids with the initial oral biofilm and the pellicle layer have been investigated adequately until now. Edible oils might qualify as mild supplements to conventional strategies for the prevention of caries, erosion, and periodontal diseases but further research is necessary. Against the background of current scientific and empirical knowledge, edible oils might be used as oral hygiene supplements but a decisive benefit for the oral health status is questionable.
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.
Kern, M; Böning, K W; Stark, H; Wolowski, A; Wöstmann, B; Walter, M H
Despite the success in preventing oral diseases, the prevalence of tooth loss in the German population remains high and increases with age. Today, the advances in prosthetic dentistry allow necessary tooth replacement following preventive strategies-after considering benefits and risks. Modern treatment options improve the overall prognosis of the stomatognathic system and the quality of life of the affected patients significantly. Hereby, adverse iatrogenic effects can be minimized or even completely avoided by extending the traditional treatment spectrum, e.g., using adhesively fixed restorations and implant-supported restorations, and refraining from placing restorations that are unnecessary from the medical point of view. Generally, patients benefit greatly from prosthetic treatment and the achieved health gain is remarkably high. It encompasses not only the recovery of the impaired oral functions but also extends to the whole human organism, including nutrition, digestion, musculoskeletal system, as well as mental and social well-being.
Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...
Seno Pradopo; Haryono Utomo
; "> The relationship between oral health and systemic diseases had been abundantly studied, however, mostly were related to adultsuch as cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. Nevertheless, it was still uncommon that oral healthalso related to allergic disease. The field of pediatric dentistry is mostly related to preventive dentistry (i.e. prophylactic procedures,preventive orthodontic etc., but rarely related to preventive medicine such allergy preventio...
Dentists' contributions to science and society extend beyond the practice of clinical dentistry and preventive oral health. Such service encompasses contributions to biology specifically and more generally to societal good works for which dentists are particularly esteemed. The profession of dentistry promotes the history and heritage of its craft and those who practise it. Enduring symbols of dentistry take many forms. These include metonymic emblems such as those of Cadmus and Saint Apollonia and the portrayal of effigies of twentieth century dentists on eponymous medals. Other enduring symbols are to be found in the names of streets and towns (eg Normanville in Australia) which commemorate dentists; and in the worldwide scientific names of plants and animal species which perpetuate singular contributions of dentists to biological science. Such include the scientific names of grasses (Deyeuxia rodwayi) after the Tasmanian dentist, Dr Leonard Rodway (1853-1936); seaweeds (Jeannerettia sp.) after a seaweed of the Pacific and Southern Oceans, after Dr Henry Jeannerett (1802-1886); gastropods (Typhina yatesi) after Dr Lorenzo Yates (1837-1909); copepods (eg Mimocalanus heronae) named to commemorate the life and works of Gayle Ann Heron (b.1923), a dental hygienist of the University of Washington, USA; and crabs (eg Cancer bellianus) named to commemorate the life and works of the leading British dentist of his day, Thomas Bell (1792-1880). This paper explores this theme of the creation and promotion of enduring symbols of dental science - enshrined in the civic, numismatic and taxonomic record.
Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Acuña-Reyes, Raquel; Cigarroa-Martínez, Didier; Ureña-Bogarín, Enrique; Orgaz-Fernández, Jose David
Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish) was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01). Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1) than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8). The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.
Full Text Available ; "> The relationship between oral health and systemic diseases had been abundantly studied, however, mostly were related to adultsuch as cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. Nevertheless, it was still uncommon that oral healthalso related to allergic disease. The field of pediatric dentistry is mostly related to preventive dentistry (i.e. prophylactic procedures,preventive orthodontic etc., but rarely related to preventive medicine such allergy prevention in children. Allergic diseases develop outof a close interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers, and progress continuously since infancy regarding tothe allergic march. Concerning to the partially developed immunity in children, children are more susceptible to infection and allergicdiseases than adults. Unfortunately, infection and allergic diseases are interrelated; infection impaired allergy and vice versa. Poororal health is closely related to infection; however, improving oral health is not included in allergy management protocol. In order toanticipate the future, dentist or especially pediatric dentist should be able to review about basic children immunity and oral mucosalimmunity. Additionally, it is essential to explain to the parents and medical practitioners who are not familiar to this new paradigm.The objective of this study is to review articles related to children’s oral health and allergic symptoms. Regarding to the successfuloral management of allergic symptoms, the propensity that improving oral health could be included in children’s allergy managementprotocol is likely.
Dental professionals are expected to engage in oral disease prevention, but their tools limit the approach to chair side activities based on the common notion that the major dental diseases, dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, are behavioural diseases shaped by individual lifestyles. However, lifestyles also have causes and individual behaviours reflect cultural norms, expectations and opportunities that are socio-economically determined and structurally maintained. Importantly, the effects of the societal and socio-economic determinants reach way above their influences as individual attributes, and effective approaches to the prevention and control of oral diseases are aligned with this causal chain. Unfortunately, the ethos and philosophy of dentistry is focused to a downstream, patient-centred, curative and rehabilitative approach to oral diseases. Whilst such services are needed to care for those who have already suffered the consequences of oral diseases, they do not influence population oral health. A more balanced distribution of efforts and resources along the whole range of intervention points from the downstream curative to the upstream structural healthy policy approaches is required if appropriate, evidence-based, effective, cost-effective, sustainable, equitable, universal, comprehensive and ethical delivery of health care, including oral health care, is the goal. The implementation of healthy policies and sound approaches to population oral health will require substantial commitment and political will on the part of the public and their elected officials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arheiam, Arheiam; Bankia, Ibtesam; Ingafou, Mohamed
A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively). The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%). There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05). This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Full Text Available Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Results: Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively. The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%. There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Swogger, Susan E; Samsky, Monica
Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source from EBSCO Information Services provides indexing and full-text access to an extensive selection of dental journal literature, as well some full-text dental monographs. As stated by EBSCO, titles are chosen from those commonly held in dental school libraries. The database aims to support practitioners, researchers, and advanced dental education. This column includes sample searches from Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source as well as a discussion of its special content and features.
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways. In such a scenario, a professional obligation and social responsibility of dentists makes it imperative to transform the practice of dentistry from a hazardous to a sustainable one, by adopting environmental-friendly measures or 'green dentistry'. The NHS in the UK has been proactive in implementing sustainability in healthcare by setting targets, developing guidance papers, initiating steering groups to develop measures and implementing actions through its Sustainable Development Unit (SDU). Such sustainable frameworks, specific to dentistry, are not yet available and even the scientific literature is devoid of studies in this field although anecdotal narratives abound. Hence this paper attempts to present a comprehensive evaluation of the existing healthcare sustainability principles, for their parallel application in the field of dentistry and lays out a blueprint for integrating the two main underlying principles of sustainability - resource use efficiency and eliminating or minimising pollution - in the day-to-day practice. The article also highlights the importance of social values, community care, engaging stakeholders, economic benefits, developing policy and providing leadership in converting the concept of green dentistry into a practised reality.
Full Text Available This article of the series Dentistry and Ayurveda describes in brief, the basic principlesand unique concepts involved in Ayurveda namely the concepts of Ama, Ojas, Rasas (tastes-types and the factors affecting the choice of the drug / medicine etc., immunity, etiopathogenesis and prevention of diseases in Ayurveda in general.
Abstract. Anecdotal evidence suggests that Sports dentistry has not been adequately focused on in Nigeria. While dental and facial injuries occur in sports, limited knowledge of the role the dentist can play in the treatment of these injuries has precluded his inclusion in sports medical teams. Some sports related dental and ...
Full Text Available “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.
“Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.
Oh, S.; Park, Y.B.; Kim, S.; Jin, S.
Nano technology in dentistry has drawn many scientists’ and clinicians’ attention to significant advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of oral disease. Also, nano materials in dentistry have been studied to overcome the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional dental materials. These interesting facts are the motivation of this special issue. The presented issue provides a variety of topics in the field of dentistry such as novel nano filled composite resin, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles deposited on orthodontic bands, the osseointegration of 3D nano scaffold, and nano surface treated implant.
Seeberg, Marcia S; Scarbecz, Mark; Hottel, Timothy L
Communication skills have long been associated with practice success in dentistry. The Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards state that "Graduates must be competent in the application of the fundamental principles of behavioral sciences" and that "Graduates must be competent in managing a diverse patient population and have...interpersonal and communications skills." A recent survey of U.S. dentists found an underutilization of communication skills by general dentists. The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry strives for continuous improvement and has implemented an innovative behavioral science curriculum to improve students' communication skills, consistent with the College's "patient-centered, comprehensive care" philosophy. We describe the design and implementation of our "Patient-Centered Dentistry" course, in which third-year dental students practice communication skills with simulated patients in the Kaplan Clinical Skills Center on the UTHSC campus. The clinical simulations involve the following scenarios: The Initial Interview with a Patient, Presenting a Treatment Plan, Treating Patients with Fear and Anxiety, Interviewing Considerations for Difficult Patients, Delivering Distressing News to Patients, and Coping with a Drug-Seeking Patient. Student simulations were videotaped and assessed by course instructors as well as clinical faculty, and students received immediate feedback by instructors and clinical faculty after their simulations. Students were provided with the opportunity to view their simulation performance and to reflect on their performance in order to recognize their communication strengths as well as areas for improvement. The use of simulation experiences is becoming a widespread and expected practice in health care education. The Patient-Centered Dentistry course provides students with the opportunity to experience the kinds of real-life situations that they would experience in dental practice, without risks to patients
De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio
Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day
Simone De Sio
Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each
The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.
Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Monzavi, Abbas; Yassini, Esmaeil
Educational evaluation is a process which deals with data collection and assessment of academic activities' progress. In this research, educational evaluation of Dentistry School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, which trains students in undergraduate and residency courses, was studied. This descriptive study was done with a model of educational evaluation in ten steps and 13 fields including purposes and mission objectives, management and organization, academic board members, students, human resources and support, educational, research, health and treatment spaces, educational, diagnostic, research and laboratory tools, educational, research, health and treatment programs and courses, process of teaching and learning, evaluation and assessment, alumni, and patients satisfaction. Data were collected using observation, interviews, questionnaires, and checklists. Results of the study were mainly qualitative and in some cases quantitative, based on defined optimal situation. The total mean of qualitative results of educational evaluation of dentistry school in all 13 fields was 55.98% which is relatively desirable. In the case of quantitative ones, results of some fields such as treatment quality of patients and education and learning of the students were relatively desirable (61.32% and 60.16% respectively). According to the results, educational goals and missions, educational and research facilities and spaces which were identified as the weakest areas need to be considered and paid more serious attention.
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Tooth extraction is always considered as the final treatment option in dentistry."nConsidering the numerous advances in dentistry, nowadays the preservation of the permanent teeth until old"nage is common. However, in most economically poor countries or those without security service insurance,"nthe high rate of extraction, particularly among restorable teeth, is regrettable."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the reasons for tooth extraction among patients"nreferred to the faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2002."nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 patients. The"ninformation about patient's general knowledge, oral health status, tooth location and causes of extraction were"ncollected and recorded in a questionnaire. The data were submitted to statistical Chi-Square test."nResults: No statistically significant difference was found between two genders in their mentioned causes for"nextraction. The most prevalent reasons were as follows: Caries (50%, Periodontal diseases (16.6%. Absence"nof an acceptable occlusion, prosthetic problems, patient's request, etc... make up the remaining 33.4% of the"nreasons."nConclusion: According to this study, it is suggested to investigate extraction etiology at the society level and"nif similar results are obtained, necessary steps should be taken to prevent caries and periodontal problems as"nthe major mentioned causes for tooth extraction.
Full Text Available Undergrad students are trained on a specific set of skills matching their corresponding careers, as modern sciences trend to specialization; however, it has promoted the creation of a virtual boundary among different professions. In this regard, state-of-the-art dental research involves the application of ever-increasing complex computational solutions; thus, requiring of multidisciplinary research teams. Multidisciplinarity is often achieved on a higher research context (e.g., postgrad; but involves a high degree of difficulty for both factions. The aim of this work is to present a novel application of multidisciplinary research to the learning process of undergrad students in computer sciences and dentistry careers. In order to do so, we leveraged previous research on computational intelligence and image processing techniques applied to dental diagnosis, and integrated it with the clinical assessment and software engineering subjects on dental and computer engineering careers correspondently. With this, we explored the possibility to enhance diagnosis skills of dental students, while improving the software engineering skills of computer sciences students; furthermore, we intended to introduce the concepts of applied computational intelligence, multidisciplinarity, and collaboration on both sides.
Gutmann, James L
In the last 150 years dentistry has faced myriad challenges as it has developed as a technical profession; but even greater struggles to develop a true scientific basis, one that permeates both the academic and practice sectors. In the latter part of the 19th century, technical advances abounded and clinical practice was empirically driven. The first few decades of the 20th century were a tumultuous time in the scientific evolution of dentistry, and many political barriers existed. The formation of scientific journals, research institutes, and a focus on dental education all contributed to a slow and sometimes agonizing evolution of the scientific development of dentistry. Today, while research endeavors are vast, the dental educational system and its embracing of new science within its curricula may not have kept pace with the vision of William J. Gies to revitalize the dental profession over 75 years ago. We are on the brink of a remarkable transformation for both dental education and the practice of dentistry, one that will require enhanced leadership, a revitalized vision and a passion for excellence to allow its continued progress and ultimate success.
Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V
We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.
O'Sullivan, E; Milosevic, A
This revised Clinical Guideline in Paediatric Dentistry replaces the previously published ninth guideline (Shaw L, O'Sullivan E. Int J Paediatr Dent 2000; 10: 356-365). The process of guideline production began in 1994, resulting in first publication in 1997. Each guideline has been circulated widely for consultation to all UK consultants in paediatric dentistry, council members of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry (BSPD), and to people of related specialities recognized to have expertise in the subject. The final version of this guideline is produced from a combination of this input and thorough review of the published literature. In the case of the present guideline, an internationally recognized expert in the field was invited to be a co-author (AM). The intention is to encourage improvement in clinical practice and to stimulate research and clinical audit in areas where scientific evidence is inadequate. Evidence underlying recommendations is scored according to the SIGN classification and guidelines should be read in this context. Further details regarding the process of paediatric dentistry guideline production in the UK is described in the Int J Paediatr Dent 1997; 7: 267-268.
Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.
If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...
This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Clarkson, J.; Watt, R.G.; Rugg-Gunn, A.J.; Pitiphat, W.; Ettinger, R.L.; Horowitz, A.M.; Petersen, P.E.; ten Cate, J.M.; Vianna, R.; Ferillo, P.; Gugushe, T.S.; Siriphant, P.; Pine, C.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Levy, S.; Chankanka, O.; Maki, Y.; Postma, T.C.; Villena, R.S.; Wang, W.J.; MacEntee, M.I.; Shinsho, F.; Cal, E.; Rudd, R.E.; Schou, L.; Shin, S.C.; Fox, C.H.
Background of the congress: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) hosted the 9 th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD) in Phuket, Thailand in September, 2009. Previous WCPD’s have been held approximately once every four years and are held in different parts of the world
Clarkson, J; Watt, R G; Rugg-Gunn, A J
Information is presented about the 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry which was hosted by the International Association for Dental Research in Phuket, Thailand on September 7-10, 2009. The conference's theme, "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All...
F Vaziri; A Haerian; S Sajedi
Introduction: The present study aimed to explore the impact of preventive dimensions of a dentistry education program on the behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival health of a group of dentistry students of Yazd province. Methods: 51 junior and senior dentistry students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to fill in the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI). Also, clinical examinations to asse...
Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.
Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentis...
Gruythuysen, R J M; van Strijp, A J P
Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment (NRCT) is not as popular in paediatric dentistry as it should be. Substantial quantitative and qualitative evidence concerning the treatment has now been published that testifies to the success of the treatment. Some healthcare providers apply the method successfully, while others have no trust in this non-invasive cavity treatment and continue to favour the restoration of carious lesions. Reasons given for this are, among others, that NRCT is too bothersome, the patient's (or the patient's parents') compliance is low and the reimbursement is inadequate. Children, however, benefit from oral healthcare providers who take the position that a child has a right to an etiological treatment that addresses the source of the caries process and that NRCT offers a uniquely viable treatment option for this purpose. This approach fits within the parameters established by professional ethics and the law. Apart from oral healthcare providers, all agencies involved in the profession and beyond have the moral and social obligation to do justice to the implied question of the child regarding this shift in oral healthcare.
Dimova, Cena; Pandilova, Maja; Kovacevska, Ivona; Evrosimovska, Biljana; Georgiev, Zlatko
It is generally accepted that the more experience a physician or a dentist possess better the quality of health care delivery. However, recent studies had shown that there is in fact an inverse relationship between the number of years of practice and the quality of care provided. Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) is a process that restructures the way in which we think about clinical problems. It is an approach to clinical problem solving that has evolved from a self-directed and problem based a...
Sartorio, F; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Vercelli, S; Odescalchi, L; Augusti, D; Migliario, M
In dental professionals the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) can be minimized through a combination of prevention, ergonomic strategies, and specific therapeutic programs. Prevention includes early identification of symptoms, analysis of working posture and activity, and the evaluation of equipment (such as dental instruments, position of the dental unit, patient and operator chairs, and lighting). The ergonomic strategies are based on identifying the best daily timetable (including periodic pauses) and most efficient team organization, as well as establishing the correct position that should be held at the patient chair. Finally specific therapeutic programs are very important in preventing or treating WMSD. In fact, fitness exercises such as mobilization, stretching or muscular and cardiovascular training are recognized as fundamental for dental professionals, and when WMSD occurs physiatric care and physical therapy are recommended.
Full Text Available Introduction: Defective restorations such as overhang, overcontour, open margin, residual cement or subgingival margin, lead to severe plaque accumulation and prevent using oral hygiene devices and finally they can cause gingival inflammation and periodontal destruction. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the frequency of restorations that have potentiality of periodontal destruction in participants referred to Faculty of dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, patients referred to Oral Medicine department were selected to reach 150 participants. All restorations were investigated regarding the existence of overhang, overcontour, open margin, subgingival margin, and residual cement. Results: Totally, 348 restorations were investigated that within 208 amalgam fillings, 88 fillings (42.30% were with overhang. Among 79 composite fillings, 17 fillngs (21.51% had overhang and overcountour. From 65 metal ceramic crowns, 21 crowns (32.30% had open margin and 15 crowns (23.70% had subgingival margins. Moreover, residual cement was not found. Conclusion: Existence of defective restorations which interfere with periodontal health such as amalgam overhang (it revealed most frequency in this study indicates that more attempts are required to decrease such flaws.
Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S
On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.
Ramandeep Singh Gambhir
Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.
Savage, D Keith
In April 2000, the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine (NAS/IOM) Committee on Space Medicine held a workshop under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to explore "innovative terrestrial medical care." There was also a NAS/IOM panel held on "Space Dentistry: Maintaining Astronauts' Oral Health on Long Missions." Air Force Dental Officer Col. Shannon E. Mills chaired the dental committee. Many questions were raised but few answers were available. Prevention was emphasized with the hope that within twenty to thirty years there may be a number of astronaut candidates with no existing dental restorations and with optimum oral health. However, there remains the concern that trauma to teeth could occur within the confines of a zero gravity space capsule as crew members carry out their daily responsibilities. The possibility is evident considering the duration of a space flight to Mars and back could require up to three years. The dental concerns of a space mission are only a small part of a much larger team effort, however, it is one not to be overlooked. An historical review of dentistry's involvement with America's flight and space programs of the 20th Century would be prudent. Many of same questions asked today were addressed in the early days of aviation dentistry as it transitioned into aerospace dentistry. Any past research and experiences would help serve as a foundation to build upon.
Full Text Available Shade selection procedure depends on various factors including translucency, contour and surface texture. Tooth shade selection using a conventional means involves a high degree of subjectivity. Traditional shade guides are available that use several methods for quantifying shade. Technology-based systems provide with an advantage of natural looking restorations. They include RGB devices, colorimeters, spectrophotometers. The impact of the color science can be seen on various restorative materials ranging from ceramics to maxillofacial prosthetic materials.
Saleha Shah, B.D.S, MClinDent Paediatric Dentistry (UK)
Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of ...
Full Text Available It is an honor and pleasure to serve as the guest editor for the Educational Research in Medical Sciences Journal. I would like to thank the cooperation of vice chancellery for research and technology of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences that kindly helped us throughout this special issue. Since Kermanshah School of Dentistry has recently initiated its activity, it is necessary to obtain the basic information about the status of knowledge and attitude of academic members, dentists, dental students and carried out therapies in order to perform future planning. To achieve this purpose, the most important considerations are focusing on epidemiologic and community-based surveys to elicit the basic information about the community, which could help to promote future clinical studies and better judgment of effectiveness of pervious dental treatments. So, we aimed to specifically put extensive emphasis on epidemiologic studies in this issue. On the other hand, a well-structured research program for future is essential to provide an appropriate plan. To this end, a critical shifting from descriptive studies to case-control, cohort and clinical trials is needed and should be considered. Cohort studies are so useful in caries and orthodontics research. In dentistry, this type of study can be undertaken to obtain evidence and to report association between cause and effect, particularly through specific population. Clinical trials have been recognized as a reliable scientific method that evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention or try to find better ways to prevent, diagnose or treat diseases. Owing to the newly-established School of Dentistry in Kermanshah, there has not been any registered clinical trial so far. The importance and essential role of these types of studies are undeniable, and as director of research programs of Kermanshah School of Dentistry I encourage faculty members and students of this school to pay more attention to these
Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; van Genuchten, M.; Wismeijer, D.
Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry,
Saleha Shah, B.D.S, MClinDent Paediatric Dentistry (UK
Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry. The skills apply to the ever-changing stages of dental, physical, and psychosocial development for treating conditions and diseases distinctive to growing individuals. Hence with the changing scope of practice it is imperative that the clinician stays updated with the current evidence based trends in practice, collaborates with other disciplines and Imparts quality oral health care tailored to the specific needs of every child.
Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry. The skills apply to the ever-changing stages of dental, physical, and psychosocial development for treating conditions and diseases distinctive to growing individuals. Hence with the changing scope of practice it is imperative that the clinician stays updated with the current evidence based trends in practice, collaborates with other disciplines and Imparts quality oral health care tailored to the specific needs of every child.
During the late seventeenth century scientific knowledge came dentistry, much of it through the activity of the new Royal Society, which was initiated by gatherings in London and Oxford from 1645 and formally established in 1660 after the restoration of the monarchy. The Society received its first charter from Charles II in 1662 and from 1665 onwards published its Philosophical Transactions. This paper outlines items published in that journal, and other relevant scientific publications of the century, applicable to dentistry. A companion paper employs Allen's dental treatise, The operator for the teeth, first published in York in 1685 to provide the evidence that he was aware of several of these scientific findings of his day.
Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.
Dick, Danielle M
A growing number of prevention studies have incorporated genetic information. In this commentary, I discuss likely reasons for growing interest in this line of research and reflect on the current state of the literature. I review challenges associated with the incorporation of genotypic information into prevention studies, as well as ethical considerations associated with this line of research. I discuss areas where developmental psychologists and prevention scientists can make substantive contributions to the study of genetic predispositions, as well as areas that could benefit from closer collaborations between prevention scientists and geneticists to advance this area of study. In short, this commentary tackles the complex questions associated with what we hope to achieve by adding genetic components to prevention research and where this research is likely to lead in the future.
Fuentealba, Rodrigo; Jofré, Jorge
The definition of failure for dental implants has evolved from lack of osseointegration to increased concern for other aspects, such as esthetics. However, esthetic failure in implant dentistry has not been well defined. Although multiple esthetic indices have been validated for objectively evaluating clinical outcomes, including failure of an implant-supported crown, only one author has determined a failure threshold. On the basis of objective indices, esthetic failures in implant dentistry can be categorized as pink-tissue failures and white-tissue failures. This article discusses esthetic failures, the factors involved in these failures, and their prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Maman, Paramjot; Nagpal, Manju; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Aggarwal, Geeta
Management of the health of oral tissues is a prime requirement in dentistry. The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges. The limitations in dental materials, medications, instruments, procedures put off the accomplishment of this goal. Rationalization of science and technology has made possible to work out these limitations. Nanotechnology which is the outcome of this rationalization has become one of the most favored technologies in medical and dental application. The substantial contribution of nano dental materials is the identification of oral health related problems by better diagnosis and management of dental disorders by bionanomaterials. Application of nanodentistry holds promise for comprehensive dental care by utilizing nanomaterials and ultimately by nanorobots. This review discusses the rationale of nanodentistry, nanocarriers researched in treatment of different dental diseases, the latest innovations in nanomaterials in various disciplines of dentistry; patent literature and related marketed products. Advances in nanotechnology have placed plenty of hopes in terms of improving the oral health care of dental patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Roudebush, Philip; Logan, Ellen; Hale, Fraser A
Successful treatment and prevention of periodontal disease in pet animals requires a multidimensional approach to identify and eliminate exacerbating factors, provide scheduled professional examinations and care, and plan and implement a dental homecare program. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for periodontal disease, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of homecare for prevention of canine and feline periodontal disease.
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Cristiane Rufino Macedo
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines are suggestions for clinical practice based on the best available scientific evidence. Nevertheless, in drafting such guidelines, existing systematic reviews are often ignored and are replaced by general consensuses. This ends up compromising the quality of the instructions through bias. Our objective was to investigate whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present among the bibliographic references of prevention and treatment guidelines for dentistry that have been published in databases. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective, observational study was conducted at the Brazilian Cochrane Center. METHODS: The databases were searched for guidelines. Any guidelines obtained were then checked to find whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present in the bibliographic references of the guidelines. In their absence, we checked whether such reviews had not been included because no reviews existed yet, or because such reviews had not been consulted despite already existing. RESULTS: 223 studies were initially selected; of these, 77 were excluded. Of the 146 guidelines included, 46 could have made reference to existing systematic reviews, but only 13 studies did so. Among these 13 studies, eight were systematic reviews following Cochrane methodology. Thirty-three guidelines had not been drafted using published systematic reviews as references, and 100 guidelines had been unable to use Cochrane references because no reviews existed yet. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to increase awareness of the importance of using systematic reviews in drafting dentistry guidelines. Likewise, it is necessary to develop systematic reviews that answer questions on the various topics that remain unanswered.
Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili
Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446
Pousson, Rebecca G; Hovland, Eric J
Studies have shown that the culture of an organization could be the difference between success and failure in achieving its overall corporate goals and mission. Although some aspects of an organization's culture are visible and tangible, such as the physical structure or overall cleanliness of the facility, other aspects are less tangible but just as apparent, like the helpfulness of the staff and the overall "attitude" of the organization. Private industry discovered many years ago that the key to creating a friendly and productive culture lies in the hands of the employees. TigerCare is a program that engages the civil service employees and provides them with the knowledge and motivation necessary to excel in their jobs and deliver the highest standard of customer service and job performance. It has helped the LSUHSC School of Dentistry develop employees who deliver excellent customer care. This article reports on the specific steps taken to improve the customer service culture and describes the results of the program after two years of implementation.
Mohamad Mahdi Yaghooti Khorasani
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Inappropriate behaviors in academic environments can strongly disturb both teaching and learning processes and make conflict and anxiety between instructor and student. The main objective of this study was to investigate students' attitude on inappropriate behaviors in academic environments. Materials and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 2012. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and all students of Faculty of Dentistry voluntarily participated. Data was analyzed using SPSS18 software, descriptive, independent T, ANOVA, and Spearman’s correlation coefficient; P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Results of this study indicated that the majority of students considered sleeping in class as an inappropriate behavior, while checking the time at the end of class was the most common behavior which was reported by them. A significant relationship was observed between students’ perspective on inappropriate behaviors and the manner they did them; as Spearman statistical test indicated a high correlation between their perspective and frequency of inappropriate behaviors (R = 0.55 and P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Findings indicated that the majority of students had a negative attitude towards inappropriate behaviors. Besides, the frequency of doing these behaviors cannot be justified by this research team. Regarding the negative effects of inappropriate behaviors on education process, it is recommended to take some actions for cherishing instructors and students in academic environments.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, LI Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, AE
R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to pati...
Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.
The technology in dentistry has been developed significantly lately, increasing the technological level of new materials, methods and equipment have been developed. Undoubtedly the CO2 laser has contributed to this evolution particular to the treatment of the infected dentin. CO2 laser can sterilize and promote increase 6 to 8 times of dentin resistance, through the transformation the hydroxyapatite in calcium-phosphato-hydroxyapatite. We can reassure our patients about the use of pulsed CO2 laser due to better preservation of dental structure and its benefits permitting advanced esthetic treatments. The CEREC system, registers a tri-dimensional image of the preparation through a scan system, and sends it to the computer and the operator will edit the restorations so the equipment will finish porcelain restoration. The authors used a new laser 650 nm for caries detection and the other low lever laser (670 nm and 730 nm) considered an auxiliary method to prevent and treat the hypersensitivity in dentin.
The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.
Noronha, Victor T; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Gabriela; Galembeck, Andre; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Durán, Nelson
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively studied for their antimicrobial properties, which provide an extensive applicability in dentistry. Because of this increasing interest in AgNPs, the objective of this paper was to review their use in nanocomposites; implant coatings; pre-formulation with antimicrobial activity against cariogenic pathogens, periodontal biofilm, fungal pathogens and endodontic bacteria; and other applications such as treatment of oral cancer and local anesthesia. Recent achievements in the study of the mechanism of action and the most important toxicological aspects are also presented. Systematic searches were carried out in Web of Science (ISI), Google, PubMed, SciFinder and EspaceNet databases with the keywords "silver nano* or AgNP*" and "dentist* or dental* or odontol*". A total of 155 peer-reviewed articles were reviewed. Most of them were published in the period of 2012-2017, demonstrating that this topic currently represents an important trend in dentistry research. In vitro studies reveal the excellent antimicrobial activity of AgNPs when associated with dental materials such as nanocomposites, acrylic resins, resin co-monomers, adhesives, intracanal medication, and implant coatings. Moreover, AgNPs were demonstrated to be interesting tools in the treatment of oral cancers due to their antitumor properties. The literature indicates that AgNPs are a promising system with important features such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, and a potential carrier in sustained drug delivery. However, there are some aspects of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs, and some important toxicological aspects arising from the use of this system that must be completely elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of food habits and the probable role of obesity in dental caries, this study was done to assess the relationship between teeth decay index in children and body mass index, and food habits in dentistry clinic of Tabriz university of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional analytic study 202 children aged 3-12 years old were selected randomly. For assessing dental caries, decayed, missed, and filled teeth index and for evaluating food habits, semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using Correlation test and Regression analysis. Results: The overall mean of decayed, missed, and filled teeth index in the children of this study was 7.61±3.80. There were significant reverse correlations between this index and age (r = -0.176, and fruit consumption (r = -0.155 (P0.05. Considering the last regression model, age, mother job, and frequency of nuts consumption were significant predictors for decayed teeth number. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that high fruit consumption was associated with less dental caries and among foods which were evaluated, consumption of nuts was significant predictor for decayed teeth number.
Wu, Ling Ting; Wang, Wenru; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying
Globally more registered nurses need to be recruited to meet the needs of aging populations and increased co-morbidity. Nursing recruitment remains challenging when compared to other healthcare programs. Despite healthcare students having similar motivation in joining the healthcare industry, many did not consider nursing as a career choice. This study aims to identify the deterrents to choosing nursing among healthcare undergraduates by examining the differences in the factors influencing healthcare career choices and nursing as a career choice. A cross sectional study was conducted using a 35-parallel items instrument known as Healthcare Career Choice and Nursing Career Choice scale. Six hundred and four (n = 604) first year medical, pharmacy, dentistry and social science students from a university in Singapore completed the survey. Nursing as a career was perceived by healthcare students to be more likely influenced by prior healthcare exposure, the nature of the work, job prospects, and social influences. Lack of autonomous decision making, perceived lower ability to make diagnosis, having to attend to patients' hygiene needs, engendered stigma, and lack of parental support were identified as deterring factors to choosing nursing as a career. An understanding of the deterrents to choosing nursing as career allows policy makers and educational leaders to focus on recruitment strategies. These include providing more exposure to nurses' roles in early school years, helping young people to overcome the fear of providing personal hygiene care, promoting nurses' autonomous nursing practice, addressing gender stigma, and overcoming parental objection.
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Primary teeth discoloration can cause mentally and socially unpleasant effects in children. This can also be a sign of systemic disease. Despite the importance of this subject, a comprehensive study has not been performed yet.Purpose: The aim of this study was determining the frequency of different types of primary teeth discoloration.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 260 cases whom were referred to department of paediatric, faculty of dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Science, 1999-2001 were examined. All of these children were examined for any discoloration beforestarting any treatment then the type of discoloration was determined after polishing. Then the relationship between gender and these changes were evaluated by chi-square test.Results: In 59 cases (22.7% abnormal color was detected. 10 patients (3.9% had intrinsic stain and in 15 children (5.8% extrinsic color was discovered. 34 children (13% had bothtypes.Conclusion: In this survey the correlation between tooth discoloration (and its types and gender was not statistically significant.
Library Journal, 2005
After a brief career in musical theater, Micki McIntyre entered the graduate library program at Columbia University, where she noticed a poster advertising free tuition to library employees. "There was a vacancy at the health sciences library, and that's how a theater major became a medical librarian." She's a medical librarian with…
Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,
Ramezanian M.; Alizade A.
Statement of Problem: Tooth extraction is always considered as the final treatment option in dentistry."nConsidering the numerous advances in dentistry, nowadays the preservation of the permanent teeth until old"nage is common. However, in most economically poor countries or those without security service insurance,"nthe high rate of extraction, particularly among restorable teeth, is regrettable."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the reasons for toot...
Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Pilin, A.; Hippmann, R.; Šimková, H.; Daniš, I.; Zvárová, Jana; Nagy, Miroslav
Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 14-18 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : dentistry * forensic dentistry * identification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran
Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this
Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E
The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is one of the most authentic ways to evaluate clinical skills. The present study aimed at evaluating the attitude of dental prostheses residents of the faculty of dentistry of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences toward this kind of examination. Methods: In this cross sectional-descriptive study, two questionnaires were designed. One questionnaire dealt with nature of OSCE and the other dealt with the attitude of residents about OSCE. After holding the OSCE in July 2012, 2013, and 2014, the questionnaires were delivered to all dental prostheses residents of the Tabriz dental faculty. In total, 40 questionnaires were filled out within three years. Questions included five-choice items based on a Likert scale. Furthermore, the students’ scores in each exam were recorded to evaluate any possible relationship between the acquired grade and the student’s attitude toward the exam. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS17 software (α=5%. Results: Most residents (62.5% referred to the large number of questions as a positive factor. In addition, a majority of residents (90% suffered from high levels of stress during OSCE. There was a close relation between the grade acquired by the residents in the examination and their attitude to OSCE as well as their evaluation about the examination. The students with better grades had more positive attitudes toward OSCE. Conclusion: Considering the satisfaction level of the students in this study, OSCE was held efficiently and may be considered as part of the training program of the residents.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad; Qasim, Saad; Shahab, Sana; Naseem, Mustafa; AbuReqaiba, Ammar
Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients. PMID:28787967
May 13, 2013 ... Review Article: When science meets culture: the prevention and management of erectile dysfunction in the 21st century. 2014;27(1). S Afr J Clin Nutr. Introduction. It is now well recognised ..... Traditional Asian folklore medicines in sexual health. Indian J Urol. 2006;22(3):241-245. 3. Lim PH, Moorthy P, Tan ...
Burns, Matthew K.
The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…
Chambers, David W
Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Similar to Medicine, digital communication, information processing, and x-ray imaging have changed the face of dentistry. The incorporation of digital systems into medical and dental practice has necessitated development of a standard that allows reliable transmission of information between the devices taking the images, devices storing the images, and devices displaying the images. This standard is termed as DICOM. The following article briefly reviews how DICOM came about, how dentistry is ...
Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 19, č. 9 (2008), s. 926-926 ISSN 0905-7161. [EAO Annual Scientific Meeting /17./. 18.09.2008-20.09.2008, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic dentistry * identification * electronic health record Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Zvárová, Jana; Dostálová, T.; Hanzlíček, Petr; Teuberová, Z.; Nagy, Miroslav; Pieš, Martin; Seydlová, M.; Eliášová, H.; Šimková, H.
Roč. 47, č. 1 (2008), s. 8-13 ISSN 0026-1270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008
Rezende, Taia M B; Lima, Stella M F; Petriz, Bernardo A; Silva, Osmar N; Freire, Mirna S; Franco, Octávio L
Despite all the dental information acquired over centuries and the importance of proteome research, the cross-link between these two areas only emerged around mid-nineties. Proteomic tools can help dentistry in the identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, prevention, and systematic control that will promote the evolution of treatment in all dentistry specialties. This review mainly focuses on the evolution of dentistry in different specialties based on proteomic research and how these tools can improve knowledge in dentistry. The subjects covered are an overview of proteomics in dentistry, specific information on different fields in dentistry (dental structure, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral pathology, oral surgery, and orthodontics) and future directions. There are many new proteomic technologies that have never been used in dentistry studies and some dentistry areas that have never been explored by proteomic tools. It is expected that a greater integration of these areas will help to understand what is still unknown in oral health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho
The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123
As adopted by the 1997 ... disciplines of modern medical sciences over the centuries is exciting, interesting and thoughtful2. Formal ... 300 BC, Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry including the eruption pattern of teeth. These.
Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J
Traditional curricula of pediatric dental residency programs have overemphasized restorative dentistry while failing to give adequate attention to early diagnosis, preventive disease management, risk assessment, cultural competency, advocacy, community partnerships and interprofessional education. The University of California, Los Angeles, Community Health and Advocacy Training Program in Pediatric Dentistry emphasizes these lesser-taught areas, integrating them within a structured education in classical restorative techniques and Commission on Dental Accreditation-approved standards, providing a diverse curriculum and preparing residents for practice in increasingly diverse communities.
Caprioglio, C; Olivi, G; Genovese, M D
Knowledge of the physical characteristics of different laser lights and optical and thermal properties of oral tissues is very important to understand the interaction of dental lasers with biological tissues. Choosing the correct dental laser is crucial to match specific wavelengths with target chromophores of different tissues; this affinity makes laser irradiation selective and therefore minimally invasive. Various types of lasers are used in dentistry, offering a viable alternative to low and high-speed handpieces and surgical blades, and also minimising fear and discomfort of the patient. Lasers can provide innovative and minimally invasive therapies in different branches of dentistry including preventive and restorative dentistry, traumatic injury treatments and surgical procedures. Laser has also biostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as analgesic effect.
Paulo Vinícius Soares
Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.
Nazemisalman, Bahareh; Farsadeghi, Mahya; Sokhansanj, Mehdi
Laser technology has been recently introduced into the dental field with the idea to replace drilling. Having a less painful first dental experience by the use of modern instruments like laser can be an efficient preventive and therapeutic strategy in pediatric dentistry. Pedodontists need to learn the new less invasive technologies and adopt them in their routine practice. This study aimed to review the available types of lasers and their applications in pediatric dentistry. An electronic search was carried out in IranMedex, InterScience, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline and Google Scholar databases to find relevant articles published from 2000 to 2014. Relevant textbooks were reviewed as well. Laser can be used as a suitable alternative to many conventional diagnostic and therapeutic dental procedures. It is especially efficient for caries detection and removal, pulp therapy, lowering the risk of infection, inflammation and swelling and reducing bleeding. On the other hand, due to minimal invasion, laser treatment is well tolerated by children. Improved patient cooperation leads to higher satisfaction of the parents, dentists and the children themselves.
Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Vonneilich, Nico
The Study of dentistry in Germany is in need of reform. The actual regulation on licensing dentists in Germany is from 1955, with the last changes made in 1993. Recently there have been different initiatives related to reform: a national catalogue of competency-based learning objectives in dental education (NKLZ), changes and stipulations in the respective rules relating to undergraduate curriculum in dental medicine, and an initiative of the Germany Ministry of Health to tackle and reorganize dental education in Germany.This article presents and reflects on these reform efforts in the context of actual teaching in Germany, Europe, and the United States.The reform process is an opportunity for dental education in German faculties of medicine. New dentistry programs are allowed at all faculties with model educational programs in medicine. Therefore, an example of actual reform efforts are presented based on the experiences of Hamburg. Research on dental educational programs revealed interesting approaches in dental education in other European faculties of medicine. Selected faculties were visited. These experiences led to the formulation of five main goals of reform: interdisciplinary study, problem- and symptom-based learning, early patient contact, science-based education, and communication training. The main goal is a dental education program designed along science-based, prevention-oriented, multidisciplinary, and individualized dental care that contributes to the life-long oral health of patients.
Reid, Kevin I
A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.
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In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)
Fardi, Anastasia; Kodonas, Konstantinos; Lillis, Theodoros; Veis, Alexander
Citation analysis is the field of bibliometrics that uses citation data to evaluate the scientific recognition and the influential performance of a research article in the scientific community. The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the top-cited articles pertaining to implant dentistry, to analyze the main characteristics, and to display the most interesting topics and evolutionary trends. The 100 top-cited articles published in "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine" journals were identified using the Science Citation Index Database. The articles were further reviewed, and basic information was collected, including the number of citations, journals, authors, publication year, study design, level of evidence, and field of study. The highly cited articles in implant dentistry were cited between 199 and 2,229 times. The majority of them were published in four major journals: Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and Journal of Periodontology. The publication year ranged from 1981 to 2009, with 45% published in a nine-year period (2001 to 2009). Publications from the United States (29%) were the most heavily cited, followed by those from Sweden (23%) and Switzerland (17%). The University of Göteborg from Sweden produced the highest number of publications (n = 19), followed by the University of Bern in Switzerland (n = 13). There was a predominance of clinical papers (n = 42), followed by reviews (n = 25), basic science research (n = 21), and proceedings papers (n = 12). Peri-implant tissue healing and health (24%), implant success/failures (19.2%), and biomechanical topics (16.8%) were the most common fields of study. Citation analysis in the field of implant dentistry reveals interesting information about the topics and trends negotiated by researchers and elucidates which characteristics are required for a paper to attain a "classic" status. Clinical
Yoon, Richard K; Best, Jed M
This article addresses advances in 4 key areas related to pediatric dentistry: (1) caries detection tools, (2) early interventions to arrest disease progression, (3) caries-risk assessment tools, and (4) trends in pediatric procedures and dental materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled
Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese
During the last 20 years, there has been considerable growth in the number of dental practices owned by corporate bodies. At present, well over 800 practices are owned by such bodies and they employ over 3000 dentists. This paper describes the factors that have led to this growth and explores the advantages and disadvantages of 'corporate' dentistry for patients, dentists, and the dental team. It then considers how and why dental practice may change over the next 20 years and concludes that by 2032 the small one-dentist practice may well be in the past. It is likely that smaller practices will have to work in some form of association if they are to survive. Although their current model is unstable, corporates are likely to adapt to a changing environment. By 2032, in some cases, dentistry may well be taken out of its conventional setting, into supermarkets or a school environment.
Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)
Full Text Available Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery is a technique of bone surgery which is gaining popularity in the field of dentistry in the recent years. This device is being used in osteotomies, periodontology and implantology, and oral surgical procedures. Piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations are utilized to perform precise and safe osteotomies. This article discusses the equipment, biological effects on bone, and advantages and disadvantages of this technology.
Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Diplomado en Odontología Restauradora y Estética de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Paredes Coz, Gerson; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; Cirujano Dentista, Estudiante de la Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Cardoso Hernández, Sully; Estudiante de internado de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.
Nowadays is fundamental the interrelationship of the diverse specialities of dentistry for the resolution of the treatments realized in the patients who come to the odontologic consultation, since the vision slanted of some area can deprive to offer a better possibility of treatment. Working with specialists in different areas carries to orientating adequately the treatments and to optimizing results. In the present article the integral rehabilitation of a patient is detailed by the participa...
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the
Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F
The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S
The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.
Sinha, Dakshita J; Sinha, Ashish A
The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry.
Shariati, Batoul; MacEntee, Michael I; Yazdizadeh, Maryam
Demand for economic evaluations in health care is growing with expectations that they will help to develop regional and national policies on health and social programmes. We present here the scope, quality and content of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dentistry published over the last 15 years. To review the quality and outcome of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dental treatments, preventions and services. A systematic search was conducted in 14 electronic databases for systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 1997 and July 2011 on the economics of oral disorders and oral health care. Review papers were extracted by two independent investigators to identify the characteristics, results and quality of the reviews and to highlight gaps in knowledge about the economics of dentistry. From 3150 unique references, we found 73 systematic reviews or meta-analyses of dental economics as primary or secondary outcomes. The focus of 12 of them was on the cost or cost-effectiveness of dental prevention, 54 on treatment, five on prevention and treatment and two on delivery of dental services. However, only 12 of the systematic reviews drew conclusions from economic data, and four of them constructed an economic model from synthesized data. Overall, the quality was good in the 12 systematic reviews but poor in the original studies. There is very little helpful data published on the economics of dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to explore the impact of preventive dimensions of a dentistry education program on the behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival health of a group of dentistry students of Yazd province. Methods: 51 junior and senior dentistry students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to fill in the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI. Also, clinical examinations to assess Gingival Bleeding Index and O'leary Index were conducted. Results: Comparison of junior and senior participants’ responses to the HU-DBI items indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups on items 1, 8, 10, 15, 17, 18, 20, and 21. While the senior group showed lower Gingival Bleeding and O'leary indexes in comparison to its junior counterpart, the junior group showed a higher HU-DBI mean score in comparison to the junior group. Furthermore, participants with higher HU-DBI mean scores were found to show lower Gingival Bleeding and O'leary indexes. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that junior dentistry students, in comparison to senior ones, had better gingival health and oral hygiene.
Amrollahi, Pouya; Shah, Brinda; Seifi, Amir; Tayebi, Lobat
Although human mouth benefits from remarkable mechanical properties, it is very susceptible to traumatic damages, exposure to microbial attacks, and congenital maladies. Since the human dentition plays a crucial role in mastication, phonation and esthetics, finding promising and more efficient strategies to reestablish its functionality in the event of disruption has been important. Dating back to antiquity, conventional dentistry has been offering evacuation, restoration, and replacement of the diseased dental tissue. However, due to the limited ability and short lifespan of traditional restorative solutions, scientists have taken advantage of current advancements in medicine to create better solutions for the oral health field and have coined it "regenerative dentistry." This new field takes advantage of the recent innovations in stem cell research, cellular and molecular biology, tissue engineering, and materials science etc. In this review, the recently known resources and approaches used for regeneration of dental and oral tissues were evaluated using the databases of Scopus and Web of Science. Scientists have used a wide range of biomaterials and scaffolds (artificial and natural), genes (with viral and non-viral vectors), stem cells (isolated from deciduous teeth, dental pulp, periodontal ligament, adipose tissue, salivary glands, and dental follicle) and growth factors (used for stimulating cell differentiation) in order to apply tissue engineering approaches to dentistry. Although they have been successful in preclinical and clinical partial regeneration of dental tissues, whole-tooth engineering still seems to be far-fetched, unless certain shortcomings are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath
The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
Unthank, M; True, G
In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.
Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.
Mount, G J
It is over 100 years since GV Black gathered together most of the knowledge then current on the caries process and set clear parameters for the discipline of operative dentistry. His four-volume treatise set standards that were relevant for the times and, in fact, were so well described that they remained dominant in this discipline until quite recently. However, over the last 50 years there has been great progress in scientific method and in knowledge of the common diseases of the oral environment, including the caries process, so maybe it is time for change. The term "paradigm" describes a philosophy of science, a generally accepted model of how ideas relate to one another, forming a conceptual framework within which scientific research is carried out. Black defined the paradigm within which further research was to be conducted during the following years and the profession accepted his lead. However, it is not expected that the parameters of a profession should remain unchanged over a substantial period so it is suggested that the dental profession should, at this time, recognize a new paradigm. Improvements in scientific method have led to a better understanding of the oral environment, resulting in extensive changes for this profession. It is suggested that the standards set by Black should be now consigned to history and an entirely new paradigm adopted. First, the profession must recognize that dental caries is a bacterial disease and its primary efforts should be directed towards identification and elimination of the disease prior to initiating repair of the damage that it has caused. Preservation of natural tooth structure is then the next responsibility. There should be maximum use made of preventive strategies, including remineralization, followed by minimal intervention cavity designs and the use of bioactive restorative materials to restore the lesions. The profession should be prepared to move on.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Eslamipour, Faezeh; Ghaiour, Marzieh
Aim: Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health that requires the application and examination of relevant scientific data related to the patient's oral health and his priorities. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students of Isfahan about EBD. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 168 dental students in 3 final years of their education who engaged in clinical practice by consensus sampling were recruited. For data collection, a validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was consisted of demographic questions and some questions about four issues: Knowledge of self-assess (KSA), evidence-based practice, actual knowledge and attitude about EBD. Data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear regression with SPSS 16. Results: One hundred and thirty-six students from 168 students were filled the questionnaire. The mean of KSA was 13 ± 4.3, mean of usage of useful references in EBD was 16.9 ± 7.6. One-third of students were studied their last article in last 6 months before. The mean of actual knowledge and attitude was 7.4 ± 2.3 and 24 ± 3.8, respectively. The relation between 4 main issues was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: By considering overall interest and positive attitude toward learning EBD in dental students, it is highly recommended that practical educational courses about EBD be planned by dental faculties. PMID:27500165
Full Text Available Educational environment plays an important role in the students' learning process. This descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the educational environment of Kermanshah School of Dentistry from the viewpoint of the last three-year dental students. All the last three-year students (115 were included in this descriptive study. Dental Student Learning Education Survey was used. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS.16 software. The mean score of educational environment assessment was 3.54±0.5 out of 4. The mean scores for interest in the major, flexibility of curriculum, student-student interaction, emotional atmosphere, attention to students' concerns, compatibility of educational activities with educational objectives, organization of curriculum and development of learning and extracurricular activities were 3.55±0.47, 2.81±0.65, 3.01±0.57, 3.07±0.57, 2.68±0.62, 2.85±0.59, 3.22±0.55 and 3.34±0.5, respectively. The studied educational environment was evaluated to be at average level. The domains with shortages from the viewpoint of students are suggested to be promoted in order to increase students' efficiency.
After over two decades of discussions, promises and indecisions, the year 2016 marked the birth of the School of Specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, which is now a reality. The importance of dental post-graduate specialisation schools has been debated since the Degree Course in Dentistry was established. Previously, in Italy only two dental branches - Oral Surgery and Orthodontics - had obtained the recognition that a School of Specialisation entails. Today, with specific training and the newly- established hyper-specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, the future of the profession is brighter than ever. This will allow dental professionals to provide the best cure to our young patients but it especially marks and recognises the importance of prevention in general. Having established a Specialty School in Paediatric Dentistry is also important to keep the pace with the other European countries where this postgraduate course has been already offered for many years. In my opinion, training professionals with a solid specialisation based both on cultural insights and hands-on clinical activities translates into the possibility of making true prevention. The ultimate goal of paediatric dentists, as well as paediatricians, is certainly to treat young patients but also and above all to accompany them toward an adulthood possibly free of pathologies. With an eye to a future where Paediatric Dentistry will be at the core of dental and orthodontic prevention, I wish great success to all the many specialisation schools established within the Italian Universities.
Jurkovich, M W; Ophaug, M; Salberg, S; Monsen, K
Today, dentists and hygienists have inadequate tools to identify contributing factors to dental disease, diagnosis of disease or to document outcomes in a standardized and machine readable format. Increasing demand to find the most effective care methodologies make the development of further terminologies for dentistry more urgent. Preventive care is the focus of early efforts to define best practices. We reviewed one possibility with a history of public health documentation that might assist in these early efforts at identifying best practices. This paper examines, through a survey of dentists, the Omaha System Problem Classification Scheme. The survey requested that dentists rate the usefulness of knowing about specific signs and symptoms for each of the 42 problems within the Problem list of the Omaha System. Using a weighted scoring system, 22 of the 42 problems received over 50% of the possible maximum score and 30 of the 42 problems received at least 25% of the possible points. These findings suggests that further evaluation of The Omaha System, may be useful to dentistry. At a minimum, the survey provides additional information about non-physiological problems, signs, and symptoms that may be appropriate for documentation purposes within an electronic health record (EHR) used in dentistry.
Ure, David; Harris, Jonathan
The speed at which advances are being made in science has catapulted nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations straight into the real world. There are now many examples of commercially available products demonstrating that, in given situations, the technology really does work and that its scope for further application is wide. Healthcare, along with society as a whole, is facing a major revolution in the wake of ongoing technological developments in the field of nanotechnology. Dentistry as an individual healthcare discipline is not exempt, having already been targeted directly with novel 'nano-materials' at the same time as indirectly enjoying the benefits of nano-related advances in the electronics industry through the ongoing computerization of the modern practice. This article examines current practical applications of nanotechnology alongside proposed applications in the future and aims to demonstrate that, as well as a good deal of science fiction, there is some tangible science fact emerging from this novel multi-disciplinary science.
Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N
Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
Choi, Andy H; Cazalbou, Sophie; Ben-Nissan, Besim
During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of nanostructured materials in advanced technologies for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of applications within the dental and biomedical field, for example nanoparticles in drug delivery systems and nanostructured scaffolds in tissue engineering. More importantly, nanotechnology has also been linked with the modification of surface properties of synthetic implants in an attempt to improve their bioactivity, reliability and protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. This is achieved through the use of nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings. These new-generation coatings based on inorganic materials and biological materials such as proteins and peptides are currently investigated and applied. This chapter aims to give an overview of the recent advances in nanocoatings and their composites being investigated or used in dentistry. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Stübinger, Stefan; Stricker, Andres; Berg, Britt-Isabelle
Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies.
Domb, William C
Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268
Wigdor, Harvey A.
One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Liu, F; Dang, Y H
Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.
Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.
At the time of settlement and in the years leading up to the establishment in 1884 of the Odontological Society of Victoria, dentistry was an unregulated activity practised simultaneously by those that had received the best apprenticeship training and those that had no training what-so-ever. Under the influence of dentists such as John Iliffe however, this situation was soon to change. In 1887 the first Dental Act was passed making it a legal requirement for anyone practicing dentistry to be registered. In 1890, the Melbourne Dental Hospital opened its doors to its first patients, and in 1897, the Australian College of Dentistry, later to become a school within the University of Melbourne, began teaching a dental course. Combined, these three moments in history lead to the eradication of the unscrupulous practitioner and laid the path for the development and professionalization of dentistry in the state of Victoria.
Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K
Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.
ter Horst, G
Due to a rapid increase of unemployment among dentists in many countries, the interest in advertising as a means of stimulating the demand for dental care is increasing. In some countries (i.e. USA, Canada, Finland and Holland) campaigns have been organized and the results have been published. In order to give as complete a picture as possible of all promotional activities in the field of dentistry, the member organizations of the FDI have been asked to answer the following questions: (1) Are individual dentists in your country allowed to solicit new patients by means of advertisements? (2) Do you, as an organization, have guidelines for your members in this respect? (3) Have there been any joint promotional activities by dentists in your country aimed at increasing the demand for dental care? (a) If so, in what form (e.g. advertisements, television or radio commercials)? (b) How much money was invested in such activities? (c) What were the results achieved? The results are presented. The effectiveness of specific methods used in stimulating the demand for dental care are analysed. Moreover, a comparison is made between studies on the attitudes of dentists toward advertising in Holland and the United States.
Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting
Walmsley, A. D.
Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.
Lúcia veronica Costa Ramos
Full Text Available Introduction: Contemporary studies about science have highlighted the deep social roots that both knowledge and scientific practices have. At the same time, arises the awareness that the popularization of science is fundamental to scientific knowledge, may become an essential component of the culture of the citizens in general, providing the integration cultural, social and economic.Objective: To study the potential role of cooperative networks of information in the popularization of science, considering several organizational challenges (infrastructure, human resources, senior management commitment that a SIEO network would have to operate in this new context.Methodology: It is based on an exploratory study guided the model of collaborative network of information that used a qualitative research as guide as well as a documentary research combined with a case study.Results: Results show that, although the network is prepared in terms of organizational and operational structure and quality of their collections, the lack of financial resources and qualified staff for the generation of specific materials to disseminate scientific and actions towards the popularization of science inhibits the possibilities of immediate use of this potential. It also showed that organizational culture is still somewhat flexible to the interaction with the most popular segments of society.Conclusion: Concludes that the fact cited, demands actions of mediation in service to this user, whether by language of information retrieval which allow establish equivalences between specialized language and ordinary language, whether other more appropriate forms of representation of scientific information, aimed at scientific dissemination.
Full Text Available Children’s dental anxiety has been of great worry for many years and it is still a barrier for dental care. According to recent guidelines for oral health prevention in childhood, additional strategies for a preventive care should be applied for pediatric patients. So it’s important to encourage pediatric dentists to develop a “child-friendly” environment for treating children. Environmental elements that produce positive feelings can reduce anxiety. The analysis of environmental design and features applied in Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, highlighted special attention to the aspects supporting sensory conditions (colors, light, spatial organization; reassurance strategies (decorations,dental team attire, drawings; anxiety control strategies (playing area, TV, comics, toys; behavioral management strategies (positive reinforcement, modeling; in-formation (brochures, posters.
Personalized Periodontology and Implant Dentistry are about finding accurate diagnostic, prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in treating periodontitis patients and in restoring mutilated dentitions by using dental implants. The studies comprising this thesis used complexity methods to
Bennett, Brian J.; Hall, Kevin D.; Hu, Frank B.; McCartney, Anne L.; Roberto, Christina
Progress in nutritional science, genetics, computer science, and behavioral economics can be leveraged to address the challenge of noncommunicable disease. This report highlights the connection between nutrition and the complex science of preventing disease and discusses the promotion of optimal metabolic health, building on input from several complementary disciplines. The discussion focuses on (1) the basic science of optimal metabolic health, including data from gene–diet interactions, microbiome, and epidemiological research in nutrition, with the goal of defining better targets and interventions, and (2) how nutrition, from pharma to lifestyle, can build on systems science to address complex issues. PMID:26415028
Hinton, Robert J.; Dechow, Paul C.; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; D’Souza, Rena
In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center’s Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry. PMID:21368252
Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |
The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.
The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.
Pemberton, M N
Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.
Vitale, M. C.
Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Lai, W-F; Oka, K; Jung, H-S
Use of ceramics and polymers continues to dominate clinical procedures in modern dentistry. Polymers have provided the basis for adhesives, tissue void fillers, and artificial replacements for whole teeth. They have been remarkably effective in the clinic at restoration of major dental functions after damage or loss of teeth. With the rapid development of polymer science, dental materials science has significantly lagged behind in harnessing these advanced polymer products. What they offer is new and unique properties superior to traditional polymers and crucially a range of properties that more closely match natural biomaterials. Therefore, we should pursue more vigorously the benefits of advanced polymers in dentistry. In this review, we highlight how the latest generation of advanced polymers will enhance the application of materials in the dental clinic using numerous promising examples. Polymers have a broad range of applications in modern dentistry. Some major applications are to construct frameworks that mimic the precise structure of tissues, to restore tooth organ function, and to deliver bioactive agents to influence cell behavior from the inside. The future of polymers in dentistry must include all these new enhancements to increase biological and clinical effectiveness beyond what can be achieved with traditional biomaterials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gottfredson, Denise C; Cook, Thomas D; Gardner, Frances E M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Howe, George W; Sandler, Irwin N; Zafft, Kathryn M
A decade ago, the Society of Prevention Research (SPR) endorsed a set of standards for evidence related to research on prevention interventions. These standards (Flay et al., Prevention Science 6:151-175, 2005) were intended in part to increase consistency in reviews of prevention research that often generated disparate lists of effective interventions due to the application of different standards for what was considered to be necessary to demonstrate effectiveness. In 2013, SPR's Board of Directors decided that the field has progressed sufficiently to warrant a review and, if necessary, publication of "the next generation" of standards of evidence. The Board convened a committee to review and update the standards. This article reports on the results of this committee's deliberations, summarizing changes made to the earlier standards and explaining the rationale for each change. The SPR Board of Directors endorses "The Standards of Evidence for Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Scale-up Research in Prevention Science: Next Generation."
Su, Y C
It is a digital age today. Exposed to all kinds of digital products in many fields. Certainly, implant dentistry is not exception. Digitalization could improve the outcomes and could decrease the complications of implant dentistry. This paper introduces the concepts, definitions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and errors of digital implant dentistry.
Kidd, Foster, Ed.
The unique history of the Negro in the profession of dentistry is traced, and career information for the student interested in pursuing dentistry is presented. The book includes a profile of black pioneers in dentistry from the 18th century to contemporary practitioners who have made contributions to modern dental technology. A history of the…
Full Text Available By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments.
Williams, S D; Hughes, T E; Adler, C J; Brook, A H; Townsend, G C
In 2007, only four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the journal Science announced that epigenetics was the 'breakthrough of the year'. Time magazine placed it second in the top 10 discoveries of 2009. While our genetic code (i.e. our DNA) contains all of the information to produce the elements we require to function, our epigenetic code determines when and where genes in the genetic code are expressed. Without the epigenetic code, the genetic code is like an orchestra without a conductor. Although there is now a substantial amount of published research on epigenetics in medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is in its infancy. However, epigenetics promises to become increasingly relevant to dentistry because of the role it plays in gene expression during development and subsequently potentially influencing oral disease susceptibility. This paper provides a review of the field of epigenetics aimed specifically at oral health professionals. It defines epigenetics, addresses the underlying concepts and provides details about specific epigenetic molecular mechanisms. Further, we discuss some of the key areas where epigenetics is implicated, and review the literature on epigenetics research in dentistry, including its relevance to clinical disciplines. This review considers some implications of epigenetics for the future of dental practice, including a 'personalized medicine' approach to the management of common oral diseases. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Badami, Vijetha; Ahuja, Bharat
By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments. PMID:24672407
Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78
Brostek, A M; Walsh, L J
Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is a modern approach to the management of caries, which emphasizes prevention and early interception of disease, underpinned by an understanding of the role of the dental plaque biofilm in disease initiation and progression, and how this is affected by lifestyle and behavioral factors. The MID approach should be the standard of care in modern restorative dentistry, as it avoids over-zealous restorative interventions as well as supervised neglect. Incorporating the principles of MID into general dental practice for the management of dental caries involves using Caries Risk Assessment (CRA), as well as a minimally invasive restorative approach utilizing conservative caries removal methods, minimal cavity designs and the use of adhesive restorative materials. A range of methods now exist for measuring the contribution of risk factors to dental caries risk, allowing the clinician to target their interventions at the factors operating in the individual patient, by applying the concepts of ecological change to modify the biofilm, and motivational interviewing to alter patient lifestyle and dietary behaviour. This review discusses how the principles of MID are used for individual patient care, and suggests methods for implementation of MID into general dental practice.
Journal of Dental Education, 1990
The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…
Martens, L C
The aim of this introduction to this special laser issue is to describe some basic laser physics and to delineate the potential of laser-assisted dentistry in children. A brief review of the available laser literature was performed within the scope of paediatric dentistry. Attention was paid to soft tissue surgery, caries prevention and diagnosis, cavity preparation, comfort of the patient, effect on bacteria, long term pulpal vitality, endodontics in primary teeth, dental traumatology and low level laser therapy. Although there is a lack of sufficient evidence taking into account the highest standards for evidence-based dentistry, it is clear that laser application in a number of different aetiologies for soft tissue surgery in children has proven to be successful. Lasers provide a refined diagnosis of caries combined with the appropriate preventive adhesive dentistry after cavity preparation. This will further lead to a new wave of micro-dentistry based on 'filling without drilling'. It has become clear from a review of the literature that specific laser applications in paediatric dentistry have gained increasing importance. It can be concluded that children should be considered as amongst the first patients for receiving laser-assisted dentistry.
He was in charge of the course of Legal Dentistry at the School of Dentistry from 1929 through 1932. He prepared the study program for this subject, basing it on the experience he had gained as professor in Legal Medicine at the Faculty of Medical Sciences in Buenos Aires. He published the book "Medicina Legal para la ensenanza de la Odontologia Legal y Social" (1932), and its second edition included an important contribution made by Dr. Juan Ubaldo Carrea, Main Professor of Orthodontics with Legal Dentistry at this school
Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone; Casiglia, Edoardo
Dental fear is a universal phenomenon justifying the increasing relevance of psychology and the behavioural sciences to dental training and clinical practice. Pharmacological sedation has been used more and more over the past two decades, in order to relieve dental anxiety and phobia and let the patient face oral surgery safely. Hypnosis is a still underused but powerful non-pharmacological tool in dentistry. It provides an effective sedation whilst maintaining patient collaboration, but it also may help patients recovering from dental anxiety and phobia as well as those with a severe gag reflex. While pharmacological sedation affords a temporary respite and helps the patient to cope with a single procedure, hypnosis can effectively allow for both an excellent sedation in a physiological way and the treatment of patients' anxiety, or substantially decrease the doses used for sedative and analgesic drugs when these are needed.
Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra
The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.
More, Frederick G.; Sasson, Lisa M.; Godfrey, Emilie M.; Sehl, Rima B.
The American Dietetic Association and the American Dental Association share a common interest in improving the health and quality of life of the population. Dental visits present an opportunity to identify nutrition-related issues for both the pediatric and adult population. Traditionally, dental and nutrition students have had little opportunity to learn and work together since little time was spent on nutrition in the dental curriculum. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a new collaborative training experience for dietetic interns and pediatric dentistry residents. The oral health rotation for dietetic interns also has several objectives, including experience interacting with a culturally diverse population and participating in community nutrition education (Head Start). In its first 18 months, the collaborative program has been viewed as a success by the pediatric dentistry faculty and residents and the nutrition faculty and interns. PMID:16639470
Feijoo, Javier F; Limeres, Jacobo; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Ramos, Isabel; Diz, Pedro
To identify the 100 most cited articles published in dental journals. A search was performed on the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science for the most cited articles in all the journals included in the Journal Citation Report (2010 edition) in the category of "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine". Each one of the 77 journals selected was analyzed using the Cited Reference Search tool of the ISI Web of Science database to identify the most cited articles up to June 2012. The following information was gathered from each article: names and number of authors, journal, year of publication, type of study, methodological design, and area of research. The number of citations of the 100 selected articles varied from 326 to 2050. All articles were published in 21 of the 77 journals in the category. The journals with the largest number of the cited articles were the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (20 articles), the Journal of Periodontology (18 articles), and the Journal of Dental Research (16 articles). There was a predominance of clinical research (66 %) over basic research (34 %). The most frequently named author was Socransky SS, with 9 of the top 100 articles, followed by Lindhe J with 7. The decades with most articles published of the 100 selected were 1980-1989 (26 articles) and 1990-1999 (25 articles). The most common type of article was the case series (22 %), followed by the narrative review/expert opinion (19 %). The most common area of study was periodontology (43 % of articles). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the top-cited articles in Dentistry. There is a predominance of clinical studies, particularly case series and narrative reviews/expert opinions, despite their low-evidence level. The focus of the articles has mainly been on periodontology and implantology, and the majority has been published in the highest impact factor dental journals. The number of citations that an article receives does not necessarily reflect the
Thirunavukarasu, Ananthi; Pinto, Hugo Grancho; Seymour, Kevin Guy
Bisphosphonates are a group of drugs that are commonly used to alter bone metabolism in order to prevent bone loss in diseases such as osteoporosis and bone cancers. Unfortunately, the use of bisphosphonates has been associated with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The debate as to whether it is wise to consider implant therapy in patients being treated with bisphosphonate therapy remains a grey area. This review will present the latest evidence and guidelines available on bisphosphonates and their possible effects on implant dentistry. The risk factors, co-morbidities, clinical presentation and findings from various imaging modalities for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws are highlighted. The management of patients being treated with bisphosphonates, in whom dental implants might be considered or have already been placed, will also be discussed. Finally, the areas requiring future research are considered.
Hanif, Ayesha; Qureshi, Saima; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Rashid, Haroon
After tooth loss, an individual may seek tooth replacement so that his/her function and esthetics could be restored. Clinical prosthodontics, during the past decade, has significantly improved and developed according to the advancements in the science and patient's demands and needs. Conventional options in prosthodontics for substituting a missing single tooth include the removable partial denture, partial and full coverage bridgework, and resin-bonded bridgework. Dental implants have gained increasing popularity over the years as they are capable of restoring the function to near normal in both partial and completely edentulous arches. With substantial evidence available, fixed implant-supported prosthesis are fully acknowledged as a reliable treatment option for the replacement of single or multiple missing teeth nowadays. While dental implants are increasingly becoming the choice of replacement for missing teeth, the impediments associated with them are progressively emerging too.
Full Text Available Nanofibrous structures exhibit many interesting features, such as high surface area and surface functionalization and porosity in the range from submicron to nanoscale, which mimics the natural extracellular matrix. In particular, electrospun nanofibers have gained great attention in the field of tissue engineering due to the ease of fabrication and tailorability in pore size, scaffold shape, and fiber alignment. For the reasons, recently, polymeric nanofibers or bioceramic nanoparticle-incorporated nanofibers have been used in dentistry, and their nanostructure and flexibility have contributed to highly promotive cell homing behaviors, resulting in expecting improved dental regeneration. Here, this paper focuses on recently applied electrospun nanofibers in dentistry in the range from the process to the applications.
van Gils, T; de Boer, N K H; Bouma, G
Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy, which is caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. -Approximately 0.5-1% of the Dutch population has coeliac disease, diag-nosed at both younger and older age. Treatment consists of a strict gluten-free diet. Symptoms can be diverse, including dental and oral manifestations. These dental and oral manifestations are often seen in patients with coeliac disease, although most of them are nonspecific. This is not the case for the symmetric enamel defects described by Aine and colleagues, which are very specific for coeliac disease. Early diagnosing of coeliac disease is important to prevent complications by (vitamin) deficiencies or rare (pre) malignant forms of coeliac disease. There seems to be a role for dentists in early diagnosing of coeliac disease.
Ganikos, Mary L.; Espin, Oliva M.
This article describes a model of interpersonal training for dentists in which counselors have been involved. The authors discuss the need for such training and an approach to it developed at the University of Florida. (Author)
Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Mejía-Trujillo, Juliana; Brown, Eric C.; Eisenberg, Nicole
During the last 2 years, the Colombian government and the Nuevos Rumbos Corporation have been implementing an adapted version of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, called Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC) in Spanish, for use in Colombia. This brief report presents the process of implementing CQC and identifies some of the main challenges and achievements of implementing the system in eight communities in Colombia. Preliminary results of a pilot study of CQC implementation in Colombia show that prevention system development, including a focus on measuring community risk and protection, can be established successfully in Latin American communities despite a lack of rigorously tested prevention programs and strategies. Moreover, mobilizing community coalitions toward science-based prevention, with a focus on examining local risk and protective factor data, can spur development and evaluation of prevention efforts in Latin America. PMID:28154437
Lehnert, M W
Since their introduction, great enthusiasm has greeted the application of lasers to medicine and dentistry. The future is exciting. Research will someday take us to the days of the "Star Trek" laser-scan tooth or bone repair procedures. Lasers are very specific in their application. Choose this new technology carefully, making choices and purchases based on quality scientific research and ongoing analysis and review.
Satuito, Mary; Tom, James
Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.
Nash, D A
Esthetic dentistry has assumed an integral position in the provision of oral health care for society. Esthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty. Beauty is both enjoyable (subjective and cosmetic), and admirable (objective and definable). Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with morality. Morality relates humans to one another in a responsible way using rationality. Dentists assume unique moral duties in presenting themselves to society as being uniquely qualified to care for their oral health. Three principles of ethics relate directly to professional duties in esthetic dentistry: beneficence, autonomy, and justice. These principles have moral force in committing dentists to gain informed consent and to execute therapy in keeping with professional standards of care. Practical application of issues deriving from esthetics and ethics suggests that dentists must be sensitive to esthetics in their diagnosis and treatment planning and that a structured, formal consultation with a patient must be conducted to educate the patient regarding the goals of treatment, alternative therapies, prognosis, and costs. Only through such an effort can dentists gain informed consent. The goal of esthetic dentistry is the achievement of admirable (objective) and enjoyable (subjective) beauty, which is possible only through patient participation in decision making and excellence in technical performance.
Sánchez, Iván; Uzcátegui, Gladys
To systematically review applications of fractal geometry in different aspects of dental practice. In this review, we present a short introduction to fractals and specifically address the following topics: treatment and healing monitoring, dental materials, dental tissue, caries, osteoporosis, periodontitis, cancer, Sjögren's syndrome, diagnosis of several other conditions and a discussion on the reliability of FD determinations from dental radiographs. Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, etc. (up to August 2010). The review considered original studies, reviews and conference proceedings, published in English or Spanish. Abstracts and posters were not taken into account. Fractal geometry has found plenty of applications in several branches of dental practice. It provides a way to quantify the complexity of structures. Whereas one desires to study a radiograph, an histological section or the signal from a transducer, there are several methods available to determine the degree of complexity using fractal analysis. Several pathological conditions can alter the complexity of anatomical structures, and this change can be detectable with the help of fractal parameters. Although during the last two decades there have been plenty of works on the field, reported cases having enough reproducibility, with different groups showing similar results are not very common. Further replications are needed before we can establish statistically significant correlations amongst fractal parameters and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
B Divya Bhat
Full Text Available Robots, the most wonderful invention of human being, have made its way into dentistry. The necessary technologies have been developed and experimented which would help it to be adapted in dentistry. With unmatched precision and ability to work without fatigue, robots are the most useful applications of robotic technology. The main aim of this paper is to review the application of robotics in dentistry.
Wilson, N H F
The present paper details the history of the introduction of visible light curing into dentistry. This history provides an excellent example of 'out of the box', lateral thinking translation of innovative scientific technology into dentistry. Visible light curing is an important UK contribution to the recent history and current practice of dentistry, with several million visible light curing procedures being carried out globally on a daily basis.
... time from diagnosis to death with Alzheimer's ranges from as little as 3 years to 10 or more, depending... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's... the ``NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline'' to...
Full Text Available Dentistry has been a field dominated by a constant improvement of synthetic biomaterials. Tissue engineering of tooth is coming to change the panel of the dental materials such as restorative materials and implants. Certainly, it is the largest transition in history of dental materials science in terms of accepting this new and exciting technology. The objective of this article is to present various implications of tissue engineering in different fields of dentistry. To achieve this goal, a review of the literature was carried out by using Medline database to search topics including "dental stem cells", "teeth tissue engineering", "regenerative dentistry", "oral surgery", "periodontal regeneration" and "regenerative endodontics". These searches were limited to articles published after the year 2000. On the basis of our literature review, we have found that although there are significant challenges in oral tissues engineering, engineered tissues will find many applications in dentistry within the next few years.
Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine
The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.
that selectively destroy cancer cells while leaving normal cells intact. Undergoing trial are nanoparticle-coated, radioactive sources placed close to or within the tumor to destroy it.. Tissue engineering and dentistry. Potential applications of tissue engineering and stem cell research in dentistry include the treatment of ...
Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu
Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.
Saha, R; Malik, P
A number of conditions can lead to aesthetically unacceptable dentitions like dental caries, discoloration, trauma, early loss of teeth, misalignment and any abnormality of shape and size. Today we have a large number of solutions available for aesthetic problems in paediatric dentistry. But the biggest dilemma is: How to choose what is best for a particular patient and that situation? Through this review we try to precisely highlight the various options for aesthetic restorations along with their indications, advantages and disadvantages. A search and analysis of international works on aesthetics in paediatric dentistry is presented. A considerable number of studies have shown that people are more concerned about missing anterior teeth and their replacement than about posterior ones as aesthetics seems to be more important than function. Dental caries, although not life threatening, causes nagging pain and physical as well as psychological discomfort. Nevertheless, it is clear that the condition is complex and multifactorial and hence it is important to review the various approaches available to restore the lost aesthetics.
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out case reports), the publication rate is less than 1 percent--completely out of proportion to the size of the problem dental trauma impose in children.
History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric......Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...... Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out...
Fleming, Padhraig S; Lynch, Christopher D; Pandis, Nikolaos
Clinical trials are used to appraise the effectiveness of clinical interventions throughout medicine and dentistry. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are established as the optimal primary design and are published with increasing frequency within the biomedical sciences, including dentistry. This review outlines common pitfalls associated with the conduct of randomized controlled trials in dentistry. Common failings in RCT design leading to various types of bias including selection, performance, detection and attrition bias are discussed in this review. Moreover, methods of minimizing and eliminating bias are presented to ensure that maximal benefit is derived from RCTs within dentistry. Well-designed RCTs have both upstream and downstream uses acting as a template for development and populating systematic reviews to permit more precise estimates of treatment efficacy and effectiveness. However, there is increasing awareness of waste in clinical research, whereby resource-intensive studies fail to provide a commensurate level of scientific evidence. Waste may stem either from inappropriate design or from inadequate reporting of RCTs; the importance of robust conduct of RCTs within dentistry is clear. Optimal reporting of randomized controlled trials within dentistry is necessary to ensure that trials are reliable and valid. Common shortcomings leading to important forms or bias are discussed and approaches to minimizing these issues are outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This investigation is an attempt to study growth and development of scientific products in dentistry using scientometrics in Iran during 1978-2006. In this project, 2726 dentistry articles published in Iranian journals during a specific period; including Persian and English articles, were collected. Then subjects of all articles were specified using MESH and NLM classification systems. In Persian dentistry journals, dentistry journal of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science has published 804 articles during a specific period that includes 35/07% of all articles; therefore it falls in the first rank. Among 2726 articles collected, 2102 Persian articles and 95 English articles were written by a team and 520 Persian articles and 9 English articles by individuals. Maximum number of articles belonged to Prosthodontics and minimum number of articles were on Oral and Maxillofacial pathology. Scientific outputs in dentistry in Iran have undergone an ascending growth since 2000 and it reached its highest level with 360 scientific articles in 2006. This investigation indicates the evolutionary trend and dramatic growth in number of dentistry articles published in Iranian journals.
Alarcón, Marco Antonio; Esparza, Diana; Montoya, Carmen; Monje, Alberto; Faggion, Clovis Mariano
The purpose of this study was to review and evaluate the characteristics of the 300 most-cited articles that have been published in the most important implant dentistry journals. A search and selection of the most-cited articles up to October 2014 was conducted for implant journals with the highest impact factors, according to the ISI Web of Science. The 300-most-cited articles were evaluated according to the most commonly studied topics and methodological designs used. The most-cited journals and the number of articles cited by year were calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results. The most-cited topics consisted of implant success/survival and guided bone regeneration, and the most-cited methodological designs were case series and cohort studies. The most frequently referenced journal was The International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, with 47% of the citations, and the period with the most citations was 1996 to 2000. Longitudinal studies of success and survival have had great scientific impact on the practice of implant dentistry. Awareness of the most-cited articles in implant dentistry will contribute to scientific advances, as it serves to identify the most researched areas, the most frequently used study designs, and areas that require further research.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.
Full Text Available Introduction: Periodic evaluation of educational programs provides insight into the course and teaching effectiveness. Effective evaluation provides valuable information, which contributes to both student’s and course success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of pediatric dentistry department at Mashhad dental school in clinical education from students’ perspectives.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 fifth and sixth grade undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Mashhad dental school. A questionnaire including 21 multiple choice questions about 7 parts of clinical skills in pediatric dentistry was given to each student. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney in SPSS software. Results: According to the study results, among 7 different clinical skills in pediatric dentistry including: examination, behavior management, prevention, injection, restoration, pulp treatment and space management, the highest success rate of pediatric dentistry department was in prevention and injection and the lowest success rate in space management and behavior control. Furthermore, from the students’ perspective, male students compared to female students mentioned a higher rate of success in choosing the type of restoration material for pediatric dentistry department (P=0. 041. Conclusion: This study showed that the students’ self-reported clinical skills in different parts of pediatric dentistry has been adequate. Students reported a lack of confidence in “behavior management” and “space management” which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.
Makinson, O F; Haynes, T R; Kirkwood, I D
Electronic publishing is expanding very rapidly and will soon substitute in part for the traditional role of paper and printing in accessing information and in its library storage. This change is occurring now for medicine and engineering. For dentistry the compact disc (CD-ROM) would have advantages over tape or on-line computer systems; one or two discs a year could hold all current dental journal and textbook literature. The setting of standards is the key to the successful introduction of this technology through production and playback systems. Indexing, retrieval and hardware are considered as well as copyright problems. The profession has the chance to guide the introduction of this publishing system in preference to it being fragmented between multiple publishers and thereby becoming costly. A proposal is offered which includes the nexus of traditional printing with this new publishing form through a forum for considering standards and goals for agreement on principles.
Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.
Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat
Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mattheos, N; Wismeijer, D; Shapira, L
In recent years, opportunities for postgraduate university education in implant dentistry have increased significantly, with an increase in both the number but also the complexity of available postgraduate programmes. However, there appears to be a lack of standards directing the learning outcomes of such programmes. A scientific literature search was conducted for publications reporting on university programmes within implant dentistry, including description of programmes and evaluation of learning outcomes. A separate Internet search was conducted to collect information on existing university programmes as presented on university websites. Implant dentistry has reached a critical mass of an independent, multidisciplinary and vibrant domain of science, which combines knowledge and discovery from many clinical and basic sciences. Many university programmes conclude with a master's or equivalent degree, but there appears to be a great diversity with regard to duration and learning objectives, as well as targeted skills and competences. The importance of implant dentistry has also increased within established specialist training programmes. There was little indication, however, that the comprehensive aspects of implant dentistry are present in all specialist training programmes where implants are being covered. Although universities should maintain the options of designing academic programmes as they best see fit, it is imperative for them to introduce some form of transparent and comparable criteria, which will allow the profession and the public to relate the degree and academic credentials to the actual skills and competences of the degree holder. With regard to established specialist training programmes, the interdisciplinary and comprehensive nature of implant dentistry needs to be emphasised, covering both surgical and restorative aspects. Finally, implant dentistry is not, at present, a dental specialty. The profession has not reached a consensus as to whether
Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk
Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.
Green, James; Weiss, Adam; Stern, Avichai
Advances in technology are changing the ways that patients experience dental treatment. Technology helps to decrease treatment time and makes the treatment more comfortable for the patient. One technological advance is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers are providing more efficient, more comfortable, and more predictable outcomes for patients. Lasers are used in all aspects of dentistry, including operative, periodontal, endodontic, orthodontic, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Lasers are used for soft and hard tissue procedures in the treatment of pathologic conditions and for esthetic procedures. This article discusses how lasers work and their application in the various specialties within dentistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael, O S
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.
The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.
Trendafilova, N.; Gagova, P.
Full text: For accurate and sure diagnosis in dentistry except anamnestic information (history taking) and clinical examination as an obligatory clinical examination must attend imaging investigation. For diagnosis of diseases of the teeth are used a number of imaging methods. The most widespread of them are segmental roentgenography, ortopamtomography Bitewing, as well as increasingly coming in use dental cone-beam computed tomography (3D CBCT). The aim is to introduce the types of radiographs and their benefits for prompt and proper treatment. Documentary method - a review and analysis of literature and Internet sources are made. Results and comments: Segmented radiography gives us information about the state of the tooth as a whole. Using this method gives an opportunity to visualize the crown, the neck and the root of the tooth. Ortopantomography gives a general view of the state of the maxilla and mandibula, the teeth, part of the maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints. Some or extra teeth, are discovered as well as dental disease conditions, bone abnormalities, cysts and others. Bitewing is used when caries is strongly suspected, though not visually, in cases of bone loss and others. The advantage of early and accurate diagnosis is to reduce future complications. Conclusion: good prevention and early detection of dental anomalies and pathologies is performed with the help of X-ray. The selection of the correct method for imaging, the proper use of X-ray machines and placing the required security means reducing the amount of radiation exposure to the patient
Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah
In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies
Dodge, Kenneth A.
Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry off...
Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Unesp-FOSJC; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Unesp-FOSJC
The purpose of this article was to review the usage of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in dentistry research nowadays, through a careful and updated literature review. By using the key-words Scanning Electron Microscopy and one of the following areas of research in dentistry (Endodontics, Periodontics and Implant), in international database (PubMed), in the year of 2012 (from January to September), a total of 112 articles were found. This data was tabled and the articles were classified ac...
P S Shilpa; Rachna Kaul; Nishat Sultana; Suraksha Bhat
Stem cell research has received considerable attention since the discovery that adult stem cells have the capacity to form many different tissue types. Stem cells are a booming field for the research and have been extensively studied in the field of medicine, as well as dentistry. Their application in oncology has been a boon to many of the patients. Dental stem cells have been novel approach to treat diseases like periodontitis, dental caries and many more. Their potential uses in dentistry ...
Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien
This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.
Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay
Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the proce...
Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar
interpret visual and instrumental findings in clinical dentistry, dental research, and subsequent standardization. The importance of quality control in dentistry is reinforced by increased esthetic demands of patients and dental professionals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Purpose of this study is to explore service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. We designed and implemented conversation support service via coimagination method based on multiscale service design method, both were proposed by the author. Multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Interactive conversation supported by coimagination method activates cognitive functions so as to prevent progress of dementia. This paper proposes theoretical bases for science of lethe. Firstly, relationship among coimagination method and three cognitive functions including division of attention, planning, episodic memory which decline at mild cognitive imparement. Secondly, thought state transition model during conversation which describes cognitive enhancement via interactive communication. Thirdly, Set Theoretical Measure of Interaction is proposed for evaluating effectiveness of conversation to cognitive enhancement. Simulation result suggests that the ideas which cannot be explored by each speaker are explored during interactive conversation. Finally, coimagination method compared with reminiscence therapy and its possibility for collaboration is discussed.
Ten million new cancer patients are diagnosed each year worldwide. Many specific causes of cancer are known, ranging from factors related to lifestyle, diet and chronic infections to occupational exposures. Primary and secondary prevention continue to be of major importance in cancer control globally. The global burden of cancer, especially the part attributable to infectious diseases, disproportionally affects populations in developing countries. Inadequate access to treatment (pharmaceuticals and other modern technology) plays a role in perpetuating this disparity. Drugs and vaccines may not be accessible because of excessive cost or because development of the required products has been neglected. The remarkable advances in molecular understanding of the carcinogenesis process over the past 25 years have transformed the approaches to cancer control. Promising new tools in preventive oncology, such as immunization (vaccines) and chemoprevention, have emerged. Vaccines are currently being tested in trials e.g., against hepatitis B virus and human papillomaviruses. Chemoprevention has been successfully achieved in animal experiments, and has been validated in several clinical trials. The current agents and strategies should not be regarded as a panacea; more effective and safer vaccines and chemopreventive agents are needed. Future enhanced efforts on an international basis are needed to coordinate the prevention and intervention research efforts in a cost-efficient and affordable manner. Cancer prevention deserves continuing high priority in terms of both research and application, also in the developing countries. New ventures may be built on possible expansion of IARC's role in prevention and intervention research into a "Global Science Force" by following the examples of e.g., the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study and the cervix cancer screening trials in India. WHO's support with its regional offices would be beneficial, together with further national funding
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Frencken, J.E.; Peters, M.C.; Manton, D.J.; Leal, S.C.; Gordan, V.V.; Eden, E.
This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing
Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla
Nanotechnology has paved multiple ways in preventing, reversing or restoring dental caries which is one of the major health care problems. Nanotechnology aided in processing variety of nanomaterials with innovative dental applications. Some showed antimicrobial effect helping in the preventive stage. Others have remineralizing potential intercepting early lesion progression as nanosized calcium phosphate, carbonate hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, nanoamorphous calcium phosphate and nanoparticulate bioactive glass particularly with provision of self-assembles protein that furnish essential role in biomimetic repair. The unique size of nanomaterials makes them fascinating carriers for dental products. Thus, it is recentlyclaimedthat fortifying the adhesives with nanomaterials that possess biological meritsdoes not only enhance the mechanical and physical properties of the adhesives, but also help to attain and maintain a durable adhesive joint and enhanced longevity. Accordingly, this review will focus on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in preventive and adhesive dentistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AlSarheed, Maha A
To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol, and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its' onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Intranasal midazolam, ketamine, and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications.
AlSarheed, Maha A.
Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849
Selato Selato, P.
Current literature on dental radiology was reviewed in order to seek justification for radiological protection of patients in dental radiography, to explore the different factors affecting patient dose and to derive practical guidance on how to achieve radiological protection of patients in dentistry. Individual doses incurred in dental radiology are in general relatively low, however it is generally accepted that there is no safe level of radiation dose and that no matter how low the doses received are, there is a mathematical probability of an effect. Hence appropriate patient protection measures must be instituted to keep the exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The literature review demonstrated that there is considerable scope for significant dose reductions in dental radiology using the techniques of optimisation of protection. The techniques of optimization of protection that can be used to ensure patient dose is as low as reasonably achievable whilst achieving clinically adequate image quality include the following: image receptor selection, image receptor holders, collimation, beam filtration, operating potential and exposure time, patient protective equipment, film exposure and processing, film storage, image viewing, quality assurance, diagnostic reference levels, technique charts and training and education.(au)
Lewis, John R
Veterinary dentistry is an exacting science, in which decisions are made not only for an individual patient, but also for individual teeth, which may vary in severity of disease. Multiple therapeutic decisions and treatment plans may be necessary for a single patient. Veterinary dental patients must be anesthetized to receive thorough treatment, which results in additional decisions that may not be necessary for human dental patients. This article discusses considerations and approaches toward therapeutic decision making and treatment planning in veterinary dentistry and oral surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schaub, R.M.; de Baat, C.
In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational
Schaub, R.M.; Baat, C. de
In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational
Gordan, Valeria V; Abu-Hanna, Amer; Mjör, Ivar A
Esthetic dentistry is among the most dynamic areas of contemporary clinical dentistry. Teaching programs in dental schools have a strong effect on the practice of dentistry, not only for recent graduates, but also for established clinicians, especially with respect to new techniques and concepts. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess the frequency and extent of the teaching of esthetic dentistry in North American dental schools and to report how it differs among the various schools. A 19-question survey was mailed to 64 North American dental schools. The questions inquired about the priority given to the teaching of esthetic dentistry in the school; how the subject was taught (through regular curricular courses; through a multidisciplinary approach or through elective classes); the duration of the esthetic dentistry course; the nature of the course content (theoretical or practical); the esthetic procedures taught to undergraduate students; the level of interaction among different disciplines in the teaching of esthetic dentistry; and the techniques and commercial materials used. The responses were summarized as percentages based on the number of schools that responded to each question. Fifty-two (81%) of the 64 dental schools completed and returned the questionnaire. Twenty-five of these schools (48%; designated group A) reported having a course exclusively for the teaching of esthetic dentistry. Twenty-seven schools (52%; designated group B) reported that esthetic dentistry was addressed in multiple courses, i.e., no specific course was available. Four schools in group B (15%) were in the process of developing a separate course for esthetic dentistry. In group A schools, esthetic dentistry was taught mainly in the operative dentistry department or division. The most frequent course duration was 4 to 6 months, but there were marked variations. Thirteen (52%) of these 25 schools had didactic and practical teaching at both the preclinical and the
Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Yadav, Lalita; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana
Dentistry is most importantly and foremost a healing profession. In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives, including dental practice which has a huge impact on the environment due to the large amount of metallic waste generated by various dental procedures along with excessive use of water and electricity, which specifically emphasis the thrust to move towards 'Green dentistry'. Green dentistry is an innovative way of dental practice which is environment friendly and at the same time conserves money and time by reducing waste, conserving energy and decreasing pollution with the use of latest techniques and procedures. Green dentistry therefore, protects the environment and mankind from the hazards of rapid urbanisation in developing countries. The authors wish to emphasize the practice of eco-friendly, green dentistry in a developing country like India which needs to conserve resources and curb environmental pollution.
Mashlah, A M
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.
Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende
Publication retraction is a mechanism to preserve the scientific literature against publications that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data, redundant publication, plagiarism, unethical research, and other features that compromise the integrity of science. An increase in the occurrence of retractions in recent years has been reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on this topic concerning publications in dentistry and related specialties. Thus, this study aimed to investigate retracted papers published in dental journals. Data collection included an exploratory search in PubMed and a specific search in SCImago Journal Rank indexed journals, complemented by the cases reported on the Retraction Watch website and in PubMed. All 167 dental journals included in SCImago were searched for identification of retracted articles up to March 2016. The selected retracted articles and their corresponding retraction notices were recorded and assessed for classification according to the reason for retraction and other additional information. Forty of the 167 journals scrutinised at SCImago (23.9%) had at least one retracted article, and four additional journals were identified from the Retraction Watch website. A total of 72 retracted found were retracted for the reasons: redundant publication (20.8%), plagiarism (18.1%), misconduct (13.8%), overlap (13.6%) and honest error (9.7%). Higher number of retractions were reported in those journals with cites/doc <2.0-n = 49 (74.2%). The types of studies were mainly laboratory studies (34.7%), case reports (22.2%) and review articles (13.9%). The approach to ethical problems in papers published in dental scientific journals is still incipient; retractions were mostly due to the authors' malpractice and were more frequently related to journals with less impact.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changed trends of population, oral diseases and their effects on Chinese dentistry. The demographic and epidemiologic data published in recent books and journals were reviewed and analyzed. As the 21st century approached, dentistry in China would face many changing trends and challenges. 1. a growing population and an aging population: The two sub-populations with the greatest need for prevention and treatment were children and old patients who were outpacing the supply of dental manpower. 2. The changed dental disease patterns: The prevalence of caries was increasing and more than two thirds of Chinese suffered from periodontal disease. The traditional dental approaches have not been able to satisfy the needs of Chinese. The challenge created by these demographic, economic and advances in dental technology is changing Chinese dentistry.
Rodd, H D; Farman, M; Albadri, S; Mackie, I C
Previous studies have suggested that dental students may not receive sufficient clinical experience in core paediatric dentistry skills. This study aimed to compare dental undergraduates' self-reported experience and confidence in paediatric dentistry within three UK dental schools (Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield). In April/May 2009, 147 final year dental students completed an anonymous questionnaire which captured their experience of seven core clinical skills in both hospital and outreach settings. A visual analogue scale was also employed to record perceived levels of confidence for six generic activities including: examination, diagnosis and treatment planning; patient selection for treatment under general anaesthesia; operative dentistry; preventive dentistry; management of dento-alveolar trauma, and provision of routine care for children on qualification. The key finding was that Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield dental students received comparable clinical experiences in paediatric dentistry, which appeared to satisfy the requirements of the General Dental Council's The first five years. One hundred percent had carried out fissure sealants and restorations, and 87-98% had experience of extractions. Outreach placements were crucial in ensuring students had sufficient opportunity to undertake core skills, notably extractions and pulp therapies. All students reported a lack of confidence in dental trauma management which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.
Fernanda Salloume Sampaio Bonafé
Full Text Available AimTo estimate the contribution of social support and demographic factors in the development of burnout syndrome in dentistry students.MethodA total of 169 Brazilian students participated via internet. For identification of the syndrome, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS. Social support was assessed by the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS. The validity and reliability of the instruments were estimated. To check the effect of variables on burnout syndrome, linear regression using structural equation modelling (SEM was performed to estimate causal trajectories (β.ResultsThe participants’ mean average age was 21.6 (SD = 3.3 years, 64.5% were female and 59.2% were enrolled in private schools. An appropriate adjustment of the instruments’ factor models to sample was observed (MBI-SS: χ²/df = 2.173, CFI = .943; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .084; ESSS: χ²/df = 2.378, CFI = .904; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .091. The reliability of the scales was adequate (MBI-SS: α = .799-.903; ESSS: α = .653-.799. The model explained 33% of the variation of burnout with a significant contribution of social support (ESSS (β = -.136, p = .042, gender (β = -.186, p = .005, housing (β = .124, p = .050, student performance in the course (β = -.293, p ≤ .001 and the thought of quitting the course (β = .333, p ≤ .001.ConclusionSocial support and demographic variables may play an important role in the burnout syndrome and therefore should be considered when implementing preventive actions and/or interventions (self-help or guided in college students.
Schleyer, Titus K L; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Spallek, Heiko; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel H; Hernandez, Pedro; Yuhaniak, Jeannie
Measure the adoption and utilization of, opinions about, and attitudes toward clinical computing among general dentists in the United States. Telephone survey of a random sample of 256 general dentists in active practice in the United States. A 39-item telephone interview measuring practice characteristics and information technology infrastructure; clinical information storage; data entry and access; attitudes toward and opinions about clinical computing (features of practice management systems, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, and potential improvements); clinical Internet use; and attitudes toward the National Health Information Infrastructure. The authors successfully screened 1,039 of 1,159 randomly sampled U.S. general dentists in active practice (89.6% response rate). Two hundred fifty-six (24.6%) respondents had computers at chairside and thus were eligible for this study. The authors successfully interviewed 102 respondents (39.8%). Clinical information associated with administration and billing, such as appointments and treatment plans, was stored predominantly on the computer; other information, such as the medical history and progress notes, primarily resided on paper. Nineteen respondents, or 1.8% of all general dentists, were completely paperless. Auxiliary personnel, such as dental assistants and hygienists, entered most data. Respondents adopted clinical computing to improve office efficiency and operations, support diagnosis and treatment, and enhance patient communication and perception. Barriers included insufficient operational reliability, program limitations, a steep learning curve, cost, and infection control issues. Clinical computing is being increasingly adopted in general dentistry. However, future research must address usefulness and ease of use, workflow support, infection control, integration, and implementation issues.
Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, Güzelyalı Bulvari 52100, Ordu, Turkey; Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Biskek caddesi 84.sokak, 06510 Emek, Ankara, Turkey; Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University, Tando˘gan Yerle¸skesi, 06100 Ankara, ...
Gursoy, Hare; Ozcakir-Tomruk, Ceyda; Tanalp, Jale; Yilmaz, Selçuk
The purpose of this review was to summarize recent developments regarding photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the field of dentistry. A review of pertinent literature was carried out in PubMED to determine the current position of PDT applications in dentistry. One hundred thirteen relevant articles were retrieved from PubMED by inserting the keywords "photodynamic therapy", "dentistry", "periodontology", "oral surgery", and "endodontics". It is anticipated that this overview will create a specific picture in the practitioner's mind regarding the current status and use of PDT. In spite of different results and suggestions brought about by different researchers, PDT can be considered as a promising and less invasive technique in dentistry. PDT seems to be an effective tool in the treatment of localized and superficial infections. Within the limitations of the present review, it can be concluded that although PDT cannot replace antimicrobial therapy at its current stage, it may be used as an adjunctive tool for facilitating the treatment of oral infections. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry.
The full benefit of prevention science will not be realized until we learn how to influence organizational practices. The marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and food and corporate advocacy for economic policies that maintain family poverty are examples of practices we must influence. This paper analyzes the evolution of such practices in terms of their selection by economic consequences. A strategy for addressing these critical risk factors should include: (a) systematic research on the impact of corporate practices on each of the most common and costly psychological and behavior problems; (b) empirical analyses of the consequences that select harmful corporate practices; (c) assessment of the impact of policies that could affect problematic corporate practices; and (d) research on advocacy organizations to understand the factors that influence their growth and to help them develop effective strategies for influencing corporate externalities.
Elliot, Diane L; Lindemulder, Susan J; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals' subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sprigle, Stephen; Sonenblum, Sharon; Conner-Kerr, Teresa
Pressure ulcers (PUs) remain a costly and, often avoidable, complication of full time wheelchair use. Clinicians routinely evaluate PU risk to assist in selecting devices and interventions that may prevent PUs from occurring. Clinical assessment of risk can be evaluated in many different manners, both formally and informally and, typically, is based on combinations of demographic, disability and client-reported behavioral factors. Many of these factors add to PU risk because they impact the physiology and/or biomechanics of the skin and tissue. This article results from a presentation during the Wheeled Mobility Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center's (RERC's) State of the Science Conference in 2012. The presentation's purpose was to present issues and concepts related to pressure ulcer prevention and set the stage for group discussion which followed the presentation. This article progresses through the current state of the science related to PU risk, starting with the tissue and cellular changes resulting from pressure, through the impact that external loading has on blood flow and tissue deformation, and ending with clinical assessment of risk based upon demographic and behavioral factors. Factors leading to the development of PUs are numerous and varied, but the defining factor is excessive external loading or pressure on the skin. The amount of pressure needed to cause tissue damage varies widely within and across individuals--based on anatomy and the presence or absence of bony structures under the area of interest, tissue stiffness and other individual characteristics, and most importantly--the amount of tissue deformation that occurs. Clinicians routinely evaluate wheelchair users with respect to pressure ulcer risk, however, objective risk measurements that inform prescription are not readily available. A need exists to provide clinicians with objective measurements of pressure ulcer risk that can inform individualized interventions.
This paper proposes multiscale service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. Proposed multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Firstly, the author proposes and practices coimagination method as an ``event'', which is expected to prevent the progress of cognitive impairment. Coimagination support system was developed as a ``tool''. Experimental results suggest the effective activation of episodic memory, division of attention, and planning function of participants by the measurement of cognitive activities during the coimagination. Then, Fonobono Research Institute was established as a ''network'' for ``human'' who studies coimagination, which is a multisector research organization including elderly people living around Kashiwa city, companies including instrument and welfare companies, Kashiwa city and Chiba prefecture, researchers of the University of Tokyo. The institute proposes and realizes lifelong research as a novel life ``style'' for elderly people, and discusses life with two rounds as an innovative ``rule'' for social system of aged society.
McClarty, Leigh M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Emmanuel, Faran; Kioko, Japheth; Njiraini, Margaret; Gichangi, Peter; Okoth, Clifford Duncan; Musimbi-Mbole, Janet; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Muysyoki, Helgar; Becker, Marissa L
In 2013, Kenya's National AIDS and STI Control Programme established a Learning Site (LS) in Mombasa County to support and strengthen capacity for HIV prevention programming within organisations working with sex workers. A defining feature of LS was the use of a Programme Science approach throughout its development and implementation. We provide an overview of the key components of LS, present findings from 23 months of programme monitoring data, and highlight key Programme Science lessons from its implementation and monitoring. Routine monitoring data collected from September 2013 through July 2015 are presented. Individual-level service utilisation data were collected monthly and indicators of interest were analysed over time to illustrate trends in enrolment, programme coverage and service utilisation among sex workers in Mombasa County. Over the monitoring period, outreach programme enrolment occurred rapidly; condom distribution targets were met consistently; rates of STI screening remained high and diagnoses declined; and reporting of and response to violent incidents increased. At the same time, enrolment in LS clinics was relatively low among female sex workers, and HIV testing at LS was low among both female and male sex workers. Lessons learnt from operationalising the Programme Science framework through the Mombasa LS can inform the development and implementation of similar LS in different geographical and epidemiological contexts. Importantly, meaningful involvement of sex workers in the design, implementation and monitoring processes ensures that overall programme performance is optimised in the context of local, 'on-the-ground' realities. Additionally, learnings from LS highlight the importance of introducing enhanced monitoring and evaluations systems into complex programmes to better understand and explain programme dynamics over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric...... case reports), the publication rate is less than 1 percent--completely out of proportion to the size of the problem dental trauma impose in children.......Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...
Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay
Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663
P S Shilpa
Full Text Available Stem cell research has received considerable attention since the discovery that adult stem cells have the capacity to form many different tissue types. Stem cells are a booming field for the research and have been extensively studied in the field of medicine, as well as dentistry. Their application in oncology has been a boon to many of the patients. Dental stem cells have been novel approach to treat diseases like periodontitis, dental caries and many more. Their potential uses in dentistry have provided a new generation of treatments for dental diseases and stem cells have become the focus in dental research. This review highlights about the biology, sources and potential applications of stem cells in dentistry with emphasis on a dentist′s role in enabling both medical and dental applications using stem cells from teeth.
Kalsi, A S; Lewis, N J; Hemmings, K W
A recent national survey has shown the need for clarification regarding the various disciplines encompassed by restorative dentistry and their respective training pathways. This document aims to address this by outlining the remit of restorative dentistry, in addition to the various job roles involved. This information is being disseminated by the British Society for Restorative Dentistry, and given the relevance to referrers and those looking for insight into the speciality, it has been reproduced here. Roles within the speciality range from dentists with special interests to specialists and consultants, whether primarily academic or clinical. The choice that a new graduate may make to choose a specific route will likely depend on a number of factors, often specific to each individual. Guidance on ways to gain experience and sources of further information are also provided.
Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. Diagnostic radiology uses ionizing radiations which have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules in biological and other systems. X-rays used in diagnostic radiology are a potent mutagenic agent, capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. X-rays are extensively used in medical and dental practice for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. X-rays provide useful information and aid in diagnosis but at the same time they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry X-rays are used mainly for diagnosis. Radiation in doses required for dentistry may not present any major risks, however these small doses are not necessarily risk free. Hence, no exposure to X-rays can be considered completely free of risk, so the use of radiation by dentists is accompanied by a responsibility to ensure appropriate protection. Several radiation safety measures have been recommended and advocated to reduce harmful effects. Dental professionals are the only practitioners who perform radiographical examination of their patients themselves. Although the exposure used in dentistry is low every effort should be made to reduce radiation in order to prevent the accumulated dose to the dentist in their lifetime. The dose reduction can be achieved in three main steps. They are decision making, optimising radiologic procedures and patient protection. The potential for undesirable effects must be balanced against the benefits obtained from radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel. (author)
Andreea Dana Tudose
technical report of treatment ( labor - price, average duration, satisfaction, relative to direct restoration techniques versus indirect techniques . In conclusion, SWOT analysis can be successfully applied to a better targeting of treatments, applying a plan lines for management in dental treatment units. None of direct techniques can not fit the bioeconomy principles (saves time, money, dental tissue in the short term. All maneuvers efficient in terms of functional aesthetics dentistry win at time saving and lost tooth structure chapter to the cost issue. In the long run costs can be amortized, especially since the restoration increases predictability.
Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.
This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of ...
Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A
Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comp...
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Kroeplin, Birgit S; Strub, Joerg R
The aim of this literature review was to evaluate to what extent oral implant dentistry was integrated into undergraduate educational programs worldwide. An online search of PubMed (MEDLINE and additional life science journals) was performed for articles published from 1966 to January 2010 using combinations of select medical subject headings. Additionally, the ISI Web of Knowledge database (MEDLINE: 1950 to present, Web of Science: 1945 to present) was searched using "education" and "implant" as search terms. The online search was supplemented with a manual search of dental journals in the fields of education, prosthodontics, and implant dentistry and of the reference lists of selected full-text articles. Surveys comparing different undergraduate dental implant curricula and articles describing the undergraduate dental implant curriculum of a single university were identified. Postgraduate or continuing education programs for dental practitioners or master and specialist programs were excluded. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria of this review. The percentage of universities that included implant dentistry in undergraduate education increased from 51% in 1974 to 97% in 2006 for universities in the United States and to 100% for surveyed European universities. All curricula included lectures (mostly 1 to 20 hours) and 30% to 42% included laboratory courses, but the level of clinical experience differed greatly between surveyed universities. Because oral implant dentistry has become a standard treatment alternative, the undergraduate dental curricula should include its application in treatment planning, observation of placing and restoring implants, and treating patients with implant-retained or -supported restorations.
Hargreaves, James R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B; Johnson, Saul; Kapiga, Saidi; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Dallabetta, Gina; Garnett, Geoff P
Theories of epidemiology, health behaviour, and social science have changed the understanding of HIV prevention in the past three decades. The HIV prevention cascade is emerging as a new approach to guide the design and monitoring of HIV prevention programmes in a way that integrates these multiple perspectives. This approach recognises that translating the efficacy of direct mechanisms that mediate HIV prevention (including prevention products, procedures, and risk-reduction behaviours) into population-level effects requires interventions that increase coverage. An HIV prevention cascade approach suggests that high coverage can be achieved by targeting three key components: demand-side interventions that improve risk perception and awareness and acceptability of prevention approaches; supply-side interventions that make prevention products and procedures more accessible and available; and adherence interventions that support ongoing adoption of prevention behaviours, including those that do and do not involve prevention products. Programmes need to develop delivery platforms that ensure these interventions reach target populations, to shape the policy environment so that it facilitates implementation at scale with high quality and intensity, and to monitor the programme with indicators along the cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spielman, Andrew I; Fulmer, Terry; Eisenberg, Elise S; Alfano, Michael C
Health care, including oral health care and oral health education, is under great stress in the United States. The cost of and access to care, the cost of dental education, and a shortage of educators have led leaders in dental education, organized dentistry, and the public sector to underscore the problem. One of the proposed solutions is to find synergies and new health care and education models by building bridges among the health professions. One potential solution is being implemented at the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD). Dentistry and nursing are seemingly unrelated professions, and they are rarely if ever modeled together. That is about to change with the joining together of NYUCD and the Division of Nursing of the NYU Steinhardt School of Education in creating a College of Nursing within the College of Dentistry. This process has not been without controversy. Following the Division of Nursing's request to join NYUCD, and the subsequent announcement of the proposed combination by NYU in December 2004, some members of the dental profession responded by questioning the appropriateness of the merger and the similarity of the two programs. Nevertheless, substantial parallels exist in the education and practice of dentists and nurse practitioners (NP) including basic, social, and some clinical science education, practice models, research synergies, and community service. However, similarities in the core competencies of these professions have not been analyzed formally and in detail. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the core competencies of nurse practitioner and dental education programs. The results show a surprising overlap of the core competencies of the dental and nursing professions (38 percent partial or total overlap). A similar overlap with medicine also exists, albeit lower (25.4 percent). These results are notable because they demonstrate that the three health professions, independently of one another, developed very similar
Dickerson, T C
Coaching is a subject dentistry appears to have let slip by, yet as this article outlines, it has so much to offer in many different aspects of dentistry, but particularly in fulfilling the Standards for dental professionals determined by the General Dental Council (GDC). Evidence suggests that coaching has produced tremendous benefits to business, and dentistry is a business.
Choi, A H; Ben-Nissan, B; Matinlinna, J P; Conway, R C
The purpose of coatings on implants is to achieve some or all of the improvements in biocompatibility, bioactivity, and increased protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. During the last decade, there has been substantially increased interest in nanomaterials in biomedical science and dentistry. Nanocomposites can be described as a combination of two or more nanomaterials. By this approach, it is possible to manipulate mechanical properties, such as strength and modulus of the composites, to become closer to those of natural bone. This is feasible with the help of secondary substitution phases. Currently, the most common composite materials used for clinical applications are those selected from a handful of available and well-characterized biocompatible ceramics and natural and synthetic polymers. This approach is currently being explored in the development of a new generation of nanocomposite coatings with a wider range of oral and dental applications to promote osseointegration. The aim of this review is to give a brief introduction into the new advances in calcium phosphate nanocoatings and their composites, with a range of materials such as bioglass, carbon nanotubes, silica, ceramic oxide, and other nanoparticles being investigated or used in dentistry.
Haggerty, Kevin P.; Shapiro, Valerie B.
This paper describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work’s intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers. PMID:23731424
Haggerty, Kevin P; Shapiro, Valerie B
This article describes a public health orientation to drug and alcohol abuse prevention; reviews the state of the science underlying a risk and protective factor approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention; describes Communities That Care, a community practice model that makes use of this evidence; and considers how this model reflects four important principles of social work practice. The intent of this article is to provide guidance to social workers who support the National Association of Social Work's intention to make prevention practice central to the provision of alcohol and drug abuse services by social workers.
Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.
Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786
Savithra, Prakash; Nagesh, Lakshminarayan Shetty
To assess a) whether the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) has improved since the formulation of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and b) whether there is any difference in reporting of RCTs between the selected public health dentistry journals. A hand search of the journals of public health dentistry was performed and four journals were identified for the study. They were Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology (CDOE), Community Dental Health (CDH), Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) and Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry (OHPD). A total of 114 RCTs published between 1990 and 2009 were selected. CONSORT guidelines were applied to each selected article in order to assess and determine any improvement since the publication of CONSORT guidelines. The chi-square test was employed to determine any statistical significant difference in quality of reporting of RCTs before and after the publication of the CONSORT guidelines. A comparison was also done to determine any statistically significant difference in quality of reporting of RCTs between the selected journals. Title, abstract, discussion and conclusion sections of the selected articles showed adherence to the CONSORT guidelines, whereas the compliance was poor with respect to the methodology section. The quality of reporting of RCTs is generally poor in public health dentistry journals. Overall, the quality of reporting has not substantially improved since the publication of CONSORT guidelines.
Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…
Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.
The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…
B H Sripathi Rao
Full Text Available The development and use of implants is one of the biggest advances in dentistry in the last few decades. It has helped to give many solutions to tooth loss as well as maxillo facial prosthetics. This article traces the history and evolution of dental implants.
Gibson, G. B.; Swanson, A. E.
The process used by the University of British Columbia to establish and improve an undergraduate hospital dentistry program is chronicled. The program's initial structure and objectives, use of student input for program improvement, and the success of the approach in developing an effective program are discussed. (MSE)
Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also
Full Text Available Introduction: Stem cells (SCs, known as cells with characteristics such as self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are generally obtained from two sources: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs and adult stem cells (ASCs. SC research is expected to play a pivotal role in future medicine. The aim of the present review was to introduce dental and nondental SCs, examining the general characteristics, in vivo and in vitro differentiation capacities, immunosuppressive properties as well as the application of SCs in dentistry and regenerative medicine. Methods: In October 2015, PubMed, Scopus were searched by experienced researchers with the query "stem cells and dentistry "and a focus on SC and dental journals. Results: In the field of dentistry, ASCs, isolated from different structures, are divided into different subpopulations: Dental SCs, population of SCs isolated from different components of immature and mature teeth and nondental SCs, and those isolated from oromaxillofacial tissues. Conclusions: It appears that dental and nondental SCs are popular resources of SCs because of easier accessibility and fewer ethical problems. In addition, they have a high differentiation capacity into different cell lineages. Different studies have introduced dental and nondental SCs as suitable SC sources for SC therapy in dentistry and regenerative medicine.
Wismeijer, D.; Buser, D.; Chen, S.
The ITI Treatment Guide series, a unique compendium of evidence-based treatment methods in implant dentistry in daily practice, written by renowned clinicians, provides a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic options. Using an illustrated step-by-step approach, the ITI Treatment Guide shows
Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
The relationship between medicine and dentistry in Nigeria from the time of colonial rule to date is highlighted. Records have shown that medical practice is much older than dental practice and this pioneering advantage in health education enhanced the establishment of the first medical school in Ibadan in 1948. Whereas ...
Hyson, John M
The history of the use of arsenic in dentistry has been relegated to dental history. Once hailed as a panacea for the relief of pain and the answer to root canal therapy, it soon fell out of use mainly because of its misuse by unskilled and unscrupulous dentists in search of a quick fix to a complex problem. Such is the story of arsenic.
Shue, Brian K; Seldin, Harriet F
California’s female dentists have experienced many professional and societal challenges. Their earliest achievements and successes are examined, including their history in the early California schools of dentistry and dental societies, their service and professional practice. A diverse selection of female dentists from California with different professional career paths is profiled.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Full Text Available Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries
IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care.
Clarkson, Jan E; Ramsay, Craig R; Averley, Paul; Bonetti, Debbie; Boyers, Dwayne; Campbell, Louise; Chadwick, Graham R; Duncan, Anne; Elders, Andrew; Gouick, Jill; Hall, Andrew F; Heasman, Lynne; Heasman, Peter A; Hodge, Penny J; Jones, Clare; Laird, Marilyn; Lamont, Thomas J; Lovelock, Laura A; Madden, Isobel; McCombes, Wendy; McCracken, Giles I; McDonald, Alison M; McPherson, Gladys; Macpherson, Lorna E; Mitchell, Fiona E; Norrie, John Dt; Pitts, Nigel B; van der Pol, Marjon; Ricketts, David Nj; Ross, Margaret K; Steele, James G; Swan, Moira; Tickle, Martin; Watt, Pauline D; Worthington, Helen V; Young, Linda
Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0-3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI.Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases.The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self
Gilbert Gregg H
Full Text Available Abstract Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1 expand the knowledge base; 2 increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3 create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry.
Hamissi, J; Bairami, P; Hamissi, Z
Objective: The purpose of the current research is to discover the causes for the dentistry selection as a profession by senior dental scholars in Iran. Materials & Methods: Surveys are distributed between the first-year to the sixth-year senior dental scholars at the Scholl of Dentistry in Medical Sciences Qazvin University in Iran. The survey presented in a lecture hall at the terminal of the secondary term in the 2011-2012 academic years. The survey included 30 parts, and the pupils asked to measure the significance of any part for choosing dentistry as a profession, on a 10-points scale. In addition, T-test and ANOVA utilized for the data analysis. Results: The answering ratio in the research is 55% (out of 100%) of the pupils delivered. Ninety-six students (93.2%) selected it as an initial selection. Dentistry as a job which is “insurer of financial independence” was gained a most rate via 82.5% of the pupils raised and a comparable amount of the students (75.7%), assigned a highest rate to the parameter “I love to enhance many money”. Dentistry as a “science-based job” was also given a score by 80.6% of the pupils. Conclusion: There are no variations in the motivation between men and women students. It obtained that “insurer of financial independence” and “I love to enhance many money” are critical action parameters in the dental pupils population. PMID:28316683
Lakshmana B Rao
Full Text Available An extremely effective way of preventing damage to and enhancing treatment of dental hard tissues and restorations would be to ′′de-programme′′ the muscles responsible for excessive destructive forces and other gnathological-related diseases. The new paradigm is the intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX into the affected muscles. It is a natural protein produced by anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. The toxin inhibits the release of acetylcholine (ACH, a neurotransmitter responsible for the activation of muscle contraction and glandular secretion, and its administration results in reduction of tone in the injected muscle. There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin, viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which differ in their potency, duration of action, and cellular target sites. This paper describes the different applications of BOTOX in dentistry.
Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Singh, Raj Kumar; Chaudhari, Prabhat Kumar
The term LASER is an acronym for ‘Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation’. As its first application in dentistry by Miaman, in 1960, the laser has seen various hard and soft tissue applications. In the last two decades, there has been an explosion of research studies in laser application. In hard tissue application, the laser is used for caries prevention, bleaching, restorative removal and curing, cavity preparation, dentinal hypersensitivity, growth modulation and for diagnostic purposes, whereas soft tissue application includes wound healing, removal of hyperplastic tissue to uncovering of impacted or partially erupted tooth, photodynamic therapy for malignancies, photostimulation of herpetic lesion. Use of the laser proved to be an effective tool to increase efficiency, specificity, ease, and cost and comfort of the dental treatment. PMID:23833485
de Oliveira, Renata Ferreira; da Silva, Camila Vieira; Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira
Studies have shown the use of laser therapy at points of acupuncture as an alternative to metal needles. The scientific literature in the area of laser acupuncture is rather large; however, the actual mechanisms and effects have not yet been proven in detail. Therefore, the current manuscript reviews the existing literature regarding the effects of laser acupuncture in Dentistry, seeking treatment modalities in which this technique is used and which are able to generate positive clinical results. Thus, the literature survey was conducted in electronic databases--Medline/Pubmed, VHL and Science Direct--using the uniterms "alternative medicine", "low-power laser and acupuncture", "laser acupuncture and dentistry" and "laser therapy and acupuncture". Retrospective and prospective clinical studies were considered. According to the findings of the literature, laser therapy at points of acupuncture was effective for the treatment of various orofacial problems encountered in dentistry, but there are still many differences among the parameters used for irradiation and there is a lack of important information reported by the studies, such as the wavelength, dose, power density, irradiation time and frequency, points of acupuncture selected for irradiation and therapy outcomes. Although these results indicate the potential benefit of the use of laser therapy at points of acupuncture on Dentistry, further double-blinded, controlled clinical trials should be carried out in order to standardize protocols for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh
Background: As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers’ scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. Methods: This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. Results: 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields. PMID:26635439
Waylen, A; Barnes, O; Kenyon, P; Neville, P
There are various motivators that prompt people to study dentistry but there is evidence that the salience of each varies according to gender and black and minority ethnic (BME) group. Given the current focus on inequality within the science, technology, engineering, medicine and mathematics (STEMM) academic disciplines where dentistry sits, it is important to understand the relevance of different motivators to different social groups if inequality is to be overcome. We carried out a survey of dental students from 11 out of the 18 dental schools in the UK to find out what prompted them to study dentistry. Our findings showed that most people make a personal choice to study dentistry and follow a patient-focused career while the prospect of an academic career was important for less than half of our sample. Differences according to gender and BME group were apparent but did not follow these trends. In order to continue to improve the diversity within dental academia dental schools should consider the different preferences of the workforce and work to broaden its potential.
Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Motallebnejad, Mina; Gholinia, Hemmat; Esbakian, Somayeh
As in other fields of medicine, scientific production in the field of dentistry has significant placement. This study aimed at quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating Iranian researchers' scientific output in the field of dentistry and determining their contribution in each of dentistry subfields and branches. This research was a scientometric study that applied quantitative and qualitative indices of Web of Science (WoS). Research population consisted of927indexed documents published under the name of Iran in the time span of 1993-2012 which were extracted from WoS on 10 March 2013. The Mann-Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to data analyses in SPSS 19. 777 (83. 73%) of indexed items of all scientific output in WoS were scientific articles. The highest growth rate of scientific productionwith90% belonged to endodontic sub field. The correlation coefficient test showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the number of documents and their publication age (P scientific production in various subfields of dentistry were very different. It needs to reinforce the infrastructure for more balanced scientific production in the field and its related subfields.
Jaju, Rishita; Tate, Anupama Rao
The purpose of this study was to characterize the participation of pediatric dentistry in multidisciplinary cleft palate teams (CPTs) at advanced pediatric dental residency programs. A survey was sent to the directors of advanced pediatric dentistry programs across the United States. Of the 60 (90%) surveys returned, 18% of the programs were university-based, 40% hospital-based, and 42% combined programs. Overall, 92% of the programs reported pediatric dentistry's participation in CPTs. Orthodontics, plastic surgery, oral surgery, otolaryngology, and speech therapy, are represented on at least 75% of the CPTs. Nursing and psychology are represented in less than 50% of the CPTs. A higher percentage of combined programs reported providing interceptive orthodontics, while more hospital-based programs reported providing presurgical infant orthopedic appliances (PIOAs). Of the 47% of the programs that reported use of POIA, 64% reported using removable appliances. Seventy-five percent of the programs reported that there has been no change, 22% reported an increase, and 3% reported a decrease in the CPT participation level in the post 5 years. This study highlights the role of pediatric dentistry as a part of cleft palate team. This role extends from preventive and restorative to infant orthopedics.
Bavaresco, Caren Serra; Bragança, Silvana Gonçalves; D'Avila, Otávio Pereira; Umpierre, Roberto; Harzheim, Erno; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida
Oral health in childhood is a major problem for global public health. In Brazil, the prevalence of childhood tooth decay varies from 12% to 46%. Dental care treatment in Brazil is almost the exclusive responsibility of primary healthcare (PHC). Therefore, it is essential these professionals are prepared to conduct restorative, endodontic, and exodontic treatments and preventive care in children. Children make up a large proportion of the population in territories requiring advanced dental care provided by PHC in Brazil. To care for these patients, it is necessary to have both manual dexterity and technical knowledge of pediatric dentistry. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a distance course on pediatric dentistry. A pretest questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was used to assess initial dental knowledge of participants. After completion of a five-module course, participants retook the same initial dental knowledge questionnaire (post-test). Descriptive statistic and paired t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlation were used, and a significance level of 5% was set. The majority of participants completing the five-module course were women who earned specialty degrees beyond undergraduate studies and currently worked in PHC (>5 years). Participant performance on the dental knowledge questionnaire after completion of the five-module course improved pre- to post-test. These data suggest that completion of a distance course on pediatric dentistry can be an effective tool for improving knowledge of pediatric dentistry in PHC professionals.
Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn
Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Sealants for preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal caries in primary and permanent molars: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials-a report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.
Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso
information about adverse events, but they did not report any adverse events. Available evidence suggests that sealants are effective and safe to prevent or arrest the progression of noncavitated carious lesions compared with a control without sealants or fluoride varnishes. Further research is needed to provide information about the relative merits of the different types of sealant materials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ucer, T C; Botticelli, D; Stavropoulos, A; Cowpe, J G
Training for dental practitioners in implant dentistry ranges from 1- or 2-day short Continuing Professional Development (CPD) courses to certificate/diploma programmes run by universities. In general, the teaching of implant dentistry in Europe lacks structure and standardisation. This paper aims to: (i) identify the current trends in CPD in implant dentistry in Europe; (ii) identify potential and limitations with regards to the design and implementation of CPD activities in implant dentistry; (iii) provide recommendations on the future structure and development of CPD activities in implant dentistry. A search of the literature was undertaken in PubMed for manuscripts published in English after 2000 reporting on CPD in dentistry and in implant dentistry in particular. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted, investigating the attitudes towards CPD among a wide group of stakeholders in implant dentistry education. There is a wide diversity of educational pathways towards achieving competences in implant dentistry through CPD. At present, there is a need for improving the CPD structures in implant dentistry, strengthening the quality assurance and encouraging standardisation and transparency of the learning outcomes. Development of a structured CPD system with clearly defined educational objectives mapped against specific levels of competence is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mehdizadeh, S.; Vaziefehdoust, S.
Complete text of publication follows. Dentistry students were assessed in one of the school of dentistry in Iran. 11% of responders had attended a radiation protection course. This study showed that those who have attended this course had improved knowledge of ALARA principle, assessment of the impact of digital imaging in patient dose reduction and usage of personal dosimeter systems. Course attendance made no considerable difference to knowledge of the patient dose, dose reduction techniques and annual permissible dose limits of general public and radiation workers. The results of this study revealed that the majority of students have not received adequate radiation protection teaching and even if a course has been attended, overall knowledge is still poor and formal teaching at undergraduate level should be corrected in the future.
Jabr S. Al-Sanabani
Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.
Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.
Jovananović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan; Zagradjanin, Danica; Milovanović, Nebojša; Puzović, Dragana
This paper describes the life and work of Dr. Atanasije Puljo (1878-1944). He was a volunteer in the Balkan wars, an active participant in the First World War; he was the first who noted the importance of team-work of a dentist and a surgeon in the care of jaw and facial injuries. He established primacy in this field, as he came up with this brilliant idea three years before other colleagues. His method of treatment of the upper jaw neglected fractures, called the Balkan method, was recognized worldwide. Dr. Puljo is the pioneer of dental radiology in Serbia, founder of the Odontology Clinic of the Medical Faculty and main supporter of the establishment of the School of Dentistry. Merits of Dr. Atanasije Puljo, medical practitioner with a broad knowledge in different fields, remain within the academic institution that was founded by this pioneer of dentistry in Serbia.
Full Text Available Rosaiah Kanaparthy1, Aruna Kanaparthy2 1Department of Periodontics, 2Conservative Dentistry, Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. Keywords: nanotechnology, molecule, nanomedicine, nanodentistry, nanorobots
Ian Matos Vieira
Full Text Available The glass ionomer cement was developed in the past century 70s, after continuous researches about silicate cement. Over the years, glass ionomers have been playing an important role on restorative dentistry. Initially, the material was used for restoration of small cavities, however, its usage has been increased. The main indications at present are: as core buildup restorative, luting cement, liner and base and as a sealant. Recently, glass ionomer cement has been used for ART restorations and in some medicine fields because of the positive biointeraction with bone cells. Although glass ionomer cements exhibit an initial critical solubility and poor aesthetics, great biological properties like fluoride release to oral environment, chemical bonding to tooth tissues and biocompatibility leads this material elective for many purposes. Finally, their inherent antimicrobial properties contributes to the treatment of many situations in dentistry.
Despite the ever-growing demand for implant treatments by patients, there is confusion about what the appropriate training pathway in implant dentistry should be. This is accompanied by a worrying lack of training at undergraduate level for correct patient selection and monitoring of implant cases. An unclear training pathway, inappropriate referrals and a 'hands-off' approach to patients with implants may be putting patients at risk. This article highlights these issues with a suggestion that the training should of course follow the current GDC guidelines, but goes further to suggest that the end point of training should be at diploma level as a minimum, either via a university route, or via the RCS Edinburgh Diploma in Implant Dentistry Examination.
Souza, Francisley Ávila; Statkievicz, Cristian; Guilhem Rosa, Ana Laura; da Silveira Bossi, Fabrício
This report describes a protocol for managing the accidental swallowing of dental instruments in implant dentistry, illustrated by a patient who accidentally swallowed a hexagonal wrench. The first step was to refer the patient to the medical emergency hospital service for radiographic and clinical evaluation. The hexagonal wrench was located in the stomach and was immediately removed with an endoscopic procedure. The gastric mucosa was sampled via biopsy and the sample submitted to the urease test, which was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Triple treatment was instituted for gastritis caused by H pylori to avoid exposing the patient to unnecessary risk. Removal of a foreign body by means of an endoscopic procedure constitutes a safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.
Paul, D P
Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.
Clouse, H R
Managed care plans attempt to control health care expenditures aggressively. These plans directly influence access to medical care and the type, level, and frequency of care rendered. As a result, hospital stays are reduced, focus shifts from inpatient to outpatient care, and patients are responsible for a larger share of health care costs. Dentistry is not immune from the impact of managed care. The attractiveness of the dental market has drawn many managed care organizations, insurers, and entrepreneurs to encourage dentists to participate in a wide variety of managed care programs. However, the delivery of dental care differs markedly in many respects from that of medical care. Therefore, many of the cost saving aspects of managed care that have been so successful in medicine may not result in similar cost savings in dentistry.
Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep
Current projected missions to Mars will require 18 to 24 months of exposure to microgravity conditions, which might have serious effects on human physiology, including that of the oral cavity. Very few studies have been published on the effect of microgravity on the oral cavity, although it has been reported that microgravity increases the prevalence of periodontitis, dental caries, bone loss and fracture in the jaw bone, pain and numbness in teeth and oral cavity tissue, salivary duct stones, and oral cancer. Aeronautic dentistry is a new field, so further study of the effects of microgravity are required. In this article, we review the role of aeronautic dentistry in space missions and offer our recommendations for the future growth of this field.
Mej?re, Ingegerd A.; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K.; Stecks?n-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H. A.; Tran?us, Sofia H.
Objectives To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. Methods A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment...
Personalized Periodontology and Implant Dentistry are about finding accurate diagnostic, prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in treating periodontitis patients and in restoring mutilated dentitions by using dental implants. The studies comprising this thesis used complexity methods to (i) cluster periodontitis patients of four cohorts and train and test various classifiers in distinguishing aggressive (AgP) from chronic (CP) periodontitis and (ii) cluster implant-treated patient...
Lasers and radiosurgery frequently used in human dentistry are rapidly entering veterinary dental use. The carbon dioxide, diode, and low-level therapy lasers have features including hemostasis control, access to difficult to reach areas, and decreased pain, that make them useful for oral surgery. Periodontal pocket surgery, gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, gingival hyperplasia, operculectomy, tongue surgery, oropharyngeal inflammation therapy, oral mass surgery, crown, and frenectomy laser surgeries are described, including images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chambers, David W
Digital communication offers advantages and challenges to dental practice. As dentistry becomes comfortable with this technology, it is essential that commercial and other values not be accepted on a par with professional ones and that the traditional dentist-patient relationship not be compromised by inserting third parties that introduce nonprofessional standards. The Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentist have prepared this background and position paper as a guide to the ethical use of digital communication in dental practice.
Barzè, Franco; Palmieri, Beniamino; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rottigni, Valentina
Laser therapy has achieved an important rule in cosmetic dentistry especially in the treatment of several complications such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, glossitis, oral mucositis, labial herpes virus, stomatitis, frenulum and oral hemangioma. In our study we enrolled 40 patients affected by these diseases to treat them with a new infrared dental laser demonstrating that it is extremely safe and effective in pain and postoperative discomforts reduction.
Full Text Available Traditionally, clinical decisions in dentistry have been based on the experience of the dentist. If the given treatment works, it was utilized again, but if the results were disappointing, the procedure was deserted. Evaluating clinical treatment in this fashion is difficult because it is hard to know which factors are important for success and which contribute to failure. This came with the concept of evidence-based approach which facilitates conclusions for clinical practice based on sound research studies.
It took mankind some ten thousand years to get sugarcane from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. Once it reached Europe and the Europeans knew how to handle it, it took them only a hundred years to turn the production of sugar into the biggest industry of the world. Exactly in those hundred years the birth of modern medicine--and dentistry--is placed. This coincidence is too particular to be left unnoticed.
Full Text Available Contemporary dentistry is, first of all, characterized by diverse accelerated development, owing to improvements of information and other technologies, as well as the development of dental materials (shape-memory biomaterials, nanomaterials, biomaterials for application in tissue engineering, etc.. Expert doctrinaire attitudes move from the direction of operative interventions, whereby disease and acute symptoms are primarily treated, towards the strengthening of oral health by minimally invasive procedures. A particular place in patients’ total rehabilitation belongs to numerous esthetic procedures which, to a large extent, make up a wants-based service, led by the patients’ needs and affinities. This paper deals with differences between cosmetic and esthetic dentistry. The complexity of esthetic dentistry, which favors therapy with the change of function parameters in care for the patient, is emphasized. On the other hand, more attention is paid to the need to know and respect ethical and marketing principles that follow any activity of dentists, starting from the first contact with the patient, the selection of certified materials, to the implementation of the appropriate treatment plan. Well-directed communication and comprehensive awareness of the patient, the use of the visual analog scale, consideration of realistic resources in therapy, and the acceptance of de Bono model of adopted parallel thinking are determinants which help dentists define a problem adequately, find quality solutions, open alternative solutions, and reduce the potential risks in patients’ therapy.
Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.
Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.
V. N. V. Madhav
Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.
Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon
Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.
General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.
Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Yadav, Lalita; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana
Dentistry is most importantly and foremost a healing profession. In today’s world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives, including dental practice which has a huge impact on the environment due to the large amount of metallic waste generated by various dental procedures along with excessive use of water and electricity, which specifically emphasis the thrust to move towards ‘Green dentistry’. Green dentistry is an innovative way o...
Norkin FJ. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry. The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry... disease . Journal of Implant and Advanced Clinical Dentistry. 2009;1(6):61-68 13. Gouvoussis J, Sindhusake D, Yeung S. Cross-infection from... periodontitis sites to failing implant sites in the same mouth. The International Journal or Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 1997;12:666-673 14. Chee WW
Gutmann, James L
The use of microscopes in dentistry has become quite popular since the late 1980s. However, its origin for dental applications can be traced to the early 20th century, when a microscope, invented by an American biologist named Greenough, working in the Zeiss Company, was adapted for use in dentistry. Initially it had been used in botany, metallurgy, and zoology, in addition to revolutionizing the study of coral and entomology. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.
Rajesh P; Kamath M
Dentistry was marked with radical changes in clinical restorative procedures. If the inherent characteristic of the ionomer cement was examined, it becomes very clear to the researcher as well as the dentist, that no other material has had an impact as comparable to glass ionomer cements on restorative dentistry. This scientific paper highlights the clinical applications of the cement in restorative dentistry. Glass ionomer cements are bioactive, by forming permanent adhesive bonds to dentin ...
Historiographical works of dentistry present cultural, intellectual, technical, institutional aspects of dentistry as well. They evaluate and reconstruct the past of the profession from the prehistoric times till the end of the 20th century. Present article sketching the history of dental historiography summarizes the most important works, reference books and articles published on the field of history of dentistry, evaluates and annotates the single publica tions, grouping them by their (French, German, English and Hungarian) languages.
Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.
Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…
Coleman, Daniel; Del Quest, Aisling
As part of an evaluation component of a youth suicide prevention, a quasi-experimental repeated measures design tested hypotheses about two brief suicide prevention gatekeeper trainings (Question, Persuade, Refer [QPR] and RESPONSE) and one longer suicide intervention skills training (Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training [ASIST]). All three trainings showed large changes in prevention attitudes and self-efficacy, largely maintained at follow-up. ASIST trainees had large increases in asking at-risk youth about suicide at follow-up. Convergent with other research, modeling and role-play in training are crucial to increased prevention behaviors. Practice and research implications are discussed, including social work roles in suicide prevention and research.
Wood, Jeffrey; Barbieri, Damon M; Rutkauskas, John S; Seewoester, Sarah
This survey's purpose was to: (1) assess the status of the pediatric dentistry academic workforce; (2) determine if the current workforce is sufficient for pediatric and general dentistry education requirements; (3) address other workforce issues; and (4) explore factors influencing this faculty shortage, thereby narrowing the focus of other surveys. In 2004, 130 pediatric dentistry faculty members completed a Web-based survey regarding workforce issues. Questions were asked regarding: (1) faculty characteristics; (2) job history prior to academics; (3) academic career longevity/motivators for change; and (4) private practice participation. Twenty-four percent indicated academic involvement for over 25 years, followed by 20% indicating 1- to 4-year involvement. Eighty-two percent of chairpersons had educators leave within the last 5 years, with 38% of positions remaining unfilled. Motivators for leaving included location (25%), family (19%), and faculty (12%). Twenty-three percent identified salary as an influential factor when considering an institution change, and 74% felt clinical tracks would aid in recruiting/retaining faculty. The majority of full-time faculty members maintained a part-time practice. Survey results indicate that pediatric dentistry mirrors the national dental faculty member shortage. Most troubling is the loss of educators after 5 and 10 years of teaching, perhaps due to salary disparities with private practice, tenure requirements, and family.
Ozar, D T
While countries varies significantly in the financing of dental care, they are much more alike in the delivery of dentistry. Dental care is principally provided in dental offices and clinics that are independent business entities whose business leaders are most often the dentists themselves. However society expects from dentists a level of professionalism (i.e. habitually acting ethically, both in terms of competence and conduct) in contrast to the methods and motivations of the marketplace. This is why the single most important challenge of dental professional ethics continues to be giving proper priority to patients' well being and building ethically correct decision-making relationships with patients while, at the same time, trying to maintain a successful business operation. If we look into dentistry's future, the centrality of this aspect of professional ethics is not likely to change, although the ways in which dentists might violate this trust will probably multiple as funding mechanisms become increasingly complex. It is important that dentists reflect with fresh eyes on their ethical commitments. One challenge is the increased availability of oral health information to the public and the fact that so many people are uncritical of the accuracy of information in the media and on the web. A second is the increase in the amount of health care advertising in many societies. A third is the growth of aesthetic dentistry that differs from standard oral health care in important and ethically significant ways. The fourth is insurance that frequently complicates the explanation of a patient's treatment alternatives and often brings a third party into the treatment decision relationship. The ethical challenges of each of these factors will be considered and ultimately tying it to the central theme of dental professionalism.
Kour, Gurpreet; Masih, Updesh; Singh, Chanchal; Srivastava, Manvi; Yadav, Priti; Kushwah, Jagriti
The management of pain and anxiety in dentistry encompasses a number of procedural issues, including the delivery of anesthetic solution. One of the most important ways to manage the behavior of children is pain control. Trypanophobia is very common among dental patients and the most important goal of guidelines on behavior guidance for pediatric dental patient is to ease fear and anxiety in dental procedures in children. For the stated reasons, the purpose of the present study was to record child's pain sensation both objectively and subjectively while receiving dental local anesthesia using conventional syringes and diabetic needles. Twenty children of age group 6 to 12 years undergoing routine dental procedures participated in the study. Every child acted as one's own control, while receiving treatment on the opposite side of the same arch. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive the injection either with conventional syringe or diabetic needle for the first visit, while the injection with the other needle was administered during the second visit. Rating scales were used for objective and subjective evaluations. Statistical analysis of the measurements were made using Wilcoxon signed U test and Mann-Whitney U test which showed the mean sound, eye, motor (SEM) score difference using insulin syringe. The outcome was statistically significant when compared using the mean ranks between male and female patients with that of control group. It can be concluded that diabetic syringes exhibit clinical advantage and its use in pediatric dentistry for local anesthetics (LA) infiltration can prove beneficial. How to cite this article: Kour G, Masih U, Singh C, Srivastava M, Yadav P, Kushwah J. Insulin Syringe: A Gimmick in Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):319-323.
Full Text Available Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.
White, J G
To develop and evaluate a teaching strategy for teaching communication skills in dentistry. Phase I: Development and implementation of a course in communication skills. Phase II: Implementation of a teaching strategy by means of an experiential learning strategy complemented by a didactic teaching strategy. Third year dental students (n = 67). The instruments included the following: (i) Study guide; (ii) Case study; (iii) Assessment rubric; (iv) Two questionnaires: "Patient's and "Dentist's feedback; (v) Standardised patient. The class as a whole scored significantly higher after training compared to before training (p communication skills, proved to be effective and was perceived by the students as a valuable and appropriate strategy.
Full Text Available Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, which is effectively used in the treatment of different diseases for more than 100 years. In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body. Owing to its beneficial biological properties including antimicrobial and immune-stimulating effects, ozone therapy has opened new vistas in treatment modalities of dental pathologies for patients of all ages. The objective of this article is to review the literature available on applications of ozone in dentistry.
Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash
Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.
Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.
Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna
The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. PMID:22131826
Shajahan, P A; Kumar, P Ranjith; Hariprasad, A; Mathew, Jyothis; Shaji, A P; Ahammed, M Fazeel
In this era of fast developing technologies and innovative ideas, the need for faster treatment has become a necessity. Treatment with lasers that is much less time-consuming and painless is accepted and appreciated by the patient. Use of Lasers is not new; they have been in use for decades since their development by Maiman in 1960. Lasers have travelled a long way from ruby lasers to erbium lasers and are being fondly used in every aspect of dental treatment. This article aims at elaborate the use and applications of lasers in the field of esthetic dentistry. PMID:26124614
Al-Dajani, Mahmoud; Limeback, Hardy
The key environmental factor involved in caries incidence is fermentable carbohydrates. Because of the high costs of caries treatment, researchers continue to explore dietary control as a promising preventive method. While dietary change has been demonstrated to reduce Streptococcus mutans, a preventive role is expected for "functional foods" and dietary habit alterations. The authors consider how recent advances in the understanding of caries pathology can reveal dietary control as a valuable method in promoting a healthy dentition.
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long ...
Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla
An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…
Pediatric Dentistry: A Clinical Approach, Third Edition provides a uniquely clear, comprehensive, and clinical approach to the dental treatment of children and adolescents. •Offers systematic coverage of all clinical, scientific and social topics relating to pediatric dentistry •Thoroughly revised...
Gherardi, Matteo; Tonini, Riccardo; Colombo, Vittorio
We briefly discuss the history of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) applications in dentistry. The reasons for seeking innovative solutions in dentistry are reported, highlighting results showing the potential of plasma along with some still-open questions. Finally, we suggest the next steps on the road from the laboratory to the dental chair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas
Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.
Gallagher, J E; Fiske, J
As a profession we have a responsibility to ensure that the oral health needs of individuals and groups who have a physical, sensory, intellectual, medical, emotional or social impairment or disability are met. In the UK, over 200,000 adults have profound learning disabilities and/or complex medical conditions. Adults with a disability often have poorer oral health, poorer health outcomes and poorer access to services than the rest of the population. This paper examines the need for Special Care Dentistry based on a review of published literature, surveys and health policy, and suggests how services might be delivered in the future. Existing models of good practice reveal that established clinicians working in this field have a patient base of between 850 and 1,500 patients per year and work across primary care and hospital settings, liaising with colleagues in health, social services and the voluntary sector to ensure integrated health care planning. On this basis, a conservative estimate of 133 specialists is suggested for the future, working in networks with Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) and primary dental care practitioners. A skilled workforce that can address the wider needs of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be formally recognised and developed within the UK to ensure that the needs of the most vulnerable sections of the community are addressed in future.
Srinivasan, Vidya; Waterhouse, Paula; Whitworth, John
The aim of this study was to present a review of the reported literature on: (i) the physical and chemical properties; and (ii) clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in the practice of paediatric dentistry. Electronic literature search of scientific papers from January 1993 to June 2008 was carried out on the MEDLINE, Embase, Entrez Pubmed, and Scopus databases using specific key words. The search yielded 448 papers, out of which 100 were identified as conforming to the applied criteria. These papers formed the basis of the review and the clinical scenarios presented which demonstrate the application of MTA in the practice of paediatric dentistry. Paediatric dentists have successfully employed MTA in a variety of endodontic/restorative applications since the late 1990s. Clinical impressions have generally been favourable and support the findings of laboratory and animal-based investigations. Very few clinical studies have been reported so far in humans, and although these have been positive, the body of research is currently insufficient to enable a meaningful systematic review and meta-analysis.
Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María
In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.
Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and noncontact technique for obtaining cross-sectional images of biologic structure, which was initially introduced to depict the transparent tissue of the eye. It employs the partial coherence properties of a light source to image structures with high resolution (< 20 (m). Recently, this technique has also been applied in turbid media. This tomographic imaging is analogous to conventional ultrasound B mode imaging, except that OCT measures the intensity of backreflected infrared light rather than acoustical waves. First applications, of OCT in dentistry for diagnosing periodontal disease have been reported by Colston et al. presenting in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues of porcine premolar teeth. In this work, the feasibility of polarisation sensitive OCT for dental material is suggested. In contrast with conventional OCT, where the magnitude of backscattered light as a function of depth is imaged, backscattered light is used to image the magnitude of the birefringence in the sample as a function of depth. Partial loss of birefringence is known to be an early indication of incipient caries or tissue thermal damage. Applying this technique for caries diagnosis or guidance regarding optimal dosimetry for thermally mediated laser therapeutic procedures, polarisation sensitive OCT would represent a promising new technology for dentistry. (author)
Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch; Backinger, Cathy L
A new law in the United States gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wide latitude to regulate tobacco products for the first time. Given the need for science to serve as a foundation for FDA actions, it is critical that a scientific review of the literature relevant to the proposed legislation be undertaken by experts in the field of nicotine and tobacco research in order to develop research priorities. This paper describes an initiative that was implemented to identify research opportunities under "The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act" and summarizes the conclusions and future directions derived from that initiative. Multiple research and surveillance needs were identified, such as characterization of biomarkers and increased analysis of risk perception. It was also recognized that science will play a critical role in policy determinations such as what constitutes "substantial equivalence" and that there will be considerable infrastructure needs (e.g., laboratories for product testing). Science must drive FDA's decision making regarding tobacco regulation. This article provides a summary of research opportunities identified through literature reviews related to various provisions of the new law. However, the science required by the law requires a transdisciplinary approach because of its complexity, so one of the challenges facing the FDA will be to connect the silos of research in recognition that the "system" of tobacco regulation is greater than the sum of its parts.
María del Carmen Zavala Ramírez
Full Text Available The Mexican Society for Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis was founded in 1908 for the purpose of fighting against venereal diseases. Unlike previous prevention initiatives that focused on sanitary control of prostitution, the Society promoted the creation of dispensaries for medical care for the sick, and the dissemination of knowledge through lectures and printed propaganda. This article analyzes the ideas that led to the founding of the Society, the main messages which it sought to spread, obstacles and criticism it faced, and the causes that led to its dissolution in 1923. The article shows that science and morality were two core elements that the Society sought to promote, since its members assumed that venereal diseases concerned to public health and morals, and that they could be prevented by the control of the will and passions, and if necessary, treated with the help of qualified physicians.
Khan, Farhan Raza; Mahmud, Sadia; Rahman, Munawar
In the last decade, a rapid increase has been observed in the number of dentists due to establishment of a number of dental colleges in Pakistan. Very few of these institutions have Paediatric Dentistry Department. Similarly, no postgraduate Paediatric Dentistry training program exists in the two major provinces of the country. The objectives of this study were to map the pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the clinicians in teaching institutions and private practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted at dental departments of academic institutions and selected dental practices in Karachi. There was a statistically significant difference in preferences, selection of dental materials and pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the teaching dentists compared to the private practitioners. Both the teaching and non-teaching dentists need to update themselves in the provision of Paediatric Dentistry services such as fluoride application and fissure sealant placement.
Epstein, Gerald L
The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed.
Full Text Available Aim: To characterize personal, institutional or national scientific production is a need to understand and improve the generation of knowledge. The aim of this study is to describe the bibliometric profile of ISI publications related of Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry during 1989-2012 timespan.Matherial and methods: Bibliometric study. A search on Web of Knowledge of Thomson Reuters for Science Citation Index Expanded database was perfomed, about the scientific productivity of Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry during 1989-2012 period. The analyzed variables were the number of publications, cites, magazines on which they were published, authors, institutions and coauthor countries.Results: Thirty nine articles were identified. These articles were cited in 266 opportunities (6,82 cites per article and h-index of 10. In relation with journals, stands out Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology (21.9%, Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine (12.2%, and International Journal of Morphology (7.3%. More productive authors were Rojas (13, Martínez (11 y Brethauer (9. 48,72% of publications was concentrated in last five-years and 69.23% in last ten-years.Conclusions: Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry scientific production is poor, being observed an increase during the last 5 years.
Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Boquete-Castro, Ana; Guardia, Javier; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis
Due to its antioxidant properties and its ability to detoxify free radicals, melatonin may interfere in the function of osteoclasts and thereby inhibit bone resorption. This inhibition of bone resorption may be enhanced by a reaction of indolamine in osteoclastogenesis and this may contribute to certain benefits in implantology. This systematic literature review on the use of melatonin in implant dentistry aims to provide guidelines for clinicians. PubMed, Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane base databases were used to identify articles published between 1999 and 2013 on melatonin use in implant dentistry. Ten articles were selected consisting of 9 animal research studies and 1 review article, involving 60 Beagle dogs, 57 rats, and 30 rabbits and a total of 352 implants. Melatonin, which is released into the saliva, has important implications in the oral cavity. To achieve dental implant stability, osseointegration involves a cascade of protein and cell apposition, vascular invasion, bone formation, and maturation. This process may be accelerated by local delivery of growth-promoting factors, as occurs with the topical application of melatonin over the implant surface. The experimental evidence suggests that topical applications of melatonin may be useful in oral surgery and implant dentistry, increasing bone-to-implant contact values and new bone formation, and so improving the success and long-term survival of implant treatments.
Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo
The main purpose of the second part of this series was to provide the reader with some basic aspects of the most common biostatistical methods employed in health sciences, in order to better understand the validity, significance and reliability of the results from any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, as mentioned in the first paper, Pediatric Dentists need basic biostatistical knowledge to be able to apply it when critically appraise a dental article during the Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) process, or when participating in the development of a clinical study with dental pediatric patients. The EBD process provides a systematic approach of collecting, review and analyze current and relevant published evidence about oral health care in order to answer a particular clinical question; then this evidence should be applied in everyday practice. This second report describes the most commonly used statistical methods for analyzing and interpret collected data, and the methodological criteria to be considered when choosing the most appropriate tests for a specific study. These are available to Pediatric Dentistry practicants interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.
Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.
Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…
Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies
The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.
Gudding, R.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.
Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an
Ann M. Cools
Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.
Largent, Beverly A
Founded in 1947, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) is a not-for-profit membership association representing the specialty of pediatric dentistry. The AAPD's 7,500 members are primary oral health care providers who offer comprehensive specialty treatment for millions of infants, children, adolescents, and individuals with special healthcare needs. The AAPD also represents general dentists who treat a significant number of children in their practices. As advocates for children's oral health, the AAPD develops and promotes evidence-based policies and guidelines, fosters research, contributes to scholarly work concerning pediatric oral health, and educates healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public on ways to improve children's oral health. The academy's philanthropic arm, Healthy Smiles, Healthy Children: The Foundation of the AAPD, advances the AAPD mission through the support and promotion of education, research, service, and policy development.
Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Oral disease continues to be a major problem in Australia impacting quality of life, the economy and broader health system. Although the understanding of caries and periodontal disease has improved along with increased government support, oral diseases continue to be the most prevalent among all health conditions. This is despite unprecedented levels of funding in the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Teen Dental Plan. Access to primary care dentistry in the private sector, where the majority of dental services are provided, remains a critical issue. Under the current system of dentistry, it cannot be assumed that the practice of dentistry represents a prioritised approach to combat disease patterns based on scientific evidence in primary health and prevention. Drawing on data in relation to these two programs, the present study highlights issues impacting dental service provision. This includes issues such as access and affordability to dental care, sustainability of policy and its unintended consequences, private practice pressures and the impact of remuneration on treatment. This paper argues that without structural reform there will continue to be barriers in implementing policies capable of improving oral health.
Reisman, J. P.
We need to do a critical self examination of why the communication has thus far failed to sufficiently convey relevance in order to provide a basis for public and policy-maker understanding of the science. This session will focus on major impediments to communicating relevance and the foundations of climate science in two target audiences, those that are unsure, and those that have been misled. The question of 'why' is key. Considerations focus on social psychology and confluence effects that improve, or impede, climate communications and achievement of relevant understanding. Key components of human understanding require context in order to be addressed. Understanding these components form the basis for more effective climate communications.
Rule, James T
Dentistry, like all professions, has always had ethical problems to contend with, including societal trust, flagrant advertising, commercialism, and access to care. Although the profession's interest and expertise in ethics has grown enormously in the last three decades, the issues facing dentistry have not really decreased, and perhaps have grown more problematic. Thus, despite the invaluable contributions of ethical progress to the structure and function of our profession, this paper argues that reflective ethics by itself appears unable to exact change. For change to occur, dentistry also needs a broad-based display of enlightened, and ethically-driven but action-oriented professionalism. This existed in the 1830s when U.S. dentistry was in its early stages of becoming thought of as a profession. Using the lessons learned from that period of our history, we need to do the same thing now--not excluding ethics, but working hand in glove with ethics. This paper suggests that, as in the 1830s, dentistry now needs the grassroots attention of its membership. Using recent publications about the importance of "connectedness" in dentistry, guidelines are presented that provide a framework for approaching the problems faced by dentistry and contributing to a more satisfying professional career.
Elena M. Varoni
Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.
Laskawiec, J.; Michalik, R.
Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)
Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, Li Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, Ae
Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing. The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%), followed by pain (n = 24, 38%); the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%), followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%), naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%), diclofenac (n = 2, 3%), and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%); the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78.9%), ampicillin (n = 7, 10.6%), and penicillin V and clindamycin (n = 3, 4.5%). The most frequent errors reported by students were: lack of knowledge about drug posology (n = 49, 74.2%), improperly filled prescriptions (n = 7, 10.7%), not knowing the brand names and uncertainty about the correct drug indicated for each case (n = 3, 4.54%), not knowing the duration of treatment (n = 2, 3%), not asking the patient about possible allergies, and not
Santosa, R E
Unlike their use in conventional crown and bridge, provisional restorations during implant therapy have been underutilized. Provisional restorations should be used to evaluate aesthetic, phonetic and occlusal function prior to delivery of the final implant restorations, while preserving and/or enhancing the condition of the peri-implant and gingival tissues. Provisional restorations are useful as a communication tool between members of the treatment team which, in most cases, consists of the restorative clinician, implant surgeons, laboratory technicians, and the patient. This article describes and discusses the various options for provisionalization in implant dentistry. Clinicians should be aware of the different types of provisional restorations and the indications for their use when planning implant retained restorations.
Sharma Lakhanpal Manisha
Full Text Available This era of advanced technology is marked by progress in identifying and understanding the molecular and cellular cause of a disease. With the conventional methods of treatment failing to render satisfactory results, gene therapy is not only being used for the cure of inherited diseases but also the acquired ones. The broad spectrum of gene therapy includes its application in the treatment of oral cancer and precancerous conditions and lesions, treatment of salivary gland diseases, bone repair, autoimmune diseases, DNA vaccination, etc. The aim of this article is to throw light on the history, methodology, applications and future of gene therapy as it would change the nature and face of dentistry in the coming years.
Lydia Masako Ferreira
Full Text Available Pizosurgery has therapeutic characteristics in osteotomies, such as extremely precise, selective and millimetric cuts and a clear operating field. Piezoelectricity uses ultrasonic frequencies, which cause the points specially designed for osteotomy to vibrate. The points of the instrument oscillate, allowing effective osteotomy with minimal or no injury to the adjacent soft tissues, membranes and nerve tissues. This article presents the various applications of piezoelectricity in oral implant surgery such as: removal of autogenous bone; bone window during elevation of the sinus membrane and removal of fractured implants. The cavitational effect caused by the vibration of the point and the spray of physiological solution, provided a field free of bleeding and easy to visualize. The study showed that the piezoelectric surgery is a new surgical procedurethat presents advantages for bone cutting in many situations in implant dentistry, with great advantages in comparison with conventional instrumentation. Operating time is longer when compared with that of conventional cutters.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a remarkable interest in stem cells within the dental and medical community mainly because of their capability of self-renewal and multiple lineage differentiation. Due to its multipotent properties, stem cells have been employed in the regeneration of body parts and curing various diseases. Stem cells have been isolated from oral and maxillofacial region including tooth, gingiva, periodontium and oral mucosa. Stem cell research and therapy may be used as an alternative to current conventional methods of restoring tooth and craniofacial defects. The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of the different types of stem cells and their origin and characteristics features and its applications in dentistry. The literature search included PubMed, other indexed journals, and online material.
Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh
There are two limiting factors for determining the dental implant fixture length in mandibular posterior edentulous region: Inferior dental canal and submandibular fossa. Submandibular fossa augmentation is a suggested way to overcome the problem of lingual undercut beneath the mylohyoid ridge in implant dentistry. Patients with lingual posterior bony undercut that interferes with the placement of a standard implant with a length of 10 mm were enrolled in this study. This method was used for eight patients in 10 sites. Increased implant length and decreasing the chance of sublingual hematoma due to lingual cortical plate perforation are the results of this study. Submandibular fossa augmentation is a new technique to improve the maneuver of oral surgeons to increase dental implant length in the presence of deep lingual bony undercut.
Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M
Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.
Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh
Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...
Dziubińska, P; Jaskólska, M; Przyborowska, P; Adamiak, Z
Stem cells have been successfully isolated from a variety of human and animal tissues, including dental pulp. This achievement marks progress in regenerative dentistry. This article reviews the latest improvements made in regenerative dental medicine with the involvement of stem cells. Although, various types of multipotent somatic cells can be applied in dentistry, two types of cells have been investigated in this review. Dental pulp cells are classified as: DPSCs, SCAPs and SHEDs.The third group includes two types of cell associated with the periodontium: PDL and DFPC. This review aims to systematize basic knowledge about cellular engineering in dentistry.
Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V
With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.
Oladokun Majeed Olaide
Full Text Available As a response to the need to provide an acceptable thermal comfort and air quality in indoor environments, various ventilation performance indicators were developed over the years. These metrics are mainly geared towards air distribution, heat and pollutant removals. Evidence exists of influencing factors on these indicators as centered on ventilation design and operations. Unlike other indoor environments, health care environment requires better performance of ventilation system to prevent an incidence of nosocomial and other hospital acquired illnesses. This study investigates, using in-situ experiments, the ventilation efficiency in a dentistry surgical room. Thermal and hygric parameters were monitored on the air terminal devices and occupied zone over a period of one week covering both occupied and unoccupied hours. The resulting time-series parameters were used to evaluate the room’s ventilation effectiveness. Also, the obtained parameters were benchmarked against ASHRAE 170 (2013 and MS1525 (2014 requirements for ventilation in health care environment and building energy efficiency respectively. The results show that the mean daily operative conditions failed to satisfy the provisions of both standards. Regarding effectiveness, the findings reveal that the surgical room ventilation is ineffective with ventilation efficiency values ranging between 0 and 0.5 indicating air distribution short-circuiting. These results suggest further investigations, through numerical simulation, on the effect of this short-circuiting on thermal comfort, infection risk assessments and possible design improvements, an endeavour that forms our next line of research inquiries.
Cafiero, Carlo; Matarasso, Sergio
An impressive progress in dentistry has been recorded in the last decades. In order to reconsider guidelines in dentistry, it is required to introduce new concepts of personalised patient treatments: the wave of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine is rapidly incoming in dentistry. Worldwide dentists have to make a big cultural effort in changing the actual ?reactive? therapeutic point of view, belonging to the last century, into a futuristic ?predictive? one. The first cause of t...
Klossner, Kristin Ann
This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a preliminary assessment carried out for activities and operations at Sandia National Laboratories Building 878, Manufacturing Science and Technology, Organization 14100. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate processes being carried out within the building to determine ways to reduce waste generation and resource use. The ultimate purpose of this assessment is to analyze and prioritize processes within Building 878 for more in-depth assessments and to identify projects that can be implemented immediately.
Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel
The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.
Sourabh Jagannath Torvi
Full Text Available While widespread advances have occurred in all details of science over the past decade, regenerative dentistry has also seen its part of breakthrough innovations. Tooth regeneration offers new and innovative approaches to common problems encountered in oral and dental sciences. In cases where a tooth is lost, it may be replaced with an implant, bridge, or a denture capable of mastication. However, in many developing countries, it is often simpler (and far more cost-effective to remove the tooth. Strategies based upon regenerative medicine that facilitates the repair or replacement of damaged teeth may hold particular promise as a means to reduce the cost of dental care. Dental maladies aside, the tooth is also a compelling candidate as a template for organogenesis which could have far-reaching implications for the field of regenerative medicine.  A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet-based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, and Embase using keywords such as "dental pulp stem cells," "regeneration," "medical applications," and "tissue engineering." This review explores existing and visionary approaches in the revolutionary field of regenerative dentistry, as an extension to the familiar concepts of regenerative medicine.
Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J
Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision.
Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O
Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-u...
This paper, the second of a series of two, provides an introduction to treatment planning in implant dentistry for the general dental practitioner. Clinical relevance: Appropriate training has made implant placement and restoration a routine treatment option in general practice.
Jung, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Ganeles, J.; Wismeijer, D.; Zwahlen, M.; Hämmerle, C.H.F.; Tahmaseb, A.
Purpose: To assess the literature on accuracy and clinical performance of computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to collect information about (1) the accuracy and (2) clinical performance of
Renton, T; Master, S
Since the 'Francis Report', UK regulation focusing on patient safety has significantly changed. Healthcare workers are increasingly involved in NHS England patient safety initiatives aimed at improving reporting and learning from patient safety incidents (PSIs). Unfortunately, dentistry remains 'isolated' from these main events and continues to have a poor record for reporting and learning from PSIs and other events, thus limiting improvement of patient safety in dentistry. The reasons for this situation are complex.This paper provides a review of the complexities of the existing systems and procedures in relation to patient safety in dentistry. It highlights the conflicting advice which is available and which further complicates an overly burdensome process. Recommendations are made to address these problems with systems and procedures supporting patient safety development in dentistry.
This Code of Practice applies to all those involved in the practice of dentistry and is designed to minimise radiation doses to patients, dental staff and the public from the use of dental radiographic equipment
Santangelo, Mario V.
A review of the history and current status of both the predoctoral dental curriculum and general dentistry programs gives insight into the nature and scope of the movement to make postdoctoral dental education a requirement. (MSE)
Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen
Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent and easy-to-use reinforced ribbon. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. This case report demonstrates usage of Ribbond as a space maintainer, a fixed partial denture with a natural tooth pontic, an endodontic post and cores and a splint material in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. PMID:19826607
Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L
Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.
Sílvio Augusto Fernandes de Menezes; Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro; Luciana Teixeira Passos; Camila de Almeida Smith; Tatiany Oliveira de Alencar Menezes
Objective: To assess the characteristics of special needs patients assisted at the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pará. Methods: A descriptive observational study conducted from March 2007 to December 2009, assessing 137 records of which were extracted the following data: gender, age, origin, current and past medical history, type of special needs and major oral diseases. We applied descriptive statistics, one-dimensional frequency table and prepare...
Diana Krystyna Harbuz; Michael O’Halloran
Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that li...
Eda Arat Maden
Full Text Available Polyethylene fiber (Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent material. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. Different clinical applications of Ribbond include space maintainers, fixed partial dentures with a natural tooth pontic, endodontic posts and cores and splint materials in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 110-115
Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S
The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.
Krokter Kogoj, Tina; Čebašek Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana
Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students’ mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for s...
Artênio José Isper Garbin
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether the professionals who make use of advertising in Dentistry by means of billboards respect the ethical aspects determined by the Federal Council of Dentistry Resolution No 71, 2006. Methods: This was an observational study in which 178 billboards of dental clinics in the municipality of São Paulo were assessed. Results: Among the billboards analyzed, 91.4% belonged to private persons and 9.6% to corporate bodies. With regard to the ethical aspects related to the advertisement, only 44.9% of the billboards presented all the mandatory items in accordance with the Federal Council of Dentistry. The item found the least number of times in the advertisements was the registration number in the Regional Council of Dentistry (34.8%. Among the items allowed by the Federal Council of Dentistry, the telephone number (65.2% was the most commonly found. Among the ethical infractions, 1.7% of the billboards advertised the terms of payment. Conclusion: Professionals are not following the ethical precepts established by the Code of Ethics in Dentistry, and awareness of these professionals needs to be aroused, so that information about their services is communicated and divulged in an ethical manner.
Gordon, M; Gorfil, C; Segal, S; Mass, E
This was to evaluate some suggested diagnostic procedures, treatment policies and professional attitudes of specialists in paediatric dentistry, in light of the periodically published guidelines by The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry and The British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Using a structured questionnaire, 67% of the Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry, who agreed to participate in this study, were personally interviewed. Only 7.5% of the participants reported that they carry out pulp capping of primary teeth in cases of pulp exposure. Over 50% reported restoring teeth after pulpotomy with preformed crowns. Most indicated sealing pit and fissures after considering depth and morphology of the fissures and correlation with the patient's risk to caries. Cleaning teeth after eruption of the first tooth was suggested by 75.5% of the participants. A striking majority (96%) claimed that they restored permanent anterior teeth with composite resins and most used these materials for occlusal restoration in both primary and permanent posterior teeth. Most specialists advocated the use of amalgam in proximal posterior restorations. The presence of a parent in the operatory/surgery was preferred by 85% of the dentists. Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry mostly comply with the mentioned guidelines. Further studies of this nature should also be encouraged in other countries to emphasize the importance of monitoring compliance with established and evidence based guidelines.
Willcocks, Stephen George
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.
Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.
Tamal Kanti Pal
Full Text Available The practice of implant dentistry was not there a few decades ago It has its long historical retrospectives. The quest for rehabilitation of edentulous ridge has intrigued mankind since ancient times. The period from the time of Egyptian and Mayan civilizations to 1930s was unique when clinicians attempted to replace a missing tooth utilizing various materials. The spark of inquiry began from mid-1930s with the advent of an alloy named “vitallium;” attempts have been made to utilize this new material as an implant. Thereafter, in early 1950s, a good deal of fundamental and clinical research started taking place. These research data had given a boost to the tremendous growth of the practice of using dental implants made of vitallium that practically exploded to reach every general practitioner's clinic across the globe. Critical understanding of bone physiology, drilling protocol, implant design and surface texture, initial implant stability, single-stage implant surgery, and immediate loading of implants are the few factors based on which modern implant practice has become a predictable treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth.
Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, Corrado
In Italy, consent for health treatment, aside from being an ethical and deontological obligation, constitutes an essential requirement for any medical treatment according to articles 13 and 32 of the National Constitution and also in accordance with the Council of Europe's 'Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine'. An essential requirement for the validity of consent is that clear, exhaustive and adequate information be provided to the patient himself: the practice of informed consent is a communicative relationship in which the patient can express doubts, perplexities and clarification requests to the dentist. Furthermore, dental treatment has specific peculiarities: the relationship between dentistry and aesthetics, the concomitant presence of pathologies requiring different treatments, the elongated care process and the establishment of a trustworthy relationship and familiarity with the patient represent important aspects in the configuration of the dentist-patient relationship and in the process of acquiring informed consent. The dentist must offer correct information on diagnosis, prognosis, the therapeutic perspective and the likely consequences of therapy, alternative therapy and refusal of therapy, as well as eventual commitments for the period after treatment. Particular consideration must be given to minors and patients of unsound mind: the dentist's approach to these patients needs to be clear and appropriate to the person's age and understanding ability, even if the decisional power for sanitary treatment may be in the hands of a third person.
Versloot, J; Craig, K D
In this paper the communication model of pain is reviewed and the information then applied to understanding the acute pain experience of children in dentistry, with attention directed to improving the process of pain assessment. Expression of pain in children is of great importance as it enables them to engage others who may provide care. The experience of pain, however, is inherently private and not directly accessible to others. Therefore, it requires judgment and skill on the part of observers if pain is to be assessed accurately. In addition, there are striking individual differences in how people react to pain, which makes the assessment of pain in others an even greater challenge. Craig and colleagues  have proposed the use of the social communication model of pain that gives priority to understanding the numerous social factors that affect whether children are successful in communicating painful distress. When children's pain is underestimated or a child's self-report is not seen as credible, there is a considerable risk of failure to deliver needed dental care.
Duncan, H F
Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.
Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.
Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M
The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.
Kim, Eun Kyung
In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.
Bathala, Lakshmana Rao; Rachuri, Narendra Kumar; Rayapati, Srinivas Rao; Kondaka, Sudheer
After major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, tsunami, bomb blasts or terrorist attacks, accurate, and early identification of the dead and injured becomes an utmost importance. Restorations, cariesteeth, missingteeth and/or prostheses are most useful aids for the dental identification. At times, only identifiable remains are a victim's partial or complete dentures. The central principle of dental identification is that postmortem dental remains can be compared with antemortem dental records which include, studycasts, radiographs, etc., to confirm the identity of the victims. Marking/labeling dentures have been considered an important aid in forensic dentistry. Other than finger printing, when compared with all the methods, the marking/labeling of dentures is an accurate and rapid method to identify the unknown victims. There are no standardized methods to follow, but dental practitioners needs to maintain some dental records of their patients. This may include documentation of the "marking of dentures." The preparedness is the key to success in mass disaster identification. The aim of this review article is to discuss the methods of denture identification, advantages of denture labeling for the rapid identification during major disasters/accidents and the importance of maintaining the patient records.
Kelly, J. Robert
This review is intended to provide the ceramic engineer with information about the history and current use of ceramics in dentistry, contemporary research topics, and potential research agenda. Background material includes intra-oral design considerations, descriptions of ceramic dental components, and the origin, composition, and microstructure of current dental ceramics. Attention is paid to efforts involving net-shape processing, machining as a forming method, and the analysis of clinical failure. A rationale is presented for the further development of all-ceramic restorative systems. Current research topics receiving attention include microstructure/processing/property relationships, clinical failure mechanisms and in vitro testing, wear damage and wear testing, surface treatments, and microstructural modifications. The status of the field is critically reviewed with an eye toward future work. Significant improvements seem possible in the clinical use of ceramics based on engineering solutions derived from the study of clinically failed restorations, on the incorporation of higher levels of "biomimicry" in new systems, and on the synergistic developments in dental cements and adhesive dentin bonding.
Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.
Mejàre, Ingegerd A; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H A; Tranæus, Sofia H
To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps. Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Ingegerd A Mejàre
Full Text Available To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry.A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps.Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low.There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Brisky, Livia; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores
The aim of this study was to pay tribute to the memory of extraordinary Croatian Professor of children's and preventive dentistry Sime Kordić on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth. The biography and work of this scientist and teacher were presented, as well as his researches about the history of dentistry and medicine in our coastal cities. On the bases of his published papers, we analyzed a significant role of Professor Sime Kordić for the development of dental medicine and promotion of health culture in Croatia.
Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.
Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick
Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.
green revolution". — seemed to confirm the value of science and technology to international development. Yet studies showed that, at that time, only about two percent of ... gap in science and technology between the Third World and the industrial- ..... Finance; Treasury Board; Industry, Trade and Commerce; Agriculture;.
Dodge, Kenneth A
Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors.
Full Text Available Background: Dental Health Economics is a branch of transdiciplinary science that refers to the Economic and Public Health science. On the other hand, in other developed countries, Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG’s /Casemix has been used as a basic in creating the same perception between providers, patients and insurance companies in many aspects such as health planning, healthcare financing and quality assurance. Purpose: The objective of this review is to propose a new paradigm of economics to be applied in Indonesian Dentistry. Reviews: The Dental Health Economics should be considered as an important aspect in Indonesian Dentistry, which is used to determine the dental treatment fee based on unit cost, cost containment, and cost recovery rate analysis. Referring to Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Group, health care industry in Indonesia has starting to try a more structured way in grouping disease pattern in order to come up with more precise health care services to their patients. The on going development of Indonesian DRG’s is meant to confirm the disease pattern and partition. Conclusion: The development of Indonesian DRG’s concept, especially the Dental & Oral Disorders, needs a new paradigm, so the practitioners and academics could group and calculate the unit cost from each dental treatment according to the Indonesian DRG version (INA-DRG’s.
Broudo, Marc; Walsh, Charlene
MEDICOL (Medicine and Dentistry Integrated Curriculum Online) provides a variety of Web-based resources that act as important adjuncts to all the teaching components of the medical and dental undergraduate curriculum. It uses WebCT, a course-management system, to provide the following educational functions: (1) track students' progress and present course information such as time-tables, learning objectives, handout materials, images, references, course assignments, and evaluations; (2) promote student-to-student and student-to-instructor interactions (through e-mail and bulletin boards); and (3) deliver self-directed learning components, including weekly self-assessment quizzes that provide immediate feedback and multimedia learning modules (clinical skills, radiology, evidence-based medicine, etc.). The University of British Columbia Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry feature a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in which students access many of the same tools they will utilize in their professional practice. In the PBL curriculum, students must access the relevant clinical data and educational resources. A MEDICOL site has also been developed for medical students to use during their rural family practice, a four- to six-week experience in the summer after their second year. This site has been designed to be a supplemental learning environment for not only these students, but also for their physician preceptors. It is intended to foster communication among participants, bring new resources to the rural setting, and allow preceptors to develop their Internet skills with the help of students who are already familiar with the electronic environment. The MEDICOL sites enable the exchange of information about the learning issues between, as well as within, tutorial groups. MEDICOL also provides students with faculty-reviewed resources that are listed online; multimedia presentations; and access to histology, radiology, and pathology images through an online image
Anusavice, K J
The ART technique consists of hand excavating carious tissue and placing a highly viscous glass ionomer cement as a restoration material and as a sealant. Although the results of several studies are promising, the retention rates of these restorations for primary teeth are not impressive. Materials and methods that yield greater success rates are needed to improve long-term caries management outcomes. In principle, ART should yield outcomes similar to those associated with preservative dentistry, including the potential for minimal surgical intervention, conservation of sound tooth structure, avoidance of pain and need for local anesthetic injections, reduced risk for subsequent endodontics and tooth extraction, and increased survival time of the affected teeth. The ideal direct-filling ART material would be biocompatible and tooth colored; "forgiving" in its handling properties; insensitive to moisture or desiccation; hardenable without special equipment; able to form stable bonds to enamel and dentin; able to seal marginal gaps against bacteria; capable of releasing fluoride or remineralization and antibacterial agents when demineralization is most likely; and resistant to chemical attack. The highly viscous glass ionomer materials currently used for ART meet several of this criteria, though they may be deficient in their ability to seal marginal gaps against bacteria and in their sensitivity to desiccation. Furthermore, although they release fluoride over the lifetime of the restoration, this fluoride release alone may not prevent caries progression in all cases. It is necessary for cases of high caries risk to use chlorhexidine in conjunction with fluoride to achieve caries arrest and remineralization of adjacent areas of the affected teeth. Thus, while the ART technique offers some benefits in restoring function and reducing the rate of caries progression, it is unlikely that current materials will be able to arrest caries progression completely in high
Rakesh V. Somanathan
Full Text Available Dental implants have been considered to be a successful treatment modality. Recently, achieving a good osseointegration is not the ultimate goal for the restorative dentist. Successful implant treatment demands the best gingival esthetic success along with stability and function of the implant. This study was performed to obtain answers to some controversial points pertaining to esthetics and function of implants in maxilla. Immediate flapless implantation into the extraction sockets in maxillary anterior zone is an emerging treatment option in dentistry- the esthetic success of which was in debate for long. The proposed study compared the esthetic success of immediate flapless implants (ILA, to immediate implants with the need for flap (ILB and, delayed implants (DSL in single tooth restorations, in the anterior region of the maxilla. The other aim of the study was to find out if any relation exists between the interproximal crestal bone height and papilla height. Analysis was done irrespective of treatment procedure in the same study group using periodontal sounding and radiographs to find out the relation. From the study involving 106 participants, including 21 ILA, 22 ILB and 63 DSL cases, we received highest papillary index score of 2.6 average from group ILA, followed by ILB and DSL, after 3 months of prosthetic loading. From the periodontal sounding and radiographic study it was evident that, when the distance between the base of the contact point of crowns and height of interproximal bone was less than 5, the papilla was present 100 % of the time, but when the distance increased to 6 and more than 7 mm, the papilla was present only 46.5 and 24 percentage of the time respectively.
Roberts, J F; Curzon, M E J; Koch, G; Martens, L C
Behaviour management is widely agreed to be a key factor in providing dental care for children. Indeed, if a child's behaviour in the dental surgery/office cannot be managed then it is difficult if not impossible to carry out any dental care that is needed. It is imperative that any approach to behavioural management for the dental child patient must be rooted in empathy and a concern for the well being of each child. Based on various presentations given at Congresses of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD), documents reviewing behaviour management prepared by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the EAPD, and written submissions to the Executive Board of the EAPD, a review of the various approaches to the behaviour management of the child dental patient was completed. All aspects of non-pharmacological behavioural management techniques described in the literature over the past 80 years were reviewed. There is a very wide diversity of techniques used but not all are universally accepted by specialist paediatric and general dentists. Wide cultural and philosophical differences are apparent among European paediatric dentists that seem difficult to bridge when forming agreed guidelines. Accordingly, this review highlights those behaviour techniques that are universally accepted such as tell, show, do (TSD) or positive reinforcement, but nevertheless describes the most commonly mentioned techniques for which there are descriptions in the literature. A wide variety of behavioural management techniques are available to paediatric dentists which must be used as appropriate for the benefit of each child patient, and which, importantly, must take into account all cultural, philosophical and legal requirements in the country of dental practice of every dentist concerned with dental care of children.
Aji P. Tjikman
Full Text Available Dental implant has become a fast developing and dynamic field in dental practice. It is acknowledged as a predictable treatment modality with high clinical success rates. Conventional fixed prostheses are no longer considered to be the first choice of treatment for replacing a missing tooth. Despite the increasing number of patients requesting dental implant treatments, there are only some clinicians who are offering implant therapy in their daily practice. The International team for Implantology described a straightforward case as a simple case such as implant placements in adquate soft and hard tissue conditions and single-tooth restorations in a non-aesthetic zone. A review of the current literature discussed the implementation of implant dentistry in universities worldwide into their curriculum for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs in general dentistry. The European consensus in implant dentistry education concluded that it is desirable to include the surgical technique for implant placement for straightforward cases into the dental curriculum. The levels and limitations to which the various aspects of implant dentistry and related skills are taught to be determined by the academic community. This review aimed at promoting awareness amongst dental practitioners and institutions in Indonesia of the shifting treatment paradigm in the maangement of a missing tooth. Hence clinicians will be able to include implant dentistry in the treatment planning of their patients and also undertake a significant part in the execution of such treatments.
Isharani, Sona J; Litch, C Scott; Romberg, Elaine; Wells, Anne; Rutkauskas, John S
The purpose of this study was to use Postdoctoral Application Support Service (PASS) data to study the quality and demographic trends for pediatric dentistry residency applicants. PASS data on grade point average (GPA) and National Dental Board Exam, Part I (NBI) scores were used to determine applicant quality. PASS demographic data included: (1) gender; (2) citizenship; (3) ethnicity; (4) previous practice of dentistry; and (5) completion of a residency or internship. GPAs showed a significant increase for the 6 years investigated. NBI scores also indicated a significant increase. Significantly more females than males applied to pediatric dentistry residencies. A significant increase in US/Canadian applicants was found. Ethnicity was similar to that of dental school graduates, with minor exceptions. In several of the years studied, there were significant differences in applicants who previously practiced dentistry or completed a residency/internship vs applicants who had no such previous experience. Significant increases in grade point averages and National Dental Board Exam, Part I scores suggest a high quality of pediatric dentistry residency applicants and this trend seem to be continuing. There are significantly more female than male applicants. More research is warranted on actual acceptance data.
Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. Recent studies have shown that it is also synthesized in various other parts of the body including salivary glands. The most significant effects of MLT are because of its potent antioxidant, antiageing, immunomodulatory, shielding and antineoplastic properties. Because of these effects, it might be used therapeutically in dentistry for the potentially malignant disorders, lesions of mechanical, bacterial, fungal or viral origin. It stimulates synthesis of collagen fibers and bone formation, and can be used in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions, periodontal therapies, and dental implants. Thus, it is important for the dental clinicians to be familiar with the possible therapeutic uses of MLT in dentistry. The aim of the present article is to review related articles in the literature that have focused on MLT and its applications in dentistry and to provide a quick sketch of applications of MLT in dentistry for dental clinicians. Our review concludes that the research to date certainly offers valid applications of MLT in dentistry. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success rates are needed for further interventions.
Hicks, Jeffery; Vishwanat, Lakshmi; Perry, Maureen; Messura, Judith; Dee, Kristin
The Special Care Dentistry Association (SCDA) has acted on a proposal regarding the status of training in the care of patients with special needs. Two phases of action were undertaken. Phase 1: (a) examination of the literature on existing training and curricula in the care of patients with special needs and (b) a survey of existing postdoctoral programs in special needs. Phase 2: establish a group of experts who: (a) submitted to the Commission on Dental Accreditation a request to approve a postdoctoral general dentistry residency program in Special Care Dentistry and (b) created suggested accreditation standards for such postdoctoral programs. This article describes efforts by the SCDA to evaluate: The status of existing training of dental students in the care of patients with special needs. The number and characteristics of postdoctoral general dentistry programs offering formal training in the care of patients with special needs. Whether additional training in the care of patients with special needs is needed for dental students and -dentists. Possible actions by SCDA to impact the numbers of dentists trained each year in the care of patients with -special needs. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio
Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.
Full Text Available Regarding to development of basic science and new methods in biochemistry in recent years, practical biochemistry contents should be optimized (1. Therefore, re-attitude biochemistry course contents in medical schools has paralleled worldwide trends a moved from current status is needed (2, 3. As reported by investi-gators many medical schools around the world have reformed their medical curriculum in recent years (2. Many authors are convinced that students learn more effectively if the knowledge and skills they acquire are inserted and contextualized in relevant real-life, problem based situations (3. Previous studies demonstrated that biochemistry course content is now incorporated into the clinical beneficial, therefore the evolution of students in many countries has occurred (4. In this respect, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate biochemistry laboratory course contents in medical, dentistry and Para-medicine faculties from view points of the students. This descriptive study was per-formed in years 2010-2013. Questionnaire contained items about appropriateness of biochemistry laboratory contents for students. The first section of questionnaire determines the effectiveness of bioche¬mistry laboratory contents and the factors influence on it. The second section indicates the application of biochemistry laboratory contents, and the third parts of questi¬onnaire demonstrate the laboratory time spent of biochemistry laboratory course contents. For this purpose three faculties were selected. First, Faculty of Medicine (50 medical students, second Faculty of Dentistry (50 dentistry students and third Faculty of Para-medicine (50 laboratory science students were selected. At least 50 students were selected from each faculty and they received a questionnaire. All students were randomly selected to receive a standard questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about biochemistry laboratory course contents. The students were asked
Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.
Diana Krystyna Harbuz
Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.
Shashirekha, Govind; Jena, Amit; Mohapatra, Satyajit
Nanotechnology is emerging as an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid development and has brought about enormous changes in medicine and dentistry. Nanomaterial-based design is able to mimic some of the mechanical and structural properties of native tissue and can promote biointegration. Nanotechnology has various applications in dentistry, including dentition renaturalization, therapy for dentin hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonding diamondized enamel, enhancing properties of root canal sealers, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. A range of synthetic nanoparticles such as hydroxyapatite, bioglass, titanium, zirconia, and silver nanoparticles are proposed for dental restoration. This review focuses on the developments in the field of nanomaterials in dentistry in the form of tissue regeneration materials, implantable devices, nanocomposites, endodontic sealers etc. and issues of patient safety.
Schapira, Marta V
Approaching from the perspective of social and historical construction, the article addresses the professionalization of dentistry in Argentina from the late nineteenth century to 1940. The study analyzes the weight of different actors and dimensions, particularly the introduction of dentistry studies into Argentinean universities and the conflicts between dentists and those in related fields (especially physicians, mecánicos dentales, and informal practitioners like barbers and bleeders) as well as conflicts with the State. The article explores the union, political, and academic strategies developed in an effort to define a space for exclusive intervention, and also looks at the earliest successes in tracing out a specific domain that would ensure professional autonomy and monopoly in the practice of dentistry. A review of documentation reveals the weight of craftsmanship and the mercantile tradition in dental practice, very limited collective participation in the union environment and the field's weak commitment to public health.
Afrashtehfar, K I; Eimar, H; Yassine, R; Abi-Nader, S; Tamimi, F
Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) can help provide the best treatment option for every patient, however, its implementation in restorative dentistry is very limited. This study aimed at assessing the barriers preventing the implementation of EBD among dental undergraduate and graduate students in Montreal, and explore possible solutions to overcome these barriers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a paper format self-administrated questionnaire distributed among dental students. The survey assessed the barriers and potential solutions for implementation of an evidence-based practice. Sixty-one students completed the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents found evidence-based literature to be the most reliable source of information for restorative treatment planning, however, only 16% used it. They considered that finding reliable information was difficult and they sometimes encountered conflicting information when consulting different sources. Dental students had positive attitudes towards the need for better access to evidence-based literature to assist learning and decision making in restorative treatment planning and to improve treatment outcomes. Even for dentists trained in EBD, online searching takes too much time, and even though it can provide information of better quality than personal intuition, it might not be enough to identify the best available evidence. Even though dental students are aware of the importance of EBD in restorative dentistry they rarely apply the concept, mainly due to time constraints. For this reason, implementation of EBD would probably require faster access to evidence-based knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M
Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Tredwin, Christopher J; Handy, Richard D
Interest in the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) as either nanomedicines or dental materials/devices in clinical dentistry is growing. This review aims to detail the ultrafine structure, chemical composition, and reactivity of dental tissues in the context of interactions with ENMs, including the saliva, pellicle layer, and oral biofilm; then describes the applications of ENMs in dentistry in context with beneficial clinical outcomes versus potential risks. The flow rate and quality of saliva are likely to influence the behavior of ENMs in the oral cavity, but how the protein corona formed on the ENMs will alter bioavailability, or interact with the structure and proteins of the pellicle layer, as well as microbes in the biofilm, remains unclear. The tooth enamel is a dense crystalline structure that is likely to act as a barrier to ENM penetration, but underlying dentinal tubules are not. Consequently, ENMs may be used to strengthen dentine or regenerate pulp tissue. ENMs have dental applications as antibacterials for infection control, as nanofillers to improve the mechanical and bioactive properties of restoration materials, and as novel coatings on dental implants. Dentifrices and some related personal care products are already available for oral health applications. Overall, the clinical benefits generally outweigh the hazards of using ENMs in the oral cavity, and the latter should not prevent the responsible innovation of nanotechnology in dentistry. However, the clinical safety regulations for dental materials have not been specifically updated for ENMs, and some guidance on occupational health for practitioners is also needed. Knowledge gaps for future research include the formation of protein corona in the oral cavity, ENM diffusion through clinically relevant biofilms, and mechanistic investigations on how ENMs strengthen the tooth structure.
Cranin, A Norman
Dentistry has a long, often well documented history. Evidence of tooth pullings has been discovered in crude carvings on the walls of caves that are over 10,000 years old. The ancient Egyptians, the Athenians, and the early inhabitants of Rome required oral health care; in addition to tooth extractions, they underwent tumor removal, tamponade for hemorrhage, reduction of jaw fractures with gold wire ligatures, cautery using white hot platinum loops, and an additional variety of remedies and nostrums. Pain relief was offered, with courses of treatment as varied as postural change, alteration of ambient temperature, and vegetable and organic medicines in poultices or via oral and rectal routes. Through the centuries, great surgeons and physicians introduced various methods of treatment: Hippocrates codified ethical standards; Maimonides established pragmatic rules for physicians; LeFort categorized facial fractures; Pasteur clarified the need for sterilization; Semmelweis standardized antiseptic conditions in the operating theater; Morton and Wells discovered safer methods of analgesia; Freud explored the theraupeutic uses of narcotics; Roentgen championed X-ray imaging; Curie pioneered the use of chemotherapy; and Barton and Nightingale were models of empathy and patient care. In more recent times, we have profited from the genius of Watson and Crick (DNA); Fleming (penicillin); Venable and Stuck (Chrome-cobalt--molybdenum alloy); Gershkoff and Goldberg (the subperiosteal implant); Chercheve, Branemark, Linkow, Misch, Tatum, and Niznick (innovative root forms, titanium and its alloys, and sinus floor grafting). The 20th century has brought to us phenomenal imaging, breathtaking intrauterine fetal surgery, wildly promising stem cell research, and astonishing CADCAM techniques. We've had great teachers and clinicians who have introduced us to new forms of therapy and advanced methods, including the role of the hemidesmasomes, the essential elements of bone grafting
Peterson, Devereaux; Kaakko, Tarja; Smart, Erica; Jorgenson, Mike; Herzog, Chris
The Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry is a Web-based (Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry (http://depts.washington.edu/peddent/) and disk-deployed comprehensive textbook of pediatric dentistry that features approximately 3,500 frames and 2,500 images, including color clinical photographs, illustrations, and radiographs; There are also end-of-chapter quizzes, laboratory manuals, photo banks, and a scrollable index incorporated as features in the book. The purpose of this study--which is among a series of studies being conducted at the University of Washington--was to evaluate dental student perceptions regarding online/computer-deployed education. 55 third year dental students were surveyed regarding their use of the Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry as the textbook resource during a comprehensive, introductory course in pediatric dentistry. The response rate was 84% of 55 dental students. Most students (80%) preferred the online textbook to traditional textbooks. Ninety-six percent rated the educational content of the Atlas as good, very good, or excellent, and all respondents indicated they would recommend the textbook highly to a colleague. Positive perceptions were associated with the: (1) scope of content; (2) large number of images (especially color images); and (3) ease of use. The most negative perceptions were due to technical problems associated with online use of computers running obsolete (Internet) browser software. The majority of respondents (87%) had access to a computer at home. Fifteen percent of the total 46 respondents used printouts of the text material. Students strongly preferred the online textbook to a traditional text. There continues to be a small number of students who do not have access to a computer at home and whose computers are equipped with obsolete software. To optimize student access to the online program, it is important to plan for students to be able to use computers at the university and to program any online
Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang
The aim of this study was to re-examine the teaching of geriatric dentistry in the USA dental schools, to identify curriculum content and compare the findings to previous reports. All dental schools in the United States were contacted via email with a questionnaire to assess the teaching of geriatric dentistry. Non-responding schools were sent a minimum of three reminder emails to complete the survey. A statistical analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile the variables of interest. Bivariate analysis was performed to explore if any of the variables were related using Fisher's exact test, non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Fifty-six of the 67 dental schools completed the questionnaire. Geriatric dentistry was taught in all dental schools; for 92.8%, the course was compulsory. We found that 62.5% were teaching it as an independent course, 25% as an organised series of lectures and 8.9% as occasional lectures in parts of other courses. Clinically, 84.2% have some form of compulsory education in geriatric dentistry. Public schools were marginally associated with an increased interest in expanding the geriatric dentistry curriculum (P = .078). No differences were found between these variables and school location. Geriatric dentistry is now required in 92.8% of dental schools. The teaching of traditional topics has not changed much; however, the number of gerontological topics has increased. Clinical teaching needs to be expanded, as in only 57.1% of schools was it a requirement. The ageing imperative will require research to determine the impact of teaching on services to the geriatric community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knott, N J
As the use of information and communication technology (ICT) becomes more widespread in dentistry the risk of breaching electronic commerce laws and patient confidentiality increases. It is necessary to be aware of the responsibilities internet usage entails, especially within a dental practice where the protection of patient information is of the utmost importance. More should be done to outline the various precautions that should be taken to ensure ICT security within the professional domain, as it would appear dentistry has been neglected with regard to receiving the proper ICT education, training and support systems.
Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator. PMID:25177664
Shah, Purvi; Moles, David R; Parekh, Susan; Ashley, Paul; Siddik, Dania
Guidelines are used to inform clinical practice and improve the quality of health care. Poorly developed guidelines may emphasize the incorrect intervention. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality of pediatric dentistry guidelines using the AGREE instrument. A search was carried out to identify pediatric dentistry guidelines up to November 2007. Three independent assessors evaluated the guidelines using the AGREE tool. Fifty-seven guidelines produced by 11 organisations were evaluated. Most guidelines assessed were of poor quality, as determined by the AGREE instrument. Consideration should be given to using the AGREE instrument in the development of new guidelines and review of existing guidelines.
Basic requirement for an optimized application of radiation in dentistry is a qualified dosimetry. The paper introduces into new dosimetry techniques based on solid state phenomena, such as luminescence an exoelectron emission, which, in case of dentistry, appear superior to conventional methods such as film and ionization chamber dosimetry. Advantages of the TLDs dosimeters, such as miniature detector volume, dynamic detection range, tissue equivalence etc., and their dosimetric possibilities are described together with hints on operational problems with respect to achieving high dosimetric measurement accuracy. (orig.) [de
Hanes, Carole M.
Methods of assessing the general goals for the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry are discussed. Goals are: (1) to prepare dentists to provide comprehensive dental care for the pediatric patient; (2) to create positive attitudes toward pediatric dentistry; (3) to encourage students to seek to…
... Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension AGENCY: Health Resources... Funds for Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's (T17) Current Grantees. SUMMARY: The Health... for the Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry awards to Columbia University, The Regents of the...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD.... Glass, M.D., Ph.D., Advisory Committee Executive Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary CareMedicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD... Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Medicine and Dentistry. In the plenary...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD...., Ph.D., Advisory Committee Executive Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from the... College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Caddo Nation of...
... Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The New York University College of Dentistry has completed an inventory... the New York University College of Dentistry. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Port Clarence, Nome County... the human remains was made by New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD... and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Room 9A-27...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from... College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Alabama-Quassarte...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry . Dates and... Dentistry (``Advisory Committee'') provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of the U.S...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD... report. The meeting on July 20, 2012, will begin with an update on the Division of Medicine and Dentistry...
Full Text Available Objective: To review the current knowledge of CAD/CAM in dentistry and its development in the mentioned field. Sources: An electronic search was conducted across Ovid Medline, complemented by manual search across individual databases, such as Cochrane, Medline and ISI Web of Science databases and Google Scholar for literature analysis on the mentioned topic. The studies were reviewed thoroughly. This paper summarizes the current scientific and clinical opinions through a brief overview regarding the preferred way of utilizing CAD/CAM in dentistry. Conclusions: The importance of CAD/CAM systems has seen a dramatic development in the number of products and procedures over last decades, with a concomitant rise in publications on the topic. Literature suggests that using this technology permits carrying out dental treatments feasibly particularly for fixed dental appliances. Based on the previous findings, it is concluded that in office CAD/CAM technique appears to be the most common technique currently available, which is rapid, easy and keeps time. CAD/CAM systems are variable; therefore, using the right system with a logical approach for treating patients are quite mandatory.
Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J; Karimi, L
This study investigates student and stakeholder perceptions of the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal. The impact of these perceptions on the professionalization of dental hygienists is described whilst exploring the consequences for oral health workforce planning. Dentistry and dental hygiene students from one dental college in Nepal were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire; 171 students returned the questionnaire containing a mix of forced response and open-ended items. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS ® 22. These data were complemented with qualitative information from survey open questions and from semi-structured interviews with key informants from several relevant organizations. Qualitative data were manually analysed and coded. Data were triangulated to contextualize quantitative data. A high level of positive regard for the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal was evident amongst dentistry and dental hygiene students in this college. Both groups believe that the dental hygienist can play a major role in raising oral health awareness in Nepal. The scope of practice of the dental hygienist was unclear with issues surrounding the scope of practice and reports of illegal practice by dental hygienists. Significant differences (P dental hygiene and dentistry students in relation to their opinion regarding independent practice and the need of supervision by a dentist. Supervision of the dental hygienist by dentists and issues surrounding the scope of practice are polarizing the relationship between dentists, dental hygienists and the relevant professional organizations. This could hinder cooperation between these oral health professionals and might lead to underutilization of the dental hygienist. To improve the understanding about the roles of each oral health professional, establishing functional relationships and intraprofessional education involving dentistry and dental hygiene students needs to be introduced. This will benefit the
Thikkurissy, S; Rowland, Michael L; Bean, Canise Y; Kumar, Ashok; Levings, Kevin; Casamassimo, Paul S
The early childhood caries epidemic has prompted a look at predoctoral clinical dental education in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of community-based clinical education (CBE) to procedural and patient diversity in predoctoral pediatric dental education. Using procedural and demographic data from pediatric clinical experiences of the dental class of 2007 at The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, profiles of patient diversity, clinical pediatric dental procedures, and student efficiency were developed for both CBE sites and the campus-based clinic. Ninety-two students performed 16,523 procedures on children in the fourth year in CBE sites in the community compared to 4,268 on campus in their third year. Pediatric-dedicated CBE sites accounted for almost 12,000 pediatric dental procedures. Approximately 56 percent of children treated at CBE sites were minorities. CBE sites accounted for most of the dental student restorative experience for pediatric patients for the Class of 2007, giving each student on average multiple restorative procedures. The campus-based clinic provided largely diagnostic and preventive procedures but few restorative opportunities. We conclude that community-based dental clinical education presents an opportunity to enhance pediatric predoctoral student clinical experiences in both quantity and diversity.
Andréa Silvia Walter de Aguiar
Full Text Available A healthy mouth is closely linked to general health and quality of life. Oral Health Education actions are extremely important in encouraging the practice of oral hygiene by the population. It is essential that actions related to oral health issues in hospitalized patients be developed by means of educational and preventive methods. In this context, students from the Extension Project of the Dentistry Course of the Federal University of Ceará saw the needs of patients of Dr. José Frota Institute for the collective actions in oral hygiene. The activities began in November 2007, being held on Sundays by 15 students divided into groups with regard to implementing the feelings of teamwork and the exchange of fun activities for the practice of solidarity. Guidelines on oral hygiene were made through the use of macro models, folders, mirrors, fluoridated toothpastes and brushes of teeth. All observations were recorded on a specific form - since the sociodemographic data to the oral health conditions in order to know the reality under an epidemiology look and make it possible to propose oral health policy in the Instituition. A total of 385 patients were assisted in two years of operation. It was founded that the prolonged hospitalization and/or obstruction of the self implementation means that oral hygiene is not prioritized, requiring the implementation of educational activities in a work environment even uncommon to the surgeon-dentist, but very promising for the designs of Dentistry, the hospital environment.
Vieira, C L Z; Caramelli, B
The relationship between dentistry and medicine has been acknowledged throughout the history of humanity. This relationship was documented in ancient medicine accounts, and has survived until the present day, accompanied by the evolution of molecular technologies. Although we have had very important researchers' contributions in this interdisciplinary area, mainly after the 18th century, the knowledge on oral infections is still ignored by or unknown to the majority of clinical dentists and physicians. These circumstances could be changed through a broader divulgation of this complex relationship, both in the dentistry and in the medicine areas, which in turn would have a significant impact in systemic health worldwide. This movement has already started, as was observed in a World Health Assembly resolution which called for oral health to be integrated into chronic disease prevention programs in 2007. This was a significant indicator of changing perceptions of oral health over the past several decades. This brief review reports the evolution through time of the knowledge on the association between dental infections and systemic diseases, as well as the paths which we could take to consolidate this historical trend.
Black, I; Bowie, P
Introduction The 'never event' concept is often used in secondary care and refers to an agreed list of patient safety incidents that 'should not happen if the necessary preventative measures are in place'. Such an intervention may raise awareness of patient safety issues and inform team learning and system improvements in primary care dentistry.Objective To identify and develop a candidate never event list for primary care dentistry.Methods A literature review, eight workshops with dental practitioners and a modified Delphi with 'expert' groups were used to identify and agree candidate never events.Results Two-hundred and fifty dental practitioners suggested 507 never events, reduced to 27 distinct possibilities grouped across seven themes. Most frequently occurring themes were: 'checking medical history and prescribing' (119, 23.5%) and 'infection control and decontamination' (71, 14%). 'Experts' endorsed nine candidate never event statements with one graded as 'extreme risk' (failure to check past medical history) and four as 'high risk' (for example, extracting wrong tooth).Conclusion Consensus on a preliminary list of never events was developed. This is the first known attempt to develop this approach and an important step in determining its value to patient safety. Further work is necessary to develop the utility of this method.
Ata-Ali, Javier; Ata-Ali, Fadi
An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: "forensic dentistry" (n = 464 articles), "forensic odontology" (n = 141 articles) and "forensic dentistry identification" (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva.
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Consent for care in dentistry. S Rugarabamu, M Gideon. Abstract.
The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author)
Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post‑hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical ...
Adair, Steven M.
Six outcomes of professional competence that can be applied to postdoctoral pediatric dentistry training are: conceptual, contextual, technical, interpersonal communications, integrative, and adaptive competence. Questionnaire-type surveys are probably the best means of assessing the contextual, interpersonal, and adaptive competencies of…
Amini, Homa; Casamassimo, Paul S; Lin, Hsuan L; Hayes, John R
This study: (1) assessed pediatric dentistry residency program directors' attitudes toward and involvement in advocacy training; and (2) identified types and extent of advocacy training in U.S. pediatric dentistry programs. Between October 2005 and February 2006, all 66 pediatric dentistry residency program directors were invited to complete a 62-item online questionnaire. The survey investigated: (1) directors' attitudes toward advocacy training; (2) nature of advocacy training offered during residency; (3) extent of resident involvement in different settings; and (4) directors' involvement in advocacy. Forty-two program directors responded (64%). Overall, respondents agreed that advocacy by pediatric dentists for children beyond the dental office was important and that residency programs should provide advocacy training. Most programs did not routinely offer advocacy opportunities in nonclinical settings. Over half of programs required community outreach clinic rotations for all residents. One third offered didactic curriculum in the legislative process. Over 50% of program directors reported personal involvement in legislative oral health lobbying within 3 years, but fewer than a third were involved with professional political action committees (PACs). Advocacy is seen as on important in pediatric dentistry but variation in attitudes of program directors and program offerings exists in US training programs.
Barnett, Michael L.
Presents an overview of the evolution of academic-industry partnerships in dentistry and their value to each of the partners; discusses details to be considered by investigators seeking to work with industry; and reviews some of the issues and dilemmas that can arise from academic-industry interactions. (EV)
Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others
A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)
Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.
This paper, the first of two, provides an introduction to implant dentistry for the general dental practitioner. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Implant placement and restoration is becoming more common place in general dental practice to the point where it may already be considered a routine treatment option.
Phillips, V M
Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic medicine over the past 100 years. This has been due to the dedication of people like Amoedo, Gustafson, Sognaes, Keiser-Nielsen and Suzuki, to name but a few. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. Dental hard tissues are extremely resistant to fire and are usually the only remains after an extended period of burial. If antemortem dental records are available for an individual then dental identification is as certain as those of fingerprints. In South Africa forensic dentistry had its beginning in 1969 during the Windhoek air disaster. Since then there have been several cases of interest throughout the country, one of which was the crash of the Helderberg off the coast of Mauritius. Other aspects of forensic dentistry are the examination of bite marks and the recognition of facial trauma especially in cases of child abuse; the determination of age, sex and race of skeletal remains; dental ethics and jurisprudence as well as malpractice also form part of the duties of the forensic dentist. The five dental schools in South Africa each have a forensic team which is consulted on a regular basis by forensic pathologists and district surgeons. Forensic dentists are active members of the medicolegal team and should be consulted on a regular basis especially in cases where identification is concerned.
and periodontal destruction of snuff users with one illustration in color. Noted differences in pain reaction or threshhold for pain: "Compared with Americans (patients in Ohio private practice), we found the rugged frontier people of Kiruna were stoical about dentistry and disdained local anesthetics. Finally we...
Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro
Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
There are psychiatric disorders in dentistry, which because of lack of recognition have not been well documented. Some of the disorders pose management difficulties to the dentist because he is not trained to recognise them. For instance disorders that have psychological or multifactorial aetiology, which tend to ...
Garcia, Raul I; Blue Spruce, George; Sinkford, Jeanne C; Lopez, Michael J; Sullivan, Louis W
The racial and ethnic diversity of the US oral health care workforce remains insufficient to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse population and to address persistent health disparities. The findings from a recent national survey of underrepresented minority dentists are reviewed and recommendations are made for enhancing diversity in the dental profession. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Indavara Eregowda Neena
A. vera has been used in dentistry for its wound-healing effects, gingivitis, plaque control, and curing oral mucosal lesions. A. vera may also reduce the pain and duration of oral ulcers while speeding healing. The dentists should use A. vera at a level high enough to maximize its therapeutic benefit.
Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia
The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today.
Deppe, Herbert; Horch, Hans-Henning
Lasers have been used for many years in oral surgery and implant dentistry. In some indications, laser treatment has become state of the art as compared to conventional techniques. This article is a comprehensive review of new laser applications in oral surgery and implant dentistry. One of the most interesting developments over the last years was the introduction of the 9.6-microm CO(2) laser. It has been shown in the recent literature that the use of this new device can preserve tissue with almost no adverse effects at the light microscopic level. In contrast, modifications of approved CO(2) laser therapies of premalignant lesions resulted in higher recurrence rates than the conventional defocused laser technique. However, several studies indicate that other wavelengths such as Nd-YAG (lambda = 1,064 nm) or diode lasers (lambda = 810 nm) may be also of value in this field. In many other indications, the use of lasers is still experimental. Intraoperatively used photodynamic therapy or peri-implant care of ailing implants with the CO(2) laser seems to be more of value than conventional methods. However, further studies are required to assess standard protocols. Over the past years, research identified some new indications for laser treatment in oral surgery and implant dentistry. Moreover, well-known laser applications were defined as state of the art. Nevertheless, further studies are required for laser treatment in oral surgery and implant dentistry.
Benalouane, A.; Bakker, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Genuchten, M.
Up until now, dentistry was mostly carried out in the "analogue" world: X-rays were examined on film, patient information was recorded on paper, impressions were poured in plaster to create models, models were waxed and physical dental articulators were used. Today, certain steps of the process can
Biochemistry, Physiology and Oral Biology). The fourth academic session is spent studying preclinical courses that include operative and prosthetic techniques, pharmacology and pathology. The fifth session is spent on medicine and surgery, while the sixth session on dentistry. From this dental curriculum, the 4th year is ...
Mehta, Nikisha; Marshman, Zoe
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries.MethodsThis study used a systematic approach to assess the articles included in the journal. Data were extracted on the difference in the year the article was originally published and the year the article was included in the EBDJ, the number of articles in each dental discipline, the type of study designs included in the journal and the expertise of the commentators of each article. The information provided by the journal was validated by accessing the original articles through electronic databases.ResultsThe appraisal considered the 582 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 45.3% of the articles were included in the EBDJ in the same year and 44.8% of the articles were included a year after they were originally published. The number of articles varied across disciplines within dentistry: 23.7% from dental public health, 18.4% from periodontology and 11.8% from orthodontics, with only 4.6% from prosthodontics, 1% from oral pathology and 0.5% from dental materials. Most of the articles were systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials at 72% and 22.3% respectively. The writers of the commentaries were mostly academics and hospital consultants (71.2% and 13.6% commentators).ConclusionsOn the whole, it can be concluded that the journal acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge/evidence for dentists, however, not all specialities within dentistry had equal coverage.
Koole, S; De Bruyn, H
Consensus reports recommend that students upon graduation should possess a significant level of knowledge and competence in implant dentistry, including basic competences in diagnostics, treatment planning, restorative, straightforward surgical and maintenance procedures. In response, undergraduate curricula need to integrate implant dentistry. This narrative review explores educational programmes in terms of competences, related research and barriers or reflections, regarding implementation in undergraduate curricula. Publications (2008-2013) were searched systematically in WoS, PubMed and ERIC and screened independently by two authors in four stages: removal of duplicates, title screening, abstract screening and full-text reading. Inclusion criteria encompassed implant dentistry in undergraduate education. Finally, 37 of 420 papers were included. Detailed information regarding programme content, number of participants, staff input, logistics/funding issues is scattered. Theoretical education is predominant, and pre-clinical/clinical training is offered minimally, often carried out in elective programmes. However, selected straightforward cases treated by undergraduates yield positive outcomes with low failure rates, few complications, high patient satisfaction and student appreciation. Barriers to implementing implant dentistry in the undergraduate curriculum include funding issues, limitations in time or staff availability/competence and lack of suitable patients. Overcoming these barriers is worthwhile as experience-based implant education affects future practice as well-informed students propose more restorative alternatives to their patients. Although implant dentistry is increasingly integrated in undergraduate curricula, challenges remain in developing strategies to implement existing competence profiles and the extent of experience-based education. To support further advancement, universities should report comprehensively on their implant programmes to
As ice conditions change and ocean temperatures continue to rise, the potential for living marine resources to migrate farther north and for vessels to journey north with them is expanding. To date, the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) has remained relatively unexposed to human activities, including commercial fishing. However, as conditions continue to change, the potential for expansion of fishing fleets exists. In July 2015, the five Arctic coastal states signed a declaration concerning the prevention of unregulated high seas fishing in the CAO. Recognizing the need to involve additional nations with interests in the Arctic region, in December 2015, the five Arctic coastal states, along with China, the European Union, Japan, Iceland, and Korea, began a process to negotiate a binding agreement to prevent unregulated fishing in the high seas of the CAO. A key underlying goal of the negotiations is to reach agreement that nations would establish a joint program of scientific research and monitoring to better understand the CAO ecosystem and whether fish stocks might exist there that could be harvested on a sustainable basis and the possible impacts of such fisheries on the ecosystems. The data collected through the international joint science program will compose a key piece of the decision-making at the policy level regarding establishing appropriate measures or organizations to manage fishing in the CAO should the science indicate potentials for commercial fishing in the CAO. Since the beginning of these high-level negotiations, the policy makers have consistently agreed that conducting collaborative science is the primary way to determine whether sustainable commercial fishing could one day occur in the region. I will highlight the policy negotiation process and parallel science meetings to date to demonstrate how science can influence policy to prevent a fishing disaster.
Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández, Daniel; Fernández, Tania; de Abajo, Serafín; Delgado, Miguel
This paper is a report of the effectiveness of a tobacco use prevention and control course on health sciences students' smoking prevalence and incidence. Although it is known that the intervention of health professionals in their patients' tobacco use can be affected by their own habit, very few studies have analysed the effect of specific tobacco-oriented training on smoking among health science students. This study is a quasi-experimental study of community intervention. During the years 2005-2008, a total of 290 health science students on the intervention campus and 256 on the control campus took part in the study. In the former, the intervention consisted of a course on the prevention and control of tobacco use for students, which was not offered on the control campus. Data about tobacco use and socio-demographic variables were collected by means of a questionnaire before and 6 months after the intervention. Prevalence of tobacco use decreased in the intervention group (-1.1%) and increased in the control group (1.5%). The risk of acquiring the habit was almost three times higher in the control group than in the intervention group and the probability of cessation was 40% higher in the intervention group and correlated with nicotine dependence. The intervention suggests the effect on habit acquisition was slight but not so on cessation. Preventive interventions should be carried out before students go to university, while more specific cessation programmes are required to reduce tobacco use among students. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sonbol, H N; Abu-Ghazaleh, S B; Al-Bitar, Z B
The aims of the study were to audit the number and types of clinical procedures completed by the undergraduate dental students in the paediatric dentistry course at the University of Jordan Dental School and to present data on self-reported confidence in a variety of aspects of paediatric dentistry. A retrospective audit of clinical logbooks for the entire class of 120 dental students in their fifth clinical year was performed. Key clinical procedures performed in the paediatric clinics were recorded including treatment performed on both primary and permanent teeth. Students were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess confidence related to six activities using a visual analogue scale (VAS). All students performed restorations in primary teeth with the majority providing approximal restorations (91%), pit and fissure restorations (89%) followed by stainless steel crowns (81%). In addition, all students performed a pulpotomy for a primary tooth, extraction of a primary tooth and fissure sealants. Only a quarter of the students treated a traumatised incisor. Students considered themselves most confident (VAS ≥ 7) in performing operative dentistry, examination, diagnosis and treatment planning and providing preventive therapy. They were least confident in the management of dento-alveolar trauma (VAS = 3.8). Students at the University of Jordan Dental School were found to have good experience of clinical paediatric operative dentistry with the majority performing pulp therapy, preformed crowns and extractions. Deficiencies have been reported in student exposure to dental trauma, and these are being addressed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Padilha F, L.G.; Borges, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A.
The objective was to show the necessity and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection according to the recent proposal for technical regulations 'Radiological protection directrixes in Medical and Dentistry radiodiagnostic' of the Secretaria do Vigilancia Sanitaria of Ministerio da Saude (SVSMS). This regulation establishes basic standards to radioprotection in the medical and dentistry areas, including principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for the man and environment protection, versus possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. An analysis of the discipline programs of the Dentistry Schools of Rio de Janeiro state indicates that they show a little or none preoccupation by the radiological protection, which was confirmed through a survey applied toward responsible professors by department or radiology service to the dentistry Schools. This work suggests the creation or adaptation of the existing disciplines introducing radioprotection and images quality in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement and to make uniform the formation of future dentists optimizing the solution of the identified problems. (Author)
Stokes, C W; Towers, A C; Jinks, P V; Symington, A
This paper describes how a relatively new style of online learning, a massive open online course (MOOC), may be used to raise aspirations and widen participation in dental professions. A MOOC was designed and run with the aim of engaging prospective students of dental professions in learning and discussion. Over 4,200 learners signed up, and 450 students fully completed this first run of the course. The course attracted a significantly younger demographic than is typical for MOOCs, and nearly a third who responded to the pre-course survey reported they were doing the course specifically as preparation for a dental degree. The approach also provided a platform for public engagement on the subject of dentistry with participants, both dental professionals and members of the public, contributing to discussion around the learning materials from around the world, providing a unique, internationalised perspective of oral healthcare for learners. This study shows that there is genuine potential for MOOCs to involve people from disadvantaged backgrounds in higher education by offering free, accessible, enjoyable and engaging educational experiences. The data gives us cautious optimism that these courses can play a significant role within a platform of other WP interventions.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of dentists with regard to insalubrity in the profession, ways of prevention and legal aspects.Methods: Research was conducted in the form of questionnaires, with 15 objective questions, distributed among 225 dentists that work inthe region of Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data collected were submitted to analysis of distribution in conjunction with frequency,determining the significance of the effects by the Chi-square test (X2 and the Exact Fisher test, when necessary, establishing a level of confidence of 95%. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that the professionals did not know some of the rules of the National Sanitary Vigilance Agency with regard to prevention against chemical and physical agents in the consulting room. The time since graduation did not influence the dentists as regards a greater awareness about having audiometric exams performed to prevent occupational noise. A high index of professionals who protected themselves against the HBV virus by immunization (97, 94% was obtained, however, there was statistically significant difference with regard to non-use of cap and apron by men (p=0.001 and p=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: The vast existent literature reveals that the professional has theoretical knowledge, but this is not in accordance with his/her actions in daily clinical practice.
Samoladas, Efthimios; Barmpagianni, Christina; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios V; Gelalis, Ioannis D
Dentistry students and dentists comprise a unique group of professionals, whose everyday professional activity requires long hours of standing and working in a position considered unhealthy for the lower back and neck. Our aim was to explore the factors involved in the appearance of low back and neck pain in dentistry students as well as the impact of the pain on the students' professional and everyday activities. A questionnaire was given to all dentistry students of the 4th and 5th year of our university. The questionnaire included 43 questions regarding demographic data, history (spinal injury, other comorbidities), daily activities (exercise, smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption, use of cell phone), professional activities (length and type of dental work), pattern and intensity of pain, and personal pain evaluation. A statistical analysis of the gathered data was performed. All students having suffered a spinal trauma or indicating any other comorbidity that could cause severe pain of the spine were excluded from the study. Fifty-five students (21 male, 34 female) were included. Our data showed that increased alcohol consumption and prolonged use of cell phone were connected to increased levels of pain. The students reported that the most frequent onset of pain was 1 h after starting to work in a standing position, while the majority believed that their working habits were involved in the appearance and the intensity of neck and low-back pain. Our findings indicate that among dentistry students appears to be a causative relationship between their professional activities and the experienced spinal pain. These findings may be useful in a possible future restructuring of the educational program in dental schools, as well as in improving the ergonomics of dentistry working units.
Full Text Available Gold is a noble metal with very good chemical resistance. It also does not become oxidized in water or air. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and shine, and it is a heavy, but soft metal with huge plasticity and ductility. For many years, gold and its alloys have been recognized as being great prosthetic material in dental practice. In current dentistry, the progress in materials science and galvanoforming techniques have made it possible to create precise restorations utilizing this metal. This pertains both to fixed and removable dentures. Galvanized gold has a range of advantages, among these being biocompatibility, proper marginal tightness, endurance, its esthetic design and the fact that it boasts bacteriostatic features.
Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Singh, Parul; Jain, Eesha; Khurana, Heena; Badole, Gautam
Gingival health in the form of size, shape, consistency and appearance are essential components responsible for an attractive smile as well as may cause unpleasant appearance. Melanin pigmentation often occurs in the gingiva as a result of an abnormal deposition of melanin which can compromise the confidence level from the age of childhood. The present article describes and discusses the two cases of gingival melanin pigmentation in 12 and 13 years of female patient and their early surgical intervention with successful follow-up of 9 and 6 months. Patients were instructed to prevent sun exposure, intake of hot foods or beverages like cold drinks, tea, coffee and brushing immediately after surgery. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Singh P, Jain E, Khurana H, Badole G. Management of Pigmented Gingiva in Child Patient: A New Era to the Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):197-200.
This case involved a young female patient with anterior wear and a high lip line and thin tissue biotype. An organized approach was carried out to diagnose the esthetic problems so that a multidisciplinary treatment plan could be devised. The comprehensive plan included occlusal analysis and equilibration to establish maximum intercuspation in harmony with centric relation, correction of gingival levels, feldspathic porcelain restorations, and teeth bleaching. The case demonstrates technological advances and improvement in dentistry's understanding of the science of color and dental ceramics.
Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.
This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019
Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M
This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.
Peralta, Gianna; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Parham, Angie; Edison, Laura; Lorentzson, Lauren; Smith, Carol; Drenzek, Cherie
On September 13, 2015, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified by hospital A of a cluster of pediatric Mycobacterium abscessus odontogenic infections. Hospital A had provided care for nine children who developed presumptive or confirmed M. abscessus infection after having a pulpotomy at pediatric dentistry practice A (dates of onset: July 23, 2014-September 4, 2015). During a pulpotomy procedure, decay and the diseased pulp are removed to preserve a deciduous tooth. DPH initiated an investigation to identify the outbreak source and recommend prevention and control measures.
Khatoon, B; Hill, K B; Walmsley, A D
Dentistry-related applications for mobile phones are becoming a popular way of accessing information for students, practitioners and patients. The aim of this article is to review the use of mobile technology, such as 'apps', within dentistry. Over time, there has been a change from desktop learning (D-learning) to mobile learning (M-learning) and this has only been possible with the aid of electronic media and the growth of the Internet. In spite of the increase in mobile applications, there is a need for any information to have a strong underlying evidence base. Several good examples of dental applications which take full advantage of this electronic medium are available. However, developers of mobile applications should provide good quality, peer-reviewed evidence to validate their material.
Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Sandborgh Englund, Gunilla; Ekbom, Anders; Ekstrand, Jan; Montgomery, Scott
Exposure to elemental mercury vapor can impair neurological function as it is neurotoxic in doses higher than usually found in dentistry. Little is known about the potential effects of fetal exposure to elemental mercury among offspring of female dental workers. We investigated cognitive function among offspring of women working in dentistry at the time of their pregnancy. We compared results for cognitive function examinations taken by the majority of young men in Sweden at the time of compulsory military enlistment (age 17-18 years). Sons of female dentists (N=365) and dental nurses (N=3181) born during the 1960-1970s were compared with sons of female physicians (N=378) and assistant nurses (N=12 667). Analysis by linear regression showed that sons of dental workers had similar or higher cognitive function test results compared to their matched cohorts. We found no evidence of poorer cognitive function among male offspring of female dentists or dental nurses.
The availability of glass Ionomer cement with physical properties, very similar to dentin given the clinician a substitute for dentine (it is artificial dentin) which has had to be eliminated because of caries. Its use in restaurative dentistry with silver amalgam allows us to reduce the size of cavity without having to eliminate all the enamel which is not supported by dentine (we can leave hollowed enamel which will be supported by the glass Ionomer cement as it acts as dentine). Using it in restaurative dentistry with composite resins offers us an adherent base stuck chemically to the dentine, which is of similar colour, with the rest of the dental structure. It also avoids recurrent caries as it contains fluoride ions, and provides a strong micromechanic union with the composite (more similar in colour and more resistant) which is placed onto the surface.
Sinkford, J C
The challenge to our profession today is to improve the quality of oral health while overcoming both extrinsic and intrinsic factors which may adversely affect our progress toward this goal. The combined efforts of dental education, dental research, and dental practice will be needed to enable us to maintain the quality of our present system and to meet the myriad changes that will chart our new directions in the future. Our unified efforts can make a difference and, thereby, ensure a meaningful and productive future for dentistry in our country and throughout the world. Let us show the world that the future of dentistry matters to us and that we look to the future with great anticipation and optimism.
Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E
The aim of this study was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy enhanced standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry. Photodynamic therapy when used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy kills more bacteria than when conventional periodontal therapy is used alone. To address the focused question, "Does photodynamic therapy enhance killing of oral bacteria?" PubMed/MEDLINE(®) and Google Scholar databases were explored. Original human and experimental studies and studies using photodynamic therapy for killing oral bacteria were included. Letters to the Editor, historic reviews, and unpublished data were excluded. Photodynamic therapy significantly reduces periodontopathogenic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Photodynamic therapy kills cariogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis), bacteria associated with infected root canals, and those associated with periimplantitis. Photodynamic therapy, when used as an adjunct to conventional oral disinfection protocols, enhances standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry.
Full Text Available In dental practice there is an increasing need for predictable therapeutic protocols able to regenerate tissues that, due to inflammatory or traumatic events, may suffer from loss of their function. One of the topics arising major interest in the research applied to regenerative medicine is represented by tissue engineering and, in particular, by stem cells. The study of stem cells in dentistry over the years has shown an exponential increase in literature. Adult mesenchymal stem cells have recently been isolated and characterized from tooth-related tissues and they might represent, in the near future, a new gold standard in the regeneration of all oral tissues. The aim of our review is to provide an overview on the topic reporting the current knowledge for each class of dental stem cells and to identify their potential clinical applications as therapeutic tool in various branches of dentistry.
Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya
Teeth are the most natural, noninvasive source of stem cells. Dental stem cells, which are easy, convenient, and affordable to collect, hold promise for a range of very potential therapeutic applications. We have reviewed the ever-growing literature on dental stem cells archived in Medline using the following key words: Regenerative dentistry, dental stem cells, dental stem cells banking, and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. Relevant articles covering topics related to dental stem cells were shortlisted and the facts are compiled. The objective of this review article is to discuss the history of stem cells, different stem cells relevant for dentistry, their isolation approaches, collection, and preservation of dental stem cells along with the current status of dental and medical applications.
Roeykens, H; De Moor, R
An early determination of pulpal vitality is crucial with respect to a correct differential diagnosis of revascularisation or necrosis and its treatment. Sensibility tests (cold, heat, electrical pulp test) in combination with radiographs are commonly promoted. However these tests are arbitrary, based on sensations and therefore not always reliable. In such situations registration of pulpal blood flow will be advantageous. The most studied and well documented method for registration of blood circulation is laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) which is typified as a non-invasive technique with direct and objective registrations. In this article blood flow, LDF and its characteristics, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the latest developments regarding LDF is described. Despite there being a low implementation of LDF in dentistry to date, this should become one of the basic techniques for clinical use in paediatric dentistry.
Lasfargues, J J; Bonte, E; Guerrieri, A; Fezzani, L
Resin infiltration has made possible an innovative way of treating initial carious lesions that fits perfectly with the concept of minimal intervention dentistry. Infiltration of carious lesions represents a new approach to the treatment of non-cavitated lesions of proximal and smooth surfaces of deciduous and permanent teeth. The major advantage of this method is that it is a non-invasive treatment, preserving tooth structure and that it can be achieved in a single visit. While this therapy can rightly be categorised as minimum intervention dentistry, clinical experience is limited and further controlled clinical trials are required to assess its long-term results. The inhibition of caries progression by resin infiltration should now be considered an alternative to invasive restorations, but involves early detection of lesions and does not allow for appropriate monitoring of the caries risk.
Fábián, Tibor Károly; Vértes, Gabriella; Fejérdy, Pál
Although there were drastic changes in the XX-th century, still 70% of the Hungarian population believe in God, and 10-15% can be counted as active believer. A percentage of 44% of the hospitalised patients indicated a need of pastoral counseling during the treatment time. In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy the percentage of the need of religious care (pastoral psychology, pastoral counseling) may be even higher. In the field of dentistry the increasing number of psychosomatic patients justify the introduction of such religious treatment methods into the dental care system as well. In this review authors try to collect the main points of this special, religious type of therapy to help dental professionals working in the field of psychosomatic dentistry in the orientation in this interesting and important field.
Nash, David A
The social contract is an implicit agreement between parts of society and society as a whole. Since the Middle Ages, the learned professions, recently including dentistry, have had a covenantal relationship with the public based on trust, exchanging monopoly privileges for benefiting the public good. Unlike commercial trade in commodities, professional relationships are grounded in ensuring an adequate level of oral health to all. A second contract is emerging where dentists relate to society as business operators, exchanging commodity services for a price. Recent actions by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Supreme Court make it unlikely that dentistry will be able to enjoy only selected aspects of each contract while avoiding obligations that it finds unfavorable.
Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Lopes-Junior, Cesar; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Peres, Arsenio Sales
The present systematic review article is aimed at describing radiological methods utilized for human identification in forensic dentistry. For this purpose, a literature review was undertaken, and out of 45 papers, 19 were selected in accordance with inclusion criteria. Several radiological techniques can be used to assist in both individual and general identification, including determination of gender, ethnic group and, mainly, age. The analysis of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographic and tomographic images has become an essential tool for human identification in forensic dentistry, particularly with the refinement of techniques resulting from developments in the field of the radiology itself as well as the incorporation of information technology resources to the technique. It can be concluded that, based on an appropriate knowledge on the available methods, forensic dentists can choose the best method to achieve a successful identification with a careful application of the technique and accurate interpretation of data. (author)
Gupta, Khushboo; Singh, Saurabh; Garg, Kavita Nitish
Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The concept of transferring genes to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed nearly half a century, but the ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology has brought this goal to reality. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated using tumour viruses. This led to development of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Applications of gene therapy to dental and oral problems illustrate the potential impact of this technology on dentistry. Preclinical trial results regarding the same have been very promising. In this review we will discuss methods, vectors involved, clinical implication in dentistry and scientific issues associated with gene therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luciene Menrique CORRADI; Denise Vieira TRAVASSOS; Sylvia Cury COSTE; Rosa Núbia Vieira de MOURA; Efigênia Ferreira e FERREIRA
Abstract Introduction Human identification is considered one of the major steps concerning missing people. The Forensic Anthropology Sector of Legal Medical Institutes identifies corpses. Forensic dentistry and DNA tests stand out among the existing standard tests. Objective This article aimed to evaluate human identification effectiveness through forensic dental examination performed in the forensic anthropology sector in a Forensic Medical Institute, comparing them with DNA analyses. Met...
Kristina GORSETA; Domagoj GLAVINA
Numerous positive properties of glass ionomer cements including biocompatibility, bioactivity, releasing of fluoride and good adhesion to hard dental tissue even under wet conditions and easy of handling are reasons for their wide use in paediatric and restorative dentistry. Their biggest drawbacks are the weaker mechanical properties. An important step forward in improving GIC’s features is thermo-curing with the dental polymerization unit during setting of the material. Due to their slow se...
After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.