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Sample records for preventive dentistry programs

  1. Teacher and Principal Survey Results in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved almost 30,000 elementary school children from 10 sites across the country. Classroom procedures, such as weekly fluoride mouthrinse, were administered or…

  2. A Cost Analysis Plan for the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Project (NPDDP) delivers school-based preventive dental care to approximately 14,000 children in ten United States cities. The program, begun in 1976, is to be conducted over a six and one-half year period. The costing definitions and allocation rules to be used in the project are the principal…

  3. Cost of Treatment Procedures in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program (NPDDP) delivered five different regimens of school based preventive dental care to groups of children in 10 American cities between 1977 and 1981. All clinical techniques employed had previously been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in clinical trials. The purpose of the NPDDP was…

  4. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  5. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  6. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...

  7. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  8. Dental radiology in preventive dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, J S; Stallard, R E [Group Health Plan, Minnesota (USA)

    1975-02-01

    Preventive measures in dental radiography for radiation protection of both the patients and occupational personnel (and at the same time giving maximum diagnostic yield) are described. The amount of X-radiation to the patients can be reduced by filtration and collimation of X-ray beam, eliminating tube-head leakage and using lead impregnated aprons while radiographing children and female patients in their reproductive age. Exposure of the operator can be minimized by the proper choice of his position and distance from the radiation source and placing a barrier between him and the source.

  9. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.

  10. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. PMID:26504385

  11. Dentistry: Careers in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Dentistry e-mail Print Share Careers in Dentistry A dental education opens up a world of ... accredited training programs in your area . Careers in Dentistry Be a Dentist General Dentistry Dental Specialties Dental ...

  12. Practice of preventive dentistry for nursing staff in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Reyes, Raquel; Cigarroa-Martínez, Didier; Ureña-Bogarín, Enrique; Orgaz-Fernández, Jose David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Methods: Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish) was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. Results: The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01). Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1) than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8). Conclusions: The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population. PMID:25386037

  13. Oral damages in radiotherapy: dentistry prevention and treating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caielli, Cibelle; Martha, Patricia M.; Dib, Luciano L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors show the importance of the multidisciplinary participation in treatment of oncologic patients about the prevention and treatment of oral damage induced by head and neck irradiation. The main secondary effects are: xerostomy, mucositis, irradiation caries and osteoradionecrosis. The dentistry has to perform preventively to avoid the appearance of this sequel or reduce its effects. (author)

  14. The economics of pit and fissure sealants in preventive dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Dinah H

    2005-08-15

    Oral diseases are progressive, cumulative, and become more intricate to treat with advancement. While dental caries is an infectious transmissible disease with children being at the highest risk, primary prevention can reduce this risk. Primary prevention in dentistry is usually considered to be community fluoridated water supplies, professional fluoride treatments, and pit and fissure sealants. While community fluoridated water supplies have been proven to be cost-effective, the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants has primarily been studied in school-based programs of children from low socio-economic backgrounds. Dental sealant programs are just one way to help increase primary prevention in the oral health disparities of children. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants as a preventive strategy in preventive dentistry.

  15. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.

  16. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental graduates: the need for curriculum change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheiam, Arheiam; Bankia, Ibtesam; Ingafou, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively). The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%). There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05). This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.

  17. Opinions of practitioners and program directors concerning accreditation standards for postdoctoral pediatric dentistry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimo, P S; Wilson, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to assess opinions of program directors and practitioners about the importance and necessary numbers of experiences required by current accreditation standards for training of pediatric dentists. A 32-item questionnaire was sent to all program directors of ADA-accredited postdoctoral pediatric dentistry training programs and to a random sample of 10% of the fellow/active membership of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. An overall response rate of 56% was obtained from the single mailing. Practitioners and program directors differed significantly (P dentistry: initiating and completing a research paper, biostatistics/epidemiology, and practice management. Program directors had little difficulty obtaining required experiences, and program dependence on Medicaid did not negatively affect quality of education. Practitioners and program directors agreed on the importance of most experiences and activities required by current accreditation standards.

  18. A review of pediatric dentistry program websites: what are applicants learning about our programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jenn-Yih; Lee, Jung; Davidson, Bo; Farquharson, Kara; Shaul, Cheryl; Kim, Sara

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to examine website content provided by U.S. and Canadian pediatric dentistry residency programs, and 2) to understand aspects of program websites that dental students report to be related to their interests. Sixty-eight program websites were reviewed by five interprofessional evaluators. A thirty-six-item evaluation form was organized into 1) program descriptive items listed on the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) website (n=21); 2) additional program descriptive items not listed on the AAPD website but of interest (n=9); and 3) items related to website interface design (n=5). We also surveyed fifty-four dental students regarding their interest in various aspects of program descriptions. The results of this study suggest that pediatric dentistry residency programs in general tend to provide identical or less information than what is listed on the AAPD website. The majority of respondents (76 percent) reported that residency program websites would be their first source of information about advanced programs. The greatest gap between the available website information and students' interests exists in these areas: stipend and tuition information, state licensure, and program strengths. Pediatric dentistry residency programs underutilize websites as a marketing and recruitment tool and should incorporate more information in areas of students' priority interests.

  19. Dental student perception and assessment of their clinical knowledge in educating patients about preventive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A

    2015-05-01

    In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  1. Current Status of Postdoctoral and Graduate Programs in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions. Those seeking graduate dental education today are smaller in number and include more international dental graduates than in the past. Graduate dental education in general dentistry and in the nine recognized dental specialties now includes Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) recognition of training standards as part of its accreditation process and a CODA accreditation process for areas of clinical education not recognized as specialties by the American Dental Association. Current types of programs include fellowship training for students in recognized specialties. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  2. Dentistry and Ayurveda-III (basics - ama, immunity, ojas, rasas, etiopathogenesis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruthesh Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article of the series Dentistry and Ayurveda describes in brief, the basic principlesand unique concepts involved in Ayurveda namely the concepts of Ama, Ojas, Rasas (tastes-types and the factors affecting the choice of the drug / medicine etc., immunity, etiopathogenesis and prevention of diseases in Ayurveda in general.

  3. Preparedness of Entering Pediatric Dentistry Residents: Advanced Pediatric Program Directors' and First-Year Residents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, John; Seale, N Sue; Casamassimo, Paul; Rutkauskas, John S

    2015-11-01

    For children to receive needed oral health care, adequate training at both the predoctoral and postdoctoral levels of dental education is required, but previous studies have found inadequacies in predoctoral education that lead to general dentists' unwillingness to treat certain young populations. As another way of assessing predoctoral preparation, the aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of first-year residents and pediatric program directors about residents' preparedness to enter advanced education programs in pediatric dentistry. Surveys were sent to all 74 U.S. program directors and 360 first-year residents. The survey focused on procedures related to prevention, behavior management, restorative procedures, pulp therapy, sedation, and surgery, as well as treating patients funded by Medicaid and with special health care needs. Among the first-year residents, 173 surveys were returned for a 48% response rate; 61 directors returned surveys for an 82% response rate. Only half of the residents (55%) reported feeling adequately prepared for their first year in residency; less than half cited adequate preparation to place stainless steel crowns (SSCs) (42%) and perform pulpotomies (45%). Far fewer felt adequately prepared to provide treatment for children six months to three years of age, including examinations (29%), infant oral exams (27%), and children with severe caries (37%). The program directors were even less positive about the adequacy of residents' preparation. Only 17% deemed them adequately prepared to place SSCs and 13% to perform pulpotomies. Approximately half reported their first-year residents were inadequately prepared to treat very young children and children with severe caries (55% each). This study found that the perceived inadequacy of predoctoral education in pediatric dentistry was consistent at both the learner and educator levels, supporting previous studies identifying inadequacies in this area.

  4. Attitudes of program directors toward women in pediatric dentistry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N S; Waggoner, W F

    1992-01-01

    The number of women entering pediatric dentistry graduate programs is increasing. A formal survey was conducted in the fall of 1990 to determine what impact, if any, this increase is having on the programs. The survey sample consisted of the 57 pediatric dentistry graduate program directors from the United States and Canada. The survey form included program data about gender distribution in the current and previous classes, and female faculty distribution within the programs. The survey requested information about the attitudes of various groups of individuals who interacted with the residents relative to the gender of the resident and again, relative to whether the resident was pregnant. Inquiry was made concerning maternity leave policies and selected treatment scenarios involving pregnant residents. Finally, questions were asked about motivational factors, personal priorities, and policy change for female vs. male residents. Fifty forms were returned for a return rate of 88%. The 48 forms analyzed revealed that 52% of current classes are female and 51% of applicants for 1991 were female. Women comprise 23% of full-time and 26% of part-time faculty. There was no single issue perceived by program directors as a group to be a significant concern or problem relating to gender. Program directors would consider removing pregnant females from contact with combative patients (83%) and environmental hazards (85%), but fewer would consider removing them from contact with for HIV+ or Hb+ patients.

  5. Nano dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.; Park, Y.B.; Kim, S.; Jin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nano technology in dentistry has drawn many scientists’ and clinicians’ attention to significant advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of oral disease. Also, nano materials in dentistry have been studied to overcome the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional dental materials. These interesting facts are the motivation of this special issue. The presented issue provides a variety of topics in the field of dentistry such as novel nano filled composite resin, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles deposited on orthodontic bands, the osseointegration of 3D nano scaffold, and nano surface treated implant.

  6. [Paradigm shift in conservative dentistry: from a mechanistic to a prevention-oriented perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, E; Altenburger, M

    2011-09-01

    The application of different preventive measures has resulted in a decline of clinically detectable carious lesions in children and adolescents. Not only have caries symptoms changed significantly, but the number of extracted teeth in adults has decreased. Due to these epidemiological facts, modern conservative dentistry is based on a careful risk analysis and caries diagnosis, which also takes into consideration biological and psychosocial components of caries etiology. Conservative dentistry will fail if the dentists are only interested in repairing defects. Simultaneous with the positive outcome of prevention, some unanswered problems have arisen, for which there are no adequate solutions. In young children, caries prevalence is still high and the restorative care of these primary teeth should be improved. For adolescents, early detection of carious lesions should be improved and polarization of caries prevalence should be eliminated. In older adults, evidence-based therapy options for treatment of erosions, abrasions, and root caries are lacking. For seniors needing general care, preventive and restorative concepts should be established.

  7. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  8. Self-Regulated Learning Using Multimedia Programs in Dentistry Postgraduate Students: A Multimethod Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Miguel; Aguila, Estela; Lloret, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico). A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol) was used. Self-regulated…

  9. Alternative Strategies for Funding a General Dentistry Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, John E.; Wiggins, Carla

    1987-01-01

    Three alternative program funding approaches used in other professions are examined: (1) the reorientation of selected dental schools toward graduate education, (2) emphasizing and marketing the service aspects of the programs, and (3) developing education programs as in-house training for large organizations. (MSE)

  10. Laser in operative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yasini; Gh. Rahbari; A. Matorian

    1994-01-01

    Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy) and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry), etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks...

  11. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  12. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  13. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  14. Perspectives of Residents of Mashhad School of Dentistry about the Curriculum of Residency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sarabadani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was carried out to analyze the viewpoint of the residents of school of dentistry about the curriculum presented in the residency program to students of Mashhad School of Dentistry. Methods: To evaluate the perspectives of residents of dental school about the curriculum and regulations of residency program, a questionnaire was designed whose validity and reliability were confirmed by the authorities of School of Dentistry and test-retest reliability, respectively. The questionnaire was distributed among 100 residents and 80 of them completed the questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5. Results: A total of 43% of residents were informed of the curriculum (e.g. academic leave, transfer, removal of semester, etc.. As for the ability to write research proposal, 42.7% of residents were reported to have a favorable status, i.e. they were able to write more than 80% of their proposal. From among the residents, 30.4% had specialized English language certificate. Most of them (77% were satisfied with the professional staff, faculty members, of the faculty. Many students liked to participate in the teaching method courses of the residency program. Conclusion: Residents maintained that the curriculum in such domains as educational and research issues and special capabilities had some weak points. Thus, appropriate strategies are recommended to be applied to revise the curriculum using the residents’ views on these programs.

  15. Introduction of problem-based learning in undergraduate dentistry program in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Jyotsna; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Shrestha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Context: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a methodology widely used in medical education and is growing in dental education. Initiation of new ideas and teaching methods requires a change in perception from faculty and institute management. Student-centered education is a need of the day and PBL provides the best outlet to it. Aim: To introduce PBL, assess feasibility and challenges in undergraduate dentistry program and evaluate the impact on their learning. Settings and Design: PBL was used ...

  16. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  17. [Analysis of activities of the preventive dentistry service in the Health Area 8 of the Valencia Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V

    1996-02-29

    We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.

  18. Self-regulated learning using multimedia programs in Dentistry posgraduate students. A multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rivas LLORET

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico. A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol was used. Self-regulated activities were identified with the MSLQ questionnaire. Results of the MSLQ pretest/post-test questionnaire didn't show an intervention effect. In contrast, the qualitative methodology allowed the registration of a high frequency of self-regulated dimensions on the metacognitive area, on the making of inferences (cognitive area, and on the planning time and effort (behavioural area. Our data revealed the usefulness of a qualitative methodology for the understanding of the complex nature of the self-regulatory processes on learning environments based on computers.

  19. Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  20. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  1. Experience and policy implications of children presenting with dental emergencies to US pediatric dentistry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton; Vargas, Clemencia M; Candelaria, Devanie; Vemuri, Maryen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and substantiate the experience of children, their families, and their caregivers with children's dental pain and to explore implications of these experiences for public policy. Data for 301 children presenting to 35 pediatric dentistry training programs during a 1-week period in 2000 for pain relief were collected with a questionnaire asking for: (1) sociodemographic characteristics; (2) oral health status; (3) dental care history; (4) presenting problem; (5) clinical findings; and (6) clinical disposition. Descriptive statistics are presented. Among children presenting to training programs with oral pain, 28% were under age 6, 57% were on Medicaid, and 38% were regarded by their dentists to have "likely or obvious" functional impairment-with 22% reporting the highest pain level. Parents reported that 59% had "poor or fair oral health" and 29% had a prior dental emergency in the previous year. Pain, experienced for several days by 73% of children, was associated with difficulty: (1) eating; (2) sleeping; (3) attending school; and (4) playing. Parent-reported barriers to seeking dental care included: (1) missed work (24%); (2) transportation costs (12%); and (3) arranging child care (10%). In this study of children with dental pain, many suffered significant pain: (1) duration; (2) intensity; (3) recurrence; and (4) consequences. This study demonstrates the ongoing need for public policies that assure timely, comprehensive, and affordable dental care for vulnerable children.

  2. Teaching atraumatic restorative treatment in U.S. dental schools: a survey of predoctoral pediatric dentistry program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateeb, Elham T; Warren, John J; Damiano, Peter; Momany, Elizabeth; Kanellis, Michael; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Ansley, Tim

    2013-10-01

    The International Dental Federation and World Health Organization have promoted the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in modern clinical settings worldwide. In the United States, the practice of ART is not believed to be widely used, which may be a result of little attention given to ART training in predoctoral pediatric dentistry curricula in U.S. dental schools. This study investigated the extent of clinical and didactic instruction on ART provided in U.S. dental schools by surveying the predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs in 2010. Of the fifty-seven directors asked to complete the survey, forty-four responded for a response rate of 77 percent. Of these forty-four programs, 66 percent reported providing clinical training on ART, though only 14 percent provide this training often or very often. The types of ART training provided often or very often included interim treatment (18 percent) and single-surface cavities (14 percent) in primary teeth. However, ART was said to be rarely taught as a definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2 percent). Attitude was a major predictor, for clinical training provided and using professional guidelines in treatment decisions were associated with a positive attitude towards ART. These predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs used ART mainly in primary, anterior, and single-surface cavities and as interim treatment. As ART increases access of children to dental care, the incorporation of the ART approach into the curricula of U.S. dental schools should be facilitated by professional organizations.

  3. Proceedings: 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD): "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All," Phuket, Thailand, September 7-10, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarkson, J; Watt, R G; Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2010-01-01

    Information is presented about the 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry which was hosted by the International Association for Dental Research in Phuket, Thailand on September 7-10, 2009. The conference's theme, "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All...

  4. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  5. SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegane GÜVEN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations have increased exponentially over the past years in the dentistry profession. In this article, these developments are evaluated both in terms of clinical practice and their place in the educational program. The effect of the biologic and digital revolutions on dental education and daily clinical practice are also reviewed. Biomimetics, personalized dental medicine regenerative dentistry, nanotechnology, high-end simulations providing virtual reality, genomic information, and stem cell studies will gain more importance in the coming years, moving dentistry to a different dimension.

  6. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  7. [Preventive dentistry 9. Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment: advanced insight or controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruythuysen, R J M; van Strijp, A J P

    2018-01-01

    Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment (NRCT) is not as popular in paediatric dentistry as it should be. Substantial quantitative and qualitative evidence concerning the treatment has now been published that testifies to the success of the treatment. Some healthcare providers apply the method successfully, while others have no trust in this non-invasive cavity treatment and continue to favour the restoration of carious lesions. Reasons given for this are, among others, that NRCT is too bothersome, the patient's (or the patient's parents') compliance is low and the reimbursement is inadequate. Children, however, benefit from oral healthcare providers who take the position that a child has a right to an etiological treatment that addresses the source of the caries process and that NRCT offers a uniquely viable treatment option for this purpose. This approach fits within the parameters established by professional ethics and the law. Apart from oral healthcare providers, all agencies involved in the profession and beyond have the moral and social obligation to do justice to the implied question of the child regarding this shift in oral healthcare.

  8. Ergonomics in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dargahi H; Saraji J; Sadr J; Sadri G

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materi...

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for children with sickle cell disease: a survey of pediatric dentistry residency program directors and pediatric hematologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Anupama Rao; Norris, Chelita Kaye; Minniti, Caterina P

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) investigate the current clinical practice regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis by pediatric dentistry residency program directors and pediatric hematologists for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) requiring dental treatment; and (2) evaluate the perceived relative risk of bacteremia following specific dental procedures, as defined by pediatric dentistry residency program directors and pediatric hematologists. A written survey depicting various clinical scenarios of SCD children requiring common dental procedures was mailed to directors of pediatric dental advanced education programs and distributed to pediatric hematologists attending the 2003 Annual Sickle Cell Disease Association of America conference in Washington, DC. Surveys were returned by 60% (N=34/57) of the pediatric dentistry residency program directors. The surveys were obtained from 51% of pediatric hematologists at the meeting (N=72/140). At least 50% of all respondents recommended prophylaxis for the following clinical situations: dental extractions, treatment under general anesthesia, and status post splenectomy. The perceived risk of infectious complication was highest for extractions, followed by restorative treatment and tooth polishing. Dental residency program directors were more likely (71%, N=24/34) to recommend additional antibiotic therapy for patients taking penicillin prophylaxis if they required an invasive oral surgical procedure. Conversely, only 38% (N=25/66) of pediatric hematologists recommended additional antibiotic therapy (P=.001). Eighty-six percent of dental residency program directors (N=25/29) chose amoxicillin for prophylaxis whereas only 62% of pediatric hematologists (N=36/58) recommended amoxicillin. (Pchildren undergoing dental treatments. Further research and risk/benefit assessment is needed to create a unified approach.

  10. Biomimetic dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetana Goswami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.

  11. Biomimetic dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Suchetana Goswami

    2018-01-01

    “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.

  12. The Pew National Dental Education Program at the University of Florida College of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Donbald R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Strategic planning at the University of Florida College of Dentistry identified: the needs of the elderly population; the remote location of the dental school relative to the population in the state; the need to expand clinical research; the need to utilize computers; the reliance on state funding; etc. (MLW)

  13. Web‐based interactive learning programs for dentistry concept and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Feberová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in pedagogy relates partly to the development of electronic media and communication possibilities that are available in networked environments. This new technology dominates and supports the international educational content and learning. The aim of our study was to evaluate this progress in dental edu­cation. The education was compared parallel in two groups of Czech and international students. Groups and teaching hours were in the fourth year of the MD curriculum. Stomatology course materials were prepared and published on the portals of the individual dental study programs (http://dl.cuni.cz. The lectures had different access levels, ranging from materials that were freely available to all International WEB dental faculties’ sources to materials that were accessible only after receiving permission from the authors. A number of software tools were used for the creation of ­e-learning courses, such as, e.g., WebCT, Blackboard, Adobe Connect or Microsoft Class Server. The 291 students who were included in our study were divided into two groups according to the ­e-learning program. The goal of our study was to check student activities during the educational process, namely online work – lessons, articles, videos, lite­rature, quizzes and direct Internet access. The statisticaly significant differences were found in the results of the questionnaire based on five-point Likert scale. The Mann Whitney non-parametric test was used to evaluate students’ activities during the edu­cation process. The ­e-learning course had a direct influence on learning experiences, dental information, opinions and comments. Our results verified that satisfaction is an important and influential factor in determining whether a student decides to choose a dentistry and maxillofacial surgery course. Students prefer to have more time for practical therapy in the clinic. It was demonstrated that examination results did not correspond to the type of

  14. Preventive dentistry: practitioners' recommendations for low-risk patients compared with scientific evidence and practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, P S; Sawai, R; Bowen, W H; Meyerowitz, C

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare published evidence supporting procedures to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease, in low-risk patients, with the actual preventive recommendations of practicing dentists. Methods included (1) a survey questionnaire of general dentists practicing in western New York State concerning the preventive procedures they would recommend and at what intervals for low-risk children, young adults, and older adults; and (2) review of the published, English-language literature for evidence supporting preventive dental interventions. The majority of dentists surveyed recommended semiannual visits for visual examination and probing to detect caries (73% to 79%), and scaling and polishing to prevent periodontal disease (83% to 86%) for low-risk patients of all ages. Bite-wing radiographs were recommended for all age groups at annual or semiannual intervals. In-office fluoride applications were recommended for low-risk children at intervals of 6 to 12 months by 73% of dentists but were recommended for low-risk older persons by only 22% of dentists. Application of sealants to prevent pit and fissure caries was recommended for low-risk children by 22% of dentists. Literature review found no studies comparing different frequencies of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs to determine the optimal screening interval in low-risk patients. Two studies of the effect of scaling and polishing on the prevention of periodontal disease found no benefit from more frequent than annual treatments. Although fluoride is clearly a major reason for the decline in the prevalence of dental caries, there are no studies of the incremental benefit of in-office fluoride treatments for low-risk patients exposed to fluoridated water and using fluoridated toothpaste. Comparative studies using outcome end points are needed to determine the optimal frequency of dental examinations and bite-wing radiographs for the early detection of caries, and of scaling

  15. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  16. [Paradigm shift in dentistry for children: from restorative to preventive treatment of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, J P; van Palenstein Helderman, W H

    2010-03-01

    First, the development of dental health care for children in the Netherlands is discussed. Caries prevalence among children has declined sharply. The present situation, however, makes clear that the majority of carious cavities in the temporary dentition remain untreated. This has led to the conclusion that the level of restorative care has to increase. On the basis of new insights in cariology gained in recent decades, the authors of this article argue for abandoning the old paradigm of restorative treatment in favour of prevention in the treatment of caries.

  17. Implant dentistry curriculum in undergraduate education: part 2-program at the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeplin, Birgit S; Strub, Joerg R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the didactic and clinical undergraduate implant dentistry program of the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany, with emphasis on the clinical implant experience. A detailed description of the implant curriculum at Albert-Ludwigs University is given with documented exemplary cases and additional flow charts. All students participate in 28 hours of lectures and approximately 64 hours of seminars with hands-on courses and gain clinical experience. All undergraduate students are eligible to place and restore oral implants. Emphasis is placed on prosthetic-driven planning of implant positions, three-dimensional imaging, and computer-guided implant placement. Implant restorations performed by undergraduate students comprise single crowns and small multiunit fixed dental prostheses in partially edentulous posterior maxillae and anterior or posterior mandibles, implant-retained overdentures (snap attachment) in edentulous patients, and telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses on remaining teeth and strategically placed additional implants. Over the past 2.5 years, 51 patients were treated with 97 dental implants placed by students in the undergraduate program. Seventy-one restorations were inserted: 60.6% single crowns, 7% fixed dental protheses, 21.1% overdentures, and 11.3% telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses. The implant survival rate was 98.9%. Because survival rates for dental implants placed and restored by students are comparable to those of experienced dentists, oral implant dentistry should be implemented as part of the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  18. Economic Models of Preventive Dentistry for Australian Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Sia, Kah-Ling; Gold, Lisa; Hegde, Shalika; de Silva, Andrea M; Moodie, Marj

    2015-01-01

    To identify economic evaluation models and parameters that could be replicated or adapted to construct a generic model to assess cost-effectiveness of and prioritise a wide range of community-based oral disease prevention programmes in an Australian context. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ERIC, PsycINFO, CINHAL (EBSCOhost), EMBASE (Ovid), CRD, DARE, NHSEED, HTA, all databases in the Cochrane library, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases from their inception to November 2012. Thirty-three articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review (7 were Australian studies, 26 articles were international). Existing models focused primarily on dental caries. Periodontal disease, another common oral health problem, was lacking. Among caries prevention studies, there was an absence of clear evidence showing continuous benefits from primary through to permanent dentition and the long-term effects of oral health promotion. No generic model was identified from previous studies that could be immediately adopted or adapted for our purposes of simulating and prioritising a diverse range of oral health interventions for Australian children and adolescents. Nevertheless, data sources specified in the existing Australian-based models will be useful for developing a generic model for such purposes.

  19. Brexit and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S

    2016-05-27

    On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.

  20. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  1. Evidence-based veterinary dentistry: a systematic review of homecare for prevention of periodontal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudebush, Philip; Logan, Ellen; Hale, Fraser A

    2005-03-01

    Successful treatment and prevention of periodontal disease in pet animals requires a multidimensional approach to identify and eliminate exacerbating factors, provide scheduled professional examinations and care, and plan and implement a dental homecare program. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for periodontal disease, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of homecare for prevention of canine and feline periodontal disease.

  2. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  3. Mining processes in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; van Genuchten, M.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry,

  4. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  5. Paediatric dentistry- novel evolvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Shah, B.D.S, MClinDent Paediatric Dentistry (UK

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry. The skills apply to the ever-changing stages of dental, physical, and psychosocial development for treating conditions and diseases distinctive to growing individuals. Hence with the changing scope of practice it is imperative that the clinician stays updated with the current evidence based trends in practice, collaborates with other disciplines and Imparts quality oral health care tailored to the specific needs of every child.

  6. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  7. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program 3. (a) For each Program 3 process, the owner or operator shall provide the information indicated in paragraphs (b) through (p) of this section. If the same information applies to more than one covered process...

  8. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program 2. (a) For each Program 2 process, the owner or operator shall provide in the RMP the information... the process. (c) The name(s) of the chemical(s) covered. (d) The date of the most recent review or...

  9. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  10. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  11. Green dentistry: The future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensudar Rathakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.

  12. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  13. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  14. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  15. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  16. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  17. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  18. Evaluating Success of Pediatric Dentistry Department at Mashhad Dental School (Iran in Clinical Skills Education from Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nematollahi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodic evaluation of educational programs provides insight into the course and teaching effectiveness. Effective evaluation provides valuable information, which contributes to both student’s and course success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of pediatric dentistry department at Mashhad dental school in clinical education from students’ perspectives.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 fifth and sixth grade undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Mashhad dental school. A questionnaire including 21 multiple choice questions about 7 parts of clinical skills in pediatric dentistry was given to each student. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney in SPSS software. Results: According to the study results, among 7 different clinical skills in pediatric dentistry including: examination, behavior management, prevention, injection, restoration, pulp treatment and space management, the highest success rate of pediatric dentistry department was in prevention and injection and the lowest success rate in space management and behavior control. Furthermore, from the students’ perspective, male students compared to female students mentioned a higher rate of success in choosing the type of restoration material for pediatric dentistry department (P=0. 041. Conclusion: This study showed that the students’ self-reported clinical skills in different parts of pediatric dentistry has been adequate. Students reported a lack of confidence in “behavior management” and “space management” which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.

  19. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  1. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  2. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Ergonomics in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargahi H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed the role and effectiveness of Ergonomics in dental profession. We used related journals, books and ergonomics websites to write this article. Conclusion: Many of researchers believe that awkward body posture and low movement are the sources of occupational disorders. Therefore, knowledge of ergonomics risk factors in dental office design is very important. Dentist's body posture and dental equipment evaluations are important factors in dental ergonomics. The most logical approach to design dental equipment for utilizing ergonomics principles is consideration of the dentist posture and type of movements and activities. In conclusion, dentists should be informed about dental ergonomics regulation and its different aspects. Furthermore, academic developments and research projects can be useful in this area.

  4. New technologies in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    1999-05-01

    The technology in dentistry has been developed significantly lately, increasing the technological level of new materials, methods and equipment have been developed. Undoubtedly the CO2 laser has contributed to this evolution particular to the treatment of the infected dentin. CO2 laser can sterilize and promote increase 6 to 8 times of dentin resistance, through the transformation the hydroxyapatite in calcium-phosphato-hydroxyapatite. We can reassure our patients about the use of pulsed CO2 laser due to better preservation of dental structure and its benefits permitting advanced esthetic treatments. The CEREC system, registers a tri-dimensional image of the preparation through a scan system, and sends it to the computer and the operator will edit the restorations so the equipment will finish porcelain restoration. The authors used a new laser 650 nm for caries detection and the other low lever laser (670 nm and 730 nm) considered an auxiliary method to prevent and treat the hypersensitivity in dentin.

  5. Effect of different frequencies of preventive maintenance treatment on dental caries: five-year observations in general dentistry patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Birgitta; Olavi, Göran; Birkhed, Dowen; Edvardsson, Stig; Egelberg, Jan

    2004-10-01

    A long-term study in adults at a public dental clinic in Sweden was initiated to evaluate the relative effectiveness of prophylactic treatments on the progression of dental caries and periodontal discase. With treatments scheduled every 3rd, 6th, 12th or 18th month, this report presents results on caries for the 3-month, 6-month and 18-month groups, and evaluates the impact of various caries-related risk factors. Caries increment over approximately 5 years was determined by adding clinical and radiographic findings of manifest primary and secondary caries during the study. Overall caries activity among all 105 participating individuals was low to moderate. No significant differences for caries on any of the various tooth surfaces or for total caries were observed among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis with 5-year caries increment as dependent variable showed that the following factors had a statistically significant association with caries increment: percentage filled surfaces at baseline examination, dietary score, plaque score, and number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva. Non-significant factors included number of preventive treatments provided during the 5-year interval. The results of this long-term trial suggest that preventive treatments as often as every 3 6 months may not be justified in the case of patients with low to moderate caries activity.

  6. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  7. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-10-01

    More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  8. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  9. Nanorobots: Future in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Neetha J.; Swati, P.; David, K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the phenomenon of nanotechnology as it might apply to dentistry as a new field called nanodentistry. Treatment possibilities might include the application of nanotechnology to local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, the permanent cure for hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonded diamondized enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. Dental nanorobots could be constructed to destroy caries-causing bacteria or to repair tooth blemishes where decay has set in, by using a computer to direct these tiny workers in their tasks. Dental nanorobots might be programed to use specific motility mechanisms to crawl or swim through human tissue with navigational precision, to acquire energy, to sense and manipulate their surroundings, to achieve safe cytopenetration, and to use any of a multitude of techniques to monitor, interrupt, or alter nerve-impulse traffic in individual nerve cells in real time. PMID:23960556

  10. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  12. [Preventive dentistry 5. Secondary caries].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,

  13. Biomaterials in Relation to Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this

  14. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  15. Ethical advertising in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graskemper, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. What about narrative dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  19. Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I B; Ngo, L

    2013-06-01

    This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Psychological Treatment as Part of Dropout Prevention: An Israeli Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…

  1. Dentistry proteomics: from laboratory development to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Taia M B; Lima, Stella M F; Petriz, Bernardo A; Silva, Osmar N; Freire, Mirna S; Franco, Octávio L

    2013-12-01

    Despite all the dental information acquired over centuries and the importance of proteome research, the cross-link between these two areas only emerged around mid-nineties. Proteomic tools can help dentistry in the identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, prevention, and systematic control that will promote the evolution of treatment in all dentistry specialties. This review mainly focuses on the evolution of dentistry in different specialties based on proteomic research and how these tools can improve knowledge in dentistry. The subjects covered are an overview of proteomics in dentistry, specific information on different fields in dentistry (dental structure, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral pathology, oral surgery, and orthodontics) and future directions. There are many new proteomic technologies that have never been used in dentistry studies and some dentistry areas that have never been explored by proteomic tools. It is expected that a greater integration of these areas will help to understand what is still unknown in oral health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  3. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  4. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices - analysis of a survey from 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed.There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists.In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not backed by evidence.

  5. Paediatric laser dentistry. Part 1: General introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, C; Olivi, G; Genovese, M D

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the physical characteristics of different laser lights and optical and thermal properties of oral tissues is very important to understand the interaction of dental lasers with biological tissues. Choosing the correct dental laser is crucial to match specific wavelengths with target chromophores of different tissues; this affinity makes laser irradiation selective and therefore minimally invasive. Various types of lasers are used in dentistry, offering a viable alternative to low and high-speed handpieces and surgical blades, and also minimising fear and discomfort of the patient. Lasers can provide innovative and minimally invasive therapies in different branches of dentistry including preventive and restorative dentistry, traumatic injury treatments and surgical procedures. Laser has also biostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as analgesic effect.

  6. History of Dentistry in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremic Marko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available History of dentistry in the Central Serbian District of Jagodina has been influenced by traditional medicine for centuries. Development of dentistry in the region of Jagodina was slow, the level of oral and general hygiene was low and the sanitary prevention was absent. Trained physicians started to practice medicine and dentistry in the first half of the nineteenth century and they were educated in abroad universities. However, common people used to address to these physicians only when the traditional medicine were unable to help. Until the end of the World War II, common, mostly rural people, with the urgent dental treatment need were usually referred to the barbers, healers or empirics in the nearby villages rather than the dentists. Medications used for the urgent dental treatment were balsams and solutions made of herbs. After the World War II, the dental technicians who finished special courses started to practice dentistry. In 1947 the Regional Dental Office in Jagodina was opened and in 1955 the first Doctor of Dental Medicine who graduated from the School of Dental Medicine of University of Belgrade was employed. Nowadays, the Department of Dentistry represents is an important and independent part of the Health Care Centre in Jagodina.

  7. Sports dentistry: a perspective for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vinícius Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.

  8. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  10. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  11. Demand in Pediatric Dentistry for Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentist Anesthesiologists: A Survey of Directors of Dentist Anesthesiologist and Pediatric Dentistry Residencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, C. Gray; Jones, James E.; Saxen, Mark A.; Maupome, Gerardo; Sanders, Brian J.; Walker, LaQuia A.; Weddell, James A.; Tomlin, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 1...

  12. Informed Consent in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kevin I

    2017-03-01

    A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  15. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  16. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  17. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  18. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  19. Conocimientos del personal estomatológico sobre la prevención de enfermedades transmisibles: Pinar del Río, 2007 What the Dentistry personnel knows on prevention of contagious diseases: Pinar del Río, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Díaz Pacheco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio es una investigación analítica de corte transversal, que se realiza para evaluar los conocimientos sobre la prevención de enfermedades con riesgo de transmisión en Estomatología de los estomatólogos y técnicas de atención estomatológica (TAE, en las diferentes clínicas estomatológicas de la Ciudad de Pinar del Río entre los meses de Enero-Junio del año 2007. El universo de estudio coincide con la muestra y estuvo constituido por 60 estomatólogos y 60 técnicas de atención estomatológica, a los mismos se les aplicó un cuestionario. Una vez recogida la información se creó una base de datos con el programa Microsoft Excel, como medida resumen para los datos cualitativos se utilizó el porcentaje. Para analizar las diferencias entre grupos, se empleó el estadígrafo Chi cuadrado. Los datos se procesaran por el programa de tablas dinámicas de la hoja de calculo Excel y por el paquete estadístico SPSS, versión 8.0 para Windows, concluyendo que los estomatólogos y técnicas tienen gran necesidad de conocimientos sobre prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades con riesgo de propagación en la consulta. La mayoría de los estomatólogos y técnicos tienen evaluación de regular en la aplicación de las medidas de protección. Es contrastante que los estomatólogos en el cuestionario aplicado responden adecuadamente a las preguntas realizadas, sin embargo al observar el desempeño no se comportan de igual manera.The present study is an analytical cross sectional study aimed at assessing what the dentistry personnel knows about the disease prevention at risk of contagious as well as the techniques in the different dental clinics in Pinar del Rio city between January and June, 2007. Universe coincides with sample and it is comprised of 60 dentists and of 60 dental care techniques using the same questionnaire in both. A data base was created using Microsoft Excel Program and the percentage method was used as a

  20. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  1. Pressure ulcer prevention program: a journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Barbara; Lebovits, Sarah; Baldock, Philip; Suggs, Barbara; Ayello, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' regulations regarding nonpayment for hospital-acquired conditions such as pressure ulcers have prompted a marked increase in focus on preventive care. Our hospital also used this change in payment policy as an opportunity to strengthen our pressure ulcer prevention practices. We used an 8-spoke prevention wheel to develop and implement practice changes that reduced pressure ulcer incidence from 7.3% to 1.3% in 3 years. Because it is about the journey, we will describe the mechanisms we designed and implemented, and identify strategies that worked or did not work as we promulgated a quality improvement process for pressure ulcer prevention in our large urban hospital center.

  2. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  3. Advances in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard K; Best, Jed M

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses advances in 4 key areas related to pediatric dentistry: (1) caries detection tools, (2) early interventions to arrest disease progression, (3) caries-risk assessment tools, and (4) trends in pediatric procedures and dental materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  5. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  6. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Gender Differences in Alcohol Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a study of the outcomes of a school-based alcohol abuse prevention initiative. The initiative was focused on identifying, developing, disseminating, and evaluating information for high school students based on the school community needs. Student learning outcomes were measured using pre- and post-tests…

  8. Application Guidelines | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal Statement of Research Goals In narrative form, describe your research interests and goals and how these relate to cancer prevention and control. Please also provide insight into your short- and long-term career goals, and explain how the CPFP will help you achieve those goals.

  9. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper....... The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  11. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  12. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  13. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  14. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  15. [Online gaming. Potential risk and prevention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malischnig, Doris

    2014-12-01

    Online gaming is more and more common and increasingly accessible. Due to a lack of social control the participation could be a potential risk for certain customers. The given article focuses on prevention measures that are provided by the Austrian online gaming operator, the Austrian Lotteries, provider of the online gaming platform win2day, in the light of the specifics of Internet gaming in order to avoid problems with gaming.

  16. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  17. Personalized medicine in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a branch of medicine that proposes customization of healthcare in which decisions and treatment are tailored according to individual patient needs. The field of personalized medicine relies on genetic information, proteomic information and clinical patient characteristics to individualize treatment. With advances in genetics, proteomics, pharmacogenetics and knowledgeable patient population, the opportunity exists to deliver never before levels of personalized care. Although general dentists may consider personalized medicine a concept for the future, the reality is that its direct application to everyday dentistry is closer than one might think. Use of personalized medicine in dentistry, especially in periodontology is progressing rapidly, and dentist should consider this approach while treating patients. Google and PubMed search was done to select articles for present review. Total 17 articles were used to compile information.

  18. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  19. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  20. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  1. Piezosurgery in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruvakumar Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery is a technique of bone surgery which is gaining popularity in the field of dentistry in the recent years. This device is being used in osteotomies, periodontology and implantology, and oral surgical procedures. Piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations are utilized to perform precise and safe osteotomies. This article discusses the equipment, biological effects on bone, and advantages and disadvantages of this technology.

  2. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanorobots: Future in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Neetha J.; Swati, P.; David, K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the phenomenon of nanotechnology as it might apply to dentistry as a new field called nanodentistry. Treatment possibilities might include the application of nanotechnology to local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, the permanent cure for hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonded diamondized enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. Dental nanorobots could be construc...

  4. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Dosimetry in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.

  6. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotics: Use and misuse in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    F C Peedikayil

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in dentistry for prophylactic as well as for therapeutic purposes. Most often antibiotics are used in unwarranted situations, which may give rise to resistant bacterial strains. Dentists want to make their patients well and to prevent unpleasant complications. These desires, coupled with the belief that many oral problems are infectious, stimulate the prescribing of antibiotics. Good knowledge about the indications of antibiotics is the need of the hour in prescr...

  8. The economics of dentistry: a neglected concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Batoul; MacEntee, Michael I; Yazdizadeh, Maryam

    2013-10-01

    Demand for economic evaluations in health care is growing with expectations that they will help to develop regional and national policies on health and social programmes. We present here the scope, quality and content of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dentistry published over the last 15 years. To review the quality and outcome of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dental treatments, preventions and services. A systematic search was conducted in 14 electronic databases for systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 1997 and July 2011 on the economics of oral disorders and oral health care. Review papers were extracted by two independent investigators to identify the characteristics, results and quality of the reviews and to highlight gaps in knowledge about the economics of dentistry. From 3150 unique references, we found 73 systematic reviews or meta-analyses of dental economics as primary or secondary outcomes. The focus of 12 of them was on the cost or cost-effectiveness of dental prevention, 54 on treatment, five on prevention and treatment and two on delivery of dental services. However, only 12 of the systematic reviews drew conclusions from economic data, and four of them constructed an economic model from synthesized data. Overall, the quality was good in the 12 systematic reviews but poor in the original studies. There is very little helpful data published on the economics of dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  10. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  11. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  12. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  13. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  14. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  15. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...7 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………..7 1 Annual Report for Period: Sep 30, 2016 to Sept 29, 2017 Strength at Home

  16. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-10-01

    High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard.In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory. The intervention program consisted of 1 educational session lasting 150 minutes by lecturing of high myopia complications, virtual reality experiencing, similarity modeling, and quibbling a film made on high myopia complications preventive concepts.Implementing the educational program showed immediate effect in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. While 6 weeks after the educational program, significant increases were observed in cues to action, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention.This article provided that, after a single session, there was positive improvement in high myopia complication prevention behavior intention among participants. These positive effects confirmed the efficacy of the education program and will probably induce behavior change.

  17. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  18. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  19. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  20. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  2. Interior design for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  3. Magnets in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya S Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnets have generated great interest within dentistry. They have been used for various applications in orthodontics and prosthodontics. Earlier use of magnets was limited due to the unavailability of small size magnets, but after the introduction of rare earth magnets and their availability in smaller sizes, their use has increased considerably. They can be placed within prostheses without being obtrusive in the mouth. Their main use in orthodontics has been for tooth movement and in prosthodontics has been in maxillofacial prosthesis and in overdentures as retentive aids. This article reviews the types of magnets available and their application in maxillofacial prosthesis and overdentures, followed by other advantages and disadvantages.

  4. Preliminary program evaluation of emergency department HIV prevention counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlinger, Andrea P; Lindsell, Christopher J; Ruffner, Andrew H; Wayne, D Beth; Hart, Kimberly W; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)-based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit

  5. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  6. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  7. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  8. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  9. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; Kistler, J.O.; Belibasakis, G.N.; Valimaa, H.; de Soet, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infection prevention in dentistry is an important topic that has gained more interest in recent years and guidelines for the prevention of cross-transmission are common practice in many countries. However, little is known about the real risks of cross-transmission, specifically in the dental

  10. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  11. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  12. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  13. Minimal intervention dentistry: part 3. Paediatric dental care--prevention and management protocols using caries risk assessment for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B

    2012-11-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.

  14. Office-based preventive dental program and statewide trends in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achembong, Leo N; Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. An ecologic study using panel data of 920,505 kindergarten students with 11,694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, -0.40 to -0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.09) decrease in dmft. IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina.

  15. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan.

  16. Departments of Social Dentistry--An Update for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H. Barry; Siegal, Stanley E.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the development and present status of departments of social dentistry is provided, along with a discussion of evolving programs and need for a change in the relationship between departments of social dentistry and the general school teaching programs. (JSR)

  17. The impact of managed care in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, H R

    1999-01-01

    Managed care plans attempt to control health care expenditures aggressively. These plans directly influence access to medical care and the type, level, and frequency of care rendered. As a result, hospital stays are reduced, focus shifts from inpatient to outpatient care, and patients are responsible for a larger share of health care costs. Dentistry is not immune from the impact of managed care. The attractiveness of the dental market has drawn many managed care organizations, insurers, and entrepreneurs to encourage dentists to participate in a wide variety of managed care programs. However, the delivery of dental care differs markedly in many respects from that of medical care. Therefore, many of the cost saving aspects of managed care that have been so successful in medicine may not result in similar cost savings in dentistry.

  18. Finally in Italy the School of Specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, G

    2017-06-01

    After over two decades of discussions, promises and indecisions, the year 2016 marked the birth of the School of Specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, which is now a reality. The importance of dental post-graduate specialisation schools has been debated since the Degree Course in Dentistry was established. Previously, in Italy only two dental branches - Oral Surgery and Orthodontics - had obtained the recognition that a School of Specialisation entails. Today, with specific training and the newly- established hyper-specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, the future of the profession is brighter than ever. This will allow dental professionals to provide the best cure to our young patients but it especially marks and recognises the importance of prevention in general. Having established a Specialty School in Paediatric Dentistry is also important to keep the pace with the other European countries where this postgraduate course has been already offered for many years. In my opinion, training professionals with a solid specialisation based both on cultural insights and hands-on clinical activities translates into the possibility of making true prevention. The ultimate goal of paediatric dentists, as well as paediatricians, is certainly to treat young patients but also and above all to accompany them toward an adulthood possibly free of pathologies. With an eye to a future where Paediatric Dentistry will be at the core of dental and orthodontic prevention, I wish great success to all the many specialisation schools established within the Italian Universities.

  19. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  20. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  1. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  2. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  3. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  4. Cancer Prevention Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P.

    When employees develop cancer, businesses bear not only the direct medical costs of the disease, but also the indirect costs associated with lost work time, disability payments, loss of a trained employee, and retraining. Research has confirmed that aggressive prevention and screening programs can be, and indeed are, effective in limiting the…

  5. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  7. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs. The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

  8. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  10. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübinger, Stefan; Stricker, Andres; Berg, Britt-Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. PMID:26635486

  11. Laser safety in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1997-05-01

    One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.

  12. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  13. Investigation of The Omaha System for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovich, M W; Ophaug, M; Salberg, S; Monsen, K

    2014-01-01

    Today, dentists and hygienists have inadequate tools to identify contributing factors to dental disease, diagnosis of disease or to document outcomes in a standardized and machine readable format. Increasing demand to find the most effective care methodologies make the development of further terminologies for dentistry more urgent. Preventive care is the focus of early efforts to define best practices. We reviewed one possibility with a history of public health documentation that might assist in these early efforts at identifying best practices. This paper examines, through a survey of dentists, the Omaha System Problem Classification Scheme. The survey requested that dentists rate the usefulness of knowing about specific signs and symptoms for each of the 42 problems within the Problem list of the Omaha System. Using a weighted scoring system, 22 of the 42 problems received over 50% of the possible maximum score and 30 of the 42 problems received at least 25% of the possible points. These findings suggests that further evaluation of The Omaha System, may be useful to dentistry. At a minimum, the survey provides additional information about non-physiological problems, signs, and symptoms that may be appropriate for documentation purposes within an electronic health record (EHR) used in dentistry.

  14. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Factors associated with the completion of falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Page, Timothy; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling can affect independence and quality of life of older adults. Falls prevention programs may help avoiding these issues if completed. Understanding factors that are associated with completion of falls prevention programs is important. To reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels, a Matter of Balance (MOB) and un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered to 3420 older adults in South Florida between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2011. Workshops were conducted in English or Spanish over eight, 2-hour sessions. Participants completed a demographic and a pre-post questionnaire. Factors associated with program completion were identified using logistic regression. For MOB, females were more likely to complete the program (OR = 2.076, P = 0.02). For ADE, females, moderate and extreme interference by falls in social activities were found to affect completion (OR = 2.116, P = 0.001; OR = 2.269, P = 0.003 and OR = 4.133, P = 0.008, respectively). Different factors predicted completion of both programs. Awareness of these factors can help lower the attrition rates, increase benefits and cost effectiveness of program. Future research needs to explore why certain groups had a higher likelihood of completing either program.

  17. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H

    2017-04-01

    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  18. Conundrums in merging public policy into private dentistry: experiences from Australia's recent past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Oral disease continues to be a major problem in Australia impacting quality of life, the economy and broader health system. Although the understanding of caries and periodontal disease has improved along with increased government support, oral diseases continue to be the most prevalent among all health conditions. This is despite unprecedented levels of funding in the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Teen Dental Plan. Access to primary care dentistry in the private sector, where the majority of dental services are provided, remains a critical issue. Under the current system of dentistry, it cannot be assumed that the practice of dentistry represents a prioritised approach to combat disease patterns based on scientific evidence in primary health and prevention. Drawing on data in relation to these two programs, the present study highlights issues impacting dental service provision. This includes issues such as access and affordability to dental care, sustainability of policy and its unintended consequences, private practice pressures and the impact of remuneration on treatment. This paper argues that without structural reform there will continue to be barriers in implementing policies capable of improving oral health.

  19. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  1. [The changing picture of practicing dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-03-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of praccising does not develop as a matter-of-course since many factors have an effect on dental practice. Effecting factors are: content concerning developments, technological advancements, legislation, government policies, organizational aspects, and typical characteristics of dental practitioners. The changing picture of practising dentistry is connected with uncertainty, proves to be hard to control, and some adjustments occur around practising.

  2. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  4. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  5. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  6. Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C; Furuya, E Yoko; Larson, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P hospital epidemiologists were reported to have authority to close beds for outbreaks always or most of the time (n = 225, 78%). Only 32% (n = 92) reported using an electronic surveillance system to track infections. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive description of current infection prevention and control staffing, organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

  7. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stübinger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting

  8. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  9. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  10. Dental Students' Self-Assessed Competence in Geriatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, H. Asuman; Brudvik, James

    1992-01-01

    A study of four classes of dental students (n=172) exposed to both didactic and clinical geriatric dental training found that the students perceived significant improvements in their abilities to manage geriatric patients in all areas assessed, notably treatment planning, preventive dentistry, referrals, and providing care in alternative settings.…

  11. Ergonomics and musculoskeletal pain among postgraduate students and faculty members of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Harutunian, Karmen; Gargallo Albiol, Jordi; Barbosa de Figueiredo, Rui Pedro; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intensity and location of musculoskeletal pain suffered by students and professors from different postgraduate programs of the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain), to identify the variables related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and signs, and to establish possible preventive measures for such disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was made among students and faculty members from different postgraduate course...

  12. Violence prevention education program for psychiatric outpatient departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants

  13. Radiological protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, B

    1974-01-01

    Information that would allow an assessment of the standard of radiological protection in dentistry in the United Kingdom is sparse. The National Radiological Protection Board (previously the Radiological Protection Service) has provided a monitoring and advisory service to dentists for many years but very limited use has been made of this service. In a recent survey, 114 dentists were visited in representative practices in South East England and it was established that only 6.5% of dentists in general practice do not use radiography as an adjunct to their practice (Smith, 1969). In the 88 x-ray sets which were examined, 24% had less than the recommended thickness of aluminium filtration, while 25% had a fixed field size which was larger than necessary for dental radiography; in addition, 27% of the timers were found to have an error of greater than 20% in repetition of the pre-set exposure time. The exposure rate at the cone tip of a dental x-ray unit is generally in the range 1 to 4 R/s. A fault in the timer unit coupled with a failure on the part of the dentist to notice that x-rays are being generated (normally indicated by a red warning light) would rapidly lead to excessive exposure of the patient. Furthermore, a dentist continually holding films in the mouth of his patient would certainly incur a dose well in excess of the permissible hand dose, assuming anaverage work load for the x-ray equipment. Three case histories are given to illustrate the type of hazard that might arise from faulty equipment or bad operating technique.

  14. Ergonomics in dentistry: experiences of the practice by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming. The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool’s benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

  16. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfman, Murry

    1982-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  17. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  18. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  19. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  20. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  1. [Preventive dentistry 8. Diet and caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C

    2017-10-01

    The call to consume less sugar in order to improve the general health is becoming increasingly loud. The question is in what way consuming less sugar could also contribute to a lower risk of caries. This can be achieved by limiting the frequency of consuming sugary snacks. For oral health reasons, people in the Netherlands are advised not to consume things containing sugar more than four times between meals. Another way to make the diet less cariogenic is to substitute sugar in foods by non-caloric intense sweeteners, caloric sugar alcohols or 'new carbohydrates'. Non-caloric intense sweeteners and caloric sweeteners have been proven to be non-cariogenic. New carbohydrates still have to be individually tested.

  2. Developing patient safety in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, M N

    2014-10-01

    Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.

  3. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Dysert, Jeanne; Mitchell, Melissa; Allen, Gary; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Scott, JoAnna M; Milgrom, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Twice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it "myself." Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children impact of the program on toothbrushing behavior and dental-care utilization is underway.

  6. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  7. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  8. Straightforward Case of Dental Implant in General Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji P. Tjikman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant has become a fast developing and dynamic field in dental practice. It is acknowledged as a predictable treatment modality with high clinical success rates. Conventional fixed prostheses are no longer considered to be the first choice of treatment for replacing a missing tooth. Despite the increasing number of patients requesting dental implant treatments, there are only some clinicians who are offering implant therapy in their daily practice. The International team for Implantology described a straightforward case as a simple case such as implant placements in adquate soft and hard tissue conditions and single-tooth restorations in a non-aesthetic zone. A review of the current literature discussed the implementation of implant dentistry in universities worldwide into their curriculum for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs in general dentistry. The European consensus in implant dentistry education concluded that it is desirable to include the surgical technique for implant placement for straightforward cases into the dental curriculum. The levels and limitations to which the various aspects of implant dentistry and related skills are taught to be determined by the academic community. This review aimed at promoting awareness amongst dental practitioners and institutions in Indonesia of the shifting treatment paradigm in the maangement of a missing tooth. Hence clinicians will be able to include implant dentistry in the treatment planning of their patients and also undertake a significant part in the execution of such treatments.

  9. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  10. [Assessment of a preconception preventive program in a community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Mendoza, M E; Avila Rosas, H

    2000-01-01

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is the basic health support that includes health promotion and disease prevention, considering social and developmental factors. It is the main axis to pregestational health programs with the basic elements for the women's self-care. This study evaluated the impact on health behavior and adherence to a community based pregestational preventive program in 224 women of reproductive age from Mexico City. The women were exposed to a health education intervention for twelve months, with free clinical examination every six months in a mobile screening unit close to their homes. Food and hygiene one to one orientation was offered, together with anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical evaluations. Program adherence was 55%. Most of the women were less than 25 years of age, education above nine years, non-single, housework occupation as housewives, from an extended family, with social security and two or less live children and desire for more. No differences were found in the evaluated factors between those who continued and those who left the program. When comparing initial and final data, a significant larger proportion did breast self-examination, while this was not the case for the Pap smear test, no differences were found in prevalence of anemia or overweight. Drop-out was mainly due to a lack of interest, school or work problems and change of address. While breast self examination showed a positive effect, the negative or no effect on the other factors requires the intervention of other health professionals and implies more effort from the women. If one of the objectives of the PHC is health promotion, nurse intervention is a prominent role in the community.

  11. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  12. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  13. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, F J; Gómez-Conesa, A

    2001-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study with 3 x 4 design was performed. To improve the level of knowledge and motor skills and thereby avert the development of painful symptoms. Despite the fact that low back pain affects a high percentage of the population, little research has been carried out to prevent low back pain through health education. The participants in this study were 106 third-grade (9-year-old) students. The program included 11 sessions. The teacher attended the placebo group sessions. No intervention was used with the control group. The level of knowledge and motor skills in the experimental group showed a significant increase immediately after the intervention finished, and at 6- and 12-month intervals after completion of the postural hygiene program (P = 0.00). Some positive changes were generalized to natural situations (P = 0.00). In an independent health check carried out by the local school health services 4 years after application of the postural hygiene program, the results tended slightly to favor the experimental condition over the control conditions (placebo + no intervention). A greater number of the control subjects required medical treatment for low back pain, although this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.07). The findings from this study support the hypothesis that programs involving practice and motivating strategies impart health knowledge and habits more efficiently than those restricted to the mere transmission of information.

  14. [The elementary discussion on digital implant dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C

    2016-04-09

    It is a digital age today. Exposed to all kinds of digital products in many fields. Certainly, implant dentistry is not exception. Digitalization could improve the outcomes and could decrease the complications of implant dentistry. This paper introduces the concepts, definitions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and errors of digital implant dentistry.

  15. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people.METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated between2010-2012, being applied before and after the project.RESULTS:2,450 high school students attended the program. The mean age is 16 ± 0,99 years and 37.6% were male. 3.6% of males already drive while drunk versus 0.8% of women. Before the project 116 (11.3% thought that drunk driving wasn't a risk, and only 37 (3.6% knew the alcohol effects. After the project, 441 (43% began to consider drunk driving a risk and 193 (18.8% know the alcohol effects when driving. 956 (93.3% considered that prevention projects have a huge impact on their formation.CONCLUSION: It's expected that the attendees will act as multipliers of information, conveying the message of prevention to their entire social circles resulting in reduction in the number of trauma events involving the young, in the long term.

  16. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  17. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  18. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  19. Nano Era of Dentistry-An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Paramjot; Nagpal, Manju; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Aggarwal, Geeta

    2018-02-14

    Management of the health of oral tissues is a prime requirement in dentistry. The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges. The limitations in dental materials, medications, instruments, procedures put off the accomplishment of this goal. Rationalization of science and technology has made possible to work out these limitations. Nanotechnology which is the outcome of this rationalization has become one of the most favored technologies in medical and dental application. The substantial contribution of nano dental materials is the identification of oral health related problems by better diagnosis and management of dental disorders by bionanomaterials. Application of nanodentistry holds promise for comprehensive dental care by utilizing nanomaterials and ultimately by nanorobots. This review discusses the rationale of nanodentistry, nanocarriers researched in treatment of different dental diseases, the latest innovations in nanomaterials in various disciplines of dentistry; patent literature and related marketed products. Advances in nanotechnology have placed plenty of hopes in terms of improving the oral health care of dental patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. An Evaluation of the California Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Gray, Wayne B.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Main, Regan; Xia, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) requirement has been the most frequently cited standard in California workplace health and safety inspections almost every year since it became effective in July 1991. Every workplace safety inspection must assess compliance with the IIPP. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the IIPP's effects on worker injuries in California and should inform policy both in California and in the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program, which has made the adoption of a similar national requirement a top priority. Using data from the Workers' Compensation Information System, OSHA Data Initiative statistics, and Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California reports on medical and indemnity claims from single-establishment firms, the evaluation team analyzed the impact of citations for violations of the IIPP on safety performance by (1) using the number of citations as a measure of effectiveness and (2) assessing the number of establishments that were cited for noncompliance and then came into compliance. They found that enforcement of the IIPP appears to prevent injuries only when inspectors cite firms for violations of specific subsections of that standard. Eighty percent of the citations of the IIPP by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health program are for only a different section, the one that requires employers to have a written IIPP. The specific subsections refer to the provisions that mandate surveying and fixing hazards, investigating the causes of injuries, and training employees to work safely. Because about 25 percent of all inspections cite the IIPP, citations of the specific subsections occur in about 5 percent of all inspections. In those inspections, the total recordable injury rate falls by more than 20 percent in the two years following the inspection. PMID:28083238

  1. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  2. The Intraoral Ultrasonography in Dentistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... mucosa, the tongue, periodontal tissues, and periapical lesions. The main purpose ... in dentistry were reported in 1963 by Baum et al.[2]. Ultrasound is the .... in most cases, is not easily detected if it is depressed when placing the ..... changes of patients with chronic renal failure by CBCT. Dentomaxillofac ...

  3. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  4. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  5. Minimally Invasive Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all contributors to decay. Your dentist will then use strategies to prevent or reduce your risk for tooth decay. For instance, if ... require anesthesia. It resembles microscopic sand blasting and uses a stream of air combined with a super-fine ... Usually made of plastic resin, dental sealants protect teeth from bacteria that ...

  6. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Álvarez R

    2012-06-01

    .9%, ampicillin (n = 7, 10.6%, and penicillin V and clindamycin (n = 3, 4.5%. The most frequent errors reported by students were: lack of knowledge about drug posology (n = 49, 74.2%, improperly filled prescriptions (n = 7, 10.7%, not knowing the brand names and uncertainty about the correct drug indicated for each case (n = 3, 4.54%, not knowing the duration of treatment (n = 2, 3%, not asking the patient about possible allergies, and not giving prescriptions (n = 1, 1.5%. The sources of information used by students for prescribing drugs included the professors at the clinics (n = 49, 74.2%, the pharmacology course (n = 7, 10.7%, medical dictionary consultation (n = 15, 22.72%, classmate support (n = 3, 4.54%, and information provided by medical representatives from pharmaceutical companies (n = 1, 1.5%. Finally, only 20 students (30.3% followed the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing, 40 students acknowledged not following it (60.6%, and six students (9.1% had no knowledge of it.Conclusion: The knowledge of pharmacology among fourth-year students in the School of Dentistry has gaps that could affect patient safety. More studies are needed to determine whether this issue affects the quality of patient care and the effectiveness and safety of treatments. Since prescribing accurately is extremely important, it is necessary to develop therapeutic guidelines, and to provide pharmacological therapy courses. The implementation of educational programs, including the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing and Patient Safety Curriculum Guide, would be beneficial in helping students develop prescribing skills.Keywords: prescription, dentistry prescription, most used NSAIDs by dentists, most used antibiotics, dentist prescribing errors, sources of information for prescribing, WHO Guide to Good Prescribing

  7. Knowledge and attitude of pediatricians and Family Physicians in Chennai on Pediatric Dentistry: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangeeth Bollam Nammalwar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: When basic medical training is provided in dental school, medical schools can also provide dental training. Dental lectures can also be incorporated into CME programs and recognition of pediatric dentistry by providing referral to needy patients have been suggested.

  8. Laser physics and a review of laser applications in dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, L C

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this introduction to this special laser issue is to describe some basic laser physics and to delineate the potential of laser-assisted dentistry in children. A brief review of the available laser literature was performed within the scope of paediatric dentistry. Attention was paid to soft tissue surgery, caries prevention and diagnosis, cavity preparation, comfort of the patient, effect on bacteria, long term pulpal vitality, endodontics in primary teeth, dental traumatology and low level laser therapy. Although there is a lack of sufficient evidence taking into account the highest standards for evidence-based dentistry, it is clear that laser application in a number of different aetiologies for soft tissue surgery in children has proven to be successful. Lasers provide a refined diagnosis of caries combined with the appropriate preventive adhesive dentistry after cavity preparation. This will further lead to a new wave of micro-dentistry based on 'filling without drilling'. It has become clear from a review of the literature that specific laser applications in paediatric dentistry have gained increasing importance. It can be concluded that children should be considered as amongst the first patients for receiving laser-assisted dentistry.

  9. Geriatric dentistry education and context in a selection of countries in 5 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, Leonardo; Ettinger, Ronald; Chen, Xi; Kossioni, Anastassia; Tan, Haiping; Tada, Sayaka; Ikebe, Kazunori; Dosumu, Elizabeth Bosede; Oginni, Fadekemi O; Akeredolu, Patricia Adetokunbo; Butali, Azeez; Donnelly, Leeann; Brondani, Mario; Fritzsch, Bernd; Adeola, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    To summarize and discuss how geriatric dentistry has been addressed in dental schools of different countries regarding to (1) teaching students at the predoctoral level; (2) advanced training, and (3) research. A convenience sample of faculty members from a selection of high, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries were recruited to complete the survey. The survey had 5 open-ended main topics, and asked about (1) the size of their elderly population, (2) general information about dental education; (3) the number of dental schools teaching geriatric dentistry, and their teaching methods; (4) advanced training in geriatric dentistry; (5) scholarship/research in geriatric dentistry. (1) There is great variation in the size of elderly population; (2) duration of training and content of dental education curriculum varies; (3) geriatric dentistry has not been established as a standalone course in dental schools in the majority of the countries, (4) most countries, with the exception of Japan, lack adequate number of dentists trained in geriatric dentistry as well as training programs, and (5) geriatric dentistry-related research has increased in recent years in scope and content, although the majority of these papers are not in English. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Graduate and Undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry Education in a Selected Dental School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noboru; Sato, Yuji; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Geriatric dentistry and its instruction are critical in a rapidly aging population. Japan is the world’s fastest-aging society, and thus geriatric dentistry education in Japan can serve as a global model for other countries that will soon encounter the issues that Japan has already confronted. This study aimed to evaluate geriatric dental education with respect to the overall dental education system, undergraduate geriatric dentistry curricula, mandatory internships, and graduate geriatric education of a selected dental school in Japan. Bibliographic data and local information were collected. Descriptive and statistical analyses (Fisher and Chi-square test) were conducted. Japanese dental schools teach geriatric dentistry in 10 geriatric dentistry departments as well as in prosthodontic departments. There was no significant differences found between the number of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p = 0.615). At Showa University School of Dentistry, there are more didactic hours than practical training hours; however, there is no significant didactic/practical hour distribution difference between the overall dental curriculum and fourth-year dental students’ geriatric dental education curriculum (p=0.077). Graduate geriatric education is unique because it is a four-year Ph.D. course of study; there is neither a Master’s degree program nor a certificate program in Geriatric Dentistry. Overall, both undergraduate and graduate geriatric dentistry curricula are multidisciplinary. This study contributes to a better understanding of geriatric dental education in Japan; the implications of this study include developing a clinical/didactic curriculum, designing new national/international dental public health policies, and calibrating the competency of dentists in geriatric dentistry. PMID:21985207

  11. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  12. Comparative study of faculties of dentistry of Rio de Janeiro and Universidade Federal da Paraiba in relation to teaching of radiation protection in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A.; Guedes, W.M.S.; Oliveira, L.C.G.; Berquo, F.R.; Cherchinaro, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the qualification and formation in radiation protection, of the students of Dentistry Faculties of Universities in Rio de Janeiro and Paraiba States (Brazil), and recommends the inclusion of Radiation Protection and Image Quality discipline, in the curriculum of Dentistry Faculties, in order to unify the contents and programs in the different study plans. Also to elaborate an appropriate educational training, so that the students of the Brazilian Universities can have the same knowledge about these important themes

  13. Methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program: First Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. The majority of smokers begin using tobacco products at teen ages. The aims of this study were providing a methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program and investigating the prevalence of tobacco use and its related factors. Method. It was a cross-sectional study among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province. Initiation, social, psychological (depression and self-efficacy, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking (cigarettes and water-pipe were investigated. Saliva qutinin was given from 5% of participants for determination of accuracy of responses. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for gathering all data. Results. Of all 5500 questionnaires distributed, about 5408 completed questionnaires were returned (with response rate of 98.3%. Of all participants, 2702 (50.0% were girls and 2706 (50.0% were boys. Respectively, 4811 (89.0% and 597 (11.0% were from urban and rural. Of all participants, 2445 (45.2% were guidance school and 2962 (54.8% were high school students. Conclusion. This study will provide a unique opportunity to study prevalence of smoking cigarettes and water-pipe (ghelyan among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province and determine the role of initiation, social, psychological, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking.

  14. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  15. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  16. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programs of physical therapy, occupational therapy, environmental science, dentistry and veterinary science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Segura-Benedicto A, Andreu; Bosch Llonch, Fèlix; G Benavides, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    To identify the basic competencies and contents related to public health to be included in degree programs according to the perspective of lecturers from various Spanish universities. In the context of the Second Workshop on Public Health Contents in Degree Programs (Mahon, 19 to 20 September 2012), 20 lecturers from different Spanish universities were distributed in five working groups. The lecturers had been selected from the instructional guides on public health and epidemiology published on the web sites of the Rectors' Conference of Spanish Universities. Each group worked on a degree program and the results were discussed in plenary sessions. The activities and competencies related to the three basic functions of public health were identified in all degree programs. Most of the professional competencies identified were related to the function of «assessment of population health needs». The contents proposed by the working groups related to epidemiology, basic concepts in public health, public health intervention, health management, and health policy. The main common topics among the degrees concerned the first three contents. Public health professional competencies and contents were identified in the degree programs examined. These results may serve as a starting point for a more detailed review of public health programs across degree levels and the search for a consensus on the common content that should be included in each of them. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability-based maintenance evaluations and standard preventive maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; McKinley, M.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent issuance of 10CFR50.65, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintenance rule (Rule), and the open-quotes Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes prepared by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council, many utilities are undertaking review or evaluation of current preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Although PM optimization and documentation are not specifically required by the Rule, an appropriate and effective PM program (PMP) will be the cornerstone of the successful and cost-effective implementation of the Rule. Currently, a project is being conducted at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) in conjunction with Quadrex Energy Services to evaluate, optimize, and document the PMP. The project began in March 1993 and is scheduled for completion in mid-1995. The initial scope for the project is the evaluation of those structures, systems, and components that are within the scope of the Rule. Because of the number of systems to be evaluated (∼50), the desired completion schedule, and cost considerations, a streamlined approach to PM optimization and documentation is being utilized

  18. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    were nonspecific. NSI in agriculture workers and veterinarians can result in significant bodily injury and loss of work. There is a need for varied and comprehensive educational programs for agricultural workers and veterinarians to prevent NSI on livestock operations.

  19. Demand in Pediatric Dentistry for Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentist Anesthesiologists: A Survey of Directors of Dentist Anesthesiologist and Pediatric Dentistry Residencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C. Gray; Jones, James E.; Saxen, Mark A.; Maupome, Gerardo; Sanders, Brian J.; Walker, LaQuia A.; Weddell, James A.; Tomlin, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services, while 36% anticipate no change. Dental anesthesiology directors compared to 2, 5, and 10 years ago have seen an increase in the requests for dentist anesthesiologist services by pediatric dentists reported by 56% of respondents (past 2 years), 63% of respondents (past 5 years), and 88% of respondents (past 10 years), respectively. Predicting the future need of dentist anesthesiologists is an uncertain task, but these results show pediatric dentistry directors and dental anesthesiology directors are considering the need, and they recognize a trend of increased need for dentist anesthesiologist services over the past decade. PMID:22428968

  20. Demand in pediatric dentistry for sedation and general anesthesia by dentist anesthesiologists: a survey of directors of dentist anesthesiologist and pediatric dentistry residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C Gray; Jones, James E; Saxen, Mark A; Maupome, Gerardo; Sanders, Brian J; Walker, Laquia A; Weddell, James A; Tomlin, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry. Residency directors from 10 dental anesthesiology training programs in North America and 79 directors from pediatric dentistry training programs in North America were asked to answer an 18-item and 22-item online survey, respectively, through an online survey tool. The response rate for the 10 anesthesiology training program directors was 9 of 10 or 90%. The response rate for the 79 pediatric dentistry training program directors was 46 of 79 or 58%. Thirty-seven percent of pediatric dentistry programs use clinic-based deep sedation/general anesthesia for dental treatment in addition to hospital-based deep sedation/general anesthesia. Eighty-eight percent of those programs use dentist anesthesiologists for administration of deep sedation/general anesthesia in a clinic-based setting. Pediatric dentistry residency directors perceive a future change in the need for deep sedation/general anesthesia services provided by dentist anesthesiologists to pediatric dentists: 64% anticipate an increase in need for dentist anesthesiologist services, while 36% anticipate no change. Dental anesthesiology directors compared to 2, 5, and 10 years ago have seen an increase in the requests for dentist anesthesiologist services by pediatric dentists reported by 56% of respondents (past 2 years), 63% of respondents (past 5 years), and 88% of respondents (past 10 years), respectively. Predicting the future need of dentist anesthesiologists is an uncertain task, but these results show pediatric dentistry directors and dental anesthesiology directors are considering the need, and they recognize a trend of increased need for dentist anesthesiologist services over the past decade.

  1. Innovation in HIV prevention: organizational and intervention characteristics affecting program adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R L

    2001-08-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore the organizational characteristics of community-based organizations that provide HIV prevention programs and the criteria these organizations employ when judging the merits of externally-developed HIV prevention programs. In-depth interviews were conducted with organizational representatives of 38 randomly-selected HIV prevention providers throughout Illinois. Results indicated that there were three main types of adopting organizations: adopters of entire programs, adopters of program components and practices, and adopters of common ideas. These three types of organizations were distinguished by their level of organizational commitment to HIV prevention, organizational resources, and level of organizational maturity. Narrative data from the interviews are used to describe the dimensions that underlie the organizations' program adoption criteria. The criteria of merit used by these organizations to evaluate prevention programs provide partial empirical support for existing theories of technology transfer. Implications for designing and disseminating HIV prevention programs are discussed.

  2. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    noise requirements, handling radioactive materials, etc. The values should 278 be expressed in terms of indicators that, either quantitatively or...Structure pollhtion prevention ana~lysis Polution Prevention Analysis (PPA)? NEPA w/pollution prevention information - pollution Change prevention...Accumulation Procedures PS 81,04 Waste Jet Fuel Handling and Disposal Safe Practice Instructions (SPI) SPI 104 Radioactive Waste SPI 206 Mercury

  3. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  4. Lasers in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M W

    1996-01-01

    Since their introduction, great enthusiasm has greeted the application of lasers to medicine and dentistry. The future is exciting. Research will someday take us to the days of the "Star Trek" laser-scan tooth or bone repair procedures. Lasers are very specific in their application. Choose this new technology carefully, making choices and purchases based on quality scientific research and ongoing analysis and review.

  5. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  6. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  7. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  8. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Management characteristics of successful public health programs: "Avahan" HIV prevention program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Shunsuke; Singh, Suneeta; Bishnu, Rituparna; Bennett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes Avahan, an HIV prevention program in India, that achieved very rapid scale-up. The paper aims to (i) define the distinctive features of the management of Avahan, (ii) examine how the distinctive features relate to key constructs in management frameworks and (iii) investigate how the management approaches of Avahan contributed to the program's ability to scale-up rapidly while maintaining service quality. The Delphi method was used to identify the distinctive features of Avahan. Through three rounds of questions, 38 participants closely associated with Avahan were asked to identify and develop consensus on its distinctive features. These features were then mapped against the Baldrige Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence to investigate how they related to important dimensions of management. A total of 17 distinctive features of Avahan were identified. These distinctive features emphasized the importance of data use and performance monitoring at all levels, especially combined with a flexible management style that facilitated local responsiveness to community, innovation and learning. The distinctive features comprehensively addressed the criteria for management excellence in the Baldridge framework. In the case of Avahan, the rigorous application of known management techniques to public health programs appears to have been an important factor in the successful scale-up of the program. Also, the Baldrige criteria seem applicable to health programs in low-income and middle-income countries; further applications would help test their robustness and utility in such contexts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Radioprotection in dentistry: Analysis of the Dentistry Faculties of the Rio de Janeiro State not referring at personnel and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha F, L.G.; Borges, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to show the necessity and the importance of the training and formation of the dentist in radioprotection according to the recent proposal for technical regulations 'Radiological protection directrixes in Medical and Dentistry radiodiagnostic' of the Secretaria do Vigilancia Sanitaria of Ministerio da Saude (SVSMS). This regulation establishes basic standards to radioprotection in the medical and dentistry areas, including principles, limits, obligations and basic controls for the man and environment protection, versus possible improper effects caused by the use of ionizing radiation sources. An analysis of the discipline programs of the Dentistry Schools of Rio de Janeiro state indicates that they show a little or none preoccupation by the radiological protection, which was confirmed through a survey applied toward responsible professors by department or radiology service to the dentistry Schools. This work suggests the creation or adaptation of the existing disciplines introducing radioprotection and images quality in radiodiagnostic, to improve, complement and to make uniform the formation of future dentists optimizing the solution of the identified problems. (Author)

  11. Overdose prevention in injecting opioid users: The role of substance abuse treatment and training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sarasa-Renedo

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that preventive programs would benefit from accounting for linguistic and educational limitations and from participation in every treatment episode. Comprehensiveness and broad coverage of such programs could help to maximize their impact.

  12. Educators' and Applicants' Views of the Postdoctoral Pediatric Dentistry Admission Process: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Kevin; Mihas, Paul; Lee, Jessica Y; Guthmiller, Janet M; Roberts, Michael W; Divaris, Kimon

    2015-11-01

    The postdoctoral application and matching process in dental education is a high-stakes and resource-intensive process for all involved. While programs seek the most qualified candidates, applicants strive to be competitive to increase their likelihood of being accepted to a desirable program. There are limited data regarding either subjective or objective factors underlying the complex interplay between programs and applicants. This qualitative study sought to provide insight into the stakeholders' experiences and views on the matching process. Telephone and in-person interviews were conducted with ten pediatric dentistry program directors and ten recent applicants to pediatric dentistry programs in the United States in 2013-14. Participants were selected to represent the geographic (five districts of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry) and institutional (hospital- or university-based) diversity of pediatric dentistry programs. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Veracity and need for more information were the themes most often articulated by both groups. The program directors most valued teachability and self-motivation as desirable applicant characteristics. The applicants relied primarily on subjective sources to gather information about programs and prioritized location and financial factors as pivotal for their rankings. Both groups appreciated the uniformity of the current application process and highlighted several weaknesses and areas for improvement. These results shed light on the postdoctoral matching process in pediatric dentistry via a qualitative description of stakeholders' experiences and viewpoints. These insights can serve as a basis for improving and refining the matching process.

  13. Postdoctoral Teaching of Geriatric Dentistry in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the number and size of postdoctoral teaching programs in geriatric dentistry in U.S. dental schools and other health professions educational institutions and those programs with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funding. In 2015, all 67 U.S. dental schools were contacted via email with a questionnaire to ask if they had a postdoctoral program in geriatric dentistry; if they did, they were asked to report the length and size of the program. Directors of all 16 HRSA-funded geriatric fellowships were also invited to participate in the survey. Fifty-six of the 67 (83.6%) dental schools and 15 of the 16 (93.8%) HRSA-funded programs completed the questionnaire. Postdoctoral geriatric dentistry programs were reported in 12 dental schools and six medical institutions, although only six programs were currently accepting fellows. The length of the programs was 12-36 months. The maximum number of residents in any program was ten. The oldest program was in Minnesota; it began in 1981. The newest program was beginning in 2017 at Boston University as a revised version of its previous HRSA-funded program. The loss of HRSA funding has had a major negative impact on the number of training programs. Future research is needed to determine how the loss of HRSA-funded programs has affected the availability of educators in geriatric dentistry for dental schools and the services provided to the geriatric community.

  14. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  15. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  16. 76 FR 31613 - NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) requests stakeholder input on the progress and future directions of the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP). NIOSH is seeking stakeholder input... service, and to identify ways in which the program can be improved to increase its impact on the safety...

  17. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  18. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  19. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  20. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  1. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  2. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  3. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  4. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  5. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  6. Text messaging based obesity prevention program for parents of pre-adolescent African American girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are ...

  7. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh; E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2017-01-01

    A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  8. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  9. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  10. The Intraoral Ultrasonography in Dentistry | Caglayan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoral USG is also used in dentistry for examining the salivary glands and ducts, as well as the mouth floor, the buccal, labial, and palatal mucosa, the tongue, periodontal tissues, and periapical lesions. The main purpose of this review is to provide detailed information about intraoral USG applications in dentistry.

  11. The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

  12. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... vehicle and unintentional fall prevention published at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... AI/AN communities. Unintentional falls reduce independence and quality of life for adults ages 65 and older. In the United States, every 18 seconds, an older adult is treated in an emergency department for...

  13. Project SAIL: An Evaluation of a Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    Project SAIL (Student Advocates Inspire Learning) is a Title IV-C Project located in Hopkins, Minnesota, designed to prevent students from dropping out of school by keeping them successfully involved in the mainstream environment. This study presents a review of other dropout prevention approaches, describes the intervention strategies involved in…

  14. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area.......Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area....

  15. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikov Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.

  16. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  17. Regenerative Perspective in Modern Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.

  18. Empowerment evaluation with programs designed to prevent first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.

  19. Dental traumatology: an orphan in pediatric dentistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...... dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric...... Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out...

  20. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidenbraten, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  1. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  2. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  3. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: a novel multimodal community intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tajima, Miyuki; Tanaka, Eriko; Uda, Hidenori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yotsumoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Naoki

    2008-09-15

    To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. This study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals). The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000460.

  4. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  5. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  6. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  7. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard. In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated an...

  8. Cultural adaptation of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program for diabetes prevention in India: the Kerala diabetes prevention program (K-DPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Elezebeth; Thomas, Emma; Absetz, Pilvikki; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Aziz, Zahra; Balachandran, Sajitha; Daivadanam, Meena; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Oldenburg, Brian

    2018-01-04

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low- and middle-income countries have been very limited to date. This research-to-action gap is now widely recognised as a major challenge to the prevention and control of diabetes. Reducing the gap is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality and reduced health care costs. The aim of this article is to describe the adaptation, development and refinement of diabetes prevention programs from the USA, Finland and Australia to the State of Kerala, India. The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program (K-DPP) was adapted to Kerala, India from evidence-based lifestyle interventions implemented in high income countries, namely, Finland, United States and Australia. The adaptation process was undertaken in five phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) formulation of program objectives; 3) program adaptation and development; 4) piloting of the program and its delivery; and 5) program refinement and active implementation. The resulting program, K-DPP, includes four key components: 1) a group-based peer support program for participants; 2) a peer-leader training and support program for lay people to lead the groups; 3) resource materials; and 4) strategies to stimulate broader community engagement. The systematic approach to adaptation was underpinned by evidence-based behavior change techniques. K-DPP is the first well evaluated community-based, peer-led diabetes prevention program in India. Future refinement and utilization of this approach will promote translation of K-DPP to other contexts and population groups within India as

  9. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  10. Organized dentistry as an agent for helping others: the leadership of Donna J. Rumberger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, James T; Bebeau, Muriel J

    2003-09-01

    Dr Donna Rumberger graduated from New York University College of Dentistry in 1980 and has practiced dentistry in Manhattan ever since. Even before her graduation, she was active in organized dentistry, always viewing it as a conduit for helping other people. Working with the American Association of Women Dentists, she was cofounder of the Smiles for Success Foundation, a program started in New York City that helps women advance from welfare into the workforce with restored, healthy smiles. That program now has expanded to 14 other cities. Working with organized dentistry in New York City, she has been instrumental in initiating and running the Skate Safe program, which provides mouthguards and oral home care education for inner city children in Harlem. In addition, she has worked with the dentistry merit badge program for the Boy Scouts of America Jamborees, helped coalesce women's dental organizations in New York City, and led her dental society to collaborate with Columbia University in a program to improve access to dental care. As further evidence of her ability to get things done, she also has served as president of the American Association of Women Dentists, the Midtown Dental Society, and the New York County Dental Society--one of the largest dental societies in the country.

  11. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention re...

  12. The electronic journal for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, O F; Haynes, T R; Kirkwood, I D

    1989-03-01

    Electronic publishing is expanding very rapidly and will soon substitute in part for the traditional role of paper and printing in accessing information and in its library storage. This change is occurring now for medicine and engineering. For dentistry the compact disc (CD-ROM) would have advantages over tape or on-line computer systems; one or two discs a year could hold all current dental journal and textbook literature. The setting of standards is the key to the successful introduction of this technology through production and playback systems. Indexing, retrieval and hardware are considered as well as copyright problems. The profession has the chance to guide the introduction of this publishing system in preference to it being fragmented between multiple publishers and thereby becoming costly. A proposal is offered which includes the nexus of traditional printing with this new publishing form through a forum for considering standards and goals for agreement on principles.

  13. Applications of ultrasound in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, A D

    1988-01-01

    An ultrasonic descaler working at kHz frequencies is used in dentistry to remove attached deposits from the teeth. Such devices offer many advantages over conventional hand instruments by reducing both the work and time involved in the clinical descaling process. Although it is a recognised clinical instrument, there has been little attempt to standardise its acoustic power output. A parameter which may characterise adequately the acoustic emission from these instruments is the displacement amplitude of the probe tip. Modification of the ultrasonic descaler generator has led to the further use of the instrument in other dental areas. Diagnostic applications of MHz ultrasound is limited by the structure and arrangement of the dental tissues. Therapeutic ultrasound has been used to treat a variety of dentally related ailments, and ultrasonic cleaning baths are used to clean both dental instruments and materials.

  14. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  15. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  16. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  17. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  18. Comparing a telephone- and a group-delivered diabetes prevention program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S, Lim; Dunbar, James; Versace, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Methods Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivere...

  19. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  20. Universal Prevention Program Outcomes: Safe Schools Healthy Students in a Rural, Multicultural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; McFarland, Joyce; Siebold, Wendi; Aguilar, Rafael; Sarmiento, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Consortium for Safe Schools Healthy Students consists of three school districts in rural North Central Idaho and the Nez Perce Tribe's Students for Success Program. Universal prevention programs implemented in the elementary schools include Second Step and the middle schools implemented the Life Skills program. Each of the three…

  1. Building upon Bystander Intervention: A Multi-Component Prevention Programming Approach for University Sorority Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence on college campuses is a pervasive problem with the potential for extensive physical and psychological health consequences. Institutions have begun implementing prevention programs; however, more research is needed to understand whether these programs are effective. Bystander intervention programs have increased in popularity…

  2. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  3. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  4. Employee assistance programs: a preventive, cost-effective benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G S; Gard, L H; Heffernan, W R

    1998-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) provide a much-needed service to the employees of corporations. In these times of reduced benefits and diminished community resources, EAPs can dramatically compensate for those shortages. This article will explore the role of an EAP, the models of service available, and the selection process for choosing a program.

  5. Atraumatic restorative treatment and minimal intervention dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, J E

    2017-08-11

    Too many people worldwide suffer from the consequences of untreated dentine carious lesions. This finding reflects the inability of the currently used traditional mode of treatments to manage such lesions. A change is needed. Dental training institutions should depart from the traditional 'drill and fill' treatments and embrace the holistic oral healthcare approach that is minimal intervention dentistry (MID) and includes within it minimally invasive operative skills. Dental caries is, after all, a preventable disease. The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) concept is an example of MID. ART consists of a preventive (ART sealant) and a restorative (ART restoration) component. ART sealants using high-viscosity glass-ionomer (HVGIC) have a very high dentine carious lesion preventive effect. The survival rate of these sealants is not significantly different from that of sealants produced with resin. The survival rate of ART/HVGIC restorations matches those of amalgam and resin composite in single- and multiple-surface cavities in primary teeth and in single-surface cavities in permanent teeth. The principles of carious tissue removal within a cavity recommended by the International Caries Consensus Collaboration are in line with those of treating a cavity using ART. Owing to its good performance and the low levels of discomfort/pain and dental anxiety associated with it, ART and/or other evidence-based atraumatic care procedures should be the first treatment for a primary dentine carious lesion. Only if the use of ART is not indicated should other more invasive and less-atraumatic care procedures be used in both primary and permanent dentitions.

  6. Advantages and pitfalls of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization report (2014 recommends the introduction of national programs for suicide prevention. However, the research on their effectiveness is scarce. As a result, policy makers do not have sufficient data for their decisions on the appropriate level of investment in suicide prevention. It is of great importance to know whether the introduction of a national prevention program results in a reduction in suicide rates, and if so, in what age groups and over what period of time after the announcement of the program. Sweden introduced the first suicide prevention program in 1995. It was then modified in 2008, and most recently in 2015. Objectives: The aim of this study was to answer the question about the impact of the suicide prevention program in Sweden (2008 on the total suicide rate as well as the age- and gender-specific suicide rates in the subsequent years. Material and methods: The study provides the overview of the suicide prevention program and suicide rates in Sweden in males and females, in the age groups 0–24, 25–44, 45–64 and over 65, 1, 3 and 6 years before and after the introduction of the national program for suicide prevention. The study presents the statistical analysis of changes in average suicide rates following the announcement of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008 with reference to chosen periods. Conclusions: The Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention did not result in the reduction of suicide rates in the year after its introduction, whereas suicide rates decreased in all groups, except for the youth (under 24 years old, in 2009–2011 and 2009–2014.

  7. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for application of scientific findings in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S H

    1995-07-01

    Dental research in the last 50 years has accomplished numerous significant advances in preventive dentistry, particularly in the area of research in fluorides, periodontal diseases, restorative dentistry, and dental materials, as well as craniofacial development and molecular biology. The transfer of scientific knowledge to clinical practitioners requires additional effort. It is the responsibility of the scientific communities to transfer the fruits of their findings to society through publications, conferences, media, and the press. Specific programs that the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) has developed to transmit science to the profession and the public have included science transfer seminars, the Visiting Lecture Program, and hands-on workshops. The IADR Strategic Plan also has a major outreach goal. In addition, the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have initiated plans to celebrate World Health Day and the Year of Oral Health in 1994. These are important strategies for the application of scientific findings in prevention.

  9. The effectiveness of a cardiometabolic prevention program in general practices offering integrated care programs including a patient tailored lifestyle treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M.; Eppink, L.; Nielen, M.; Badenbroek, I.; Stol, D.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: Selective cardio-metabolic prevention programs (CMP) may be especially effective in well-organized practices. We studied the effect of a CMP program in the academic primary care practices of the Julius Health Centers (JHC) that offer integrated cardiovascular disease management

  10. Goal Attainment Scaling: A Primary Method of Treatment and Program Evaluation in Project SAIL - A Special Education Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.

    The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…

  11. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savy Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.

  12. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  13. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  14. Augmented reality in dentistry: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk

    2018-02-21

    Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.

  15. Advances of Proteomic Sciences in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-05-13

    Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.

  16. Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking - The NGO program strong and clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.

  17. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  18. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... noted ``when the oil pipeline industry developed the survey for its voluntary spill reporting system...) [cir] The American Public Gas Association (APGA) [cir] The Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) [cir... the contrary, all 50 states in the United States have a law designed to prevent excavation damage to...

  19. Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Georgette

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

  20. Application of XR imaging in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendafilova, N.; Gagova, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: For accurate and sure diagnosis in dentistry except anamnestic information (history taking) and clinical examination as an obligatory clinical examination must attend imaging investigation. For diagnosis of diseases of the teeth are used a number of imaging methods. The most widespread of them are segmental roentgenography, ortopamtomography Bitewing, as well as increasingly coming in use dental cone-beam computed tomography (3D CBCT). The aim is to introduce the types of radiographs and their benefits for prompt and proper treatment. Documentary method - a review and analysis of literature and Internet sources are made. Results and comments: Segmented radiography gives us information about the state of the tooth as a whole. Using this method gives an opportunity to visualize the crown, the neck and the root of the tooth. Ortopantomography gives a general view of the state of the maxilla and mandibula, the teeth, part of the maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints. Some or extra teeth, are discovered as well as dental disease conditions, bone abnormalities, cysts and others. Bitewing is used when caries is strongly suspected, though not visually, in cases of bone loss and others. The advantage of early and accurate diagnosis is to reduce future complications. Conclusion: good prevention and early detection of dental anomalies and pathologies is performed with the help of X-ray. The selection of the correct method for imaging, the proper use of X-ray machines and placing the required security means reducing the amount of radiation exposure to the patient

  1. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  2. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... proposed rule had five core elements, including: Management leadership and employee participation; hazard... Fairness Act (SBREFA) Panel for the draft Safety and Health Program proposed rule. The Panel provided small...

  4. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature .... designed to minimize heat loss and aim for thermal ..... (4th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone. Sedin, G. (1995). Neonatal heat transfer, routes of heat.

  5. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  6. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  7. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  8. Dentistry in Korea during the Japanese Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese

  9. Awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dentistry students in Kerman towards evidence-based dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446

  10. The safety of bone allografts used in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan; Toscano, Nicholas; Eisenlohr, Lisa; Callan, Don

    2008-09-01

    Recent media reports concerning "stolen body parts" have shaken the public's trust in the safety of and the use of ethical practices involving human allografts. The authors provide a comprehensive review of the safety aspects of human bone allografts. The authors reviewed U.S. government regulations, industry standards, independent industry association guidelines, company guidelines and scientific articles related to the use of human bone allografts in the practice of dentistry published in the English language. The use of human bone allografts in the practice of dentistry involves the steps of procurement, processing, use and tracking. Rigorous donor screening and aseptic proprietary processing programs have rendered the use of human bone allografts safe and effective as a treatment option. When purchasing human bone allografts for the practice of dentistry, one should choose products accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks for meeting uniformly high safety and quality control measures. Knowledge of human bone allograft procurement, processing, use and tracking procedures may allow dental clinicians to better educate their patients and address concerns about this valuable treatment option.

  11. Evaluation of the orthodontic treatment need in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy and its importance among paediatricians for improving oral health in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardo, Gaetano; Corridore, Denise; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Leonardi, Emanuele; Campus, Guglielmo-Giuseppe; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Background Data from epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence and severity of malocclusions in children are of great relevance to public health programs aimed at orthodontic prevention. Previous epidemiological studies focused mainly on the adolescence age group and reported a prevalence of malocclusion with a high variability, going from 32% to 93%. Aim of our study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy in order to improve awareness among paediatricians about oral health preventive strategies in pediatric dentistry. Material and Methods The study used the IOTN-DHC index to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment for several malocclusions (overjet, reverse overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite) in a sample of 579 children in the 2-9 years age range. Results The most frequently altered occlusal parameter was the overbite (prevalence: 24.5%), while the occlusal anomaly that most frequently presented a need for orthodontic treatment was the crossbite (8.8%). The overall prevalence of need for orthodontic treatment was of 19.3%, while 49% of the sample showed one or more altered occlusal parameters. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females. Conclusions Results from this study support the idea that the establishment of a malocclusion is a gradual process starting at an early age. Effective orthodontic prevention programs should therefore include preschool children being aware paediatricians of the importance of early first dental visit. Key words:Orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, oral health, pediatric dentistry. PMID:28936290

  12. Estimating intervention effects of prevention programs: accounting for noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2008-12-01

    Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.

  13. Common elements of adolescent prevention programs: minimizing burden while maximizing reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya M; Frazier, Stacy L; Becker, Kimberly D; Bechor, Michele; Dinizulu, Sonya M; Hedemann, Erin R; Ogle, Robert R; Pasalich, Dave S

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of evidence-based youth prevention programs are available, but challenges related to dissemination and implementation limit their reach and impact. The current review identifies common elements across evidence-based prevention programs focused on the promotion of health-related outcomes in adolescents. We reviewed and coded descriptions of the programs for common practice and instructional elements. Problem-solving emerged as the most common practice element, followed by communication skills, and insight building. Psychoeducation, modeling, and role play emerged as the most common instructional elements. In light of significant comorbidity in poor outcomes for youth, and corresponding overlap in their underlying skills deficits, we propose that synthesizing the prevention literature using a common elements approach has the potential to yield novel information and inform prevention programming to minimize burden and maximize reach and impact for youth.

  14. The effectiveness of a multimedia program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2008-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) continues to be the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Because abstaining from alcohol prior to and throughout pregnancy is the only way to prevent FAS, some prevention programs try to target women before they become pregnant. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Teaching and Research Awareness Campaign (FASTRAC) is a multimedia, peer-delivered educational presentation designed to reduce the incidence of FAS. Results from an ethnically diverse sample of high school students indicate that the program increased participants' knowledge regarding FAS but had no significant effect on participants' attitudes, beliefs about the dangers of FAS or intention to use alcohol during pregnancy. The FASTRAC program failed partly because of its didactic approach and the lack of health education principles that have been shown to be effective in changing other substance use behaviors. Suggestions for improving FAS prevention education programs are offered.

  15. Laser restorative dentistry in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivi, G; Genovese, M D

    2011-04-01

    The idea of substituting a drill with a laser light, has led to its introduction in dentistry. Besides being more accepted to patients, in paediatric dentistry the laser has demonstrated safety compared with rotating instruments. A review of the past 20 years of the dental literature concerning laser use in dentistry, including paediatric dentistry was completed. The findings of that review are presented. The various types of lasers and their uses for caries detection, tooth sealing and caries removal are described. Laser caries detection demonstrated a good reproducibility, reliability and predictability to monitor the caries process over time. Erbium lasers have been found to be efficient for caries removal, tooth cleaning and decontamination. The laser erbium technology represents a safe device to effectively and selectively remove carious tissues from decayed teeth. For children, all the recognized advantages of this technique play a decisive role in the successful day-to-day treatment of dental caries.

  16. Nanotechnology and its Application in Dentistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Restorative Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, 1College of Health Sciences, .... control over nerve‑impulse traffic in any tooth that requires ... Nanoparticles have also been used as sterilizing solution in.

  17. Access to Employee Wellness Programs and Use of Preventive Care Services Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-12-01

    There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pemployee wellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  19. Impact of HIV prevention programs on drug users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2009-11-01

    Faced with a rising HIV epidemic among injecting drug users, harm reduction policies and programs were introduced in Malaysia in 2005. The positive impact seen since the introduction of these programs comprise the inclusion of the health aspects of illicit drug use in the country's drug policies; better access to antiretroviral therapy for injecting drug users who are HIV infected; reduction in HIV-risk behavior; and greater social benefits, including increased employment. Despite these achievements, tension between law enforcement and public health persists, as harm reduction exists alongside an overall drug policy that is based on abstinence and zero tolerance. Unless there is harmonization of this policy, sustainability and scale-up of harm reduction programs will remain a challenge.

  20. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  1. Climate schools plus: An online, combined student and parent, universal drug prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Thornton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242. This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10, and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15. The CSP parent component consists of 1 a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2 online modules and 3 summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method. Keywords: Development, Prevention, Adolescent, Alcohol, Parent

  2. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013?2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. Objective To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. Methods We searched for...

  3. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  4. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  5. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Programs for Western PA - Pediatrics/Platelet Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Diabetes Education Program results for self-management decision making f. Preventing, detecting , and treating acute complications. g. Preventing...SYSTEM AT WHMC 2.4.1 Expand Image Reading Center at WHMC Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in Americans...between the ages of 20 to 74 (45-50). It has been estimated that blindness from diabetic retinopathy is preventable in at least 65% of cases, if

  6. Evidence-Based Dentistry in Everyday Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien

    2016-12-01

    This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.

  7. An emphasis on the wide usage and important role of local anesthesia in dentistry: A strategic review

    OpenAIRE

    Preetinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthesia forms the major part of pain-control techniques in dentistry. The prevention and elimination of pain during dental treatment has benefited patients, their doctors and dental hygienists, enabling the dental profession to make tremendous therapeutic advances that would otherwise have been impossible. Introduced in the late 1940s, the amide local anesthetics represent the most used drugs in dentistry. Local anesthetics also represent the safest and most effective drugs in all of...

  8. 78 FR 35054 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and... carrying smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground and to prevent smoking in hazardous areas... Act), 30 U.S.C. 877(c), and 30 CFR 75.1702 prohibits persons from smoking or carrying smoking...

  9. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  11. Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) post-natal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for women who had gestational diabetes.Methods/Design: The original...

  12. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  13. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  14. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  15. Adequação de recursos humanos ao PSF: percepção de formandos de dois modelos de formação acadêmica em odontologia The Family Health Program (FHP and human resources: perceptions of students from two different dentistry schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fiúza Sanchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Saúde da Família - PSF foi instituído pelo governo federal objetivando reverter o modelo assistencial. Os recursos humanos envolvidos devem estar preparados para alcançar os objetivos que o PSF propõe. O propósito desse artigo foi avaliar os desejos, percepções e preparo de acadêmicos de Odontologia, em relação aos princípios do PSF, de duas diferentes Faculdades de Odontologia, aqui denominadas Faculdades 1 e 2. Buscou-se ainda analisar se as faculdades tiveram potencial transformador sobre os acadêmicos, graduando-os com compromisso social e sensibilidade humanitária, considerados importantes para aqueles que querem trabalhar no PSF. Questionários individuais foram aplicados por um único pesquisador. As respostas foram analisadas pelo programa Epi-Info. Os resultados mostraram que prevalece entre os acadêmicos o desejo de trabalhar no PSF por razões ligadas às dificuldades do mercado de trabalho e os mesmos citam freqüentemente a técnica como a principal característica necessária a um dentista para que o mesmo atue no PSF. Por outro lado, diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram encontradas entre os acadêmicos, apontando uma provável influência do Estágio Supervisionado, ministrado sob a forma de internato rural, sobre a formação do acadêmico da Faculdade 1, possivelmente habilitando-o melhor para o PSF.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of dental students from two different Dentistry Schools in Brazil, both known here as Dentistry Schools 1 and 2 about the Family Health Program - FHP. The study analyzed if the Dentistry Schools had any influence on the students, graduating professionals with humanitarian and social sensibility, which are considered very important prerequisites for those who wish to work on this governmental health program, as well as searching for professional expectation of the students. Individual questionnaires were applied by only one

  16. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    interpret visual and instrumental findings in clinical dentistry, dental research, and subsequent standardization. The importance of quality control in dentistry is reinforced by increased esthetic demands of patients and dental professionals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. AED's HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support Programs: Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is a nonprofit organization working globally to improve health, education, and economic opportunity--the foundation of thriving societies. With a global staff of more than 2,000 focusing on the underserved, AED implements more than 250 programs serving people in all 50 U.S. states and…

  18. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between August and October 2008, a cross sectional study was ... Care providers were not qualified enough to deliver PMTCT services. Vitamin A supplementation was not implemented. None of the facilities ...

  19. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal hypothermia is a worldwide problem and leads to increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature infants and to decrease neonatal hypothermia. Our studies include 1) examining an intervention to reduce heat loss in ...

  20. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  1. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  2. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  3. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  4. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  5. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  7. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Melanie S.; Adelson, Jill L.; Patak, Margarete A.; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects. PMID:24837667

  8. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie S. Wahl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207 or psychologists (n = 213, or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226. The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects.

  9. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  10. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Drug use prevention: factors associated with program implementation in Brazilian urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-03-07

    A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.

  12. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  13. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  14. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  15. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: Building a Community Partnership Through a Community Health Worker Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article...

  16. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Magioni Santini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.

  17. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849

  18. Protection of patients in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selato Selato, P.

    2013-04-01

    Current literature on dental radiology was reviewed in order to seek justification for radiological protection of patients in dental radiography, to explore the different factors affecting patient dose and to derive practical guidance on how to achieve radiological protection of patients in dentistry. Individual doses incurred in dental radiology are in general relatively low, however it is generally accepted that there is no safe level of radiation dose and that no matter how low the doses received are, there is a mathematical probability of an effect. Hence appropriate patient protection measures must be instituted to keep the exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The literature review demonstrated that there is considerable scope for significant dose reductions in dental radiology using the techniques of optimisation of protection. The techniques of optimization of protection that can be used to ensure patient dose is as low as reasonably achievable whilst achieving clinically adequate image quality include the following: image receptor selection, image receptor holders, collimation, beam filtration, operating potential and exposure time, patient protective equipment, film exposure and processing, film storage, image viewing, quality assurance, diagnostic reference levels, technique charts and training and education.(au)

  19. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants' perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach's α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation.

  20. The innovative applications of therapeutic nanostructures in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla

    2017-05-01

    Nanotechnology has paved multiple ways in preventing, reversing or restoring dental caries which is one of the major health care problems. Nanotechnology aided in processing variety of nanomaterials with innovative dental applications. Some showed antimicrobial effect helping in the preventive stage. Others have remineralizing potential intercepting early lesion progression as nanosized calcium phosphate, carbonate hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, nanoamorphous calcium phosphate and nanoparticulate bioactive glass particularly with provision of self-assembles protein that furnish essential role in biomimetic repair. The unique size of nanomaterials makes them fascinating carriers for dental products. Thus, it is recentlyclaimedthat fortifying the adhesives with nanomaterials that possess biological meritsdoes not only enhance the mechanical and physical properties of the adhesives, but also help to attain and maintain a durable adhesive joint and enhanced longevity. Accordingly, this review will focus on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in preventive and adhesive dentistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  2. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  3. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  4. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  5. Cultural Adaptation of a Preventive Program for Ultra-Orthodox Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit

    2016-01-01

    Cultural factors significantly influence the effectiveness of pediatric screening that enables the prevention of developmental disturbances. The formulation of intervention programs must match the needs of the child, his or her family, and educators. Recognizing the importance of creating an intervention program accessible to the culture of the…

  6. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  7. Family Support in Prevention Programs for Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention…

  8. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  9. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  10. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  11. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  12. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  13. Evaluating an In-School Drug Prevention Program for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, David J.; Steep, Barbara; Silverman, Gloria; Stevens-Lavigne, Andrea; Ellis, Kathy; Smythe, Cindy; Rye, Barbara J.; Braun, Kathy; Wood, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    A drug prevention program involving 167 at-risk students in grades 8-10 at 9 Ontario schools resulted in reduced use of and less supportive attitudes toward alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Program success is attributed to high attendance and retention, community health professionals' participation, comprehensive approach, strong…

  14. Characteristics of Student Assistance and Prevention Counseling Programs in Response to Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Videka, Lynn; Loneck, Barry; Newman, Lucy J.; Rajendran, Kushmand

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, were observed in Student Assistance and Prevention Counseling programs in New York schools. Methods: A mixed-method study of programs across the state, consisting of interviews (N = 14) and record reviews (N = 407), was conducted in New York State in 2002. Standardized state forms were used…

  15. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  16. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  18. DCP Leading NIH Glycoscience Common Fund Program; Funding Opportunities Open | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention is a leading participant for a key initiative in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glycoscience Common Fund program. This program supports development of accessible and affordable new tools and technologies for studying the role complex carbohydrates in health and disease. |

  19. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  20. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  1. An Online Bystander Intervention Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2015-07-01

    Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.

  2. Perception of HIV prevention programs among Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José

    2015-11-01

    The Ayoreo population constitutes one of Bolivia's most vulnerable ethnic groups in terms of HIV/AIDS. Being a woman, indigenous, and a sex worker signifies belonging to a high-risk group. The aim of this study is to explore the Ayoreo sex workers' and health agents' perceptions of HIV/AIDS prevention programs in order to identify variables that could influence their success or failure. This study used an ethnographic methodology that included participant observation and semistructured interviews. In the data collection, participant observation and semistructured interviews with sex workers and key informants were conducted. Three themes emerged from the inductive data analysis: health prevention efforts, cultural inadequacy of prevention programs, and the eventuality of interventions. We conclude that nursing can develop culturally-adequate HIV/AIDS prevention interventions and programs as well as promote health within these populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  4. [Specialties in dentistry. 4. Post-academic specialization in geriatric dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, R.M.; Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational

  5. Specialties in dentistry. 4. Post-academic specialization in geriatric dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, R.M.; de Baat, C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational

  6. Preventive maintenance program of motorized operated valves (MOV) at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, M.; Moldoveanu, Edy

    2001-01-01

    This is a Power Point presentation. The following objectives are addressed: A. Determine the target of MOV program; B. Define the strategy for MOV; C. Establish the MOV program execution phases; D. Identification of key parameters; E. Examples. The target of MOV program is to improve the safety by ensuring the adequacy of safety valves and the reliability of safety equipment and, subsequently, to ensure the economic operation of the plant. Consequences of MV malfunction are indicated. The strategy for MOV program development is both general, namely, to define the minimal requirements of preventive /corrective maintenance activities for all MOV's according to design/ manufacture specification and particular, namely to identify MV's specific problems and the need for increasing/decreasing the preventing maintenance tasks or frequency established in 'general' MOV program. Strategy for MOV program development implies: - Establish MOV program applicability; - Develop diagnostic strategy (define key parameters ); - Perform program for engineering review; - Establish program for preventive maintenance; - Revise procedures for operating and maintenance tests; - Dynamic evaluation of MOV. The program execution phases are listed as follows: 1. Perform risk assessment of the MOV's to determine criticality level (program applicability); 2. Collect data to fill in MOV Application Data Sheet; 3. Perform engineering review to determine functional parameters acceptable range and determine key parameters; 4. Analysis for maintenance tasks / frequencies selection and determination of implementing actions (engineer review); 5. Prepare work packages for availability confirmation; 6. Schedule and plan corrective actions or provide input to other programs; 7. Schedule and plan implementing actions in preparation for program field execution; 8. Program field implementation; 9. Program monitoring, evaluation and optimization. The criteria defining the key operational and maintenance

  7. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  8. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  9. The promise and limitations of cash transfer programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieno, John; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    As the search for more effective HIV prevention strategies continues, increased attention is being paid to the potential role of cash transfers in prevention programming in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, studies testing the impact of both conditional and unconditional cash transfers on HIV-related behaviours and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been relatively small-scale and their potential feasibility, costs and benefits at scale, among other things, remain largely unexplored. This article examines elements of a successful cash transfer program from Latin America and discusses challenges inherent in scaling-up such programs. The authors attempt a cost simulation of a cash transfer program for HIV prevention in South Africa comparing its cost and relative effectiveness--in number of HIV infections averted--against other prevention interventions. If a cash transfer program were to be taken to scale, the intervention would not have a substantial effect on decreasing the force of the epidemic in middle- and low-income countries. The integration of cash transfer programs into other sectors and linking them to a broader objective such as girls' educational attainment may be one way of addressing doubts raised by the authors regarding their value for HIV prevention.

  10. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013-2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. We searched for mental health primary prevention themes in: (1) three major journals of psychiatry and social sciences during the years 2001-2012; (2) university graduate programs in psychology, social work and medicine in leading universities for the academic year of 2011-2012; and (3) doctoral and master's theses approved in psychology and social work departments in five universities between the years 2007-2012. We used a liberal definition of primary prevention to guide the above identification of themes, including those related to theory, methods or research information of direct or indirect application in practice. Of the 934 articles published in the three journals, 7.2%, n = 67, addressed primary prevention. Of the 899 courses in the 19 graduate programs 5.2%, n = 47, elective courses addressed primary prevention. Of the 1960 approved doctoral and master's theses 6.2%, n = 123, addressed primary prevention. Only 11 (4.7%) articles, 5 (0.6%) courses, and 5 (0.3%) doctoral and master's theses addressed primary prevention directly. The psychiatric reform currently implemented in Israel and WHO CMHAP call for novel policies and course of action in all levels of prevention, including primary prevention. Yet, the latter is rarely a component of mental health education and research activities. The baseline we drew could serve to evaluate future progress in the field.

  11. [Dentistry students' reasons for choosing dentistry as a career in Damascus University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashlah, A M

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.

  12. Green dentistry, a metamorphosis towards an eco-friendly dentistry: a short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Yadav, Lalita; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana

    2014-07-01

    Dentistry is most importantly and foremost a healing profession. In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives, including dental practice which has a huge impact on the environment due to the large amount of metallic waste generated by various dental procedures along with excessive use of water and electricity, which specifically emphasis the thrust to move towards 'Green dentistry'. Green dentistry is an innovative way of dental practice which is environment friendly and at the same time conserves money and time by reducing waste, conserving energy and decreasing pollution with the use of latest techniques and procedures. Green dentistry therefore, protects the environment and mankind from the hazards of rapid urbanisation in developing countries. The authors wish to emphasize the practice of eco-friendly, green dentistry in a developing country like India which needs to conserve resources and curb environmental pollution.

  13. Identifying Patterns in Implementation of Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: A Multisite Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Finley, Erin P; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    To describe the presence or absence of key components of hospital pressure ulcer (PU) prevention programs in 6 acute care hospitals. Multisite comparative case study. Using purposeful selection based on PU rates (high vs low) and hospital size, 6 hospitals within the Veterans Health Administration health care system were invited to participate. Key informant interviews (n = 48) were conducted in each of the 6 participating hospitals among individuals playing key roles in PU prevention: senior nursing leadership (n = 9), nurse manager (n = 7), wound care specialist (n = 6), frontline RNs (n = 26). Qualitative data were collected during face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Interview protocols were tailored to each interviewee's role with a core set of common questions covering 3 major content areas: (1) practice environment (eg, policies and wound care specialists), (2) current prevention practices (eg, conduct of PU risk assessment and skin inspection), and (3) barriers to PU prevention. We conducted structured coding of 5 key components of PU prevention programs and cross-case analysis to identify patterns in operationalization and implementation of program components across hospitals based on facility size and PU rates (low vs high). All hospitals had implemented all PU prevention program components. Component operationalization varied considerably across hospitals. Wound care specialists were integral to the operationalization of the 4 other program components examined; however, staffing levels and work assignments of wound care specialists varied widely. Patterns emerged among hospitals with low and high PU rates with respect to wound care specialist staffing, data monitoring, and staff education. We found hospital-level variations in PU prevention programs. Wound care specialist staffing may represent a potential point of leverage in achieving other PU program components, particularly performance monitoring and staff education.

  14. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  15. Faith-based HIV prevention and counseling programs: findings from the Cincinnati census of religious congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Ritchey, P Neal; Jacobson, C Jeffrey; Williams, Rhys H; Baumann Grau, Amy; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Ellison, Christopher G; Tsevat, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Congregations are well positioned to address HIV in their communities, but their response to HIV has been mixed. An emerging literature describes HIV programming in urban, predominantly black congregations, but population-based data remain limited. This study examined the levels of HIV prevention and counseling programs and associated factors (e.g., religious, organizational) by using data from a phone census of congregations in the Greater Cincinnati area (N = 447). Over 10 % of congregations (36 % of Black Protestant and 5-18 % of other types of congregations) offered HIV education/prevention alone or in combination with counseling or with counseling and testing. Path analysis results showed notable significant (p theology-polity on HIV prevention/counseling programs, but these effects were fully mediated by other factors, including other community work and racial composition. The levels of HIV programming in this study were high by national standards, but further outreach is needed in high-risk African American communities.

  16. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  17. Comprehensive resurvey program to prevent radiological incidents at a national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, W.V.; Hunckler, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive resurvey program in a general purpose research building at Argonne National Laboratory is being implemented. The program was designed to prevent radiological incidents by increasing the awareness of Health Physics personnel of radiological hazards, initiating corrective actions, and providing information for improving routine survey schedules, and for establishing manpower requirements. The following aspects of the program are described: scheduling, surveys, records, follow-up, and statistics

  18. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...

  19. Effectiveness of waste prevention program in primary students' schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa

    2017-06-01

    Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.

  20. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  1. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  2. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  3. Predictors of Burnout Syndrome in Dentistry Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Salloume Sampaio Bonafé

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AimTo estimate the contribution of social support and demographic factors in the development of burnout syndrome in dentistry students.MethodA total of 169 Brazilian students participated via internet. For identification of the syndrome, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS. Social support was assessed by the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS. The validity and reliability of the instruments were estimated. To check the effect of variables on burnout syndrome, linear regression using structural equation modelling (SEM was performed to estimate causal trajectories (β.ResultsThe participants’ mean average age was 21.6 (SD = 3.3 years, 64.5% were female and 59.2% were enrolled in private schools. An appropriate adjustment of the instruments’ factor models to sample was observed (MBI-SS: χ²/df = 2.173, CFI = .943; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .084; ESSS: χ²/df = 2.378, CFI = .904; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .091. The reliability of the scales was adequate (MBI-SS: α = .799-.903; ESSS: α = .653-.799. The model explained 33% of the variation of burnout with a significant contribution of social support (ESSS (β = -.136, p = .042, gender (β = -.186, p = .005, housing (β = .124, p = .050, student performance in the course (β = -.293, p ≤ .001 and the thought of quitting the course (β = .333, p ≤ .001.ConclusionSocial support and demographic variables may play an important role in the burnout syndrome and therefore should be considered when implementing preventive actions and/or interventions (self-help or guided in college students.

  4. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  5. Health Prevention Program: the cornerstone for a safe work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Andrade, Augusto; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-07-01

    EnCana in Ecuador is deeply committed through the sustainable development by minimizing and controlling hazards, while contributing to the well being of the people and protecting the environment of the communities where we operate, the health and safety of our employees, as well as preventing any loss and ensuring business continuity. To ensure a safe work environment for all our employees and Contractors, the Company has conducted a complete Risk Evaluation, considering: physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial factors. Based on this Map of Risks, the exposure level and the age of the employee, the Medical Department established four different routines of medical exams (pre-occupational and occupational), which are conducted on a regular two years basis, or even in a shorter period of time, if required. Additionally, medical exams are conducted when an employee is transferred to a different position. All employees have their own records, which document their medical shape when enrolled, at any time while working, and when the person leaves the Company. This allows diagramming the history of employees, the following information: X Axis (horizontal) Age of the employee when enrolled, years (chronological) and position when the exams are conducted. Y Axis (vertical) Capability in terms of percentage, of different organs and physiology (audiometric, ears, lungs, etc.). All this information is processed by the EHS Department, which in conjunction with other departments, plan improvement Safety measures to avoid the exposure of the employees to those factors above mentioned, minimizing potential losses and reducing dramatically costs of accidents and absenteeism. Exactly the same concept is being implemented with Contractors, which must also comply with these requirements. Follow-up of all recommendations is conducted on a regular basis by the Employees, Contractors and Management (Executive) EHS Committees. (author)

  6. Bisphosphonate: Brief Review of Its Development for Usage in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Ratya Utari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate (BP is a class of drug that prevent the loss of bone mass. It inhibits the resorption of bone by encouraging osteoclast to undergo apoptosis. Considering that oral diseases and dental procedures may lead to teeth instability whereas alveolar bone is the main tooth supporting tissue, forceful indication of this drug is for preventing and minimizing bone resorption following oral surgery and relapse movement in orthodontic treatment. Clinical use of BP in dentistry is limited by risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ and of its systemic effects such as an increase of the bone mineral density in another bone area. Topical application with local effect would seem the choice of administration route for usage in dentistry. Until recently, no clinical usage of topical BP has been studied, however some experimental laboratory studies proved that this drug would be beneficial in a wide scope of dental treatments.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i1.154

  7. Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  9. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  10. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Hare; Ozcakir-Tomruk, Ceyda; Tanalp, Jale; Yilmaz, Selçuk

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent developments regarding photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the field of dentistry. A review of pertinent literature was carried out in PubMED to determine the current position of PDT applications in dentistry. One hundred thirteen relevant articles were retrieved from PubMED by inserting the keywords "photodynamic therapy", "dentistry", "periodontology", "oral surgery", and "endodontics". It is anticipated that this overview will create a specific picture in the practitioner's mind regarding the current status and use of PDT. In spite of different results and suggestions brought about by different researchers, PDT can be considered as a promising and less invasive technique in dentistry. PDT seems to be an effective tool in the treatment of localized and superficial infections. Within the limitations of the present review, it can be concluded that although PDT cannot replace antimicrobial therapy at its current stage, it may be used as an adjunctive tool for facilitating the treatment of oral infections. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry.

  11. Efficiency estimation of using phased program of caries prevention in children domiciled in Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitynska Oksana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries is a pathological process that occurs in the hard tissues of the teeth after eruption and reduced quality of life due to significant complications, especially in children. An extremely high incidence of dental caries among children living permanently in Transcarpathian region requires a comprehensive prevention program. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of complex caries prevention program among children permanently living in the area of biogeochemical fluorine deficiency. Aim of the study: To evaluate efficiency level of using phased program of caries prevention among children of different age groups domiciled in Transcarpathian region. Material and Methods: On examination of 346 children aged 3-8 years, among which 163 (46.9% boys and 183 (53.1% girls, a phased program of complex prophylaxis was created, covering the basic dental diseases in children living permanently in deficiency conditions. The program included: hygienic education of preschool children and their parents; exogenous medicament prevention; early identification and treatment of caries using conventional methods according to treatment protocols; endogenous non-medical prevention, nutrition correction have proved its effectiveness. Results: The indicator of caries prevention efficiency of the proposed scheme for children 5-7 (3-5 years is 69.5%; for children 8-10 age group (6-8 years - 66.9%. Conclusion: The main strategy of pediatric dental services in Ukraine should be created for the children population (aged up 18 years through national and regional programs for the primary prevention of main dental diseases with providing adequate financing in sufficient volume to preserve the nation's dental health for the next 20 years.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  13. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  14. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-10-08

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions

  15. Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis for Prevention Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code

  16. An interactive multimedia program to prevent HIV transmission in men with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).

  17. Predicting Improvement After a Bystander Program for the Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Facilitators and barriers to students' learning in an obesity prevention graduate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kieu Anh; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T; Boeckner, Linda; Koszewski, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with underpinnings at the individual, family, community and societal levels. The Transdisciplinary Childhood Obesity Prevention Graduate Certificate Program (TOP) is an innovative graduate-level certificate program developed to train professionals to understand and address obesity from multiple perspectives using an interprofessional education (IPE) approach. Currently, there is limited knowledge on what promotes or hinders learning in IPE approaches dealing with obesity prevention. The goal of this report is to address this gap by describing facilitators and barriers to learning in a graduate-level training program. Using a qualitative research design, semi-structured interviews were collected from 23 professional students, as part of a larger program evaluation project for TOP. Thematic analysis revealed the challenges and strengths of the program that relate specifically to: its interprofessional approach, its structure, and its activities. Interprofessional exchanges were reported to expand students' learning, but adequate interprofessional representation must be maintained, and the complexity of interprofessional collaborations must also be well-coordinated. Standardising the program structure and courses for consistency across professions, and clear communication are critical to program success. Findings add to the existing literature on what promotes effective learning in a professional obesity prevention program using an IPE approach.

  19. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  20. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  1. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  2. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pasos Adelante: the effectiveness of a community-based chronic disease prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Lisa K; Scheu, Linda L; Bronson, Dan; Peña, Veronica; Elenes, JoJean

    2005-01-01

    Implementing programs that target primary prevention of chronic diseases is critical for at-risk populations. Pasos Adelante, or "Steps Forward," is a curriculum aimed at preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases in Hispanic populations. Pasos Adelante is adapted from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's cardiovascular disease prevention curriculum, Su Corazon, Su Vida, and includes sessions on diabetes and community advocacy and incorporates walking clubs. The Pasos Adelante curriculum was implemented in two Arizona, United States-Sonora, Mexico border counties. Key issues in these communities are safety, access to recreational facilities, climate, and cultural beliefs. Pasos Adelante is a 12-week program facilitated by community health workers. The program includes interactive sessions on chronic disease prevention, nutrition, and physical activity. Evaluation of the program included precurriculum and postcurriculum questionnaires with self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary patterns. Approximately 250 people participated in the program in Yuma and Santa Cruz counties. Postprogram evaluation results demonstrate a significant increase in moderate to vigorous walking among participants and shifts in nutritional patterns. The Pasos Adelante program demonstrates that an educational curriculum in conjunction with the support of community health workers can motivate people in Arizona/Sonora border communities to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  4. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  5. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  6. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  7. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  8. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. How the Avahan HIV prevention program transitioned from the Gates Foundation to the government of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Ramakrishnan, Aparajita; Dhingra, Neeraj; Wadhwani, Alkesh; Alexander, Ashok; Bennett, Sara; Bhalla, Aparajita; Kumta, Sameer; Jayaram, Matangi; Gupta, Pankaj; Piot, Peter K; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Anthony, John

    2013-07-01

    Developing countries face diminishing development aid and time-limited donor commitments that challenge the long-term sustainability of donor-funded programs to improve the health of local populations. Increasing country ownership of the programs is one solution. Transitioning managerial and financial responsibility for donor-funded programs to governments and local stakeholders represents a highly advanced form of country ownership, but there are few successful examples among large-scale programs. We present a transition framework and describe how it was used to transfer the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's HIV/AIDS prevention program, the Avahan program, to the Government of India. Essential features recommended for the transition of donor-funded programs to governments include early planning with the government, aligning donor program components with government structures and funding models prior to transition, building government capacity through active technical and management support, budgeting for adequate support during and after the transition, and dividing the transition into phases to allow time for adjustments and corrections. The transition of programs to governments is an important sustainability strategy for efforts to scale up HIV prevention programs to reach the populations most at risk.

  10. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: How Could Dentistry Participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James R; Dodge, William W; Findley, John S; Horn, Bruce D; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L; Martin, Max M; Valachovic, Richard W; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K

    2018-05-01

    There is a remarkable phenomenon occurring among health professionals: the development of ongoing, routine collaboration, both in educating the next generation of providers and in delivering care. These new approaches, commonly referred to as interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice, have been introduced into academic health settings and delivery systems throughout the U.S. and the rest of the world; however, the full integration of dentistry in health care teams remains unrealized. In academic settings, dentistry has found ways to collaborate with the other health professions, but most practicing dentists still find themselves on the margins of new models of care delivery. This article provides a perspective on the history and context of the evolution of collaborative approaches to health care and proposes ways in which dentistry can participate more fully in the future.

  11. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naseem; Shah; Nikhil; Bansal; Ajay; Logani

    2014-01-01

    Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools,specially imaging methods, have become mandatory.From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation(brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry.

  12. Plasma rich in growth factors in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Glavina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.

  13. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad; Qasim, Saad; Shahab, Sana; Naseem, Mustafa; AbuReqaiba, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients. PMID:28787967

  14. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Cervantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.

  15. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  16. Health promotion and disease prevention: a look at demand management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    1996-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes employers' efforts to contain health expenditures through demand management programs. These programs are designed to reduce utilization by focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Demand management includes work site health promotion, wellness programs, and access management. Work site health promotion is a comprehensive approach to improving health and includes awareness, health education, behavioral change, and organizational health initiatives. Wellness programs usually include stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, back care, health screenings, nutrition education, work place safety, prenatal and well baby care, CPR and first aid classes, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). These programs are often viewed positively by workers and can have long-term benefits for employers above and beyond health care cost containment. Demand management can benefit employers by increasing productivity, employee retention, and employee morale and by reducing turnover, absenteeism, future medical claims, and ultimately expenditures on health care. Even though a growing number of employers are offering wellness programs, only 37 percent of full-time workers employed in medium and large private establishments were eligible for wellness programs by 1993. However, a recent survey found that 88 percent of major employers have introduced some form of health promotion, disease prevention, or early intervention initiative to encourage healthy lifestyles among their salaried employees. Distinctions must be drawn between short- and long-term strategies. Demand management can be thought of as a short-term strategy when the focus of the program is on creating more appropriate and efficient health care utilization. Disease prevention is characterized by longer-term health improvement objectives. Whether the purpose is to reduce utilization in the short term or in the long term, the ultimate goal remains the same: to reduce health

  17. Bioeconomy analysis in Aesthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dana Tudose

    2015-12-01

    technical report of treatment ( labor - price, average duration, satisfaction, relative to direct restoration techniques versus indirect techniques . In conclusion, SWOT analysis can be successfully applied to a better targeting of treatments, applying a plan lines for management in dental treatment units. None of direct techniques can not fit the bioeconomy principles (saves time, money, dental tissue in the short term. All maneuvers efficient in terms of functional aesthetics dentistry win at time saving and lost tooth structure chapter to the cost issue. In the long run costs can be amortized, especially since the restoration increases predictability.

  18. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Radiation safety, protection and recommendations in dentistry - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, Renita

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. Diagnostic radiology uses ionizing radiations which have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules in biological and other systems. X-rays used in diagnostic radiology are a potent mutagenic agent, capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. X-rays are extensively used in medical and dental practice for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. X-rays provide useful information and aid in diagnosis but at the same time they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry X-rays are used mainly for diagnosis. Radiation in doses required for dentistry may not present any major risks, however these small doses are not necessarily risk free. Hence, no exposure to X-rays can be considered completely free of risk, so the use of radiation by dentists is accompanied by a responsibility to ensure appropriate protection. Several radiation safety measures have been recommended and advocated to reduce harmful effects. Dental professionals are the only practitioners who perform radiographical examination of their patients themselves. Although the exposure used in dentistry is low every effort should be made to reduce radiation in order to prevent the accumulated dose to the dentist in their lifetime. The dose reduction can be achieved in three main steps. They are decision making, optimising radiologic procedures and patient protection. The potential for undesirable effects must be balanced against the benefits obtained from radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel. (author)

  20. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  1. Home visitation programs: an untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I

    2017-02-01

    Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. The potential of socio-psychological models for the development of prevention programs (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of designing prevention programs in health and disease. We note that smoking cessation on the planet would reduce mortality from various types of cancer by 25%, and would also save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people who die each year from heart attacks. Losing weight by only 10% through proper nutrition and exercise would reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease, as well as certain types of cancer. Based on the literature review, we reveal the different types of prevention, show the importance of preventive measures aimed at the patient's immediate environment. Among the main difficulties associated with the development of effective prevention programs we discuss the following: 1 ignoring the psychological mechanisms of behavior change; 2 irrelevance of media broadcast methods in prevention campaigns; 3 the time between the problem behavior and its negative effects on health. We discuss the potential of social influence models for the development of prevention programs in the field of health and disease.

  3. Spreading the word: A process evaluation of a voluntary AOD prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan; D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Research on voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention programs is limited. It is important to increase understanding of students' motivation to attend these types of programs and their tendency to transfer program information to peers. This paper summarizes efforts to evaluate process information for CHOICE, a voluntary after-school AOD prevention program for middle-school youth. A survey administered to 1899 students aged 10-16 in seven schools assessed: (1) why students choose to attend CHOICE (2) barriers to attendance; and (3) how program information is disseminated to non-participants. Frequencies of responses from participants and non-participants were compared. Participants were motivated by several features, most notably, the demeanor of the group leaders and enjoyable curriculum content. Barriers to attendance were primarily logistic, but results also suggest that the promotion message should more effectively emphasize that CHOICE is appropriate for everyone. The majority of students knew about CHOICE, both through advertising and conversations with friends. Non-participants' detailed reports of what they heard from friends corresponded closely with what participants reported sharing. The use of dynamic group leaders is critical to engaging students in voluntary programs. Offering the program on different days of the week or at different times (e.g., before school) may improve attendance rates. Peer networks represent a critical pathway for prevention information that can help increase program impact. These results can be used to inform modifications to existing voluntary after-school AOD prevention programs to obtain higher attendance rates and more widespread dissemination of the intervention message. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. The entrepreneurial role in primary care dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2012-03-09

    This paper explores the entrepreneurial role of dentists in primary care dentistry. It reviews the changing context of dentistry, not least the reforms being introduced by the health and social care bill. It suggests that this new context will reinforce the need to consider the business side of dental practice, in particular, the importance of quality, creativity and innovation, alongside the importance of meeting the needs of patients. An entrepreneurial approach will be required in order to sustain dental practice in an increasingly competitive environment.

  6. Use of low fusing alloy in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A

    1998-11-01

    Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.

  7. Errors in dentistry: a call for apology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barry

    2005-01-01

    Bad outcomes occur in dentistry and sometimes these are the results of dental errors. In both cases, this essay will argue that apologies are very important in maintaining a relationship with the patient that is based on trust and mutual respect. Nevertheless, apologies are often not forthcoming in dentistry for a number of reasons that deserve careful examination. In particular, the dentist's fear that an apology will increase the risk of legal harm will be critiqued. Ethical and psychological reasons for making an apology will be discussed, and strategies to assist clinicians in making an apology will be offered.

  8. The US Air Force suicide prevention program: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kerry L; Pflanz, Steven; Talcott, Gerald W; Campise, Rick L; Lavigne, Jill E; Bajorska, Alina; Tu, Xin; Caine, Eric D

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) in reducing suicide, and we measured the extent to which air force installations implemented the program. We determined the AFSPP's impact on suicide rates in the air force by applying an intervention regression model to data from 1981 through 2008, providing 16 years of data before the program's 1997 launch and 11 years of data after launch. Also, we measured implementation of program components at 2 points in time: during a 2004 increase in suicide rates, and 2 years afterward. Suicide rates in the air force were significantly lower after the AFSPP was launched than before, except during 2004. We also determined that the program was being implemented less rigorously in 2004. The AFSPP effectively prevented suicides in the US Air Force. The long-term effectiveness of this program depends upon extensive implementation and effective monitoring of implementation. Suicides can be reduced through a multilayered, overlapping approach that encompasses key prevention domains and tracks implementation of program activities.

  9. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  10. Impact of a multifaceted community-based falls prevention program on balance-related psychologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène

    2008-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multifaceted falls prevention program including exercise and educational components on perceived balance and balance confidence among community-dwelling seniors. Quasi-experimental design. Community-based organizations. Two hundred community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and over recruited by community-based organizations. A 12-week multifaceted falls prevention program including 3 components (a 1-hour group exercise class held twice a week, a 30-minute home exercise module to be performed at least once a week, a 30-minute educational class held once a week). Perceived balance and balance confidence. Multivariate analysis showed that the program was successful in increasing perceived balance in experimental participants. However, balance confidence was not improved by program participation. A multifaceted community-based falls prevention program that was successful in improving balance performance among community-dwelling seniors also had a positive impact on perceived balance. However, the program did not improve participants' balance confidence. These results suggest that balance confidence has determinants other than balance and that new components and/or modifications of existing components of the program are required to achieve maximal benefits for seniors in terms of physical and psychologic outcomes.

  11. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  12. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Empowerment of Waria Ludruk Artists in AIDS/HIV Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Maimunah Maimunah; Aribowo Aribowo

    2015-01-01

    Waria or transgender is one of the key population which has a significant role in the success of HIV/AIDS prevention program in East Java. It is estimated that the biggest waria community is in East Java, particularly in Surabaya. The main objective of this research is improving capacity building of ludruk artist waria through HIV/AIDS prevention program. The study has two objectives; firstly to find the effective strategies in improving waria’s feminine skills such as knitting, hair dressing...

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  15. Development of a Preventive Maintenance Program for Tooling Used in Powder Slush Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL

    2016-07-19

    ORNL collaborated with Faurecia Interior Systems to investigate the feasibility of developing a thermomagnetic preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling used in powder slush molding. It was found that thermal treatments at temperatures greater than 500°C can anneal strain hardening in nickel tooling and a range of temperatures and times for effective thermal annealing were identified. It was also observed that magnetic fields applied during thermal annealing do not alter the kinetics of strain hardening annealing. The results obtained in this investigation provide a foundation for establishing a preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling.

  16. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  17. Characteristics and effects of suicide prevention programs: comparison between workplace and other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Shima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The present study reviews the literature on suicide prevention programs conducted in the workplace and other settings, namely school, the community, medical facilities, jail, and the army, by conducting an electronic literature search of all articles published between 1967 and November 2007. From a total of 256 articles identified, various contents of suicide prevention programs were determined, and in 34 studies, the effect of programs was evaluated. A review of the literature reveals that the common contents of suicide prevention programs in the workplace and other settings are education and training of individuals, development of a support network, cooperation from internal and external resources, as well as education and training of managers and staff. Although the characteristic contents of suicide prevention programs at the workplace aimed at improving personnel management and health care, screening and care for high-risk individuals, as well as improvement of building structures, were not described. Although a reduction in undesirable attitudes and an increase in mental health knowledge and coping skills in the workplace are in agreement with findings in other settings, suicide rate, suicide-associated behavior, and depression, which were assessed in other settings, were not evaluated in the three studies targeting the workplace.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  19. The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for "Proven" School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Chrismer, Sara Schwartz; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote evidence-based practice, government officials, researchers, and program developers have developed lists of model programs in the prevention field. This article reviews the evidence used by seven best-practice lists to select five model prevention programs. The authors' examination of this research raises questions about the…

  20. IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Jan E; Ramsay, Craig R; Averley, Paul; Bonetti, Debbie; Boyers, Dwayne; Campbell, Louise; Chadwick, Graham R; Duncan, Anne; Elders, Andrew; Gouick, Jill; Hall, Andrew F; Heasman, Lynne; Heasman, Peter A; Hodge, Penny J; Jones, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Background:\\ud Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considere...