Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition
Kensche, A; Reich, M; Kümmerer, K; Hannig, M; Hannig, C
There is still a great demand for the improvement of oral prophylaxis methods. One repeatedly described approach is rinsing with edible oils. The aim of the present review paper was to analyze the role of lipids in bioadhesion and preventive dentistry. Despite limited sound scientific data, extensive literature search was performed to illustrate possible effects of lipids in the oral cavity. It is to be assumed that lipophilic components modulate the process of bioadhesion to the oral hard tissues as well as the composition and ultrastructure of the initial oral biofilm or the pellicle, respectively. Thereby, lipids could add hydrophobic characteristics to the tooth surface hampering bacterial colonization and eventually decreasing caries susceptibility. Also, a lipid-enriched pellicle might be more resistant in case of acid exposure and could therefore reduce the erosive mineral loss. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects on the oral soft tissues were described. However, there is only limited evidence for these beneficial impacts. Neither the lipid composition of saliva and pellicle nor the interactions of lipids with the initial oral biofilm and the pellicle layer have been investigated adequately until now. Edible oils might qualify as mild supplements to conventional strategies for the prevention of caries, erosion, and periodontal diseases but further research is necessary. Against the background of current scientific and empirical knowledge, edible oils might be used as oral hygiene supplements but a decisive benefit for the oral health status is questionable.
Kern, M; Böning, K W; Stark, H; Wolowski, A; Wöstmann, B; Walter, M H
Despite the success in preventing oral diseases, the prevalence of tooth loss in the German population remains high and increases with age. Today, the advances in prosthetic dentistry allow necessary tooth replacement following preventive strategies-after considering benefits and risks. Modern treatment options improve the overall prognosis of the stomatognathic system and the quality of life of the affected patients significantly. Hereby, adverse iatrogenic effects can be minimized or even completely avoided by extending the traditional treatment spectrum, e.g., using adhesively fixed restorations and implant-supported restorations, and refraining from placing restorations that are unnecessary from the medical point of view. Generally, patients benefit greatly from prosthetic treatment and the achieved health gain is remarkably high. It encompasses not only the recovery of the impaired oral functions but also extends to the whole human organism, including nutrition, digestion, musculoskeletal system, as well as mental and social well-being.
Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.
Seno Pradopo; Haryono Utomo
; "> The relationship between oral health and systemic diseases had been abundantly studied, however, mostly were related to adultsuch as cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. Nevertheless, it was still uncommon that oral healthalso related to allergic disease. The field of pediatric dentistry is mostly related to preventive dentistry (i.e. prophylactic procedures,preventive orthodontic etc., but rarely related to preventive medicine such allergy preventio...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from the... College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Caddo Nation of...
... Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The New York University College of Dentistry has completed an inventory... the New York University College of Dentistry. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Port Clarence, Nome County... the human remains was made by New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry...
... University College of Dentistry, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from... College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Alabama-Quassarte...
Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Acuña-Reyes, Raquel; Cigarroa-Martínez, Didier; Ureña-Bogarín, Enrique; Orgaz-Fernández, Jose David
Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish) was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01). Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1) than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8). The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population.
Hinton, Robert J.; Dechow, Paul C.; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; D’Souza, Rena
In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center’s Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry. PMID:21368252
Full Text Available ; "> The relationship between oral health and systemic diseases had been abundantly studied, however, mostly were related to adultsuch as cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. Nevertheless, it was still uncommon that oral healthalso related to allergic disease. The field of pediatric dentistry is mostly related to preventive dentistry (i.e. prophylactic procedures,preventive orthodontic etc., but rarely related to preventive medicine such allergy prevention in children. Allergic diseases develop outof a close interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers, and progress continuously since infancy regarding tothe allergic march. Concerning to the partially developed immunity in children, children are more susceptible to infection and allergicdiseases than adults. Unfortunately, infection and allergic diseases are interrelated; infection impaired allergy and vice versa. Poororal health is closely related to infection; however, improving oral health is not included in allergy management protocol. In order toanticipate the future, dentist or especially pediatric dentist should be able to review about basic children immunity and oral mucosalimmunity. Additionally, it is essential to explain to the parents and medical practitioners who are not familiar to this new paradigm.The objective of this study is to review articles related to children’s oral health and allergic symptoms. Regarding to the successfuloral management of allergic symptoms, the propensity that improving oral health could be included in children’s allergy managementprotocol is likely.
... Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY; Correction AGENCY: National... of human remains under the control of the New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY. The... Dentistry professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Delaware Nation of Oklahoma...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…
Cooper, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to replicate the American Dental Education Association 2007 Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment survey at A Southeastern University, College of Dentistry. The study examined dental faculty perceptions of academic workplace variables including culture and environment, as well as professional development…
Dental professionals are expected to engage in oral disease prevention, but their tools limit the approach to chair side activities based on the common notion that the major dental diseases, dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, are behavioural diseases shaped by individual lifestyles. However, lifestyles also have causes and individual behaviours reflect cultural norms, expectations and opportunities that are socio-economically determined and structurally maintained. Importantly, the effects of the societal and socio-economic determinants reach way above their influences as individual attributes, and effective approaches to the prevention and control of oral diseases are aligned with this causal chain. Unfortunately, the ethos and philosophy of dentistry is focused to a downstream, patient-centred, curative and rehabilitative approach to oral diseases. Whilst such services are needed to care for those who have already suffered the consequences of oral diseases, they do not influence population oral health. A more balanced distribution of efforts and resources along the whole range of intervention points from the downstream curative to the upstream structural healthy policy approaches is required if appropriate, evidence-based, effective, cost-effective, sustainable, equitable, universal, comprehensive and ethical delivery of health care, including oral health care, is the goal. The implementation of healthy policies and sound approaches to population oral health will require substantial commitment and political will on the part of the public and their elected officials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arheiam, Arheiam; Bankia, Ibtesam; Ingafou, Mohamed
A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively). The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%). There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05). This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Full Text Available Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Results: Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively. The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%. There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seeberg, Marcia S; Scarbecz, Mark; Hottel, Timothy L
Communication skills have long been associated with practice success in dentistry. The Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards state that "Graduates must be competent in the application of the fundamental principles of behavioral sciences" and that "Graduates must be competent in managing a diverse patient population and have...interpersonal and communications skills." A recent survey of U.S. dentists found an underutilization of communication skills by general dentists. The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry strives for continuous improvement and has implemented an innovative behavioral science curriculum to improve students' communication skills, consistent with the College's "patient-centered, comprehensive care" philosophy. We describe the design and implementation of our "Patient-Centered Dentistry" course, in which third-year dental students practice communication skills with simulated patients in the Kaplan Clinical Skills Center on the UTHSC campus. The clinical simulations involve the following scenarios: The Initial Interview with a Patient, Presenting a Treatment Plan, Treating Patients with Fear and Anxiety, Interviewing Considerations for Difficult Patients, Delivering Distressing News to Patients, and Coping with a Drug-Seeking Patient. Student simulations were videotaped and assessed by course instructors as well as clinical faculty, and students received immediate feedback by instructors and clinical faculty after their simulations. Students were provided with the opportunity to view their simulation performance and to reflect on their performance in order to recognize their communication strengths as well as areas for improvement. The use of simulation experiences is becoming a widespread and expected practice in health care education. The Patient-Centered Dentistry course provides students with the opportunity to experience the kinds of real-life situations that they would experience in dental practice, without risks to patients
Full Text Available This article of the series Dentistry and Ayurveda describes in brief, the basic principlesand unique concepts involved in Ayurveda namely the concepts of Ama, Ojas, Rasas (tastes-types and the factors affecting the choice of the drug / medicine etc., immunity, etiopathogenesis and prevention of diseases in Ayurveda in general.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…
Oh, S.; Park, Y.B.; Kim, S.; Jin, S.
Nano technology in dentistry has drawn many scientists’ and clinicians’ attention to significant advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of oral disease. Also, nano materials in dentistry have been studied to overcome the physical and chemical characteristics of conventional dental materials. These interesting facts are the motivation of this special issue. The presented issue provides a variety of topics in the field of dentistry such as novel nano filled composite resin, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles deposited on orthodontic bands, the osseointegration of 3D nano scaffold, and nano surface treated implant.
Saltz, Robert F.
Because of concerns regarding drinking among college students and its harmful consequences, numerous prevention efforts have been targeted to this population. These include individual-level and community-level interventions, as well as other measures (e.g., online approaches). Community-level interventions whose effects have been evaluated in college populations include programs that were developed for the community at large as well as programs aimed specifically at college students, such as ...
Shaimaa M. Fouda
Full Text Available The percentage of completely and partially edentulous patients and their prosthetic treatment at the Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences (SDS, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, were investigated. Panoramic radiographs and medical records of adult patients (n=479, mean age 45.9 years, and range 25–96 years treated in 2011–2014 were examined. 6% of the patients were completely edentulous, 8% had single jaw edentulousness, and 74% were partially edentulous. Edentulousness was significantly correlated with age and the number of missing teeth was significantly higher among males (p<0.026. Diabetes was significantly associated with complete edentulousness, single edentulous jaw (p value 0.015, and partial edentulousness (p value 0.023. Kennedy class III was the most frequent class of partial edentulousness in single and/or both jaws (p=0.000. Patients having class I and/or class II were treated most often with removable partial dentures (RPD (p=0.000, while patients having class III were treated with fixed partial dentures (FPD. It was found that complete edentulousness increases in older age and the number of missing teeth was significantly higher among males. Kennedy class III was most common in both upper and lower jaw and was treated more often with FPD than with RPD.
Batool H. Al-Ghurabi
Full Text Available Background: Mobiles have become one of the most indispensable accessories of profession and social life. The mobiles make life easier, but they pose a number of new hazards also. Objectives: The principle aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination of mobile phones belonging to dentists in College of Dentistry in Baghdad University. Materials and Methods: 35 dentists (20 female and 15 male were enrolled in this study. Sampling was taken from each participant’s mobile by using moist sterile swab impregnated by normal saline for microbial analyses. Results: The findings of this study revealed that the growth of microorganisms has found in all samples taken from the mobile phones of dentists. The most common microorganisms detected were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus spp., Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. On the other hand, there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence between mobile phones for male and female. Concussions: The current results indicated that mobile phones can serve as a vector for crosstransmission of community-acquired pathogenic organisms for human.
... remains were catalogued into the collection of the Department of Physical Anthropology, Museum of the... of Dentistry have determined that: Based on catalog information and forensic examination, the human...
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio
Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day
Simone De Sio
Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each
Dehghan, Mojdeh; Harrison, Janet; Langham, Sue; Scarbecz, Mark; Amini, Mehdi
In summer 2012, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry transitioned from a departmental clinical education model to a comprehensive care/group leader model. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of the fourth-year class of dental students who, because the transition took place during their training, had experienced treating patients under both educational models. To achieve this objective, a questionnaire was designed to assess the students' opinions on the efficiency of their effort, availability of specialty faculty, stress, collaboration with classmates, and availability of exposure to different practice styles and techniques under the two systems. The students were also given an opportunity to provide open-ended feedback on the shortcomings and advantages of the systems. The Class of 2013 had 81 students, 55 of whom participated in the survey for a response rate of 67.9%. The majority (86%) of the respondents preferred the comprehensive care model and reported feeling that, in it, they were able to accomplish more comprehensive dentistry with greater consistency of supervision from faculty in a more patient-centered environment than in the departmental model. However, 56 percent considered having the same group leader for two years a disadvantage and recommended rotation of at least one group leader every six months. The results of this survey can help this college and other dental schools that are seeking to optimize their educational model to best serve students' educational experience and the dental needs of their patient population.
Mustafa, A B
An impacted tooth is one which fails to reach the occlusal plane even after two-third's of its root completion. Though the etiology is multi-factorial, most common reason is crowding of teeth with lack of space for eruption. Mandibular third molars are the most commonly impacted teeth. Very few studies have been done to assess the prevalence of impacted premolar teeth. This study had been undertaken at College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to report the prevalence of impacted premolar teeth and its relation to age group and gender. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18-45 years who had presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. All panoramic radiographs were taken with standardized equipment and specifications. The study sample comprised of 3800 panoramic radiographs. A total of 45 impacted premolar teeth were identified (1.2%) (P = 0.89). The male to female ratio with impacted premolars was 35:10 (3.5:1). Age Group 1 (i.e., 20-25 years) had the highest prevalence of premolar tooth impaction (75.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Of the 45 impacted premolars, mandibular premolars were most commonly encountered (75.6%), followed by impacted teeth in the mandibular arch (24.4%). The ratio of mandibular to maxillary third molar impaction was 3:1. (1) The prevalence of impacted premolar teeth is more in mandibular arch than in the maxillary arch, (2) females had higher prevalence of impacted teeth than men, (3) age group 25-30 years had high rate of prevalence of impacted premolars.
Full Text Available Edentulism is the major problem in the developing countries, and is widely spread in the current population, although the prevalence is declining and incidence of tooth loss is decreasing in the developed nations. The prevalence of edentulism in India varies from 60% to 69% of 25 years and above age group. It is obvious that the number of lost teeth increases with age leading to an increase in prevalence of partially edentulous patients. From a biological point of view, the replacement of a single missing tooth with an implant rather than a three-unit fixed partial denture, and the implant-supported complete denture has been proved more efficient in improving the mastication and maintaining the bone for a longer time and also more cost-effective treatment. Many dental schools throughout Europe and America have to a various extent introduced implant dentistry as part of the compulsory undergraduate curriculum. Thus, it becomes more essential to introduce implant dentistry at undergraduate level in Indian dental schools to manage the higher percentage of edentulism.
McCann, Ann L; Lacy, Ernestine S; Miller, Barbara H
A study was conducted at Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry (TAMBCD) in fall 2011 to identify the reasons underrepresented minority (URM) students chose to attend TAMBCD, the factors that supported their success as enrolled students, and their perceptions of the institution's cultural climate. A survey distributed online to all URM students received a 79 percent response rate (129/164). The respondents were primarily Hispanic (62 percent Mexican American and other Hispanic) and African American (33 percent) and had attended a college pipeline program (53 percent). The top reasons these students chose TAMBCD were reputation, location, and automatic acceptance or familiarity from being in a predental program. Alumni had most influenced them to attend. Regarding support services, the largest percentage reported not using any (44 percent); personal advising and tutoring were reported to be the most commonly used. In terms of climate, discrimination was reported by 22 percent (n=29), mostly from classmates and clinical faculty. The majority (87 percent) reported their cultural competence program was "effective" and agreed that faculty (83 percent), staff (85 percent), and students (75 percent) were culturally competent. Overall, the students were "satisfied" with how they were treated (88 percent), their education (91 percent), and the services/resources (92 percent). This information is being used to continue to improve the school's cultural climate and to conduct a broader assessment of all students.
Al-Amri, Mohammad; Al-Madi, Ebtissam; Sadig, Walid Mahmoud; Ahmedani, Muhammad Shoaib; Salameh, Ziad
To determine the effect of different enabling factors such as curriculum, role of faculty, academic advising and availability of learning resources and supportive services on the performance of students pursuing their Bachelor's degree in dentistry. Data was collected from the male and female students of the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, during the academic year 2008-2009. All undergraduate students (576) constituted the total sample size of the study. The respondents were requested to fill a questionnaire form, which was specially designed in accordance with requirements of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE). The questionnaire comprised 45 questions addressing all aspects of the relevant factors. The five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the feedback. All the responses (239) were thoroughly examined and only the completely filled forms (169) were subjected to regression analyses, taking student's CGPA as a dependent factor and a depiction of their performance. The t-tests were also worked out to evaluate variations in the responses of male and female students to each sub-factor. The study showed a significant impact of faculty and learning resources and support services on a student's achievement (alpha = 0.05). Surprisingly, academic advising and the dental curriculum had non-significant effect at 95% level of confidence. However, the critical analyses acknowledged that the non-significant impact was due to poor performance of the two factors. The role of faculty and learning resources as well as of support services had significant effect on students' performance. However, there is an immense need to improve the level of academic advising and revise the curriculum to have a significant impact of these factors on the student's achievements.
McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie
Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…
Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V
We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.
O'Sullivan, E; Milosevic, A
This revised Clinical Guideline in Paediatric Dentistry replaces the previously published ninth guideline (Shaw L, O'Sullivan E. Int J Paediatr Dent 2000; 10: 356-365). The process of guideline production began in 1994, resulting in first publication in 1997. Each guideline has been circulated widely for consultation to all UK consultants in paediatric dentistry, council members of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry (BSPD), and to people of related specialities recognized to have expertise in the subject. The final version of this guideline is produced from a combination of this input and thorough review of the published literature. In the case of the present guideline, an internationally recognized expert in the field was invited to be a co-author (AM). The intention is to encourage improvement in clinical practice and to stimulate research and clinical audit in areas where scientific evidence is inadequate. Evidence underlying recommendations is scored according to the SIGN classification and guidelines should be read in this context. Further details regarding the process of paediatric dentistry guideline production in the UK is described in the Int J Paediatr Dent 1997; 7: 267-268.
Odom, Kate L.
As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…
Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.
If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...
Habel, Melissa A.; Becasen, Jeffrey S.; Kachur, Rachel; Eastman-Mueller, Heather; Dittus, Patricia J.
As increased attention and proposed funding are being directed toward community colleges, it is important to consider the sexual and reproductive health care needs of this growing population. Existing data suggest there are significant sexual health needs among this population and often insufficient provision of services. Some community college…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…
Clarkson, J.; Watt, R.G.; Rugg-Gunn, A.J.; Pitiphat, W.; Ettinger, R.L.; Horowitz, A.M.; Petersen, P.E.; ten Cate, J.M.; Vianna, R.; Ferillo, P.; Gugushe, T.S.; Siriphant, P.; Pine, C.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Levy, S.; Chankanka, O.; Maki, Y.; Postma, T.C.; Villena, R.S.; Wang, W.J.; MacEntee, M.I.; Shinsho, F.; Cal, E.; Rudd, R.E.; Schou, L.; Shin, S.C.; Fox, C.H.
Background of the congress: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) hosted the 9 th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD) in Phuket, Thailand in September, 2009. Previous WCPD’s have been held approximately once every four years and are held in different parts of the world
Clarkson, J; Watt, R G; Rugg-Gunn, A J
Information is presented about the 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry which was hosted by the International Association for Dental Research in Phuket, Thailand on September 7-10, 2009. The conference's theme, "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All...
Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…
Gruythuysen, R J M; van Strijp, A J P
Non-Restorative Cavity Treatment (NRCT) is not as popular in paediatric dentistry as it should be. Substantial quantitative and qualitative evidence concerning the treatment has now been published that testifies to the success of the treatment. Some healthcare providers apply the method successfully, while others have no trust in this non-invasive cavity treatment and continue to favour the restoration of carious lesions. Reasons given for this are, among others, that NRCT is too bothersome, the patient's (or the patient's parents') compliance is low and the reimbursement is inadequate. Children, however, benefit from oral healthcare providers who take the position that a child has a right to an etiological treatment that addresses the source of the caries process and that NRCT offers a uniquely viable treatment option for this purpose. This approach fits within the parameters established by professional ethics and the law. Apart from oral healthcare providers, all agencies involved in the profession and beyond have the moral and social obligation to do justice to the implied question of the child regarding this shift in oral healthcare.
Takushi, Ruby Y; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Marlatt, G Alan
This research provides a brief qualitative description of the development of an indicated prevention intervention for college student gamblers. The proposed intervention integrates alcohol prevention strategies with elements of gambling treatment. The intervention combines cognitive-behavioral skills-training and motivational interviewing and includes personalized normative feedback, cognitive correction, discussion of gambling consequences, and relapse prevention techniques. Examples detailing all phases of the intervention are provided from interviews conducted in a pilot of the intervention. Preliminary pilot data suggests the intervention shows promise in reducing high risk gambling among college students.
Full Text Available “Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.
“Biomimetics” is the field of science that uses the natural system of synthesizing materials through biomimicry. This method can be widely used in dentistry for regeneration of dental structures and replacement of lost dental tissues. This is a review paper that states its scope, history, different fields of biomimetic dentistry, and its future conditions in India.
Sartorio, F; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Vercelli, S; Odescalchi, L; Augusti, D; Migliario, M
In dental professionals the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) can be minimized through a combination of prevention, ergonomic strategies, and specific therapeutic programs. Prevention includes early identification of symptoms, analysis of working posture and activity, and the evaluation of equipment (such as dental instruments, position of the dental unit, patient and operator chairs, and lighting). The ergonomic strategies are based on identifying the best daily timetable (including periodic pauses) and most efficient team organization, as well as establishing the correct position that should be held at the patient chair. Finally specific therapeutic programs are very important in preventing or treating WMSD. In fact, fitness exercises such as mobilization, stretching or muscular and cardiovascular training are recognized as fundamental for dental professionals, and when WMSD occurs physiatric care and physical therapy are recommended.
Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...
Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.
US Department of Education, 2008
In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…
Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…
The college library is a place where it gets the comparatively high density of students often staying long time with it. Therefore, the indoor air quality will affect directly reading effect and physical health of teachers and students in colleges and universities. The paper analyzes the influenced factors in indoor air pollution of the library from the selection of green-environmental decorating materials and furniture, good ventilation maintaining, electromagnetic radiation reducing, regular disinfection, indoor green building and awareness of health and environmental protection strengthening etc. six aspects to put forward the ideas for preventions of indoor air pollution and construction of the green low-carbon library.
Chandler-Coley, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy
Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis using NVivo software was performed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as (a) social media; (b) mirror image; (c) visually dynamic advertisements; (d) the real world; (e) people, place, things; and (f) HIV knowledge. Visually stimulating content (i.e., graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audiovisual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should use recognizable voices (e.g., celebrities). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and closed circuit social media platforms.
Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S
On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.
Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were ...
Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum
The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…
At the time of settlement and in the years leading up to the establishment in 1884 of the Odontological Society of Victoria, dentistry was an unregulated activity practised simultaneously by those that had received the best apprenticeship training and those that had no training what-so-ever. Under the influence of dentists such as John Iliffe however, this situation was soon to change. In 1887 the first Dental Act was passed making it a legal requirement for anyone practicing dentistry to be registered. In 1890, the Melbourne Dental Hospital opened its doors to its first patients, and in 1897, the Australian College of Dentistry, later to become a school within the University of Melbourne, began teaching a dental course. Combined, these three moments in history lead to the eradication of the unscrupulous practitioner and laid the path for the development and professionalization of dentistry in the state of Victoria.
Chandler, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy
Media messages can facilitate delivery of accurate HIV/STI-related information. This study’s purpose was to examine pre-existing media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age, gender, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend HBCUs. In three separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age=20) viewed four vignettes and heard three audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction of HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis, using NVivo software, was employed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as: 1) Social media; 2) Mirror Image; 3) Visually dynamic Advertisements; 4) The Real World; 5) People, Place, Things; and 6) HIV Knowledge. Visually-stimulating content (i.e. graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audio-visual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should employ recognizable voices (e.g. celebrity). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and close circuited social media platforms. PMID:28098500
Fernández Rodríguez, María Del C; Huertas, Ivonne Bayron
Described by Durkheim (1966) as the crudest expression of the social phenomena, suicide is of interest to clinicians, academics and researchers. Within the academic context, this issue has to be addressed and prevented. We are interested in sharing the process of participative action that led to the creation of a Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) for college students. Based on knowledge that was generated through a collaborative effort among all sectors of the academic community, we developed a prevention campaign that is culturally sensitive to our university's environment. This campaign is directed towards overcoming the stigma of seeking help and is characterized by promoting a sense of wellbeing in a holistic manner, paying attention not only to the individual, but also to elements of their sociocultural environment.
Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056
Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force.
Khawaja, Naveed Ahmad; Khalil, Hesham; Parveen, Kauser; Al-Mutiri, Abdulmajeed; Al-Mutiri, Saif; Al-Saawi, Abdullah
Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of pathological conditions around third molar teeth among randomly selected patient’s records in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. Materials and Methods: Totally, 281 patient panoramic radiographs were selected with detectable pathology among 570 files of patients seen in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics 2 years retrospectively. Almost 17-55 years age (mean age 25.43) was selected. The following radiographs were analyzed for all pathology associated impacted teeth; dental caries, bone resorption, periodontitis, and apical pathology. Results: The study found caries, external bone resorption and periodontitis are highly frequent to mesioangular and horizontal in mandibular impacted third molar compared to maxillary impacted third molar. Overall result evaluated that tooth #28 related periodontitis is significant (P = 0.021), and tooth #38 related bone resorption, tooth #48 related root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology are highly significant (P = 0.000) comparing to others. This study also concluded the high frequency of root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology reported in relation to mandibular impacted third teeth. Significant results were also achieved with periodontitis in relation to mesiangular and vertical angulation of left impacted maxillary third molars. Conclusion: Prophylactic removal of impacted third molars is recommended in many studies to avoid future risk of associated pathology. Retained asymptomatic impacted third molars imply pathology that could be difficult in later ages as less morbidity in younger ages. PMID:25954064
Saleha Shah, B.D.S, MClinDent Paediatric Dentistry (UK)
Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of ...
Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...
Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; van Genuchten, M.; Wismeijer, D.
Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry,
Saleha Shah, B.D.S, MClinDent Paediatric Dentistry (UK
Full Text Available Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry. The skills apply to the ever-changing stages of dental, physical, and psychosocial development for treating conditions and diseases distinctive to growing individuals. Hence with the changing scope of practice it is imperative that the clinician stays updated with the current evidence based trends in practice, collaborates with other disciplines and Imparts quality oral health care tailored to the specific needs of every child.
Pediatric dentistry provides primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care for infants and children through adolescence, together with special health care needs. This specialty encompasses a variety of skills, disciplines, procedures and techniques that share a common origin with other dental specialties however these have been modified and reformed to the distinctive requirements of infants, children, adolescents and special health care needs. Disciplines comprise of behavior guidance, care of the medically and developmentally compromised and disabled patient, supervision of orofacial growth and development, caries prevention, sedation, pharmacological management, and hospital dentistry including other traditional fields of dentistry. The skills apply to the ever-changing stages of dental, physical, and psychosocial development for treating conditions and diseases distinctive to growing individuals. Hence with the changing scope of practice it is imperative that the clinician stays updated with the current evidence based trends in practice, collaborates with other disciplines and Imparts quality oral health care tailored to the specific needs of every child.
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (preduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) pr...
Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for college students; annually approximately 1,100 students in institutions of higher education die by suicide. However, most research related to college student suicide was conducted using the sample of 4-year institutions. Community colleges have seldom been included in the sample of suicide research…
Jung, John R.
Two influential formulations concerning college alcohol problems emphasize seemingly conflicting views about the magnitude of college alcohol abuse. One view insists that binge drinking is pervasive and shows no sign of decline. The other is based on the result from the College Alcohol Survey (CAS) which showed that just under half (44%) of…
Buchanan, Jenna L
The National Institute of Mental Health recommends that interventions be designed to prevent the onset of clinical depression in at-risk groups. College students are included in those groups identified as at risk. This article reports on 16 U.S. clinical trials, conducted with samples of college-aged students between 1987 and 2011, to identify effective depression-prevention strategies. Recommendations from the review of these studies include additional research to determine prevention strategies for the college student population and the use of evidence-based prevention strategies in nursing practice to improve the quality of life for this at-risk population. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fuentealba, Rodrigo; Jofré, Jorge
The definition of failure for dental implants has evolved from lack of osseointegration to increased concern for other aspects, such as esthetics. However, esthetic failure in implant dentistry has not been well defined. Although multiple esthetic indices have been validated for objectively evaluating clinical outcomes, including failure of an implant-supported crown, only one author has determined a failure threshold. On the basis of objective indices, esthetic failures in implant dentistry can be categorized as pink-tissue failures and white-tissue failures. This article discusses esthetic failures, the factors involved in these failures, and their prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Roudebush, Philip; Logan, Ellen; Hale, Fraser A
Successful treatment and prevention of periodontal disease in pet animals requires a multidimensional approach to identify and eliminate exacerbating factors, provide scheduled professional examinations and care, and plan and implement a dental homecare program. Over the years, many therapeutic and preventive interventions have been developed or advocated for periodontal disease, but evidence of efficacy or effectiveness is highly variable. Accordingly, the main objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the evidence supporting various aspects of homecare for prevention of canine and feline periodontal disease.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2009
Alcohol is all too often seen as an accepted part of college life, but there are programs that can significantly reduce students' risky drinking, according to a series of studies in a special college drinking supplement of the "Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs." Fourteen studies detail results of projects funded by the National…
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Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
According to the American Psychiatric Association, college can be an exciting time, though for some it can be overwhelming and stressful. Depression, anxiety, substance use, and eating disorders are common mental health issues on college campuses. The 2010 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment found that 28 percent…
Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…
Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Bayne, Hannah B.; Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Smith Myers, Jayne
Relationship violence is a salient concern on college campuses today, and psychoeducational groups may be an appropriate prevention format. This article describes a study measuring the impact of college student participation in the HEART (Help End Abusive Relationships Today) program, a series of group sessions designed to increase knowledge and…
Jewett, Amy; Bell, Teal; Cohen, Nicole J.; Buckley, Kirsten; Leino, E. Victor; Even, Susan; Beavers, Suzanne; Brown, Clive; Marano, Nina
Objective: Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the US college student health screening requirements among US resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases…
Hingson, Ralph W.
In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from...
Cristiane Rufino Macedo
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines are suggestions for clinical practice based on the best available scientific evidence. Nevertheless, in drafting such guidelines, existing systematic reviews are often ignored and are replaced by general consensuses. This ends up compromising the quality of the instructions through bias. Our objective was to investigate whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present among the bibliographic references of prevention and treatment guidelines for dentistry that have been published in databases. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective, observational study was conducted at the Brazilian Cochrane Center. METHODS: The databases were searched for guidelines. Any guidelines obtained were then checked to find whether Cochrane systematic reviews were present in the bibliographic references of the guidelines. In their absence, we checked whether such reviews had not been included because no reviews existed yet, or because such reviews had not been consulted despite already existing. RESULTS: 223 studies were initially selected; of these, 77 were excluded. Of the 146 guidelines included, 46 could have made reference to existing systematic reviews, but only 13 studies did so. Among these 13 studies, eight were systematic reviews following Cochrane methodology. Thirty-three guidelines had not been drafted using published systematic reviews as references, and 100 guidelines had been unable to use Cochrane references because no reviews existed yet. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to increase awareness of the importance of using systematic reviews in drafting dentistry guidelines. Likewise, it is necessary to develop systematic reviews that answer questions on the various topics that remain unanswered.
Hanes, Carole M.
Methods of assessing the general goals for the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry are discussed. Goals are: (1) to prepare dentists to provide comprehensive dental care for the pediatric patient; (2) to create positive attitudes toward pediatric dentistry; (3) to encourage students to seek to…
Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.
The technology in dentistry has been developed significantly lately, increasing the technological level of new materials, methods and equipment have been developed. Undoubtedly the CO2 laser has contributed to this evolution particular to the treatment of the infected dentin. CO2 laser can sterilize and promote increase 6 to 8 times of dentin resistance, through the transformation the hydroxyapatite in calcium-phosphato-hydroxyapatite. We can reassure our patients about the use of pulsed CO2 laser due to better preservation of dental structure and its benefits permitting advanced esthetic treatments. The CEREC system, registers a tri-dimensional image of the preparation through a scan system, and sends it to the computer and the operator will edit the restorations so the equipment will finish porcelain restoration. The authors used a new laser 650 nm for caries detection and the other low lever laser (670 nm and 730 nm) considered an auxiliary method to prevent and treat the hypersensitivity in dentin.
Morrill, Weston H.; Hurst, James C.
Morrill and Hurst present their new role of the college counselor in the university setting. They discuss the rationale for an "outreach" model and see the counseling psychologist as an "architect" of an effective learning environment, rather than an individual overwhelmed with the "casualties of ineffective environments and behavioral deficits."…
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Keating, Niki L.
This study assesses short-term and long-term learning outcomes of Question, Persuade, Refer (QPR) suicide prevention training in a college setting. Two hundred seventy-three participants completed pretest, posttest, and follow-up surveys regarding suicide prevention knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results indicated: (a) increases in suicide…
Larimer, Mary E.; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Fabiano, Patricia M.; Stark, Christopher B.; Geisner, Irene M.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Feeney, Maggie; Neighbors, Clayton
The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a mailed feedback and tips intervention as a universal prevention strategy for college drinking. Participants (N = 1,488) were randomly assigned to feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Results indicated that the mailed feedback intervention had a preventive effect on drinking…
Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.
Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.
The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a
Hollanders, A.C.C.; Kuper, N.K.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
Secondary caries is reported as one of the most important reasons for replacing restorations. The patient's general caries risk plays an important role in the development of secondary caries. The connection, at the patient level, between various factors, the risk of caries and restoration factors,
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Hobson, Charles J.; Guziewicz, Jennifer
Reports on a survey concerning thirteen recommended sexual harassment preventive/protective practices at U.S. colleges and universities. A majority of responding institutions had formal sexual harassment policies, offered counseling to student victims, and investigated all complaints. Relatively fewer schools provided student access to faculty…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…
Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.
Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…
Daniels-Witt, Quri; Thompson, Amy; Glassman, Tavis; Federman, Sara; Bott, Katie
Opiate abuse in the United States is on the rise among the college student population. This public health crisis requires immediate action from professionals and stakeholders who are committed to addressing the needs of prospective, current, and recovering opiate users using comprehensive prevention methods. Such approaches have been used to…
American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2013
The epicenter for bullying is schools, colleges, and universities, where vast numbers of children, youth, and young adults spend much of their time. Bullying--a form of harassment and violence--needs to be understood from a developmental, social, and educational perspective. The educational settings in which it occurs, and where prevention and…
Harding, Frances M.; Connor, Leslie S.
This manual is designed to respond to the growing interest among colleges in technical assistance for dealing with alcohol-related problems. Part One provides an overview of the dimensions of alcohol related problems and delves into the causes and prevention of alcohol problems. It outlines the Public Health Model approach to dealing with alcohol…
Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran
Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this
Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.
Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…
Khan, Farhan Raza; Mahmud, Sadia; Rahman, Munawar
In the last decade, a rapid increase has been observed in the number of dentists due to establishment of a number of dental colleges in Pakistan. Very few of these institutions have Paediatric Dentistry Department. Similarly, no postgraduate Paediatric Dentistry training program exists in the two major provinces of the country. The objectives of this study were to map the pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the clinicians in teaching institutions and private practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted at dental departments of academic institutions and selected dental practices in Karachi. There was a statistically significant difference in preferences, selection of dental materials and pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the teaching dentists compared to the private practitioners. Both the teaching and non-teaching dentists need to update themselves in the provision of Paediatric Dentistry services such as fluoride application and fissure sealant placement.
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude towards preventive dentistry among dental faculties in Jammu city. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on all the dental faculty members (n=64) of the two dental colleges in Jammu city using pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information regarding ...
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Similar to Medicine, digital communication, information processing, and x-ray imaging have changed the face of dentistry. The incorporation of digital systems into medical and dental practice has necessitated development of a standard that allows reliable transmission of information between the devices taking the images, devices storing the images, and devices displaying the images. This standard is termed as DICOM. The following article briefly reviews how DICOM came about, how dentistry is ...
Chambers, David W
Digital communication offers advantages and challenges to dental practice. As dentistry becomes comfortable with this technology, it is essential that commercial and other values not be accepted on a par with professional ones and that the traditional dentist-patient relationship not be compromised by inserting third parties that introduce nonprofessional standards. The Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentist have prepared this background and position paper as a guide to the ethical use of digital communication in dental practice.
Rezende, Taia M B; Lima, Stella M F; Petriz, Bernardo A; Silva, Osmar N; Freire, Mirna S; Franco, Octávio L
Despite all the dental information acquired over centuries and the importance of proteome research, the cross-link between these two areas only emerged around mid-nineties. Proteomic tools can help dentistry in the identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, prevention, and systematic control that will promote the evolution of treatment in all dentistry specialties. This review mainly focuses on the evolution of dentistry in different specialties based on proteomic research and how these tools can improve knowledge in dentistry. The subjects covered are an overview of proteomics in dentistry, specific information on different fields in dentistry (dental structure, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral pathology, oral surgery, and orthodontics) and future directions. There are many new proteomic technologies that have never been used in dentistry studies and some dentistry areas that have never been explored by proteomic tools. It is expected that a greater integration of these areas will help to understand what is still unknown in oral health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie
To estimate current consumption of whole grains in college students and determine whether there would be an increase in whole-grain consumption after the students completed an interactive introductory nutrition course focusing on disease prevention. Eighty college students, 18-24 years old, participated in the study. Grain and whole-grain consumption, whole-grain food sources, and energy intake were measured before and after the nutrition course. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed. After the study, whole-grain intake significantly increased from 0.37 ounces (oz) to 1.16 oz (P < .001), whereas total grain intake remained the same (3.07 oz). The number of whole-grain food sources increased from 7 to 11 food items after the intervention. A general nutrition course can be used as an avenue to increase whole-grain intake by college students. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J
Traditional curricula of pediatric dental residency programs have overemphasized restorative dentistry while failing to give adequate attention to early diagnosis, preventive disease management, risk assessment, cultural competency, advocacy, community partnerships and interprofessional education. The University of California, Los Angeles, Community Health and Advocacy Training Program in Pediatric Dentistry emphasizes these lesser-taught areas, integrating them within a structured education in classical restorative techniques and Commission on Dental Accreditation-approved standards, providing a diverse curriculum and preparing residents for practice in increasingly diverse communities.
Elliott, Jennifer C; Carey, Kate B
College students have high rates of marijuana initiation and use, and they report exaggerated perceptions of peers' use. Computerized norm-correcting intervention programs have been developed, but minimal efficacy research has been conducted, especially with regard to preventing the onset of marijuana use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Marijuana eCHECKUP TO GO (e-TOKE) for Universities & Colleges program in (a) correcting descriptive norms, (b) correcting injunctive norms, and (c) preventing initiation of marijuana use in a group of college-age abstainers. Participants were 245 college students (73% female) recruited from psychology courses for course credit who reported no marijuana use in the past month at baseline. Participants were randomized to receive the e-TOKE program or assessment only. All participants reported on marijuana use, descriptive norms, and injunctive norms 1 month later. Participants receiving the e-TOKE program estimated lower descriptive norms than the control group (p marijuana use as well as making them perceive less disapproval for their abstention. However, more research with longer follow-ups is necessary to determine if changes in norms affect initiation rates over time.
Savage, Jeanne E; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung Bin; Hancock, Linda; Kalmijn, Jelger A; Smith, Tom L; Schuckit, Marc A; Donovan, Kristen Kidd; Dick, Danielle M
Heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol problems among college students are widespread and associated with negative outcomes for individuals and communities. Although current methods for prevention and intervention programming have some demonstrated efficacy, heavy drinking remains a problem. A previous pilot study and a recent large-scale evaluation (Schuckit et al., , ) found that a tailored prevention program based on a risk factor for heavy drinking, low level of response (low LR) to alcohol, was more effective at reducing heavy drinking than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) standard prevention program for individuals with the low LR risk factor. This study enrolled 231 first-semester college freshmen with either high or low LR into the same level of response-based (LRB) or SOTA online prevention programs as in the previous reports (consisting of 4 weeks of video modules), as well as a group of matched controls not receiving alcohol prevention, and compared changes in alcohol use between these groups across a 6-month period. Individuals in alcohol prevention programs had a greater reduction in maximum drinks per occasion and alcohol use disorder symptoms than controls. There was limited evidence for interactions between LR and prevention group in predicting change in alcohol use behaviors; only among participants with strict adherence to the program was there an interaction between LR and program in predicting maximum drinks per occasion. However, overall, low LR individuals showed greater decreases in drinking behaviors, especially risky behaviors (e.g., maximum drinks, frequency of heavy drinking) than high LR individuals. These results indicate that prevention programs, including brief and relatively inexpensive web-based programs, may be effective for persons at highest risk for heavier drinking, such as those with a low LR. Tailored programs may provide incremental benefits under some conditions. Long-term follow-ups and further investigations of tailored
Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.
Caprioglio, C; Olivi, G; Genovese, M D
Knowledge of the physical characteristics of different laser lights and optical and thermal properties of oral tissues is very important to understand the interaction of dental lasers with biological tissues. Choosing the correct dental laser is crucial to match specific wavelengths with target chromophores of different tissues; this affinity makes laser irradiation selective and therefore minimally invasive. Various types of lasers are used in dentistry, offering a viable alternative to low and high-speed handpieces and surgical blades, and also minimising fear and discomfort of the patient. Lasers can provide innovative and minimally invasive therapies in different branches of dentistry including preventive and restorative dentistry, traumatic injury treatments and surgical procedures. Laser has also biostimulating and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as analgesic effect.
Paulo Vinícius Soares
Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort.
Reid, Kevin I
A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.
Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.
Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…
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Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jin; Chung, Kyong-Mee
An A-B-A design was adopted to test the effectiveness of different types of contingency-nonspecific stimuli in the prevention of bathroom graffiti in a college setting. The three stimuli examined in this study have been frequently used to prevent bathroom graffiti in South Korea and they were: (a) "Please do not write, draw, or mark on these walls;" (b) a mirror; and (c) "Courteous people keep public places clean." No graffiti was observed when the first and second stimuli were presented. In contrast, a notable increase in bathroom graffiti was observed when the third sign was presented. The results suggest that a contingency non-specific stimuli posting intervention can be effective in the prevention of bathroom graffiti only when appropriate stimuli are used. The practical implications, including cost-effectiveness, are discussed.
Yoon, Richard K; Best, Jed M
This article addresses advances in 4 key areas related to pediatric dentistry: (1) caries detection tools, (2) early interventions to arrest disease progression, (3) caries-risk assessment tools, and (4) trends in pediatric procedures and dental materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.
Nogay, Nalan Hakime; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Sert, Havva; Kurtulus, Zeynep; Gedik, Selda
This descriptive study was made to evaluate the dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention of 319 health college students. Data collection form included questions about demographic characteristics and 33 statements which evaluate dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention. Among the students, 56.1% consumed fast food outside the home/dormitory twice a week or more and 47% never exercised. Moreover, 63.9% of the students reported that their dietary habits changed negatively and 69% stated that their fruit and vegetable consumption decreased after starting the health college. The students mostly paid attention to preserving food and water consumption while they paid least attention to maintaining healthy weight and whole grain consumption. Female students, those who paid attention to the amount and calorie of the food they consumed, students who did not consume fast food, and students who exercised twice a week or three times a week had better dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention (pstudents should be implemented. For this purpose, appropriate conditions for preparing and preserving healthy food should be provided as well as increasing the frequency of vegetable containing meals and providing fruits and salads in every meal at school cafeterias.
Fernanda Salloume Sampaio Bonafé
Full Text Available AimTo estimate the contribution of social support and demographic factors in the development of burnout syndrome in dentistry students.MethodA total of 169 Brazilian students participated via internet. For identification of the syndrome, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS. Social support was assessed by the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS. The validity and reliability of the instruments were estimated. To check the effect of variables on burnout syndrome, linear regression using structural equation modelling (SEM was performed to estimate causal trajectories (β.ResultsThe participants’ mean average age was 21.6 (SD = 3.3 years, 64.5% were female and 59.2% were enrolled in private schools. An appropriate adjustment of the instruments’ factor models to sample was observed (MBI-SS: χ²/df = 2.173, CFI = .943; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .084; ESSS: χ²/df = 2.378, CFI = .904; GFI = .888; RMSEA = .091. The reliability of the scales was adequate (MBI-SS: α = .799-.903; ESSS: α = .653-.799. The model explained 33% of the variation of burnout with a significant contribution of social support (ESSS (β = -.136, p = .042, gender (β = -.186, p = .005, housing (β = .124, p = .050, student performance in the course (β = -.293, p ≤ .001 and the thought of quitting the course (β = .333, p ≤ .001.ConclusionSocial support and demographic variables may play an important role in the burnout syndrome and therefore should be considered when implementing preventive actions and/or interventions (self-help or guided in college students.
Gillum, Tameka L
Research is clear that violence against college women is a problem that warrants alternative prevention approaches to addressing and reducing its prevalence and creating safer campuses for women and men. Banyard's presentation gave us food for thought as we consider what such novel approaches may look like. New and innovative approaches that are multifaceted, comprehensive, and informed by theory are key. The ecological model can inform our understanding of the issue, the risk and protective factors associated, and the design and implementation of prevention efforts. It is critically important to engage college students in these efforts to create interventions that are culturally appropriate for college students. We must also meet students where they are, utilizing social marketing campaigns and capitalizing on social media and the use of communication technologies. Together, such efforts will facilitate our ultimate goal of reducing, if not eliminating, violence against women on college campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.
This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and…
Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody
Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…
Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie
College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.
Geisner, Irene Markman; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.
Objective This research evaluated a brief mailed intervention for alcohol use as an adjunct to a brief depression treatment for college students with depression symptoms. The intervention aimed to correct normative misperceptions and reduce students’ drinking and related consequences. Method One hundred seventy seven college students (70% Female) with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention were mailed feedback and information detailing their reported alcohol use, moderation strategies, and accurate normative information regarding student drinking. Results Results indicated no main effects of the intervention on drinking or related problems but students receiving feedback showed significant reductions in their perception of drinking norms compared to the control group. Furthermore, students whose normative perceptions reduced showed significant reductions in total drinks per week and total alcohol related problems compared to those whose norms did not reduce. Conclusions Results support the importance of correcting normative perceptions and provide direction for selective prevention of alcohol use and related problems among college students with depressed mood. PMID:17499445
Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan
Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced health care utilization or unhealthy weight gain. This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramandeep Singh Gambhir
Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.
Savage, D Keith
In April 2000, the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine (NAS/IOM) Committee on Space Medicine held a workshop under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to explore "innovative terrestrial medical care." There was also a NAS/IOM panel held on "Space Dentistry: Maintaining Astronauts' Oral Health on Long Missions." Air Force Dental Officer Col. Shannon E. Mills chaired the dental committee. Many questions were raised but few answers were available. Prevention was emphasized with the hope that within twenty to thirty years there may be a number of astronaut candidates with no existing dental restorations and with optimum oral health. However, there remains the concern that trauma to teeth could occur within the confines of a zero gravity space capsule as crew members carry out their daily responsibilities. The possibility is evident considering the duration of a space flight to Mars and back could require up to three years. The dental concerns of a space mission are only a small part of a much larger team effort, however, it is one not to be overlooked. An historical review of dentistry's involvement with America's flight and space programs of the 20th Century would be prudent. Many of same questions asked today were addressed in the early days of aviation dentistry as it transitioned into aerospace dentistry. Any past research and experiences would help serve as a foundation to build upon.
Arigo, Danielle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric
Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m 2 ). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear). Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = -5.48, P students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.
During the last 20 years, there has been considerable growth in the number of dental practices owned by corporate bodies. At present, well over 800 practices are owned by such bodies and they employ over 3000 dentists. This paper describes the factors that have led to this growth and explores the advantages and disadvantages of 'corporate' dentistry for patients, dentists, and the dental team. It then considers how and why dental practice may change over the next 20 years and concludes that by 2032 the small one-dentist practice may well be in the past. It is likely that smaller practices will have to work in some form of association if they are to survive. Although their current model is unstable, corporates are likely to adapt to a changing environment. By 2032, in some cases, dentistry may well be taken out of its conventional setting, into supermarkets or a school environment.
Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.
Full Text Available Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery is a technique of bone surgery which is gaining popularity in the field of dentistry in the recent years. This device is being used in osteotomies, periodontology and implantology, and oral surgical procedures. Piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations are utilized to perform precise and safe osteotomies. This article discusses the equipment, biological effects on bone, and advantages and disadvantages of this technology.
Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Diplomado en Odontología Restauradora y Estética de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Paredes Coz, Gerson; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; Cirujano Dentista, Estudiante de la Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Cardoso Hernández, Sully; Estudiante de internado de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.
Nowadays is fundamental the interrelationship of the diverse specialities of dentistry for the resolution of the treatments realized in the patients who come to the odontologic consultation, since the vision slanted of some area can deprive to offer a better possibility of treatment. Working with specialists in different areas carries to orientating adequately the treatments and to optimizing results. In the present article the integral rehabilitation of a patient is detailed by the participa...
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the
Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F
The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Asha, M L; Chatterjee, Ingita; Patil, Preeti; Naveen, S
The purpose of this paper was to review various dosimeters used in dentistry and the cumulative results of various studies done with various dosimeters. Several relevant PubMed indexed articles from 1999 to 2013 were electronically searched by typing "dosimeters", "dosimeters in dentistry", "properties of dosimeters", "thermoluminescent and optically stimulated dosimeters", "recent advancements in dosimetry in dentistry." The searches were limited to articles in English to prepare a concise review on dental dosimetry. Titles and abstracts were screened, and articles that fulfilled the criteria of use of dosimeters in dental applications were selected for a full-text reading. Article was divided into four groups: (1) Biological effects of radiation, (2) properties of dosimeters, (3) types of dosimeters and (4) results of various studies using different dosimeters. The present review on dosimetry based on various studies done with dosimeters revealed that, with the advent of radiographic technique the effective dose delivered is low. Therefore, selection of radiological technique plays an important role in dental dose delivery.
Sinha, Dakshita J; Sinha, Ashish A
The major objective in root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Cleaning, shaping, and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load to some extent, but some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection. Taking into consideration the ineffectiveness, potential side-effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. Phytomedicine has been used in dentistry as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative and also as endodontic irrigant. Herbal preparations can be derived from the root, leaves, seeds, stem, and flowers. The PubMed database search revealed that the reference list for natural medicaments featured 1480 articles and in dentistry 173 articles. A forward search was undertaken on the selected articles and author names. This review focuses on various natural drugs and products as well as their therapeutic applications when used as phytomedicine in dentistry.
Shariati, Batoul; MacEntee, Michael I; Yazdizadeh, Maryam
Demand for economic evaluations in health care is growing with expectations that they will help to develop regional and national policies on health and social programmes. We present here the scope, quality and content of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dentistry published over the last 15 years. To review the quality and outcome of systematic reviews and meta-analyses relating to the economics of dental treatments, preventions and services. A systematic search was conducted in 14 electronic databases for systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 1997 and July 2011 on the economics of oral disorders and oral health care. Review papers were extracted by two independent investigators to identify the characteristics, results and quality of the reviews and to highlight gaps in knowledge about the economics of dentistry. From 3150 unique references, we found 73 systematic reviews or meta-analyses of dental economics as primary or secondary outcomes. The focus of 12 of them was on the cost or cost-effectiveness of dental prevention, 54 on treatment, five on prevention and treatment and two on delivery of dental services. However, only 12 of the systematic reviews drew conclusions from economic data, and four of them constructed an economic model from synthesized data. Overall, the quality was good in the 12 systematic reviews but poor in the original studies. There is very little helpful data published on the economics of dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R
Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Garrity, Stacy E
An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath
The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
Unthank, M; True, G
In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.
Alegría-Flores, Kei; Raker, Kelli; Pleasants, Robert K; Weaver, Mark A; Weinberger, Morris
Sexual assault, stalking, dating violence, and intimate partner violence, herein collectively termed interpersonal violence (IV), are public health problems affecting 20% to 25% of female college students. Currently, One Act is one of the few IV prevention training programs at universities that teach students bystander skills to intervene in low- and high-risk IV situations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate One Act's effects on date rape attitudes and behaviors, and bystanders' confidence, willingness to help, and behavior, and 2) to compare the effects on bystander skills between One Act and Helping Advocates for Violence Ending Now (HAVEN), an IV response training program with similar participants. Data were collected over 2 years, before and after One Act and HAVEN trainings. We measured outcomes with four scales: College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors, Bystander Confidence, Willingness to Help, and Bystander Behavior. The analysis compared within- and between-group mean differences in scale scores pre- and post-trainings using linear mixed models. One Act showed improvements for date rape attitudes and behaviors (p < .001), bystander's confidence (p < .001), and willingness to help (p < .001). One Act participants' bystander confidence improved more (p = .006), on average, than HAVEN's. The differences in the two trainings' effects on bystander willingness to help and behavior had similar patterns but were not statistically significant. We found a larger positive impact on bystander confidence among students who participated in the bystander prevention training compared with the response training. Further research is needed to improve the measures for bystander behavior and measure the bystander trainings' larger impact on the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
House, Lisa A.; Lynch, Joseph F.; Bane, Mary
For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death. In this study, we evaluated a gatekeeper training suicide prevention program that emphasizes emotional connectivity with students in crisis and incorporates the collaborative efforts between Housing/Residential Programs and the Counseling Center. Participants consisted of graduate…
This randomized experiment evaluates the attitudes and behavioral intentions of 458 undergraduate college students about intervening with the intent of preventing an illegal retail purchase of tobacco products by a minor after exposure to a factorial combination of three pieces of information. MANOVA results show that none of the treatment…
LaChausse, Robert G.
Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…
Full Text Available It is an honor and pleasure to serve as the guest editor for the Educational Research in Medical Sciences Journal. I would like to thank the cooperation of vice chancellery for research and technology of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences that kindly helped us throughout this special issue. Since Kermanshah School of Dentistry has recently initiated its activity, it is necessary to obtain the basic information about the status of knowledge and attitude of academic members, dentists, dental students and carried out therapies in order to perform future planning. To achieve this purpose, the most important considerations are focusing on epidemiologic and community-based surveys to elicit the basic information about the community, which could help to promote future clinical studies and better judgment of effectiveness of pervious dental treatments. So, we aimed to specifically put extensive emphasis on epidemiologic studies in this issue. On the other hand, a well-structured research program for future is essential to provide an appropriate plan. To this end, a critical shifting from descriptive studies to case-control, cohort and clinical trials is needed and should be considered. Cohort studies are so useful in caries and orthodontics research. In dentistry, this type of study can be undertaken to obtain evidence and to report association between cause and effect, particularly through specific population. Clinical trials have been recognized as a reliable scientific method that evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention or try to find better ways to prevent, diagnose or treat diseases. Owing to the newly-established School of Dentistry in Kermanshah, there has not been any registered clinical trial so far. The importance and essential role of these types of studies are undeniable, and as director of research programs of Kermanshah School of Dentistry I encourage faculty members and students of this school to pay more attention to these
After over two decades of discussions, promises and indecisions, the year 2016 marked the birth of the School of Specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, which is now a reality. The importance of dental post-graduate specialisation schools has been debated since the Degree Course in Dentistry was established. Previously, in Italy only two dental branches - Oral Surgery and Orthodontics - had obtained the recognition that a School of Specialisation entails. Today, with specific training and the newly- established hyper-specialisation in Paediatric Dentistry, the future of the profession is brighter than ever. This will allow dental professionals to provide the best cure to our young patients but it especially marks and recognises the importance of prevention in general. Having established a Specialty School in Paediatric Dentistry is also important to keep the pace with the other European countries where this postgraduate course has been already offered for many years. In my opinion, training professionals with a solid specialisation based both on cultural insights and hands-on clinical activities translates into the possibility of making true prevention. The ultimate goal of paediatric dentists, as well as paediatricians, is certainly to treat young patients but also and above all to accompany them toward an adulthood possibly free of pathologies. With an eye to a future where Paediatric Dentistry will be at the core of dental and orthodontic prevention, I wish great success to all the many specialisation schools established within the Italian Universities.
Jurkovich, M W; Ophaug, M; Salberg, S; Monsen, K
Today, dentists and hygienists have inadequate tools to identify contributing factors to dental disease, diagnosis of disease or to document outcomes in a standardized and machine readable format. Increasing demand to find the most effective care methodologies make the development of further terminologies for dentistry more urgent. Preventive care is the focus of early efforts to define best practices. We reviewed one possibility with a history of public health documentation that might assist in these early efforts at identifying best practices. This paper examines, through a survey of dentists, the Omaha System Problem Classification Scheme. The survey requested that dentists rate the usefulness of knowing about specific signs and symptoms for each of the 42 problems within the Problem list of the Omaha System. Using a weighted scoring system, 22 of the 42 problems received over 50% of the possible maximum score and 30 of the 42 problems received at least 25% of the possible points. These findings suggests that further evaluation of The Omaha System, may be useful to dentistry. At a minimum, the survey provides additional information about non-physiological problems, signs, and symptoms that may be appropriate for documentation purposes within an electronic health record (EHR) used in dentistry.
Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N
Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
Choi, Andy H; Cazalbou, Sophie; Ben-Nissan, Besim
During the last decade, there has been a major increase in the interest of nanostructured materials in advanced technologies for biomedical and dental clinical applications. Nanostructured materials are associated with a variety of applications within the dental and biomedical field, for example nanoparticles in drug delivery systems and nanostructured scaffolds in tissue engineering. More importantly, nanotechnology has also been linked with the modification of surface properties of synthetic implants in an attempt to improve their bioactivity, reliability and protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. This is achieved through the use of nanocoatings and nanocomposite coatings. These new-generation coatings based on inorganic materials and biological materials such as proteins and peptides are currently investigated and applied. This chapter aims to give an overview of the recent advances in nanocoatings and their composites being investigated or used in dentistry. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Stübinger, Stefan; Stricker, Andres; Berg, Britt-Isabelle
Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies.
Domb, William C
Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268
Wigdor, Harvey A.
One of the major causes of anxiety in the dental clinic is the dental handpiece. Because dentists wish to provide a method which can replace the drill there has often been a premature use of the laser in dentistry. Various lasers have been introduced into the clinic before research has shown the laser used is of clinical benefit. Any new treatment method must not compromise the health of the patient being treated. Thus a method of evaluating the clinical abilities of dentists and their understanding the limitations of the laser used must be developed. Dentist must be trained in the basic interaction of the laser on oral tissues. The training has to concentrate on the variation of the laser wavelength absorption in the different tissues of the oral cavity. Because of the differences in the optical properties of these tissues great care must be exercised by practitioners using lasers on patients.
Noronha, Victor T; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Gabriela; Galembeck, Andre; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Durán, Nelson
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively studied for their antimicrobial properties, which provide an extensive applicability in dentistry. Because of this increasing interest in AgNPs, the objective of this paper was to review their use in nanocomposites; implant coatings; pre-formulation with antimicrobial activity against cariogenic pathogens, periodontal biofilm, fungal pathogens and endodontic bacteria; and other applications such as treatment of oral cancer and local anesthesia. Recent achievements in the study of the mechanism of action and the most important toxicological aspects are also presented. Systematic searches were carried out in Web of Science (ISI), Google, PubMed, SciFinder and EspaceNet databases with the keywords "silver nano* or AgNP*" and "dentist* or dental* or odontol*". A total of 155 peer-reviewed articles were reviewed. Most of them were published in the period of 2012-2017, demonstrating that this topic currently represents an important trend in dentistry research. In vitro studies reveal the excellent antimicrobial activity of AgNPs when associated with dental materials such as nanocomposites, acrylic resins, resin co-monomers, adhesives, intracanal medication, and implant coatings. Moreover, AgNPs were demonstrated to be interesting tools in the treatment of oral cancers due to their antitumor properties. The literature indicates that AgNPs are a promising system with important features such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, and a potential carrier in sustained drug delivery. However, there are some aspects of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs, and some important toxicological aspects arising from the use of this system that must be completely elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jozkowski, Kristen N
Sexual assault is prevalent in the United States, particularly among college women. Prevention programs are implemented to combat assault, yet rates have not changed for five decades. A course designed to deconstruct contextualized factors contributing to assault was developed as an alternative prevention initiative. The current study assessed the effectiveness of the course compared with a traditional program via in-depth interviews with students. Findings indicated that students in the course were more likely to acknowledge underlying determinants of sexual assault and articulate how such behaviors could lead to assault. The course could be an effective approach to sexual assault prevention education. © The Author(s) 2015.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Liu, F; Dang, Y H
Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.
Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J; Karimi, L
This study investigates student and stakeholder perceptions of the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal. The impact of these perceptions on the professionalization of dental hygienists is described whilst exploring the consequences for oral health workforce planning. Dentistry and dental hygiene students from one dental college in Nepal were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire; 171 students returned the questionnaire containing a mix of forced response and open-ended items. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS ® 22. These data were complemented with qualitative information from survey open questions and from semi-structured interviews with key informants from several relevant organizations. Qualitative data were manually analysed and coded. Data were triangulated to contextualize quantitative data. A high level of positive regard for the role of the dental hygienist in Nepal was evident amongst dentistry and dental hygiene students in this college. Both groups believe that the dental hygienist can play a major role in raising oral health awareness in Nepal. The scope of practice of the dental hygienist was unclear with issues surrounding the scope of practice and reports of illegal practice by dental hygienists. Significant differences (P dental hygiene and dentistry students in relation to their opinion regarding independent practice and the need of supervision by a dentist. Supervision of the dental hygienist by dentists and issues surrounding the scope of practice are polarizing the relationship between dentists, dental hygienists and the relevant professional organizations. This could hinder cooperation between these oral health professionals and might lead to underutilization of the dental hygienist. To improve the understanding about the roles of each oral health professional, establishing functional relationships and intraprofessional education involving dentistry and dental hygiene students needs to be introduced. This will benefit the
Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.
Knapik, Joseph J; McCollam, Rebecca; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Hoedebecke, Edward; Arnold, Stephanie; Craig, Steven; Barko, William
Injuries and activities associated with injuries were extracted from a retrospective review of the medical records of officers attending the U.S. Army War College during academic years 1999 and 2000 (AY99 and AY00). In AY99, cumulative injury incidence (officers with one or more injuries) was 56%. The next year (AY00), there was command emphasis on injury reduction and education of students on injury prevention strategies. Cumulative injury incidence in AY00 was 44%, significantly lower than in AY99 (p = 0.01, risk ratio [AY99/AY99] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.5). Among activities that could be linked to injuries, sports were associated with 41% in AY99 and 45% in AY00. Recommendations for ongoing injury reduction include the following: (1) continued command emphasis and instruction on injury reduction techniques; (2) encouraging the use of semirigid ankle braces to reduce ankle sprains; (3) reducing the number of practice and game sessions in sports activities; (4) encouraging overrunning of second and third base in softball; (5) prohibiting contact with the center line below the net in volleyball; and (6) encouraging medical care providers to record the activity associated with each injury in the medical records.
Chambers, David W
Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists
Thikkurissy, S; Rowland, Michael L; Bean, Canise Y; Kumar, Ashok; Levings, Kevin; Casamassimo, Paul S
The early childhood caries epidemic has prompted a look at predoctoral clinical dental education in pediatric dentistry. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of community-based clinical education (CBE) to procedural and patient diversity in predoctoral pediatric dental education. Using procedural and demographic data from pediatric clinical experiences of the dental class of 2007 at The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, profiles of patient diversity, clinical pediatric dental procedures, and student efficiency were developed for both CBE sites and the campus-based clinic. Ninety-two students performed 16,523 procedures on children in the fourth year in CBE sites in the community compared to 4,268 on campus in their third year. Pediatric-dedicated CBE sites accounted for almost 12,000 pediatric dental procedures. Approximately 56 percent of children treated at CBE sites were minorities. CBE sites accounted for most of the dental student restorative experience for pediatric patients for the Class of 2007, giving each student on average multiple restorative procedures. The campus-based clinic provided largely diagnostic and preventive procedures but few restorative opportunities. We conclude that community-based dental clinical education presents an opportunity to enhance pediatric predoctoral student clinical experiences in both quantity and diversity.
ter Horst, G
Due to a rapid increase of unemployment among dentists in many countries, the interest in advertising as a means of stimulating the demand for dental care is increasing. In some countries (i.e. USA, Canada, Finland and Holland) campaigns have been organized and the results have been published. In order to give as complete a picture as possible of all promotional activities in the field of dentistry, the member organizations of the FDI have been asked to answer the following questions: (1) Are individual dentists in your country allowed to solicit new patients by means of advertisements? (2) Do you, as an organization, have guidelines for your members in this respect? (3) Have there been any joint promotional activities by dentists in your country aimed at increasing the demand for dental care? (a) If so, in what form (e.g. advertisements, television or radio commercials)? (b) How much money was invested in such activities? (c) What were the results achieved? The results are presented. The effectiveness of specific methods used in stimulating the demand for dental care are analysed. Moreover, a comparison is made between studies on the attitudes of dentists toward advertising in Holland and the United States.
Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting
Walmsley, A. D.
Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.
Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.
Personalized Periodontology and Implant Dentistry are about finding accurate diagnostic, prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in treating periodontitis patients and in restoring mutilated dentitions by using dental implants. The studies comprising this thesis used complexity methods to
Swanbrow Becker, Martin A.; Nemeth Roberts, Stacey F.; Ritts, Sam M.; Branagan, William Tyler; Warner, Alia R.; Clark, Sheri L.
This study examines the experiences of transgender college students in coping with stress in comparison to their cisgender peers. Undergraduate and graduate students from 73 colleges, totaling 26,292 participants, of which 47 identified as transgender completed an online survey. Transgender students reported greater exposure to trauma and higher…
Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…
Johnson, Colleen A.
Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…
Werch, Chudley E.; And Others
Examined stages of drug use acquisition among college students (n=669) and relationship between stage status and motivation to avoid drugs and frequency of drug use. College students differed with regard to their stage of habit acquisition across five drugs. Findings suggest that acquisition stage heuristic holds promise in increasing…
Garlow, Steven J; Rosenberg, Jill; Moore, J David; Haas, Ann P; Koestner, Bethany; Hendin, Herbert; Nemeroff, Charles B
The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002-2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = -9.34, df = 706, Pstudents with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (chi(2) = 56.29, df = 1, Pstudents with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults.
Walters, Scott T; Neighbors, Clayton
College campuses in the United States may be the most electronically "wired" environments on earth. College students use the Internet not only to write term papers and receive correspondence but also to report (and keep track of) friends' personal status, download music, view classroom lectures, and receive emergency messages. In fact, college students spend considerably more time online than the average person. In a recent survey of U.S. college students (Jones et al. 2009), nearly all respondents (94 percent) stated that they spent at least 1 hour on the Internet each day, with the main tasks including social communication, entertainment, and class work. In keeping with this trend, Web-based programs that address alcohol consumption among college students have become widely available in the United States. This sidebar provides an overview of currently available programs as well as of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and the future outlook of Web-based programs.
F Vaziri; A Haerian; S Sajedi
Introduction: The present study aimed to explore the impact of preventive dimensions of a dentistry education program on the behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival health of a group of dentistry students of Yazd province. Methods: 51 junior and senior dentistry students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to fill in the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI). Also, clinical examinations to asse...
West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M
Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in
Full Text Available Khalid H Zawawi,1 Ghadah A Malki,2 Mohammad S Al-Zahrani,3 Yaser M Alkhiary4 1Department of Preventive Dental Science, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Consultant Pediatric Dentist, North Jeddah Dental Specialty Center, 3Department of Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of education on the perception of female college students on the effect of lip position and gingival display upon smiling and esthetics. Methods: A photograph of a smiling subject was altered to show varying degrees of gingival display. Female students, who were studying in different colleges, assessed a total of five images, using a numerical rating scale. Results: A total of 440 college students from eight educational faculties (dentistry, dental assistants, medicine, medical technology, nursing, science, arts, and pharmacology participated in this study. There was no difference found between students' ratings of the altered images (P<0.05. The perception of a gummy smile was found to be similar among the participants. There was agreement between all participants that 2 mm of gingival display was the most attractive smile, while a 4 mm covering of the teeth by the upper lip was the least attractive. Conclusion: Educational influence did not have an effect of the perception of a gummy smile. Keywords: smile, gingival display, gummy smile, smile esthetic, perception, educational background
Ajilore, Kolade; Atakiti, Ifeoluwa; Onyenankeya, Kevin
Introduction: Apprehension over a possible recurrence of Ebola remains pervasive among college students in Nigeria. Prevention education continues to be carried out through public service announcements (PSAs) on radio, television and in the social media. However, little is known about college students' knowledge, attitudes and adherence to PSAs on…
Pemberton, M N
Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.
Vitale, M. C.
Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
Jozkowski, Kristen N; Peterson, Zoë D; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael
Because sexual assault is often defined in terms of nonconsent, many prevention efforts focus on promoting the clear communication of consent as a mechanism to reduce assault. Yet little research has specifically examined how sexual consent is being conceptualized by heterosexual college students. In this study, 185 Midwestern U.S. college students provided responses to open-ended questions addressing how they define, communicate, and interpret sexual consent and nonconsent. The study aimed to assess how college students define and communicate consent, with particular attention to gender differences in consent. Results indicated no gender differences in defining consent. However, there were significant differences in how men and women indicated their own consent and nonconsent, with women reporting more verbal strategies than men and men reporting more nonverbal strategies than women, and in how they interpreted their partner's consent and nonconsent, with men relying more on nonverbal indicators of consent than women. Such gender differences may help to explain some misunderstandings or misinterpretations of consent or agreement to engage in sexual activity, which could partially contribute to the occurrence of acquaintance rape; thus, a better understanding of consent has important implications for developing sexual assault prevention initiatives.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Su, Y C
It is a digital age today. Exposed to all kinds of digital products in many fields. Certainly, implant dentistry is not exception. Digitalization could improve the outcomes and could decrease the complications of implant dentistry. This paper introduces the concepts, definitions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and errors of digital implant dentistry.
Kidd, Foster, Ed.
The unique history of the Negro in the profession of dentistry is traced, and career information for the student interested in pursuing dentistry is presented. The book includes a profile of black pioneers in dentistry from the 18th century to contemporary practitioners who have made contributions to modern dental technology. A history of the…
Lachausse, Robert G
To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group. Students completed baseline and follow-up surveys regarding their nutrition and physical activity behaviors, self-efficacy, stress, attitudes, and body weight. Compared with the on-campus course and a comparison group, the MSB-Nutrition program increased fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced stress, and increased fruit and vegetable self-efficacy but had no significant effect on students' exercise self-efficacy, exercise behavior, or weight loss. The MSB-Nutrition program was effective in changing students' nutrition behaviors but had no effect on physical activity behaviors or weight loss. Suggestions for improving Internet-based interventions aimed at decreasing obesity rates among college students are offered.
Maman, Paramjot; Nagpal, Manju; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Aggarwal, Geeta
Management of the health of oral tissues is a prime requirement in dentistry. The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges. The limitations in dental materials, medications, instruments, procedures put off the accomplishment of this goal. Rationalization of science and technology has made possible to work out these limitations. Nanotechnology which is the outcome of this rationalization has become one of the most favored technologies in medical and dental application. The substantial contribution of nano dental materials is the identification of oral health related problems by better diagnosis and management of dental disorders by bionanomaterials. Application of nanodentistry holds promise for comprehensive dental care by utilizing nanomaterials and ultimately by nanorobots. This review discusses the rationale of nanodentistry, nanocarriers researched in treatment of different dental diseases, the latest innovations in nanomaterials in various disciplines of dentistry; patent literature and related marketed products. Advances in nanotechnology have placed plenty of hopes in terms of improving the oral health care of dental patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Brostek, A M; Walsh, L J
Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is a modern approach to the management of caries, which emphasizes prevention and early interception of disease, underpinned by an understanding of the role of the dental plaque biofilm in disease initiation and progression, and how this is affected by lifestyle and behavioral factors. The MID approach should be the standard of care in modern restorative dentistry, as it avoids over-zealous restorative interventions as well as supervised neglect. Incorporating the principles of MID into general dental practice for the management of dental caries involves using Caries Risk Assessment (CRA), as well as a minimally invasive restorative approach utilizing conservative caries removal methods, minimal cavity designs and the use of adhesive restorative materials. A range of methods now exist for measuring the contribution of risk factors to dental caries risk, allowing the clinician to target their interventions at the factors operating in the individual patient, by applying the concepts of ecological change to modify the biofilm, and motivational interviewing to alter patient lifestyle and dietary behaviour. This review discusses how the principles of MID are used for individual patient care, and suggests methods for implementation of MID into general dental practice.
Lee, Christine M; Kilmer, Jason R; Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C; Zheng, Cheng; Walker, Denise D; Larimer, Mary E
Marijuana is the most frequently reported illicit substance used on college campuses. Despite the prevalence, few published intervention studies have focused specifically on addressing high-risk marijuana use on college campuses. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an in-person brief motivational enhancement intervention for reducing marijuana use and related consequences among frequently using college students. Participants included 212 college students from 2 campuses who reported frequent marijuana use (i.e., using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month). Participants completed Web-based screening and baseline assessments and upon completion of the baseline survey were randomized to either an in-person brief intervention or an assessment control group. Follow-up assessments were completed approximately 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Marijuana use was measured by number of days used in the past 30 days, typical number of joints used in a typical week in the last 60 days, and marijuana-related consequences. Results indicated significant intervention effects on number of joints smoked in a typical week and a trend toward fewer marijuana-related consequences compared with the control group at 3-month follow-up. This study provides preliminary data on short-term effects of a focused marijuana intervention for college students at reducing marijuana use during the academic quarter. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Journal of Dental Education, 1990
The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…
Martens, L C
The aim of this introduction to this special laser issue is to describe some basic laser physics and to delineate the potential of laser-assisted dentistry in children. A brief review of the available laser literature was performed within the scope of paediatric dentistry. Attention was paid to soft tissue surgery, caries prevention and diagnosis, cavity preparation, comfort of the patient, effect on bacteria, long term pulpal vitality, endodontics in primary teeth, dental traumatology and low level laser therapy. Although there is a lack of sufficient evidence taking into account the highest standards for evidence-based dentistry, it is clear that laser application in a number of different aetiologies for soft tissue surgery in children has proven to be successful. Lasers provide a refined diagnosis of caries combined with the appropriate preventive adhesive dentistry after cavity preparation. This will further lead to a new wave of micro-dentistry based on 'filling without drilling'. It has become clear from a review of the literature that specific laser applications in paediatric dentistry have gained increasing importance. It can be concluded that children should be considered as amongst the first patients for receiving laser-assisted dentistry.
Wallace, Lorraine Silver
Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…
More, Frederick G.; Sasson, Lisa M.; Godfrey, Emilie M.; Sehl, Rima B.
The American Dietetic Association and the American Dental Association share a common interest in improving the health and quality of life of the population. Dental visits present an opportunity to identify nutrition-related issues for both the pediatric and adult population. Traditionally, dental and nutrition students have had little opportunity to learn and work together since little time was spent on nutrition in the dental curriculum. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a new collaborative training experience for dietetic interns and pediatric dentistry residents. The oral health rotation for dietetic interns also has several objectives, including experience interacting with a culturally diverse population and participating in community nutrition education (Head Start). In its first 18 months, the collaborative program has been viewed as a success by the pediatric dentistry faculty and residents and the nutrition faculty and interns. PMID:16639470
Coughlin, Janelle W; Kalodner, Cynthia
This study examined whether the media literacy program, ARMED, is an effective prevention intervention for college women at low- or high-risk for an eating disorder. Changes in eating disorder risk factors were assessed in low- (n=26) and high-risk (n=19) women participating in a two-session media literacy intervention as compared to low- (n=31) and high-risk (n=16) controls. Women at high-risk for an eating disorder reported significant decreases in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, feelings of ineffectiveness, and internalization of societal standards of beauty after participating in ARMED, whereas control participants did not. No significant decreases in perfectionism, physical appearance comparisons, or awareness of societal standards of beauty were reported among high-risk participants. Changes in eating disorder risk factors were not found among low-risk participants, regardless of treatment condition. Findings suggest that media literacy may be an effective secondary prevention intervention for eating disorders.
Thirunavukarasu, Ananthi; Pinto, Hugo Grancho; Seymour, Kevin Guy
Bisphosphonates are a group of drugs that are commonly used to alter bone metabolism in order to prevent bone loss in diseases such as osteoporosis and bone cancers. Unfortunately, the use of bisphosphonates has been associated with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The debate as to whether it is wise to consider implant therapy in patients being treated with bisphosphonate therapy remains a grey area. This review will present the latest evidence and guidelines available on bisphosphonates and their possible effects on implant dentistry. The risk factors, co-morbidities, clinical presentation and findings from various imaging modalities for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws are highlighted. The management of patients being treated with bisphosphonates, in whom dental implants might be considered or have already been placed, will also be discussed. Finally, the areas requiring future research are considered.
Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N=40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to...
Full Text Available Nanofibrous structures exhibit many interesting features, such as high surface area and surface functionalization and porosity in the range from submicron to nanoscale, which mimics the natural extracellular matrix. In particular, electrospun nanofibers have gained great attention in the field of tissue engineering due to the ease of fabrication and tailorability in pore size, scaffold shape, and fiber alignment. For the reasons, recently, polymeric nanofibers or bioceramic nanoparticle-incorporated nanofibers have been used in dentistry, and their nanostructure and flexibility have contributed to highly promotive cell homing behaviors, resulting in expecting improved dental regeneration. Here, this paper focuses on recently applied electrospun nanofibers in dentistry in the range from the process to the applications.
van Gils, T; de Boer, N K H; Bouma, G
Coeliac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy, which is caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. -Approximately 0.5-1% of the Dutch population has coeliac disease, diag-nosed at both younger and older age. Treatment consists of a strict gluten-free diet. Symptoms can be diverse, including dental and oral manifestations. These dental and oral manifestations are often seen in patients with coeliac disease, although most of them are nonspecific. This is not the case for the symmetric enamel defects described by Aine and colleagues, which are very specific for coeliac disease. Early diagnosing of coeliac disease is important to prevent complications by (vitamin) deficiencies or rare (pre) malignant forms of coeliac disease. There seems to be a role for dentists in early diagnosing of coeliac disease.
Antonishak, Jill; Connolly, Chelsey
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy published free online lessons that help students take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy and complete their education. From the fall of 2012 to the spring of 2014, approximately 2,800 students took the online lessons and participated in pre- and post-lesson evaluation surveys at four…
Gilligan, James; Lee, Bandy
Prisons were supposedly created for the purpose of the tertiary prevention of violence (i.e., reducing the frequency and severity of future violence on the part of people who have already become violent). However, there is much evidence that this method of attempting to prevent violence is often, though not always, either ineffectual or counterproductive, in which case it is either a waste of money or actually exacerbates the problem it was ostensibly intended to solve. This article reviews evidence concerning those questions including an analysis of the effect of punishment (one of the main purposes of prisons) on violent behavior. Punishment--the infliction of pain--will be distinguished from restraint (incapacitation, separation from the community). Successful examples of violence prevention in unconventional prison programs, emphasizing therapy and education rather than punishment, and restorative rather than retributive justice, will be summarized, together with evidence that these programs reduce re-incarceration rates so substantially that they actually save the taxpayers more money than they cost, in addition to enhancing the safety of the general public. The position is taken that traditional prisons provoke more violence than they prevent and are so fundamentally flawed that they cannot be reformed; we argue that they should instead be abolished and replaced by "anti-prisons," that is, locked, secure residential colleges, therapeutic communities, and centers for human development. Prisons will come to be seen as a well-meaning experiment that failed, rather like the use of leeches in medicine.
Lehnert, M W
Since their introduction, great enthusiasm has greeted the application of lasers to medicine and dentistry. The future is exciting. Research will someday take us to the days of the "Star Trek" laser-scan tooth or bone repair procedures. Lasers are very specific in their application. Choose this new technology carefully, making choices and purchases based on quality scientific research and ongoing analysis and review.
Satuito, Mary; Tom, James
Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.
Nash, D A
Esthetic dentistry has assumed an integral position in the provision of oral health care for society. Esthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty. Beauty is both enjoyable (subjective and cosmetic), and admirable (objective and definable). Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with morality. Morality relates humans to one another in a responsible way using rationality. Dentists assume unique moral duties in presenting themselves to society as being uniquely qualified to care for their oral health. Three principles of ethics relate directly to professional duties in esthetic dentistry: beneficence, autonomy, and justice. These principles have moral force in committing dentists to gain informed consent and to execute therapy in keeping with professional standards of care. Practical application of issues deriving from esthetics and ethics suggests that dentists must be sensitive to esthetics in their diagnosis and treatment planning and that a structured, formal consultation with a patient must be conducted to educate the patient regarding the goals of treatment, alternative therapies, prognosis, and costs. Only through such an effort can dentists gain informed consent. The goal of esthetic dentistry is the achievement of admirable (objective) and enjoyable (subjective) beauty, which is possible only through patient participation in decision making and excellence in technical performance.
B Divya Bhat
Full Text Available Robots, the most wonderful invention of human being, have made its way into dentistry. The necessary technologies have been developed and experimented which would help it to be adapted in dentistry. With unmatched precision and ability to work without fatigue, robots are the most useful applications of robotic technology. The main aim of this paper is to review the application of robotics in dentistry.
Wilson, N H F
The present paper details the history of the introduction of visible light curing into dentistry. This history provides an excellent example of 'out of the box', lateral thinking translation of innovative scientific technology into dentistry. Visible light curing is an important UK contribution to the recent history and current practice of dentistry, with several million visible light curing procedures being carried out globally on a daily basis.
Luo, Juhua; Agley, Jon; Hendryx, Michael; Gassman, Ruth; Lohrmann, David
This study identified underlying subgroups among college students in terms of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors and then investigated how demographic factors were associated with the underlying risk patterns to bolster health promotion efforts and interventions. College students (N = 996) enrolled at Indiana University during 2009-2010 participated in a multidimensional online survey. Latent class analysis was used to identify underlying risk patterns based on seven lifestyle and health behaviors, including frequent alcohol use, binge drinking, smoking, low physical activity, low vegetable intake, low fruit intake, and poor sleep. Four distinct risk behavior patterns were identified for both males and females including a "healthy" class, "low substance use but poor other health behaviors" class, "high substance use" (males)/"high alcohol use" (females) class, and a risk class characterized by elevated probability of all seven indicators. The highest risk class included 34% of the males and 22% of the females; they tended to be older or in more advanced undergraduate classes. Among males, compared with the "healthy" class, the "high substance use" class was more likely to contain non-Hispanic White students and students in advanced classes. Among females, the "low substance use but poor other health behaviors" class was associated with racial/ethnic minority status and lower levels of parental education. Our data suggest that risky health behaviors may tend to cluster in some students and that health promotion techniques might effectively be targeted to identifiable student subgroups. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Scott, Denise M
The objective of this commentary is to discuss the significance of the study entitled, "Structuring a College Alcohol Prevention Program on the Low Level of Response to Alcohol Model: A Pilot Model" by Schuckit and colleagues (2012) published in this issue of the Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. The work by Schuckit and colleagues emphasizes the importance of personalizing an alcohol prevention program for college students. This pilot model is the result of over 30 years of clinical translational research on an individual's level of response to alcohol. The prevention program is efficient, simple, safe, cost-effective and self-directed. The results indicate the computerized intervention was associated with decreases in drinking overall and students with a low level of response to alcohol showed greater decreases when the prevention program is personalized to focus on how level of response is affected by peer influence, alcohol expectancies, and stress management. It concludes that college students with a low level of response to alcohol will benefit from a prevention program that is personalized to this well documented endophenotype. The findings provide the foundation for developing future longitudinal studies of the proposed prevention program with a larger sample size on diverse campuses. In addition, as mentioned in the Discussion section, future studies could also evaluate the effectiveness of other easily measured clinical endophenotypes known to be associated with alcohol use such as impulsivity, negative effect, and maximum number of drinks per occasion. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
Himelein, Melissa; Passman, Liz; Phillips, Jessica M.
Background: Service learning can enrich students' knowledge, skills and commitment to occupational goals while positively affecting communities. Undergraduate students in a course on obesity engaged in service learning by assisting with a family-based obesity prevention program, Getting Into Fitness Together (GIFT). Purpose: The impact of GIFT on…
Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.
Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…
Spielman, Andrew I; Fulmer, Terry; Eisenberg, Elise S; Alfano, Michael C
Health care, including oral health care and oral health education, is under great stress in the United States. The cost of and access to care, the cost of dental education, and a shortage of educators have led leaders in dental education, organized dentistry, and the public sector to underscore the problem. One of the proposed solutions is to find synergies and new health care and education models by building bridges among the health professions. One potential solution is being implemented at the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD). Dentistry and nursing are seemingly unrelated professions, and they are rarely if ever modeled together. That is about to change with the joining together of NYUCD and the Division of Nursing of the NYU Steinhardt School of Education in creating a College of Nursing within the College of Dentistry. This process has not been without controversy. Following the Division of Nursing's request to join NYUCD, and the subsequent announcement of the proposed combination by NYU in December 2004, some members of the dental profession responded by questioning the appropriateness of the merger and the similarity of the two programs. Nevertheless, substantial parallels exist in the education and practice of dentists and nurse practitioners (NP) including basic, social, and some clinical science education, practice models, research synergies, and community service. However, similarities in the core competencies of these professions have not been analyzed formally and in detail. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare the core competencies of nurse practitioner and dental education programs. The results show a surprising overlap of the core competencies of the dental and nursing professions (38 percent partial or total overlap). A similar overlap with medicine also exists, albeit lower (25.4 percent). These results are notable because they demonstrate that the three health professions, independently of one another, developed very similar
that selectively destroy cancer cells while leaving normal cells intact. Undergoing trial are nanoparticle-coated, radioactive sources placed close to or within the tumor to destroy it.. Tissue engineering and dentistry. Potential applications of tissue engineering and stem cell research in dentistry include the treatment of ...
Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu
Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.
Saha, R; Malik, P
A number of conditions can lead to aesthetically unacceptable dentitions like dental caries, discoloration, trauma, early loss of teeth, misalignment and any abnormality of shape and size. Today we have a large number of solutions available for aesthetic problems in paediatric dentistry. But the biggest dilemma is: How to choose what is best for a particular patient and that situation? Through this review we try to precisely highlight the various options for aesthetic restorations along with their indications, advantages and disadvantages. A search and analysis of international works on aesthetics in paediatric dentistry is presented. A considerable number of studies have shown that people are more concerned about missing anterior teeth and their replacement than about posterior ones as aesthetics seems to be more important than function. Dental caries, although not life threatening, causes nagging pain and physical as well as psychological discomfort. Nevertheless, it is clear that the condition is complex and multifactorial and hence it is important to review the various approaches available to restore the lost aesthetics.
Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa
The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire three times (pre, post, and follow-up). The questionnaire was comprised of items evaluating depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), SC, positive self-complexity (P-SC), and negative self-complexity (N-SC). The results indicated that P-SC at the post-test was significantly increased and P-SC at the follow-up test was marginally increased in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, structured equation modeling revealed that in the intervention group, high P-SC was related to low level of depressed mood after the program.
Pruthi, Rajiv K
The eighth edition (AT8) of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guideline, published in June 2008, was a comprehensive presentation of primary studies and detailed discussions of rationale for recommendations. This resulted in an approximately 900-page Chest Supplement publication. Updating the guidelines in a succinct fashion posed a formidable challenge for the ninth edition (AT9), published in February 2012. The strategy adopted for AT9 was to publish an Executive Summary of the recommendations in a 50-page document in the Chest supplement highlighting the changes, with online publication of the full version. Major innovative changes include a recognition of the value of estimating the risk reductions in symptomatic, as opposed to asymptomatic (venographically), detected venous thrombosis, using nonconflicted methodologists as topic editors, new insights into evidence, and increasing emphasis on what is known about patients' values and preferences that have served to improve this edition of the guidelines. This review provides a summary of the updates of the guidelines for anticoagulation therapy and prevention of thrombosis. The AT9 recommendations are presented with, if included, the AT8 recommendations in parenthesis for comparison purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paige, Samantha R.; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, Don J.; Alber, Julia M.; Chappell, Chelsea; Barry, Adam E.
Background: College students actively seek online health information and use Instagram, an image- and video-based social networking website, to build social networks grounded in trust and behavioral norms (social capital), which have the potential to prevent chronic disease. Purpose: This study aimed to (1) examine how intensity of Instagram use…
Dunlap, Shannon L.; Taboada, Arianna; Merino, Yesenia; Heitfeld, Suzanne; Gordon, Robert J.; Gere, David; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.
We examined the sexual health change process experienced by 26 college student sexual health educators from three geographic regions of the United States who participated in a multisite arts-based sexual health prevention program. We conducted eight focus groups and used a phenomenological approach to analyze data. We drew from social cognitive…
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out case reports), the publication rate is less than 1 percent--completely out of proportion to the size of the problem dental trauma impose in children.
History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric......Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...... Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out...
Borges, Angela M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moynihan, Mary M
Although more universities are developing policies for students regarding consent for sexual behavior in response to the problem of sexual violence on campus, many students seem either unaware of these policies or what they mean for actual behavior. Policies are only as effective as peoples' understanding and use of them. The current study aimed to evaluate the utility of a prevention education program focused on teaching students about consent. Two hundred and twenty undergraduates, composing a control group, a shorter treatment group, and a longer one, participated in the study. The findings showed the greatest knowledge gain for participants in the longer treatment group that included a discussion of the policy and participation in an activity dealing with its implications. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Zhang, Shaoru; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianhua; Wang, Xiangni; Liu, Weiping; Ma, Xuexue; Li, Yuelu; Fan, Yahui
College student community is the one with high risk of tuberculosis (TB). A systemic and standardized administration model for prevention and control of TB is significance in controlling TB spread in universities. Currently, the universities in China have not established the comprehensive and standardized administration system for TB prevention and control in college student community. Firstly, the literature research and brainstorming method (n=13) were used to construct the clause and sub-clause pool for the administration of TB prevention and control within college student community in 2014. Secondly, a total of twenty experts in the field of TB prevention and control who are representatives of the east, west, south and north parts of China were selected and invited to participate the Delphi letter-inquiry. After two rounds of letter-inquiry, the opinions of the experts reached a consensus and the framework for the administration system was constructed. A framework for the administration system was constructed, which included 8 first class indexes, 26 second class indexes and 104 third class indexes. The results are highly scientific and reliable, which can be helpful for improving the systemic and standardized levels for the administration of TB prevention and control in universities in China and perhaps in other developing counties with high TB burden as well.
Dentists' contributions to science and society extend beyond the practice of clinical dentistry and preventive oral health. Such service encompasses contributions to biology specifically and more generally to societal good works for which dentists are particularly esteemed. The profession of dentistry promotes the history and heritage of its craft and those who practise it. Enduring symbols of dentistry take many forms. These include metonymic emblems such as those of Cadmus and Saint Apollonia and the portrayal of effigies of twentieth century dentists on eponymous medals. Other enduring symbols are to be found in the names of streets and towns (eg Normanville in Australia) which commemorate dentists; and in the worldwide scientific names of plants and animal species which perpetuate singular contributions of dentists to biological science. Such include the scientific names of grasses (Deyeuxia rodwayi) after the Tasmanian dentist, Dr Leonard Rodway (1853-1936); seaweeds (Jeannerettia sp.) after a seaweed of the Pacific and Southern Oceans, after Dr Henry Jeannerett (1802-1886); gastropods (Typhina yatesi) after Dr Lorenzo Yates (1837-1909); copepods (eg Mimocalanus heronae) named to commemorate the life and works of Gayle Ann Heron (b.1923), a dental hygienist of the University of Washington, USA; and crabs (eg Cancer bellianus) named to commemorate the life and works of the leading British dentist of his day, Thomas Bell (1792-1880). This paper explores this theme of the creation and promotion of enduring symbols of dental science - enshrined in the civic, numismatic and taxonomic record.
Full Text Available Introduction: Periodic evaluation of educational programs provides insight into the course and teaching effectiveness. Effective evaluation provides valuable information, which contributes to both student’s and course success. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of pediatric dentistry department at Mashhad dental school in clinical education from students’ perspectives.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 fifth and sixth grade undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Mashhad dental school. A questionnaire including 21 multiple choice questions about 7 parts of clinical skills in pediatric dentistry was given to each student. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney in SPSS software. Results: According to the study results, among 7 different clinical skills in pediatric dentistry including: examination, behavior management, prevention, injection, restoration, pulp treatment and space management, the highest success rate of pediatric dentistry department was in prevention and injection and the lowest success rate in space management and behavior control. Furthermore, from the students’ perspective, male students compared to female students mentioned a higher rate of success in choosing the type of restoration material for pediatric dentistry department (P=0. 041. Conclusion: This study showed that the students’ self-reported clinical skills in different parts of pediatric dentistry has been adequate. Students reported a lack of confidence in “behavior management” and “space management” which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.
Makinson, O F; Haynes, T R; Kirkwood, I D
Electronic publishing is expanding very rapidly and will soon substitute in part for the traditional role of paper and printing in accessing information and in its library storage. This change is occurring now for medicine and engineering. For dentistry the compact disc (CD-ROM) would have advantages over tape or on-line computer systems; one or two discs a year could hold all current dental journal and textbook literature. The setting of standards is the key to the successful introduction of this technology through production and playback systems. Indexing, retrieval and hardware are considered as well as copyright problems. The profession has the chance to guide the introduction of this publishing system in preference to it being fragmented between multiple publishers and thereby becoming costly. A proposal is offered which includes the nexus of traditional printing with this new publishing form through a forum for considering standards and goals for agreement on principles.
Kwon, Ho-Beom; Park, Young-Seok; Han, Jung-Suk
Augmentation reality technology offers virtual information in addition to that of the real environment and thus opens new possibilities in various fields. The medical applications of augmentation reality are generally concentrated on surgery types, including neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery and plastic surgery. Augmentation reality technology is also widely used in medical education and training. In dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery is the primary area of use, where dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery are the most frequent applications. Recent technological advancements are enabling new applications of restorative dentistry, orthodontics and endodontics. This review briefly summarizes the history, definitions, features, and components of augmented reality technology and discusses its applications and future perspectives in dentistry.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.
Green, James; Weiss, Adam; Stern, Avichai
Advances in technology are changing the ways that patients experience dental treatment. Technology helps to decrease treatment time and makes the treatment more comfortable for the patient. One technological advance is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers are providing more efficient, more comfortable, and more predictable outcomes for patients. Lasers are used in all aspects of dentistry, including operative, periodontal, endodontic, orthodontic, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Lasers are used for soft and hard tissue procedures in the treatment of pathologic conditions and for esthetic procedures. This article discusses how lasers work and their application in the various specialties within dentistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael, O S
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.
The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.
Trendafilova, N.; Gagova, P.
Full text: For accurate and sure diagnosis in dentistry except anamnestic information (history taking) and clinical examination as an obligatory clinical examination must attend imaging investigation. For diagnosis of diseases of the teeth are used a number of imaging methods. The most widespread of them are segmental roentgenography, ortopamtomography Bitewing, as well as increasingly coming in use dental cone-beam computed tomography (3D CBCT). The aim is to introduce the types of radiographs and their benefits for prompt and proper treatment. Documentary method - a review and analysis of literature and Internet sources are made. Results and comments: Segmented radiography gives us information about the state of the tooth as a whole. Using this method gives an opportunity to visualize the crown, the neck and the root of the tooth. Ortopantomography gives a general view of the state of the maxilla and mandibula, the teeth, part of the maxillary sinuses and temporomandibular joints. Some or extra teeth, are discovered as well as dental disease conditions, bone abnormalities, cysts and others. Bitewing is used when caries is strongly suspected, though not visually, in cases of bone loss and others. The advantage of early and accurate diagnosis is to reduce future complications. Conclusion: good prevention and early detection of dental anomalies and pathologies is performed with the help of X-ray. The selection of the correct method for imaging, the proper use of X-ray machines and placing the required security means reducing the amount of radiation exposure to the patient
Qaseem, Amir; Mir, Tanveer P; Starkey, Melissa; Denberg, Thomas D
The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guideline to present the evidence and provide clinical recommendations based on the comparative effectiveness of risk assessment scales and preventive interventions for pressure ulcers. This guideline is based on published literature on this topic that was identified by using MEDLINE (1946 through February 2014), CINAHL (1998 through February 2014), the Cochrane Library, clinical trials registries, and reference lists. Searches were limited to English-language publications. The outcomes evaluated for this guideline include pressure ulcer incidence and severity, resource use, diagnostic accuracy, measures of risk, and harms. This guideline grades the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations by using ACP's clinical practice guidelines grading system. The target audience for this guideline includes all clinicians, and the target patient population is patients at risk for pressure ulcers. ACP recommends that clinicians should perform a risk assessment to identify patients who are at risk of developing pressure ulcers. (Grade: weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). ACP recommends that clinicians should choose advanced static mattresses or advanced static overlays in patients who are at an increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). ACP recommends against using alternating-air mattresses or alternating-air overlays in patients who are at an increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. (Grade: weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).
The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled
Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese
Sarani, Arezoo; Sarani, Melika; Abdar, Mohammad Esmaeli; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili
Introduction Evidence-based care helps dentists provide quality dental services to patients, and such care is based on the use of reliable information about treatment and patient care from a large number of papers, books, and published textbooks. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students towards evidence-based dentistry. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all dentistry students who were studying in their sixth semester and higher in the Kerman School of Dentistry (n = 73) were studied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the independent-samples t-tests and the ANOVA test. Results The means of the students’ knowledge, awareness, and attitude scores were 29.2 ± 10.8, 29.9 ± 8.12 and 44.5 ± 5.3, respectively. Among demographic variables, only the number of semesters showed a significant difference with knowledge, awareness, and attitude of dentistry students toward evidence-based dentistry (p = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results of this study, knowledge and awareness of dentistry students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences towards evidence-based dentistry were average and have a neutral attitude. Thus, providing necessary training in this regard will cause promoting the knowledge, awareness, and improved attitudes of dentistry students. PMID:27382446
Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Unesp-FOSJC; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Unesp-FOSJC
The purpose of this article was to review the usage of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in dentistry research nowadays, through a careful and updated literature review. By using the key-words Scanning Electron Microscopy and one of the following areas of research in dentistry (Endodontics, Periodontics and Implant), in international database (PubMed), in the year of 2012 (from January to September), a total of 112 articles were found. This data was tabled and the articles were classified ac...
P S Shilpa; Rachna Kaul; Nishat Sultana; Suraksha Bhat
Stem cell research has received considerable attention since the discovery that adult stem cells have the capacity to form many different tissue types. Stem cells are a booming field for the research and have been extensively studied in the field of medicine, as well as dentistry. Their application in oncology has been a boon to many of the patients. Dental stem cells have been novel approach to treat diseases like periodontitis, dental caries and many more. Their potential uses in dentistry ...
Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, LI Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, AE
R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to pati...
Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien
This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.
Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay
Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the proce...
Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar
interpret visual and instrumental findings in clinical dentistry, dental research, and subsequent standardization. The importance of quality control in dentistry is reinforced by increased esthetic demands of patients and dental professionals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sivaramakrishnan Gowri; Deeksha Mehta; Sridharan Kannan
Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a well-known entity and the most common factor leading to this is the irrational use of antibiotics. Several studies from the West have substantiated the irrational use of antibiotics in dentistry. Aims: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of antimicrobial drug use among dental fraternity in a tertiary care teaching dental college and hospital. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey of various dental fraternities...
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Frencken, J.E.; Peters, M.C.; Manton, D.J.; Leal, S.C.; Gordan, V.V.; Eden, E.
This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing
Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla
Nanotechnology has paved multiple ways in preventing, reversing or restoring dental caries which is one of the major health care problems. Nanotechnology aided in processing variety of nanomaterials with innovative dental applications. Some showed antimicrobial effect helping in the preventive stage. Others have remineralizing potential intercepting early lesion progression as nanosized calcium phosphate, carbonate hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, nanoamorphous calcium phosphate and nanoparticulate bioactive glass particularly with provision of self-assembles protein that furnish essential role in biomimetic repair. The unique size of nanomaterials makes them fascinating carriers for dental products. Thus, it is recentlyclaimedthat fortifying the adhesives with nanomaterials that possess biological meritsdoes not only enhance the mechanical and physical properties of the adhesives, but also help to attain and maintain a durable adhesive joint and enhanced longevity. Accordingly, this review will focus on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in preventive and adhesive dentistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AlSarheed, Maha A
To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol, and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its' onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Intranasal midazolam, ketamine, and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications.
AlSarheed, Maha A.
Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849
Selato Selato, P.
Current literature on dental radiology was reviewed in order to seek justification for radiological protection of patients in dental radiography, to explore the different factors affecting patient dose and to derive practical guidance on how to achieve radiological protection of patients in dentistry. Individual doses incurred in dental radiology are in general relatively low, however it is generally accepted that there is no safe level of radiation dose and that no matter how low the doses received are, there is a mathematical probability of an effect. Hence appropriate patient protection measures must be instituted to keep the exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The literature review demonstrated that there is considerable scope for significant dose reductions in dental radiology using the techniques of optimisation of protection. The techniques of optimization of protection that can be used to ensure patient dose is as low as reasonably achievable whilst achieving clinically adequate image quality include the following: image receptor selection, image receptor holders, collimation, beam filtration, operating potential and exposure time, patient protective equipment, film exposure and processing, film storage, image viewing, quality assurance, diagnostic reference levels, technique charts and training and education.(au)
Saltz, Robert F; Welker, Lara R; Paschall, Mallie J; Feeney, Maggie A; Fabiano, Patricia M
This article evaluates Western Washington University's Neighborhoods Engaging with Students project-a comprehensive strategy to decrease disruptive off-campus parties by increasing student integration into and accountability to the neighborhoods in which they live. The intervention includes increasing the number of and publicity regarding "party emphasis patrols" and collaboration with the city to develop a regulatory mechanism to reduce repeat problematic party calls to the same address. The enforcement components are complemented by campus-based, late-night expansion programming, as well as neighborhood engagement strategies including an educational Web site designed to increase students' knowledge of and skills in living safely and legally in the community, service-learning projects in the campus-contiguous neighborhoods, and a neighborhood-based conflict-resolution program. The evaluation comprised data from three public universities in Washington. In addition to the Western Washington University site, a second campus created an opportunity for a "natural experiment" because it adopted a very similar intervention in the same time frame, creating two intervention sites and one comparison site. Annual, Web-based student surveys in 2005 and 2006 included measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and student perception of alcohol control and prevention activities. Although statistical power with three campuses was limited, results using hierarchical linear modeling showed that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was significantly lower at the intervention schools (odds ratio = 0.73; N = 6,150 students). The results suggest that alcohol control measures can be effective in reducing problematic drinking in college settings. These findings strongly support conducting a replication with greater power and a more rigorous design.
Schaub, R.M.; de Baat, C.
In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational
Schaub, R.M.; Baat, C. de
In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational
Gordan, Valeria V; Abu-Hanna, Amer; Mjör, Ivar A
Esthetic dentistry is among the most dynamic areas of contemporary clinical dentistry. Teaching programs in dental schools have a strong effect on the practice of dentistry, not only for recent graduates, but also for established clinicians, especially with respect to new techniques and concepts. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess the frequency and extent of the teaching of esthetic dentistry in North American dental schools and to report how it differs among the various schools. A 19-question survey was mailed to 64 North American dental schools. The questions inquired about the priority given to the teaching of esthetic dentistry in the school; how the subject was taught (through regular curricular courses; through a multidisciplinary approach or through elective classes); the duration of the esthetic dentistry course; the nature of the course content (theoretical or practical); the esthetic procedures taught to undergraduate students; the level of interaction among different disciplines in the teaching of esthetic dentistry; and the techniques and commercial materials used. The responses were summarized as percentages based on the number of schools that responded to each question. Fifty-two (81%) of the 64 dental schools completed and returned the questionnaire. Twenty-five of these schools (48%; designated group A) reported having a course exclusively for the teaching of esthetic dentistry. Twenty-seven schools (52%; designated group B) reported that esthetic dentistry was addressed in multiple courses, i.e., no specific course was available. Four schools in group B (15%) were in the process of developing a separate course for esthetic dentistry. In group A schools, esthetic dentistry was taught mainly in the operative dentistry department or division. The most frequent course duration was 4 to 6 months, but there were marked variations. Thirteen (52%) of these 25 schools had didactic and practical teaching at both the preclinical and the
Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Yadav, Lalita; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana
Dentistry is most importantly and foremost a healing profession. In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives, including dental practice which has a huge impact on the environment due to the large amount of metallic waste generated by various dental procedures along with excessive use of water and electricity, which specifically emphasis the thrust to move towards 'Green dentistry'. Green dentistry is an innovative way of dental practice which is environment friendly and at the same time conserves money and time by reducing waste, conserving energy and decreasing pollution with the use of latest techniques and procedures. Green dentistry therefore, protects the environment and mankind from the hazards of rapid urbanisation in developing countries. The authors wish to emphasize the practice of eco-friendly, green dentistry in a developing country like India which needs to conserve resources and curb environmental pollution.
Mashlah, A M
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changed trends of population, oral diseases and their effects on Chinese dentistry. The demographic and epidemiologic data published in recent books and journals were reviewed and analyzed. As the 21st century approached, dentistry in China would face many changing trends and challenges. 1. a growing population and an aging population: The two sub-populations with the greatest need for prevention and treatment were children and old patients who were outpacing the supply of dental manpower. 2. The changed dental disease patterns: The prevalence of caries was increasing and more than two thirds of Chinese suffered from periodontal disease. The traditional dental approaches have not been able to satisfy the needs of Chinese. The challenge created by these demographic, economic and advances in dental technology is changing Chinese dentistry.
Rodd, H D; Farman, M; Albadri, S; Mackie, I C
Previous studies have suggested that dental students may not receive sufficient clinical experience in core paediatric dentistry skills. This study aimed to compare dental undergraduates' self-reported experience and confidence in paediatric dentistry within three UK dental schools (Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield). In April/May 2009, 147 final year dental students completed an anonymous questionnaire which captured their experience of seven core clinical skills in both hospital and outreach settings. A visual analogue scale was also employed to record perceived levels of confidence for six generic activities including: examination, diagnosis and treatment planning; patient selection for treatment under general anaesthesia; operative dentistry; preventive dentistry; management of dento-alveolar trauma, and provision of routine care for children on qualification. The key finding was that Liverpool, Manchester and Sheffield dental students received comparable clinical experiences in paediatric dentistry, which appeared to satisfy the requirements of the General Dental Council's The first five years. One hundred percent had carried out fissure sealants and restorations, and 87-98% had experience of extractions. Outreach placements were crucial in ensuring students had sufficient opportunity to undertake core skills, notably extractions and pulp therapies. All students reported a lack of confidence in dental trauma management which warrants greater emphasis in the undergraduate curriculum.
Mount, G J
It is over 100 years since GV Black gathered together most of the knowledge then current on the caries process and set clear parameters for the discipline of operative dentistry. His four-volume treatise set standards that were relevant for the times and, in fact, were so well described that they remained dominant in this discipline until quite recently. However, over the last 50 years there has been great progress in scientific method and in knowledge of the common diseases of the oral environment, including the caries process, so maybe it is time for change. The term "paradigm" describes a philosophy of science, a generally accepted model of how ideas relate to one another, forming a conceptual framework within which scientific research is carried out. Black defined the paradigm within which further research was to be conducted during the following years and the profession accepted his lead. However, it is not expected that the parameters of a profession should remain unchanged over a substantial period so it is suggested that the dental profession should, at this time, recognize a new paradigm. Improvements in scientific method have led to a better understanding of the oral environment, resulting in extensive changes for this profession. It is suggested that the standards set by Black should be now consigned to history and an entirely new paradigm adopted. First, the profession must recognize that dental caries is a bacterial disease and its primary efforts should be directed towards identification and elimination of the disease prior to initiating repair of the damage that it has caused. Preservation of natural tooth structure is then the next responsibility. There should be maximum use made of preventive strategies, including remineralization, followed by minimal intervention cavity designs and the use of bioactive restorative materials to restore the lesions. The profession should be prepared to move on.
Schleyer, Titus K L; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Spallek, Heiko; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel H; Hernandez, Pedro; Yuhaniak, Jeannie
Measure the adoption and utilization of, opinions about, and attitudes toward clinical computing among general dentists in the United States. Telephone survey of a random sample of 256 general dentists in active practice in the United States. A 39-item telephone interview measuring practice characteristics and information technology infrastructure; clinical information storage; data entry and access; attitudes toward and opinions about clinical computing (features of practice management systems, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, and potential improvements); clinical Internet use; and attitudes toward the National Health Information Infrastructure. The authors successfully screened 1,039 of 1,159 randomly sampled U.S. general dentists in active practice (89.6% response rate). Two hundred fifty-six (24.6%) respondents had computers at chairside and thus were eligible for this study. The authors successfully interviewed 102 respondents (39.8%). Clinical information associated with administration and billing, such as appointments and treatment plans, was stored predominantly on the computer; other information, such as the medical history and progress notes, primarily resided on paper. Nineteen respondents, or 1.8% of all general dentists, were completely paperless. Auxiliary personnel, such as dental assistants and hygienists, entered most data. Respondents adopted clinical computing to improve office efficiency and operations, support diagnosis and treatment, and enhance patient communication and perception. Barriers included insufficient operational reliability, program limitations, a steep learning curve, cost, and infection control issues. Clinical computing is being increasingly adopted in general dentistry. However, future research must address usefulness and ease of use, workflow support, infection control, integration, and implementation issues.
Kaplan, Alan L.; Lillich, Thomas T.
Use of the Application Transfer Study (ATS), a method of assessing information systems, to evaluate a dental school's information system is described, and its results are reported. It is concluded that the ATS was a worthwhile undertaking for both direct and indirect benefits derived from the analysis and the implementation of resulting…
Gursoy, Hare; Ozcakir-Tomruk, Ceyda; Tanalp, Jale; Yilmaz, Selçuk
The purpose of this review was to summarize recent developments regarding photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the field of dentistry. A review of pertinent literature was carried out in PubMED to determine the current position of PDT applications in dentistry. One hundred thirteen relevant articles were retrieved from PubMED by inserting the keywords "photodynamic therapy", "dentistry", "periodontology", "oral surgery", and "endodontics". It is anticipated that this overview will create a specific picture in the practitioner's mind regarding the current status and use of PDT. In spite of different results and suggestions brought about by different researchers, PDT can be considered as a promising and less invasive technique in dentistry. PDT seems to be an effective tool in the treatment of localized and superficial infections. Within the limitations of the present review, it can be concluded that although PDT cannot replace antimicrobial therapy at its current stage, it may be used as an adjunctive tool for facilitating the treatment of oral infections. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry.
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric...... case reports), the publication rate is less than 1 percent--completely out of proportion to the size of the problem dental trauma impose in children.......Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...
Shah, Naseem; Bansal, Nikhil; Logani, Ajay
Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools, specially imaging methods, have become mandatory. From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation (brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry. PMID:25349663
P S Shilpa
Full Text Available Stem cell research has received considerable attention since the discovery that adult stem cells have the capacity to form many different tissue types. Stem cells are a booming field for the research and have been extensively studied in the field of medicine, as well as dentistry. Their application in oncology has been a boon to many of the patients. Dental stem cells have been novel approach to treat diseases like periodontitis, dental caries and many more. Their potential uses in dentistry have provided a new generation of treatments for dental diseases and stem cells have become the focus in dental research. This review highlights about the biology, sources and potential applications of stem cells in dentistry with emphasis on a dentist′s role in enabling both medical and dental applications using stem cells from teeth.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad; Qasim, Saad; Shahab, Sana; Naseem, Mustafa; AbuReqaiba, Ammar
Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients. PMID:28787967
Kalsi, A S; Lewis, N J; Hemmings, K W
A recent national survey has shown the need for clarification regarding the various disciplines encompassed by restorative dentistry and their respective training pathways. This document aims to address this by outlining the remit of restorative dentistry, in addition to the various job roles involved. This information is being disseminated by the British Society for Restorative Dentistry, and given the relevance to referrers and those looking for insight into the speciality, it has been reproduced here. Roles within the speciality range from dentists with special interests to specialists and consultants, whether primarily academic or clinical. The choice that a new graduate may make to choose a specific route will likely depend on a number of factors, often specific to each individual. Guidance on ways to gain experience and sources of further information are also provided.
Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. Diagnostic radiology uses ionizing radiations which have sufficient energy to ionize atoms or molecules in biological and other systems. X-rays used in diagnostic radiology are a potent mutagenic agent, capable of inducing both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. X-rays are extensively used in medical and dental practice for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment. X-rays provide useful information and aid in diagnosis but at the same time they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry X-rays are used mainly for diagnosis. Radiation in doses required for dentistry may not present any major risks, however these small doses are not necessarily risk free. Hence, no exposure to X-rays can be considered completely free of risk, so the use of radiation by dentists is accompanied by a responsibility to ensure appropriate protection. Several radiation safety measures have been recommended and advocated to reduce harmful effects. Dental professionals are the only practitioners who perform radiographical examination of their patients themselves. Although the exposure used in dentistry is low every effort should be made to reduce radiation in order to prevent the accumulated dose to the dentist in their lifetime. The dose reduction can be achieved in three main steps. They are decision making, optimising radiologic procedures and patient protection. The potential for undesirable effects must be balanced against the benefits obtained from radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel. (author)
Andreea Dana Tudose
technical report of treatment ( labor - price, average duration, satisfaction, relative to direct restoration techniques versus indirect techniques . In conclusion, SWOT analysis can be successfully applied to a better targeting of treatments, applying a plan lines for management in dental treatment units. None of direct techniques can not fit the bioeconomy principles (saves time, money, dental tissue in the short term. All maneuvers efficient in terms of functional aesthetics dentistry win at time saving and lost tooth structure chapter to the cost issue. In the long run costs can be amortized, especially since the restoration increases predictability.
da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho
The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123
Wee, A G; Schneider, R L; Aquilino, S A
Low fusing alloy has been used in dentistry for remount procedures in both fixed and removable prosthodontics, in implant prosthodontics for the fabrication of solid implant casts, in maxillofacial prosthetics as oral radiation shields, and in dental research for its unique properties. Previously, the use of low fusing alloy was thought to offer a high degree of dimensional accuracy. However, multiple in vitro studies have shown that its presumed dimensional accuracy may be questionable. This article reviews the physical properties, metallurgical considerations of low fusing alloy, its applications in dentistry, and a safe, simple method of using low fusing alloy.
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comp...
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Dickerson, T C
Coaching is a subject dentistry appears to have let slip by, yet as this article outlines, it has so much to offer in many different aspects of dentistry, but particularly in fulfilling the Standards for dental professionals determined by the General Dental Council (GDC). Evidence suggests that coaching has produced tremendous benefits to business, and dentistry is a business.
Hust, Stacey J T; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Ren, Chunbo; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Marett, Emily Garrigues
Among the existing sexual assault prevention efforts on college campuses, few use mass communication strategies designed to simultaneously entertain and educate. Although many entertainment-education efforts are guided by social cognitive theory, other theories may be useful in entertainment-education design. Previous research has found that social cognitive theory and social norms theory can successfully influence participants' perceived norms and efficacy related to sexual assault reduction; however, whether such results can be replicated in a naturalistic setting and the extent to which the guiding theoretical foundation may influence outcomes remain unknown. We used a pre- and posttest field experiment with college students in residence halls to assess how different theoretical foundations may influence effects. Over the course of a semester, the participants viewed eight mini-magazines developed using (1) social cognitive theory, (2) social norms theory, (3) a combination of both theoretical frameworks, or (4) a control condition with no sexual assault prevention messaging. Participants in the combined content condition had greater levels of self-efficacy related to sexual assault prevention and more accurate norm perceptions. There were also effects for the mini-magazines developed with only one theoretical framework. Overall, we found that multiple theories can effectively guide entertainment-education message development.
Nazemisalman, Bahareh; Farsadeghi, Mahya; Sokhansanj, Mehdi
Laser technology has been recently introduced into the dental field with the idea to replace drilling. Having a less painful first dental experience by the use of modern instruments like laser can be an efficient preventive and therapeutic strategy in pediatric dentistry. Pedodontists need to learn the new less invasive technologies and adopt them in their routine practice. This study aimed to review the available types of lasers and their applications in pediatric dentistry. An electronic search was carried out in IranMedex, InterScience, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest, Medline and Google Scholar databases to find relevant articles published from 2000 to 2014. Relevant textbooks were reviewed as well. Laser can be used as a suitable alternative to many conventional diagnostic and therapeutic dental procedures. It is especially efficient for caries detection and removal, pulp therapy, lowering the risk of infection, inflammation and swelling and reducing bleeding. On the other hand, due to minimal invasion, laser treatment is well tolerated by children. Improved patient cooperation leads to higher satisfaction of the parents, dentists and the children themselves.
Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Vonneilich, Nico
The Study of dentistry in Germany is in need of reform. The actual regulation on licensing dentists in Germany is from 1955, with the last changes made in 1993. Recently there have been different initiatives related to reform: a national catalogue of competency-based learning objectives in dental education (NKLZ), changes and stipulations in the respective rules relating to undergraduate curriculum in dental medicine, and an initiative of the Germany Ministry of Health to tackle and reorganize dental education in Germany.This article presents and reflects on these reform efforts in the context of actual teaching in Germany, Europe, and the United States.The reform process is an opportunity for dental education in German faculties of medicine. New dentistry programs are allowed at all faculties with model educational programs in medicine. Therefore, an example of actual reform efforts are presented based on the experiences of Hamburg. Research on dental educational programs revealed interesting approaches in dental education in other European faculties of medicine. Selected faculties were visited. These experiences led to the formulation of five main goals of reform: interdisciplinary study, problem- and symptom-based learning, early patient contact, science-based education, and communication training. The main goal is a dental education program designed along science-based, prevention-oriented, multidisciplinary, and individualized dental care that contributes to the life-long oral health of patients.
Savithra, Prakash; Nagesh, Lakshminarayan Shetty
To assess a) whether the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) has improved since the formulation of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement and b) whether there is any difference in reporting of RCTs between the selected public health dentistry journals. A hand search of the journals of public health dentistry was performed and four journals were identified for the study. They were Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology (CDOE), Community Dental Health (CDH), Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) and Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry (OHPD). A total of 114 RCTs published between 1990 and 2009 were selected. CONSORT guidelines were applied to each selected article in order to assess and determine any improvement since the publication of CONSORT guidelines. The chi-square test was employed to determine any statistical significant difference in quality of reporting of RCTs before and after the publication of the CONSORT guidelines. A comparison was also done to determine any statistically significant difference in quality of reporting of RCTs between the selected journals. Title, abstract, discussion and conclusion sections of the selected articles showed adherence to the CONSORT guidelines, whereas the compliance was poor with respect to the methodology section. The quality of reporting of RCTs is generally poor in public health dentistry journals. Overall, the quality of reporting has not substantially improved since the publication of CONSORT guidelines.
B H Sripathi Rao
Full Text Available The development and use of implants is one of the biggest advances in dentistry in the last few decades. It has helped to give many solutions to tooth loss as well as maxillo facial prosthetics. This article traces the history and evolution of dental implants.
Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 19, č. 9 (2008), s. 926-926 ISSN 0905-7161. [EAO Annual Scientific Meeting /17./. 18.09.2008-20.09.2008, Warsaw] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forensic dentistry * identification * electronic health record Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Gibson, G. B.; Swanson, A. E.
The process used by the University of British Columbia to establish and improve an undergraduate hospital dentistry program is chronicled. The program's initial structure and objectives, use of student input for program improvement, and the success of the approach in developing an effective program are discussed. (MSE)
Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also
Full Text Available Introduction: Stem cells (SCs, known as cells with characteristics such as self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, are generally obtained from two sources: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs and adult stem cells (ASCs. SC research is expected to play a pivotal role in future medicine. The aim of the present review was to introduce dental and nondental SCs, examining the general characteristics, in vivo and in vitro differentiation capacities, immunosuppressive properties as well as the application of SCs in dentistry and regenerative medicine. Methods: In October 2015, PubMed, Scopus were searched by experienced researchers with the query "stem cells and dentistry "and a focus on SC and dental journals. Results: In the field of dentistry, ASCs, isolated from different structures, are divided into different subpopulations: Dental SCs, population of SCs isolated from different components of immature and mature teeth and nondental SCs, and those isolated from oromaxillofacial tissues. Conclusions: It appears that dental and nondental SCs are popular resources of SCs because of easier accessibility and fewer ethical problems. In addition, they have a high differentiation capacity into different cell lineages. Different studies have introduced dental and nondental SCs as suitable SC sources for SC therapy in dentistry and regenerative medicine.
Wismeijer, D.; Buser, D.; Chen, S.
The ITI Treatment Guide series, a unique compendium of evidence-based treatment methods in implant dentistry in daily practice, written by renowned clinicians, provides a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic options. Using an illustrated step-by-step approach, the ITI Treatment Guide shows
Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.
Zvárová, Jana; Dostálová, T.; Hanzlíček, Petr; Teuberová, Z.; Nagy, Miroslav; Pieš, Martin; Seydlová, M.; Eliášová, H.; Šimková, H.
Roč. 47, č. 1 (2008), s. 8-13 ISSN 0026-1270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * structured data entry * forensic dentistry Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2008
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
The relationship between medicine and dentistry in Nigeria from the time of colonial rule to date is highlighted. Records have shown that medical practice is much older than dental practice and this pioneering advantage in health education enhanced the establishment of the first medical school in Ibadan in 1948. Whereas ...
Hyson, John M
The history of the use of arsenic in dentistry has been relegated to dental history. Once hailed as a panacea for the relief of pain and the answer to root canal therapy, it soon fell out of use mainly because of its misuse by unskilled and unscrupulous dentists in search of a quick fix to a complex problem. Such is the story of arsenic.
Shue, Brian K; Seldin, Harriet F
California’s female dentists have experienced many professional and societal challenges. Their earliest achievements and successes are examined, including their history in the early California schools of dentistry and dental societies, their service and professional practice. A diverse selection of female dentists from California with different professional career paths is profiled.
Ryan, Barbara E.
For more than two decades the U.S. Department of Education has supported campus- and community-based prevention programs through a number of programs and activities. For example, in 1987 the Department convened the first annual National Meeting for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention in Higher Education as a forum to disseminate…
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Full Text Available Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries
Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino; Alfaro, Maria F; McCombs, Jeri; Campbell, Stephen D; Knoernschild, Kent L; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun
A recently revised predoctoral implant curriculum at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry integrated digital dentistry into both the preclinical dental implant course and clinical activities. Traditionally, competence in the didactic and clinical parts of predoctoral education in single tooth implant restorations has emphasized the analog impression technique and subsequent mounting of soft tissue working casts. However, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant restorations can play a significant role in predoctoral dental education utilizing digital technologies. The goal of the curriculum expansion is to transition from analog to partially digital and, finally, complete digital workflow. The aim of this article is to describe the specific components, implementation, and rationale for the new digitally integrated implant curriculum and present short-term clinical utilization trends.
IQuaD dental trial; improving the quality of dentistry: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing oral hygiene advice and periodontal instrumentation for the prevention and management of periodontal disease in dentate adults attending dental primary care.
Clarkson, Jan E; Ramsay, Craig R; Averley, Paul; Bonetti, Debbie; Boyers, Dwayne; Campbell, Louise; Chadwick, Graham R; Duncan, Anne; Elders, Andrew; Gouick, Jill; Hall, Andrew F; Heasman, Lynne; Heasman, Peter A; Hodge, Penny J; Jones, Clare; Laird, Marilyn; Lamont, Thomas J; Lovelock, Laura A; Madden, Isobel; McCombes, Wendy; McCracken, Giles I; McDonald, Alison M; McPherson, Gladys; Macpherson, Lorna E; Mitchell, Fiona E; Norrie, John Dt; Pitts, Nigel B; van der Pol, Marjon; Ricketts, David Nj; Ross, Margaret K; Steele, James G; Swan, Moira; Tickle, Martin; Watt, Pauline D; Worthington, Helen V; Young, Linda
Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease affecting adults, and although it is largely preventable it remains the major cause of poor oral health worldwide. Accumulation of microbial dental plaque is the primary aetiological factor for both periodontal disease and caries. Effective self-care (tooth brushing and interdental aids) for plaque control and removal of risk factors such as calculus, which can only be removed by periodontal instrumentation (PI), are considered necessary to prevent and treat periodontal disease thereby maintaining periodontal health. Despite evidence of an association between sustained, good oral hygiene and a low incidence of periodontal disease and caries in adults there is a lack of strong and reliable evidence to inform clinicians of the relative effectiveness (if any) of different types of Oral Hygiene Advice (OHA). The evidence to inform clinicians of the effectiveness and optimal frequency of PI is also mixed. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness of OHA and PI in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) in primary dental care. This is a 5 year multi-centre, randomised, open trial with blinded outcome evaluation based in dental primary care in Scotland and the North East of England. Practitioners will recruit 1860 adult patients, with periodontal health, gingivitis or moderate periodontitis (Basic Periodontal Examination Score 0-3). Dental practices will be cluster randomised to provide routine OHA or Personalised OHA. To test the effects of PI each individual patient participant will be randomised to one of three groups: no PI, 6 monthly PI (current practice), or 12 monthly PI.Baseline measures and outcome data (during a three year follow-up) will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases.The primary outcome measures at 3 year follow up are gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing at the gingival margin; oral hygiene self
Streng, Tara K.; Kamimura, Akiko
Objective: Sexual violence within the collegiate environment is a pressing issue within American society. One way to address sexual violence is through the adaptation and implementation of a sexual assault policy by colleges and universities. The purpose of this study is to review sexual misconduct and assault policies of ten public universities…
Quintero, Gilbert A.; Young, Kathleen J.; Mier, Nelda; Jenks, Shepard, Jr.
Alcohol abuse on college campuses continues to be a significant public health issue and health promotion strategies are being directed at changing the culture of collegiate drinking. From a qualitative research perspective such efforts remain uniformed since this area of research is currently dominated by large-scale surveys that illuminate little…
Gilbert Gregg H
Full Text Available Abstract Background "Pay for performance" is an incentive system that has been gaining acceptance in medicine and is currently being considered for implementation in dentistry. However, it remains unclear whether pay for performance can effect significant and lasting changes in provider behavior and quality of care. Provider acceptance will likely increase if pay for performance programs reward true quality. Therefore, we adopted a quality-oriented approach in reviewing those factors which could influence whether it will be embraced by the dental profession. Discussion The factors contributing to the adoption of value-based purchasing were categorized according to the Donabedian quality of care framework. We identified the dental insurance market, the dental profession position, the organization of dental practice, and the dental patient involvement as structural factors influencing the way dental care is practiced and paid for. After considering variations in dental care and the early stage of development for evidence-based dentistry, the scarcity of outcome indicators, lack of clinical markers, inconsistent use of diagnostic codes and scarcity of electronic dental records, we concluded that, for pay for performance programs to be successfully implemented in dentistry, the dental profession and health services researchers should: 1 expand the knowledge base; 2 increase considerably evidence-based clinical guidelines; and 3 create evidence-based performance measures tied to existing clinical practice guidelines. Summary In this paper, we explored factors that would influence the adoption of value-based purchasing programs in dentistry. Although none of these factors were essential deterrents for the implementation of pay for performance programs in medicine, the aggregate seems to indicate that significant changes are needed before this type of program could be considered a realistic option in dentistry.
Fardi, Anastasia; Kodonas, Konstantinos; Lillis, Theodoros; Veis, Alexander
Citation analysis is the field of bibliometrics that uses citation data to evaluate the scientific recognition and the influential performance of a research article in the scientific community. The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis of the top-cited articles pertaining to implant dentistry, to analyze the main characteristics, and to display the most interesting topics and evolutionary trends. The 100 top-cited articles published in "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine" journals were identified using the Science Citation Index Database. The articles were further reviewed, and basic information was collected, including the number of citations, journals, authors, publication year, study design, level of evidence, and field of study. The highly cited articles in implant dentistry were cited between 199 and 2,229 times. The majority of them were published in four major journals: Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and Journal of Periodontology. The publication year ranged from 1981 to 2009, with 45% published in a nine-year period (2001 to 2009). Publications from the United States (29%) were the most heavily cited, followed by those from Sweden (23%) and Switzerland (17%). The University of Göteborg from Sweden produced the highest number of publications (n = 19), followed by the University of Bern in Switzerland (n = 13). There was a predominance of clinical papers (n = 42), followed by reviews (n = 25), basic science research (n = 21), and proceedings papers (n = 12). Peri-implant tissue healing and health (24%), implant success/failures (19.2%), and biomechanical topics (16.8%) were the most common fields of study. Citation analysis in the field of implant dentistry reveals interesting information about the topics and trends negotiated by researchers and elucidates which characteristics are required for a paper to attain a "classic" status. Clinical
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) group reduced depressive symptoms and secondary outcomes relative to bibliotherapy and brochure controls in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 82 college students (M age=19.0, SD=0.9; 70% female, 80% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-session CB group, bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Planned contrasts found no significant effects for CB group on depressive symptoms compared to either bibliotherapy or brochure controls at posttest (d=-.08 and .06, respectively) or over follow-up (d=-.04 and -.10, respectively). There were no intervention effects for social adjustment and substance use, though CB group participants had improved knowledge of CB concepts at posttest, versus brochure controls. Condition differences in major depression onset were nonsignificant but suggested support for CB interventions (CB group=7.4%, bibliotherapy=4.5%, brochure control=15.2%). Unexpectedly modest support was found for a brief CB group depression prevention intervention, compared to bibliotherapy or brochure control, when provided to self-selected college students, suggesting that alternative screening or interventions approaches are needed for this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lakshmana B Rao
Full Text Available An extremely effective way of preventing damage to and enhancing treatment of dental hard tissues and restorations would be to ′′de-programme′′ the muscles responsible for excessive destructive forces and other gnathological-related diseases. The new paradigm is the intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX into the affected muscles. It is a natural protein produced by anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. The toxin inhibits the release of acetylcholine (ACH, a neurotransmitter responsible for the activation of muscle contraction and glandular secretion, and its administration results in reduction of tone in the injected muscle. There are seven distinct serotypes of Botulinum toxin, viz., A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which differ in their potency, duration of action, and cellular target sites. This paper describes the different applications of BOTOX in dentistry.
Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Singh, Raj Kumar; Chaudhari, Prabhat Kumar
The term LASER is an acronym for ‘Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation’. As its first application in dentistry by Miaman, in 1960, the laser has seen various hard and soft tissue applications. In the last two decades, there has been an explosion of research studies in laser application. In hard tissue application, the laser is used for caries prevention, bleaching, restorative removal and curing, cavity preparation, dentinal hypersensitivity, growth modulation and for diagnostic purposes, whereas soft tissue application includes wound healing, removal of hyperplastic tissue to uncovering of impacted or partially erupted tooth, photodynamic therapy for malignancies, photostimulation of herpetic lesion. Use of the laser proved to be an effective tool to increase efficiency, specificity, ease, and cost and comfort of the dental treatment. PMID:23833485
Effectiveness of a transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based and mobile-supported intervention for the indicated prevention of depression and anxiety (ICare Prevent) in Dutch college students: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Bolinski, Felix; Kleiboer, Annet; Karyotaki, Eirini; Bosmans, Judith E; Zarski, Anna-Carlotta; Weisel, Kiona K; Ebert, David D; Jacobi, Corinna; Cuijpers, Pim; Riper, Heleen
Depression and anxiety are common and co-morbid disorders that affect a significant proportion of students. Innovative prevention strategies targeting both conditions are needed to reduce their health burden and costs. ICare Prevent is such an innovative strategy and contains a transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based and mobile-supported intervention. It addresses common risk factors of depression and anxiety as part of a large EU-funded multi-country project* (ICare). Little is known about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of this type of intervention compared to care as usual (CAU) for college students. We hypothesize that ICare Prevent will be more (cost-)effective than CAU in the reduction of symptoms of depression and anxiety. A three-arm, parallel, randomized controlled superiority trial will be conducted comparing a guided and an unguided version of ICare Prevent with a control group receiving CAU. The trial will be open-label but outcome assessors will be blinded. A total of 252 college students (age ≥ 16 years) with subclinical symptoms of depression defined as a score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and/or anxiety, defined as a score ≥ 5 on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), will be included. Those meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive or anxiety disorder will be excluded. The primary outcome is change in disorder specific symptom severity from baseline to post-intervention. Secondary endpoints include self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms as well as time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder until 12-month follow-up. Societal costs and quality of life will be assessed to estimate the intervention's cost-effectiveness compared to CAU. Transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based prevention could be a (cost-)effective approach to tackle the disease burden of depression and anxiety among college students. Dutch trial register, NTR 6562
Jaju, Rishita; Tate, Anupama Rao
The purpose of this study was to characterize the participation of pediatric dentistry in multidisciplinary cleft palate teams (CPTs) at advanced pediatric dental residency programs. A survey was sent to the directors of advanced pediatric dentistry programs across the United States. Of the 60 (90%) surveys returned, 18% of the programs were university-based, 40% hospital-based, and 42% combined programs. Overall, 92% of the programs reported pediatric dentistry's participation in CPTs. Orthodontics, plastic surgery, oral surgery, otolaryngology, and speech therapy, are represented on at least 75% of the CPTs. Nursing and psychology are represented in less than 50% of the CPTs. A higher percentage of combined programs reported providing interceptive orthodontics, while more hospital-based programs reported providing presurgical infant orthopedic appliances (PIOAs). Of the 47% of the programs that reported use of POIA, 64% reported using removable appliances. Seventy-five percent of the programs reported that there has been no change, 22% reported an increase, and 3% reported a decrease in the CPT participation level in the post 5 years. This study highlights the role of pediatric dentistry as a part of cleft palate team. This role extends from preventive and restorative to infant orthopedics.
Bavaresco, Caren Serra; Bragança, Silvana Gonçalves; D'Avila, Otávio Pereira; Umpierre, Roberto; Harzheim, Erno; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida
Oral health in childhood is a major problem for global public health. In Brazil, the prevalence of childhood tooth decay varies from 12% to 46%. Dental care treatment in Brazil is almost the exclusive responsibility of primary healthcare (PHC). Therefore, it is essential these professionals are prepared to conduct restorative, endodontic, and exodontic treatments and preventive care in children. Children make up a large proportion of the population in territories requiring advanced dental care provided by PHC in Brazil. To care for these patients, it is necessary to have both manual dexterity and technical knowledge of pediatric dentistry. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a distance course on pediatric dentistry. A pretest questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was used to assess initial dental knowledge of participants. After completion of a five-module course, participants retook the same initial dental knowledge questionnaire (post-test). Descriptive statistic and paired t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlation were used, and a significance level of 5% was set. The majority of participants completing the five-module course were women who earned specialty degrees beyond undergraduate studies and currently worked in PHC (>5 years). Participant performance on the dental knowledge questionnaire after completion of the five-module course improved pre- to post-test. These data suggest that completion of a distance course on pediatric dentistry can be an effective tool for improving knowledge of pediatric dentistry in PHC professionals.
Hayashi, Mikako; Haapasalo, Markus; Imazato, Satoshi; Lee, Jae Il; Momoi, Yasuko; Murakami, Shinya; Whelton, Helen; Wilson, Nairn
Oral health is - literally - vital to good general health, not least because the mouth is the sentinel of the body. Dentistry, the Cinderella of health care, faces immense challenges of globalisation. Governments, having spent freely on everything from defence to social security, face mountains of debts which make budget cutbacks essential. Simultaneously, most developed countries have to pay increasing costs of caring for rapidly ageing populations. Dentistry is being pulled two ways: wealthy members of society demand high-end expensive treatment, much of it cosmetic rather than necessary to deal with disease, whereas many millions of poor people in developing countries cannot afford basic dental treatment and may never see a dentist. Too many governments and dentists persist with the expensive and destructive regime of 'drill and fill (and bill)'. International advances in care may not reach the clinician's chair because treatment guidelines and payments are set locally. An international symposium to celebrate Mikako Hayashi becoming Professor of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology at Osaka University concluded that dentistry should move from an increasingly un-affordable curative model to a cost-effective evidence-based preventive model. The goal is to help people retain healthy natural teeth throughout their lives, as an essential part of enhancing their general health. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Full Text Available Background HIV/AIDS is posing the most alarming public health challenges in worldwide. Based on research studies showed that school, pre‐university and university level students are not fully aware of the mode of transmissions, risk behaviour, attitudes, beliefs and prevention of HIV/AIDS. College students should be aware on the basic information, prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS so that they can perceive themselves as having a personal responsibility for maintaining healthy life. Objectives This study was undertaken to evaluate the Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge regarding prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS among bachelor level of management students. Methods Pre experimental research design was done. The samples were 100 bachelor level management students of selected colleges at Bangalore. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples for the study. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and interpreted in terms of objectives and hypothesis of the study. The level of significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results The mean pre‐test knowledge score was 41.8% (SD of ± 10.9 whereas the mean post‐test knowledge score was 84.2% (SD of ±8.2. A significant difference was found between mean pre‐test and post‐test knowledge scores (‘t’ = 39.35, p< 0.05. A significant association was found between age, gender, marital status, stream of education, place of origin, educational level of parents and the source of information received on prevention and transmission HIV/AIDS (χ2 = 5.18, 3.87, 7.68, 7.31, 7.53, 8.67, 7.84 at p< 0.05. Conclusion The samples had inadequate knowledge regarding all the aspects of prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS. The study finding indicates that Self‐Instructional Module was effective in enhancing the knowledge of bachelor level management
Sealants for preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal caries in primary and permanent molars: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials-a report of the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.
Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso
information about adverse events, but they did not report any adverse events. Available evidence suggests that sealants are effective and safe to prevent or arrest the progression of noncavitated carious lesions compared with a control without sealants or fluoride varnishes. Further research is needed to provide information about the relative merits of the different types of sealant materials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ucer, T C; Botticelli, D; Stavropoulos, A; Cowpe, J G
Training for dental practitioners in implant dentistry ranges from 1- or 2-day short Continuing Professional Development (CPD) courses to certificate/diploma programmes run by universities. In general, the teaching of implant dentistry in Europe lacks structure and standardisation. This paper aims to: (i) identify the current trends in CPD in implant dentistry in Europe; (ii) identify potential and limitations with regards to the design and implementation of CPD activities in implant dentistry; (iii) provide recommendations on the future structure and development of CPD activities in implant dentistry. A search of the literature was undertaken in PubMed for manuscripts published in English after 2000 reporting on CPD in dentistry and in implant dentistry in particular. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted, investigating the attitudes towards CPD among a wide group of stakeholders in implant dentistry education. There is a wide diversity of educational pathways towards achieving competences in implant dentistry through CPD. At present, there is a need for improving the CPD structures in implant dentistry, strengthening the quality assurance and encouraging standardisation and transparency of the learning outcomes. Development of a structured CPD system with clearly defined educational objectives mapped against specific levels of competence is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mehdizadeh, S.; Vaziefehdoust, S.
Complete text of publication follows. Dentistry students were assessed in one of the school of dentistry in Iran. 11% of responders had attended a radiation protection course. This study showed that those who have attended this course had improved knowledge of ALARA principle, assessment of the impact of digital imaging in patient dose reduction and usage of personal dosimeter systems. Course attendance made no considerable difference to knowledge of the patient dose, dose reduction techniques and annual permissible dose limits of general public and radiation workers. The results of this study revealed that the majority of students have not received adequate radiation protection teaching and even if a course has been attended, overall knowledge is still poor and formal teaching at undergraduate level should be corrected in the future.
Jabr S. Al-Sanabani
Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.
Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.
Jovananović, Svetlana; Milovanović, Srdjan; Zagradjanin, Danica; Milovanović, Nebojša; Puzović, Dragana
This paper describes the life and work of Dr. Atanasije Puljo (1878-1944). He was a volunteer in the Balkan wars, an active participant in the First World War; he was the first who noted the importance of team-work of a dentist and a surgeon in the care of jaw and facial injuries. He established primacy in this field, as he came up with this brilliant idea three years before other colleagues. His method of treatment of the upper jaw neglected fractures, called the Balkan method, was recognized worldwide. Dr. Puljo is the pioneer of dental radiology in Serbia, founder of the Odontology Clinic of the Medical Faculty and main supporter of the establishment of the School of Dentistry. Merits of Dr. Atanasije Puljo, medical practitioner with a broad knowledge in different fields, remain within the academic institution that was founded by this pioneer of dentistry in Serbia.
Full Text Available Rosaiah Kanaparthy1, Aruna Kanaparthy2 1Department of Periodontics, 2Conservative Dentistry, Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. Keywords: nanotechnology, molecule, nanomedicine, nanodentistry, nanorobots
Ian Matos Vieira
Full Text Available The glass ionomer cement was developed in the past century 70s, after continuous researches about silicate cement. Over the years, glass ionomers have been playing an important role on restorative dentistry. Initially, the material was used for restoration of small cavities, however, its usage has been increased. The main indications at present are: as core buildup restorative, luting cement, liner and base and as a sealant. Recently, glass ionomer cement has been used for ART restorations and in some medicine fields because of the positive biointeraction with bone cells. Although glass ionomer cements exhibit an initial critical solubility and poor aesthetics, great biological properties like fluoride release to oral environment, chemical bonding to tooth tissues and biocompatibility leads this material elective for many purposes. Finally, their inherent antimicrobial properties contributes to the treatment of many situations in dentistry.
Despite the ever-growing demand for implant treatments by patients, there is confusion about what the appropriate training pathway in implant dentistry should be. This is accompanied by a worrying lack of training at undergraduate level for correct patient selection and monitoring of implant cases. An unclear training pathway, inappropriate referrals and a 'hands-off' approach to patients with implants may be putting patients at risk. This article highlights these issues with a suggestion that the training should of course follow the current GDC guidelines, but goes further to suggest that the end point of training should be at diploma level as a minimum, either via a university route, or via the RCS Edinburgh Diploma in Implant Dentistry Examination.
Souza, Francisley Ávila; Statkievicz, Cristian; Guilhem Rosa, Ana Laura; da Silveira Bossi, Fabrício
This report describes a protocol for managing the accidental swallowing of dental instruments in implant dentistry, illustrated by a patient who accidentally swallowed a hexagonal wrench. The first step was to refer the patient to the medical emergency hospital service for radiographic and clinical evaluation. The hexagonal wrench was located in the stomach and was immediately removed with an endoscopic procedure. The gastric mucosa was sampled via biopsy and the sample submitted to the urease test, which was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Triple treatment was instituted for gastritis caused by H pylori to avoid exposing the patient to unnecessary risk. Removal of a foreign body by means of an endoscopic procedure constitutes a safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.
Paul, D P
Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.
Clouse, H R
Managed care plans attempt to control health care expenditures aggressively. These plans directly influence access to medical care and the type, level, and frequency of care rendered. As a result, hospital stays are reduced, focus shifts from inpatient to outpatient care, and patients are responsible for a larger share of health care costs. Dentistry is not immune from the impact of managed care. The attractiveness of the dental market has drawn many managed care organizations, insurers, and entrepreneurs to encourage dentists to participate in a wide variety of managed care programs. However, the delivery of dental care differs markedly in many respects from that of medical care. Therefore, many of the cost saving aspects of managed care that have been so successful in medicine may not result in similar cost savings in dentistry.
Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep
Current projected missions to Mars will require 18 to 24 months of exposure to microgravity conditions, which might have serious effects on human physiology, including that of the oral cavity. Very few studies have been published on the effect of microgravity on the oral cavity, although it has been reported that microgravity increases the prevalence of periodontitis, dental caries, bone loss and fracture in the jaw bone, pain and numbness in teeth and oral cavity tissue, salivary duct stones, and oral cancer. Aeronautic dentistry is a new field, so further study of the effects of microgravity are required. In this article, we review the role of aeronautic dentistry in space missions and offer our recommendations for the future growth of this field.
Mej?re, Ingegerd A.; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K.; Stecks?n-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H. A.; Tran?us, Sofia H.
Objectives To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. Methods A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment...
Personalized Periodontology and Implant Dentistry are about finding accurate diagnostic, prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in treating periodontitis patients and in restoring mutilated dentitions by using dental implants. The studies comprising this thesis used complexity methods to (i) cluster periodontitis patients of four cohorts and train and test various classifiers in distinguishing aggressive (AgP) from chronic (CP) periodontitis and (ii) cluster implant-treated patient...
Lasers and radiosurgery frequently used in human dentistry are rapidly entering veterinary dental use. The carbon dioxide, diode, and low-level therapy lasers have features including hemostasis control, access to difficult to reach areas, and decreased pain, that make them useful for oral surgery. Periodontal pocket surgery, gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, gingival hyperplasia, operculectomy, tongue surgery, oropharyngeal inflammation therapy, oral mass surgery, crown, and frenectomy laser surgeries are described, including images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barzè, Franco; Palmieri, Beniamino; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rottigni, Valentina
Laser therapy has achieved an important rule in cosmetic dentistry especially in the treatment of several complications such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, glossitis, oral mucositis, labial herpes virus, stomatitis, frenulum and oral hemangioma. In our study we enrolled 40 patients affected by these diseases to treat them with a new infrared dental laser demonstrating that it is extremely safe and effective in pain and postoperative discomforts reduction.
Full Text Available Traditionally, clinical decisions in dentistry have been based on the experience of the dentist. If the given treatment works, it was utilized again, but if the results were disappointing, the procedure was deserted. Evaluating clinical treatment in this fashion is difficult because it is hard to know which factors are important for success and which contribute to failure. This came with the concept of evidence-based approach which facilitates conclusions for clinical practice based on sound research studies.
It took mankind some ten thousand years to get sugarcane from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. Once it reached Europe and the Europeans knew how to handle it, it took them only a hundred years to turn the production of sugar into the biggest industry of the world. Exactly in those hundred years the birth of modern medicine--and dentistry--is placed. This coincidence is too particular to be left unnoticed.
Full Text Available Contemporary dentistry is, first of all, characterized by diverse accelerated development, owing to improvements of information and other technologies, as well as the development of dental materials (shape-memory biomaterials, nanomaterials, biomaterials for application in tissue engineering, etc.. Expert doctrinaire attitudes move from the direction of operative interventions, whereby disease and acute symptoms are primarily treated, towards the strengthening of oral health by minimally invasive procedures. A particular place in patients’ total rehabilitation belongs to numerous esthetic procedures which, to a large extent, make up a wants-based service, led by the patients’ needs and affinities. This paper deals with differences between cosmetic and esthetic dentistry. The complexity of esthetic dentistry, which favors therapy with the change of function parameters in care for the patient, is emphasized. On the other hand, more attention is paid to the need to know and respect ethical and marketing principles that follow any activity of dentists, starting from the first contact with the patient, the selection of certified materials, to the implementation of the appropriate treatment plan. Well-directed communication and comprehensive awareness of the patient, the use of the visual analog scale, consideration of realistic resources in therapy, and the acceptance of de Bono model of adopted parallel thinking are determinants which help dentists define a problem adequately, find quality solutions, open alternative solutions, and reduce the potential risks in patients’ therapy.
Amrollahi, Pouya; Shah, Brinda; Seifi, Amir; Tayebi, Lobat
Although human mouth benefits from remarkable mechanical properties, it is very susceptible to traumatic damages, exposure to microbial attacks, and congenital maladies. Since the human dentition plays a crucial role in mastication, phonation and esthetics, finding promising and more efficient strategies to reestablish its functionality in the event of disruption has been important. Dating back to antiquity, conventional dentistry has been offering evacuation, restoration, and replacement of the diseased dental tissue. However, due to the limited ability and short lifespan of traditional restorative solutions, scientists have taken advantage of current advancements in medicine to create better solutions for the oral health field and have coined it "regenerative dentistry." This new field takes advantage of the recent innovations in stem cell research, cellular and molecular biology, tissue engineering, and materials science etc. In this review, the recently known resources and approaches used for regeneration of dental and oral tissues were evaluated using the databases of Scopus and Web of Science. Scientists have used a wide range of biomaterials and scaffolds (artificial and natural), genes (with viral and non-viral vectors), stem cells (isolated from deciduous teeth, dental pulp, periodontal ligament, adipose tissue, salivary glands, and dental follicle) and growth factors (used for stimulating cell differentiation) in order to apply tissue engineering approaches to dentistry. Although they have been successful in preclinical and clinical partial regeneration of dental tissues, whole-tooth engineering still seems to be far-fetched, unless certain shortcomings are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.
Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.
V. N. V. Madhav
Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.
Ledetra Shanta Bridges
Full Text Available Background: Suicide rates are high among African American students because they are at greater risk of depression. A commonly used suicide prevention approach is the gatekeeper training. However, gatekeeper training is neither evidence-based nor has it been identified as culturally-appropriate for African American college students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an online peer-to-peer PRECEDE-PROCEED model based depression awareness and suicide prevention program that was culturally appropriate for African American college students.Methods: The setting was a predominantly Black institution in southern USA. A pre-experimental repeated measures one group design was used to measure changes in peer educators’ (n = 29predisposing factors regarding knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to depression,reinforcing factors or receiving support from peers, healthcare professionals and teachers to help someone with depression, enabling factors or sureness of finding organizations to help someone with depression, and behavior for helping someone with depression at pretest, Protestant 1-month follow-up. A post test only one group design was also used to measure effect on predisposing factors and behavior of students (n = 300 trained by peer educators.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to depression as disease (P = 0.003; η2 = 0.39, attitudes about managing depression (P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.30, skills(P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.41, reinforcing factors (P = 0.018; η2 = 0.13, enabling factors (P = 0.0001;η2 = 0.31, and behavior (P = 0.016; η2 = 0.14. Changes in knowledge about depression and attitudes about helping people with depression were not statistically significant over time for peer educators. The peer-to-peer training was not completely effective in transferring corresponding changes for students trained by peers.Conclusion: The program was effective for peer educators but
Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon
Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.
General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.
Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student′s perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India′s undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students′ viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT. Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1 The instructor; 2 the patient; 3 the learning process; and 4 the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.
Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S
In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.
Al-Zain, Sahar Asaad; Al-Sadhan, Salwa Abdul Rahman; Ahmedani, Muhammad Shoaib
To assess the awareness level of undergraduate dentistry students as well as fresh graduates about the significance of professional ethics. The cross sectional study was conducted among the 3rd, 4th and final year male and female BDS students as well as fresh graduate Interns from the College of Dentistry, King Saud University from January to June 2011. The students were asked to give their opinion about need for applications of professional ethics in dental practice on a five point Likert Scale varying from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. Minitab statistical software was used for data analysis. Students at all levels considered professional ethics a very important prerequisite for dental practice with overall mean value of 4.42 +/- 0.36. However, the responses from the senior academic levels were significantly on the higher side compared to those from the junior grades. Generally the religious teachings and spirituality was considered as one of the top most motives for practicing professional ethics in dentistry followed by reputation, financial benefits, fear of punishment and self projection, with overall mean values of 3.93 +/- 0.58, 3.81 +/- 0.49, 3.25 +/- 0.94, 3.21 +/- 1.07 and 3.16 +/- 1.04, respectively. The present findings revealed that Professional Ethics is appreciated by the students as a highly significant factor for their success in dental practice as well as acquiring a good name and position in the society.
Chinn, Courtney H; Edelstein, Burton L
Pediatric dentistry has enjoyed growing popularity in recent years, yet there remains a need for leadership in academe, research, and public health. In November 2008, the first Maternal and Child Health Bureau-sponsored regional Leadership in Pediatric Dentistry convocation was held at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Seventy-two pediatric dentistry trainees from thirteen programs in the New York City area participated in interactive presentations and exercises. Of the sixty- seven participants who completed a pre-event survey, 93 percent stated they would likely or very likely pursue careers that involved, at least in part, private practice, 55 percent in care of children in Medicaid, 51 percent academics, 36 percent dental public health, and 12 percent research. Barriers related to finances, competence, or work environment/location were perceived by 83 percent for careers involving research, 73 percent for dental public health, 66 percent for providing care to children in Medicaid, 46 percent for academics, and 9 percent for private practice. Results of a pair of pre-event and post-event surveys completed by sixty-three attendees showed no change in reported likelihood to pursue a career alternative except for an increase in the likelihood of working in a practice that accepts Medicaid. The challenge before dental educators is to provide consistent and meaningful opportunities throughout training that encourage residents to consider all career options and to discover how their individual interests mesh with their clinical learning.
Zain, S.A.A.; Sadhan, S.A.R.A.; Ahmedani, M.S.
Objective: To assess the awareness level of undergraduate dentistry students as well as fresh graduates about the significance of professional ethics. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted among the 3rd, 4th and final year male and female BDS students as well as fresh graduate Interns from the College of Dentistry, King Saud University from January to June 2011. The students were asked to give their opinion about need for applications of professional ethics in dental practice on a five point Likert Scale varying from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Minitab statistical software was used for data analysis. Results: Students at all levels considered professional ethics a very important prerequisite for dental practice with overall mean value of 4.42+-0.36. However, the responses from the senior academic levels were significantly on the higher side compared to those from the junior grades. Generally the religious teachings and spirituality was considered as one of the top most motives for practicing professional ethics in dentistry followed by reputation, financial benefits, fear of punishment and self projection, with overall mean values of 3.93+-0.58, 3.81+-0.49, 3.25+-0.94, 3.21+-1.07 and 3.16+-1.04, respectively. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that Professional Ethics is appreciated by the students as a highly significant factor for their success in dental practice as well as acquiring a good name and position in the society. (author)
Mayberry, Melanie E; Young, Deirdre D; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Hoelscher, Diane
While pipeline programs for students from underrepresented minority groups have been established at the high school and college levels, fewer programs have been developed for middle school students. In an effort to reach this cohort, the University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry embarked on a grassroots collaborative pipeline program with two distinct segments: Urban Impressions and Dental Imprint. Their purpose is to expose Detroit-area seventh and eighth grade students to careers in dentistry, provide oral health education, and introduce role models. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the middle school participants in Urban Impressions (n=86) and Dental Imprint (n=68). Both segments featured hands-on dental activities at the dental school. Outcomes were assessed by pretest-posttest surveys. Across the three cohorts, a total of 86 students participated in one or more sessions, with 57 completing the pre- and post-program surveys, for a 66% response rate. The results showed that the Dental Imprint respondents' knowledge of oral health, dental admissions, and specialties increased by an average 26% over three years. The gain in knowledge for each cohort was statistically significant (pdentistry as a career following the program. These results suggest that the two segments of this program are meeting their goals of increasing middle grade students' awareness of oral health professions including dentistry and providing access to role models. Institutions may benefit from the description of strategies used by this program to address challenges related to establishing early pipeline programs.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behavior, to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among Adolescents, and to associate the pre-test knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents with their selected demographic variables.Materials & Methods: A quantitative evaluative approach with a pre-experimental (one group pre test- post test design was adopted; the setting of the study was Sri Vidya Mandir College, Salem, Tamilnadu. A Structured Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge of the adolescents. The systematic random sampling technique was used and 60 adolescents involved on Structured Teaching Programme regarding Risk factors and prevention of Suicidal Behaviour by using a Power-point slide presentation followed with pre-test. On 7th day, the post test was conducted. The data collection period of the study was 09.12.2014 to 15.12.2014.Results: The study findings revealed that during Pre-test, the knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents, 45(75% had inadequate knowledge, 15(25% had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. During post test, 23 adolescents (38.33% had adequate knowledge, 37(61.67% had moderately adequate knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge. The mean score during pre-test was 9.9±3.88 and the mean score during post test was 17.03±4.12. The paired ‘t’ value was 16.84 which were significant at p<0.05 level. Thus it shows that the structured teaching programme was effective in improving knowledge regarding risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviour among adolescents. There was no significant association found between the pre-test scores on knowledge regarding risk factors and
Rastogi, Varun; Sharma, Rachna; Yadav, Lalita; Satpute, Pranali; Sharma, Vandana
Dentistry is most importantly and foremost a healing profession. In today’s world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives, including dental practice which has a huge impact on the environment due to the large amount of metallic waste generated by various dental procedures along with excessive use of water and electricity, which specifically emphasis the thrust to move towards ‘Green dentistry’. Green dentistry is an innovative way o...
Norkin FJ. Radiographic appearance of commonly used cements in implant dentistry. The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry... disease . Journal of Implant and Advanced Clinical Dentistry. 2009;1(6):61-68 13. Gouvoussis J, Sindhusake D, Yeung S. Cross-infection from... periodontitis sites to failing implant sites in the same mouth. The International Journal or Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 1997;12:666-673 14. Chee WW
Gutmann, James L
The use of microscopes in dentistry has become quite popular since the late 1980s. However, its origin for dental applications can be traced to the early 20th century, when a microscope, invented by an American biologist named Greenough, working in the Zeiss Company, was adapted for use in dentistry. Initially it had been used in botany, metallurgy, and zoology, in addition to revolutionizing the study of coral and entomology. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.
Rajesh P; Kamath M
Dentistry was marked with radical changes in clinical restorative procedures. If the inherent characteristic of the ionomer cement was examined, it becomes very clear to the researcher as well as the dentist, that no other material has had an impact as comparable to glass ionomer cements on restorative dentistry. This scientific paper highlights the clinical applications of the cement in restorative dentistry. Glass ionomer cements are bioactive, by forming permanent adhesive bonds to dentin ...
Historiographical works of dentistry present cultural, intellectual, technical, institutional aspects of dentistry as well. They evaluate and reconstruct the past of the profession from the prehistoric times till the end of the 20th century. Present article sketching the history of dental historiography summarizes the most important works, reference books and articles published on the field of history of dentistry, evaluates and annotates the single publica tions, grouping them by their (French, German, English and Hungarian) languages.
Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E
The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students ( n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.
Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596
Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.
Hu, Xiulian; Lin, Ye; Hunold, Cordula; Nelson, Katja
Speech adaptation after oral rehabilitation is based on a complex interaction of articulatory and myofunctional factors. The knowledge of basic phonetic principles may help clinicians identify phonetic problems associated with prosthodontic treatment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate basic phonetic terminology, standard Chinese (Putonghua) phonetics, and the anatomic structures relevant for dentistry. In cooperation with a Chinese linguistic specialist, Chinese articulators were selected and are described and compared with English phonetics. Established test words and sentences aid the identification of mispronounced articulators and their related dental structures. The pronunciation of most consonants and vowels in standard Chinese is similar to English, but some of them, such as the retropalatals (/zh/ [tʂ], /ch/ [thʂ], /sh/ [ʂ]), have notable differences. Palatal consonants (/j/ [tɕ], /q/ [tɕh], /x/ [ɕ]) are unique to the Chinese phonetic system and are not found in English phonetics. The comprehension of the basic anatomic regions involved in Chinese phonetics may help prosthodontists treat patients whose native language is standard Chinese. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Célia Regina Lulo Galitesi
Full Text Available From an academic standpoint, the university format, in general, has been nurturing a "paradigm of expertise" and, consequently, the relationship between specialties has declined. The upshot is that recent college dental graduates have adopted a clinical performance focusing on system parts and their specificities, in detriment to a more comprehensive view of the mouth and of the patient as a whole, with his/her vital, emotional and individual attributes. An interaction between the several different areas of human knowledge is needed imminently to decrease the dichotomy in professional behavior, because the demand for professionals and dental patients interested in a more comprehensive approach are increasing day by day. Patients want to know: "What, in fact, is behind the etiological extrinsic and intrinsic factors that maintain neuropathic pain, recurrent thrush, or persistent halitosis," among other questions, "even under the care of a dentist?" or "Why is this disease affecting me?" There are several issues composing the paradigm of salutogenesis: What are the essential aspects that constitute a healthy individual, overlapping the usual investigation: How to destroy, avoid and quell the pathological agents? A proposed approach is based on salutogenesis, which examines such issues. According to this approach, anthroposophical dentistry includes determinant factors, determinants of health, basic research and the development of oral health promotion, thus connecting dental academia with integrative thinking, while also complementing and gathering information that subsidizes basic research with the primordial concepts on laws governing the parameters involved in the vital processes of nature.
Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Johnson, Kenneth; Heinecke, Nicholas; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Bolton, Burt
Alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) are a preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities for which many women are at risk. The initial 5-session Project CHOICES intervention was found to prevent AEPs. In the ensuing decade, there have been several additional CHOICES-like studies. This study, Project Healthy CHOICES, had 2 objectives: (i) to compare outcomes for students versus nonstudents; and (ii) to test a self-administered mail-based version of the Project CHOICES intervention. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared 2 interventions for women of childbearing age (18 to 44) who were at risk of an AEP: (i) motivational feedback based on Project CHOICES and (ii) information only. Advertisements recruited 354 women (145 college students; 209 nonstudents) at risk of an AEP. Intervention and study materials were available in English and Spanish. Of the 354 women, 44% were minorities (25% identified as Hispanics). At the 6-month follow-up, the interventions did not differ and there was no Intervention by Student Study interaction. However, over the entire 6-month follow-up, significantly more students (68%) than nonstudents (46%) were not at risk of an AEP (2.1 odds ratio; confidence interval = 1.47 to 2.95). For all groups, risk reduction occurred primarily through effective contraception. There was no significant difference between the 2 interventions. However, over the entire 6-month follow-up interval, college students were significantly more likely than nonstudents to not be at risk of an AEP and to use effective contraception. While the student groups had significantly higher reduced risk of AEP outcomes, there was also substantial risk reduction for women in the information only condition. These results suggest that the most effective AEP prevention efforts would be to inform women at risk that they could become pregnant. Because about half of all pregnancies are unplanned, identifying women at risk and preventing the risk of AEPs should
Schuckit, Marc A; Kalmijn, Jelger A; Smith, Tom L; Saunders, Gretchen; Fromme, Kim
New approaches are needed to bolster the modest effects of campus drinking prevention programs. However, more definitive research on new paradigms is very expensive, and in the current economic climate, progress can be made by evaluating smaller pilot studies. This study describes one such approach. A sample of 18-year-old or older, healthy, drinking freshmen at our university was assigned to 2 groups stratified to be similar on demography, drinking histories, and their level of response (LR) to alcohol. In the spring quarter of the school year, the 32 subjects in each of 2 groups viewed four 45-minute Internet-based videotapes as part of 4 prevention sessions. All 8 modules were based on the same techniques and general content, but the 4 videos for the first group were structured around the validated model of how a low LR affects heavy drinking (the low level of response-based [LRB] Group), with partial mediation by heavier drinking peers, positive alcohol expectancies, and drinking to cope with stress. Videos for the state-of-the-art (SOTA) comparison group did not place the similar prevention messages into the low LR framework. Changes in drinking were evaluated at 3 times: before Module 1, before Module 4, and 1 month after Module 4. Usual and maximum drinks per occasion decreased over time for both high and low LR subjects in both LRB and SOTA groups. As predicted, the low LR students showed greater decreases in the LRB Group, while high LR students showed greater decreases in the more generic SOTA Group. The results support the hypothesis that tailoring prevention efforts to address specific predisposing factors, such as a low LR, may be associated with beneficial effects on drinking quantity. We hope that these data will encourage additional efforts to validate the low LR-based prevention paradigm and test other interventions that are targeted toward predisposing phenotypes such as impulsivity and negative affect. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society
Lipson, Sarah Ketchen; Jones, J Megan; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E; Eichen, Dawn M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eisenberg, Daniel
While there have been important recent advances in the development of effective universal prevention and intervention programs, it is not yet clear how to engage large numbers of students in these programs. In this paper, we report findings from a two-phase pilot study. In the first phase, we used a population-level, online survey to assess eating disorder symptom level and habits/attitudes related to service utilization (N=2180). Using validated screening tools, we found that roughly one in three students has significant symptoms of eating disorders or elevated weight concerns, the vast majority of whom (86.5%) have not received treatment. In the second phase, we referred students to online prevention and selective/indicated intervention programs based on symptom classification (N=1916). We find that program enrollment is highest for students in the indicated intervention (18.1%) and lowest for students in the universal prevention (4.1%). We find that traditionally-emphasized barriers such as stigma, misinformation, and financial limitations do not appear to be the most important factors preventing treatment-seeking. Rather students report not seeking help for reasons such as lack of time, lack of perceived need, and a desire to deal with the issue "on my own." Findings offer insight into the treatment-seeking habits and attitudes of college students, including those barriers that may be overcome by offering online programs and those that persist despite increased access to and convenience of relevant resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78
Wood, Jeffrey; Barbieri, Damon M; Rutkauskas, John S; Seewoester, Sarah
This survey's purpose was to: (1) assess the status of the pediatric dentistry academic workforce; (2) determine if the current workforce is sufficient for pediatric and general dentistry education requirements; (3) address other workforce issues; and (4) explore factors influencing this faculty shortage, thereby narrowing the focus of other surveys. In 2004, 130 pediatric dentistry faculty members completed a Web-based survey regarding workforce issues. Questions were asked regarding: (1) faculty characteristics; (2) job history prior to academics; (3) academic career longevity/motivators for change; and (4) private practice participation. Twenty-four percent indicated academic involvement for over 25 years, followed by 20% indicating 1- to 4-year involvement. Eighty-two percent of chairpersons had educators leave within the last 5 years, with 38% of positions remaining unfilled. Motivators for leaving included location (25%), family (19%), and faculty (12%). Twenty-three percent identified salary as an influential factor when considering an institution change, and 74% felt clinical tracks would aid in recruiting/retaining faculty. The majority of full-time faculty members maintained a part-time practice. Survey results indicate that pediatric dentistry mirrors the national dental faculty member shortage. Most troubling is the loss of educators after 5 and 10 years of teaching, perhaps due to salary disparities with private practice, tenure requirements, and family.
Ozar, D T
While countries varies significantly in the financing of dental care, they are much more alike in the delivery of dentistry. Dental care is principally provided in dental offices and clinics that are independent business entities whose business leaders are most often the dentists themselves. However society expects from dentists a level of professionalism (i.e. habitually acting ethically, both in terms of competence and conduct) in contrast to the methods and motivations of the marketplace. This is why the single most important challenge of dental professional ethics continues to be giving proper priority to patients' well being and building ethically correct decision-making relationships with patients while, at the same time, trying to maintain a successful business operation. If we look into dentistry's future, the centrality of this aspect of professional ethics is not likely to change, although the ways in which dentists might violate this trust will probably multiple as funding mechanisms become increasingly complex. It is important that dentists reflect with fresh eyes on their ethical commitments. One challenge is the increased availability of oral health information to the public and the fact that so many people are uncritical of the accuracy of information in the media and on the web. A second is the increase in the amount of health care advertising in many societies. A third is the growth of aesthetic dentistry that differs from standard oral health care in important and ethically significant ways. The fourth is insurance that frequently complicates the explanation of a patient's treatment alternatives and often brings a third party into the treatment decision relationship. The ethical challenges of each of these factors will be considered and ultimately tying it to the central theme of dental professionalism.
Kour, Gurpreet; Masih, Updesh; Singh, Chanchal; Srivastava, Manvi; Yadav, Priti; Kushwah, Jagriti
The management of pain and anxiety in dentistry encompasses a number of procedural issues, including the delivery of anesthetic solution. One of the most important ways to manage the behavior of children is pain control. Trypanophobia is very common among dental patients and the most important goal of guidelines on behavior guidance for pediatric dental patient is to ease fear and anxiety in dental procedures in children. For the stated reasons, the purpose of the present study was to record child's pain sensation both objectively and subjectively while receiving dental local anesthesia using conventional syringes and diabetic needles. Twenty children of age group 6 to 12 years undergoing routine dental procedures participated in the study. Every child acted as one's own control, while receiving treatment on the opposite side of the same arch. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive the injection either with conventional syringe or diabetic needle for the first visit, while the injection with the other needle was administered during the second visit. Rating scales were used for objective and subjective evaluations. Statistical analysis of the measurements were made using Wilcoxon signed U test and Mann-Whitney U test which showed the mean sound, eye, motor (SEM) score difference using insulin syringe. The outcome was statistically significant when compared using the mean ranks between male and female patients with that of control group. It can be concluded that diabetic syringes exhibit clinical advantage and its use in pediatric dentistry for local anesthetics (LA) infiltration can prove beneficial. How to cite this article: Kour G, Masih U, Singh C, Srivastava M, Yadav P, Kushwah J. Insulin Syringe: A Gimmick in Pediatric Dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):319-323.
Full Text Available Turmeric has been used for thousands of years as a dye, a flavoring, and a medicinal herb. In India, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver ailments, as well as topically to heal sores. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and luster to the skin as well as vigor and vitality to the entire body. Since turmeric has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringent, and other useful properties, it is quite useful in Dentistry also. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of turmeric in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.
White, J G
To develop and evaluate a teaching strategy for teaching communication skills in dentistry. Phase I: Development and implementation of a course in communication skills. Phase II: Implementation of a teaching strategy by means of an experiential learning strategy complemented by a didactic teaching strategy. Third year dental students (n = 67). The instruments included the following: (i) Study guide; (ii) Case study; (iii) Assessment rubric; (iv) Two questionnaires: "Patient's and "Dentist's feedback; (v) Standardised patient. The class as a whole scored significantly higher after training compared to before training (p communication skills, proved to be effective and was perceived by the students as a valuable and appropriate strategy.
Full Text Available Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, which is effectively used in the treatment of different diseases for more than 100 years. In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body. Owing to its beneficial biological properties including antimicrobial and immune-stimulating effects, ozone therapy has opened new vistas in treatment modalities of dental pathologies for patients of all ages. The objective of this article is to review the literature available on applications of ozone in dentistry.
Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash
Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.
Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.
Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna
The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. PMID:22131826
Shajahan, P A; Kumar, P Ranjith; Hariprasad, A; Mathew, Jyothis; Shaji, A P; Ahammed, M Fazeel
In this era of fast developing technologies and innovative ideas, the need for faster treatment has become a necessity. Treatment with lasers that is much less time-consuming and painless is accepted and appreciated by the patient. Use of Lasers is not new; they have been in use for decades since their development by Maiman in 1960. Lasers have travelled a long way from ruby lasers to erbium lasers and are being fondly used in every aspect of dental treatment. This article aims at elaborate the use and applications of lasers in the field of esthetic dentistry. PMID:26124614
Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik
Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3 rd year, 4 th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0-21), neutral attitude (score 22-44), and positive attitude (score 45-64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it.
Dour, Colleen A; Horacek, Tanya M; Schembre, Susan M; Lohse, Barbara; Hoerr, Sharon; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne A; Shoff, Suzanne; Phillips, Beatrice; Greene, Geoffrey
To evaluate the motivational effect of the Project WebHealth study procedures and intervention components on weight-related health behavior changes in male and female college students. Process evaluation. Eight universities in the United States. Project WebHealth participants (n = 653; 29% men). Participants rated motivational effects of study procedures and intervention components. Participants were grouped into outcome-based health behavior categories based on achievement of desired targets for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and/or body weight. Differences in motivation from each procedure and component were analyzed by gender- and outcome-based health behavior category. Women were generally more motivated than men. Compared to those who did not meet any target health behaviors, men with improved health outcomes (68%) were significantly more motivated by the skills to fuel the body lesson, goal setting, and research snippets. Their female counterparts (63%) were significantly more motivated by the lessons on body size and eating enjoyment, and by the suggested weekly activities. Specific study procedures and components of Project WebHealth motivated study participants to improve their weight-related health behaviors, and they differed by gender. Findings support the need for gender-tailored interventions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan L; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan
An efficacy trial found that a dissonance-based prevention program reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but smaller effects emerged when high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions in an effectiveness trial. The current report describes results at 2- and 3-year follow-up from an effectiveness trial that tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruit students and deliver the intervention using improved train and supervision procedures. Young women from eight universities (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the prevention program or an educational brochure control condition. Dissonance participants showed greater decreases in risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment by 3-year follow-up than controls, but not healthcare utilization, BMI, or eating disorder onset. This novel multisite effectiveness trial found that the enhanced dissonance intervention and improved training and supervision procedures produced an average effect size at 3-year follow-up that was 290% and 160% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial and efficacy trial respectively. Yet, the lack of eating disorder onset effects may imply that factors beyond pursuit of the thin ideal now contribute to eating disorder onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carey, Robert M; Whelton, Paul K
In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) released a clinical practice guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) in adults. This article summarizes the major recommendations. In 2014, the ACC and the AHA appointed a multidisciplinary committee to update previous reports of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The committee reviewed literature and commissioned systematic reviews and meta-analyses on out-of-office BP monitoring, the optimal target for BP lowering, the comparative benefits and harms of different classes of antihypertensive agents, and the comparative benefits and harms of initiating therapy with a single antihypertensive agent or a combination of 2 agents. This article summarizes key recommendations in the following areas: BP classification, BP measurement, screening for secondary hypertension, nonpharmacologic therapy, BP thresholds and cardiac risk estimation to guide drug treatment, treatment goals (general and for patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and advanced age), choice of initial drug therapy, resistant hypertension, and strategies to improve hypertension control.
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long ...
Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla
An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…
Dostálová, T.; Eliášová, H.; Seydlová, M.; Pilin, A.; Hippmann, R.; Šimková, H.; Daniš, I.; Zvárová, Jana; Nagy, Miroslav
Roč. 109, č. 1 (2008), s. 14-18 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : dentistry * forensic dentistry * identification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Pediatric Dentistry: A Clinical Approach, Third Edition provides a uniquely clear, comprehensive, and clinical approach to the dental treatment of children and adolescents. •Offers systematic coverage of all clinical, scientific and social topics relating to pediatric dentistry •Thoroughly revised...
Gherardi, Matteo; Tonini, Riccardo; Colombo, Vittorio
We briefly discuss the history of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) applications in dentistry. The reasons for seeking innovative solutions in dentistry are reported, highlighting results showing the potential of plasma along with some still-open questions. Finally, we suggest the next steps on the road from the laboratory to the dental chair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gallagher, J E; Fiske, J
As a profession we have a responsibility to ensure that the oral health needs of individuals and groups who have a physical, sensory, intellectual, medical, emotional or social impairment or disability are met. In the UK, over 200,000 adults have profound learning disabilities and/or complex medical conditions. Adults with a disability often have poorer oral health, poorer health outcomes and poorer access to services than the rest of the population. This paper examines the need for Special Care Dentistry based on a review of published literature, surveys and health policy, and suggests how services might be delivered in the future. Existing models of good practice reveal that established clinicians working in this field have a patient base of between 850 and 1,500 patients per year and work across primary care and hospital settings, liaising with colleagues in health, social services and the voluntary sector to ensure integrated health care planning. On this basis, a conservative estimate of 133 specialists is suggested for the future, working in networks with Dentists with Special Interests (DwSIs) and primary dental care practitioners. A skilled workforce that can address the wider needs of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be formally recognised and developed within the UK to ensure that the needs of the most vulnerable sections of the community are addressed in future.
Srinivasan, Vidya; Waterhouse, Paula; Whitworth, John
The aim of this study was to present a review of the reported literature on: (i) the physical and chemical properties; and (ii) clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in the practice of paediatric dentistry. Electronic literature search of scientific papers from January 1993 to June 2008 was carried out on the MEDLINE, Embase, Entrez Pubmed, and Scopus databases using specific key words. The search yielded 448 papers, out of which 100 were identified as conforming to the applied criteria. These papers formed the basis of the review and the clinical scenarios presented which demonstrate the application of MTA in the practice of paediatric dentistry. Paediatric dentists have successfully employed MTA in a variety of endodontic/restorative applications since the late 1990s. Clinical impressions have generally been favourable and support the findings of laboratory and animal-based investigations. Very few clinical studies have been reported so far in humans, and although these have been positive, the body of research is currently insufficient to enable a meaningful systematic review and meta-analysis.
Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María
In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.
Full Text Available By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments.
Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive and noncontact technique for obtaining cross-sectional images of biologic structure, which was initially introduced to depict the transparent tissue of the eye. It employs the partial coherence properties of a light source to image structures with high resolution (< 20 (m). Recently, this technique has also been applied in turbid media. This tomographic imaging is analogous to conventional ultrasound B mode imaging, except that OCT measures the intensity of backreflected infrared light rather than acoustical waves. First applications, of OCT in dentistry for diagnosing periodontal disease have been reported by Colston et al. presenting in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues of porcine premolar teeth. In this work, the feasibility of polarisation sensitive OCT for dental material is suggested. In contrast with conventional OCT, where the magnitude of backscattered light as a function of depth is imaged, backscattered light is used to image the magnitude of the birefringence in the sample as a function of depth. Partial loss of birefringence is known to be an early indication of incipient caries or tissue thermal damage. Applying this technique for caries diagnosis or guidance regarding optimal dosimetry for thermally mediated laser therapeutic procedures, polarisation sensitive OCT would represent a promising new technology for dentistry. (author)
Williams, S D; Hughes, T E; Adler, C J; Brook, A H; Townsend, G C
In 2007, only four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the journal Science announced that epigenetics was the 'breakthrough of the year'. Time magazine placed it second in the top 10 discoveries of 2009. While our genetic code (i.e. our DNA) contains all of the information to produce the elements we require to function, our epigenetic code determines when and where genes in the genetic code are expressed. Without the epigenetic code, the genetic code is like an orchestra without a conductor. Although there is now a substantial amount of published research on epigenetics in medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is in its infancy. However, epigenetics promises to become increasingly relevant to dentistry because of the role it plays in gene expression during development and subsequently potentially influencing oral disease susceptibility. This paper provides a review of the field of epigenetics aimed specifically at oral health professionals. It defines epigenetics, addresses the underlying concepts and provides details about specific epigenetic molecular mechanisms. Further, we discuss some of the key areas where epigenetics is implicated, and review the literature on epigenetics research in dentistry, including its relevance to clinical disciplines. This review considers some implications of epigenetics for the future of dental practice, including a 'personalized medicine' approach to the management of common oral diseases. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Badami, Vijetha; Ahuja, Bharat
By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments. PMID:24672407
Musa, Muhd Firdaus Che; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E
Malaysia has experienced a significant expansion of dental schools over the past decade. Research into students' motivation may inform recruitment and retention of the future dental workforce. The objectives of this study were to explore students' motivation to study dentistry and whether that motivation varied by students' and school characteristics. All 530 final-year students in 11 dental schools (6 public and 5 private) in Malaysia were invited to participate at the end of 2013. The self-administered questionnaire, developed at King's College London, collected information on students' motivation to study dentistry and demographic background. Responses on students' motivation were collected using five-point ordinal scales. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying structure of students' motivation to study dentistry. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare factor scores for overall motivation and sub-domains by students' and school characteristics. Three hundred and fifty-six final-year students in eight schools (all public and two private) participated in the survey, representing an 83% response rate for these schools and 67% of all final-year students nationally. The majority of participants were 24 years old (47%), female (70%), Malay (56%) and from middle-income families (41%) and public schools (78%). CFA supported a model with five first-order factors (professional job, healthcare and people, academic, careers advising and family and friends) which were linked to a single second-order factor representing overall students' motivation. Academic factors and healthcare and people had the highest standardized factor loadings (0.90 and 0.71, respectively), suggesting they were the main motivation to study dentistry. MANOVA showed that students from private schools had higher scores for healthcare and people than those in public schools whereas Malay students had lower scores for family and friends than those
Feijoo, Javier F; Limeres, Jacobo; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Ramos, Isabel; Diz, Pedro
To identify the 100 most cited articles published in dental journals. A search was performed on the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science for the most cited articles in all the journals included in the Journal Citation Report (2010 edition) in the category of "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine". Each one of the 77 journals selected was analyzed using the Cited Reference Search tool of the ISI Web of Science database to identify the most cited articles up to June 2012. The following information was gathered from each article: names and number of authors, journal, year of publication, type of study, methodological design, and area of research. The number of citations of the 100 selected articles varied from 326 to 2050. All articles were published in 21 of the 77 journals in the category. The journals with the largest number of the cited articles were the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (20 articles), the Journal of Periodontology (18 articles), and the Journal of Dental Research (16 articles). There was a predominance of clinical research (66 %) over basic research (34 %). The most frequently named author was Socransky SS, with 9 of the top 100 articles, followed by Lindhe J with 7. The decades with most articles published of the 100 selected were 1980-1989 (26 articles) and 1990-1999 (25 articles). The most common type of article was the case series (22 %), followed by the narrative review/expert opinion (19 %). The most common area of study was periodontology (43 % of articles). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the top-cited articles in Dentistry. There is a predominance of clinical studies, particularly case series and narrative reviews/expert opinions, despite their low-evidence level. The focus of the articles has mainly been on periodontology and implantology, and the majority has been published in the highest impact factor dental journals. The number of citations that an article receives does not necessarily reflect the
Largent, Beverly A
Founded in 1947, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) is a not-for-profit membership association representing the specialty of pediatric dentistry. The AAPD's 7,500 members are primary oral health care providers who offer comprehensive specialty treatment for millions of infants, children, adolescents, and individuals with special healthcare needs. The AAPD also represents general dentists who treat a significant number of children in their practices. As advocates for children's oral health, the AAPD develops and promotes evidence-based policies and guidelines, fosters research, contributes to scholarly work concerning pediatric oral health, and educates healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public on ways to improve children's oral health. The academy's philanthropic arm, Healthy Smiles, Healthy Children: The Foundation of the AAPD, advances the AAPD mission through the support and promotion of education, research, service, and policy development.
Sharma, Nupur; Jain, Kittu; Kabasi, Soumik
Background: Knowledge of dental students' expectations of their profession as well as their attitudes to study a particular specialty of dentistry is of great importance. These attitudes and expectations make studying dentistry meaningful to dental students and society and understanding these factors facilitate workforce planning in the dental sector The aim of the study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included the 3rd year, 4th fourth year and dental interns studying in the State of Odisha. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on 5-point Likert scale. The responses for the attitude questions toward selecting Public Health Dentistry for postgraduation were categorized into three factors, which are a negative attitude (includes score 0–21), neutral attitude (score 22–44), and positive attitude (score 45–64). Differences between groups were examined using Chi-square test for proportions. The level of statistical significance was set at P dentistry as their future career, and nearly two-third of them (58.23%) had neutral attitude, with very few students having a negative attitude (8.23%) toward the specialty for pursuing postgraduation. Conclusion: Respondents had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing postgraduation in this specialty. Efforts should be intensified, both by the dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this specialty, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates toward it. PMID:28182073
Kunzel, Carol; Kaur, Satvir; Ahluwalia, Kavita; Darlington, Tanya; Kularatne, Piyumika; Burkett, Sandra; Hou, Derek; Sanogo, Moussa; Murrman, Marita; Edelstein, Burton
Columbia University College of Dental Medicine, in partnership with the Harlem United Community AIDS Center, has developed a service-learning (SL) program for use in the training of Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) residents. This article presents basic tenets of SL, their applicability for dentistry, and our experience implementing SL in care of people living with HIV/AIDS. It proposes that social-behavioral theory, when incorporated into the basic components of SL, can play a useful role in resolving a number of challenges inherent in competency-based training programs. Although the article provides examples of how a particular theory, the Theory of Planned Behavior, might be applied in the SL context, opportunities for the application of other social-behavioral theories potentially exist.
Lam, Raymond; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Oral disease continues to be a major problem in Australia impacting quality of life, the economy and broader health system. Although the understanding of caries and periodontal disease has improved along with increased government support, oral diseases continue to be the most prevalent among all health conditions. This is despite unprecedented levels of funding in the Chronic Disease Dental Scheme and the Teen Dental Plan. Access to primary care dentistry in the private sector, where the majority of dental services are provided, remains a critical issue. Under the current system of dentistry, it cannot be assumed that the practice of dentistry represents a prioritised approach to combat disease patterns based on scientific evidence in primary health and prevention. Drawing on data in relation to these two programs, the present study highlights issues impacting dental service provision. This includes issues such as access and affordability to dental care, sustainability of policy and its unintended consequences, private practice pressures and the impact of remuneration on treatment. This paper argues that without structural reform there will continue to be barriers in implementing policies capable of improving oral health.
Rule, James T
Dentistry, like all professions, has always had ethical problems to contend with, including societal trust, flagrant advertising, commercialism, and access to care. Although the profession's interest and expertise in ethics has grown enormously in the last three decades, the issues facing dentistry have not really decreased, and perhaps have grown more problematic. Thus, despite the invaluable contributions of ethical progress to the structure and function of our profession, this paper argues that reflective ethics by itself appears unable to exact change. For change to occur, dentistry also needs a broad-based display of enlightened, and ethically-driven but action-oriented professionalism. This existed in the 1830s when U.S. dentistry was in its early stages of becoming thought of as a profession. Using the lessons learned from that period of our history, we need to do the same thing now--not excluding ethics, but working hand in glove with ethics. This paper suggests that, as in the 1830s, dentistry now needs the grassroots attention of its membership. Using recent publications about the importance of "connectedness" in dentistry, guidelines are presented that provide a framework for approaching the problems faced by dentistry and contributing to a more satisfying professional career.
Elena M. Varoni
Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.
Ure, David; Harris, Jonathan
The speed at which advances are being made in science has catapulted nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations straight into the real world. There are now many examples of commercially available products demonstrating that, in given situations, the technology really does work and that its scope for further application is wide. Healthcare, along with society as a whole, is facing a major revolution in the wake of ongoing technological developments in the field of nanotechnology. Dentistry as an individual healthcare discipline is not exempt, having already been targeted directly with novel 'nano-materials' at the same time as indirectly enjoying the benefits of nano-related advances in the electronics industry through the ongoing computerization of the modern practice. This article examines current practical applications of nanotechnology alongside proposed applications in the future and aims to demonstrate that, as well as a good deal of science fiction, there is some tangible science fact emerging from this novel multi-disciplinary science.
Laskawiec, J.; Michalik, R.
Titanium and its alloys belong to biomaterials which the application scope in medicine increases. Some properties of the alloys, such as high mechanical strength, low density, low Young's modulus, high corrosion resistance and good biotolerance decide about it. The main areas of the application of titanium and its alloys are: orthopedics and traumatology, cardiosurgery, faciomaxillary surgery and dentistry. The results of investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of the technical titanium and Ti6Al14V alloy and comparatively a cobalt alloy of the Vitallium type in the artificial saliva is presented in the work. Significantly better corrosion resistance of titanium and the Ti6Al14V than the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was found. (author)
Guzmán-Álvarez, R; Medeiros, M; Lagunes, Li Reyes; Campos-Sepúlveda, Ae
Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing. The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%), followed by pain (n = 24, 38%); the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%), followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%), naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%), diclofenac (n = 2, 3%), and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%); the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78.9%), ampicillin (n = 7, 10.6%), and penicillin V and clindamycin (n = 3, 4.5%). The most frequent errors reported by students were: lack of knowledge about drug posology (n = 49, 74.2%), improperly filled prescriptions (n = 7, 10.7%), not knowing the brand names and uncertainty about the correct drug indicated for each case (n = 3, 4.54%), not knowing the duration of treatment (n = 2, 3%), not asking the patient about possible allergies, and not
Santosa, R E
Unlike their use in conventional crown and bridge, provisional restorations during implant therapy have been underutilized. Provisional restorations should be used to evaluate aesthetic, phonetic and occlusal function prior to delivery of the final implant restorations, while preserving and/or enhancing the condition of the peri-implant and gingival tissues. Provisional restorations are useful as a communication tool between members of the treatment team which, in most cases, consists of the restorative clinician, implant surgeons, laboratory technicians, and the patient. This article describes and discusses the various options for provisionalization in implant dentistry. Clinicians should be aware of the different types of provisional restorations and the indications for their use when planning implant retained restorations.
Sharma Lakhanpal Manisha
Full Text Available This era of advanced technology is marked by progress in identifying and understanding the molecular and cellular cause of a disease. With the conventional methods of treatment failing to render satisfactory results, gene therapy is not only being used for the cure of inherited diseases but also the acquired ones. The broad spectrum of gene therapy includes its application in the treatment of oral cancer and precancerous conditions and lesions, treatment of salivary gland diseases, bone repair, autoimmune diseases, DNA vaccination, etc. The aim of this article is to throw light on the history, methodology, applications and future of gene therapy as it would change the nature and face of dentistry in the coming years.
Lydia Masako Ferreira
Full Text Available Pizosurgery has therapeutic characteristics in osteotomies, such as extremely precise, selective and millimetric cuts and a clear operating field. Piezoelectricity uses ultrasonic frequencies, which cause the points specially designed for osteotomy to vibrate. The points of the instrument oscillate, allowing effective osteotomy with minimal or no injury to the adjacent soft tissues, membranes and nerve tissues. This article presents the various applications of piezoelectricity in oral implant surgery such as: removal of autogenous bone; bone window during elevation of the sinus membrane and removal of fractured implants. The cavitational effect caused by the vibration of the point and the spray of physiological solution, provided a field free of bleeding and easy to visualize. The study showed that the piezoelectric surgery is a new surgical procedurethat presents advantages for bone cutting in many situations in implant dentistry, with great advantages in comparison with conventional instrumentation. Operating time is longer when compared with that of conventional cutters.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a remarkable interest in stem cells within the dental and medical community mainly because of their capability of self-renewal and multiple lineage differentiation. Due to its multipotent properties, stem cells have been employed in the regeneration of body parts and curing various diseases. Stem cells have been isolated from oral and maxillofacial region including tooth, gingiva, periodontium and oral mucosa. Stem cell research and therapy may be used as an alternative to current conventional methods of restoring tooth and craniofacial defects. The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of the different types of stem cells and their origin and characteristics features and its applications in dentistry. The literature search included PubMed, other indexed journals, and online material.
Facco, Enrico; Zanette, Gastone; Casiglia, Edoardo
Dental fear is a universal phenomenon justifying the increasing relevance of psychology and the behavioural sciences to dental training and clinical practice. Pharmacological sedation has been used more and more over the past two decades, in order to relieve dental anxiety and phobia and let the patient face oral surgery safely. Hypnosis is a still underused but powerful non-pharmacological tool in dentistry. It provides an effective sedation whilst maintaining patient collaboration, but it also may help patients recovering from dental anxiety and phobia as well as those with a severe gag reflex. While pharmacological sedation affords a temporary respite and helps the patient to cope with a single procedure, hypnosis can effectively allow for both an excellent sedation in a physiological way and the treatment of patients' anxiety, or substantially decrease the doses used for sedative and analgesic drugs when these are needed.
Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh
There are two limiting factors for determining the dental implant fixture length in mandibular posterior edentulous region: Inferior dental canal and submandibular fossa. Submandibular fossa augmentation is a suggested way to overcome the problem of lingual undercut beneath the mylohyoid ridge in implant dentistry. Patients with lingual posterior bony undercut that interferes with the placement of a standard implant with a length of 10 mm were enrolled in this study. This method was used for eight patients in 10 sites. Increased implant length and decreasing the chance of sublingual hematoma due to lingual cortical plate perforation are the results of this study. Submandibular fossa augmentation is a new technique to improve the maneuver of oral surgeons to increase dental implant length in the presence of deep lingual bony undercut.
Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M
Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.
Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elizabeth A. Dennis
Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.
Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R
Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dziubińska, P; Jaskólska, M; Przyborowska, P; Adamiak, Z
Stem cells have been successfully isolated from a variety of human and animal tissues, including dental pulp. This achievement marks progress in regenerative dentistry. This article reviews the latest improvements made in regenerative dental medicine with the involvement of stem cells. Although, various types of multipotent somatic cells can be applied in dentistry, two types of cells have been investigated in this review. Dental pulp cells are classified as: DPSCs, SCAPs and SHEDs.The third group includes two types of cell associated with the periodontium: PDL and DFPC. This review aims to systematize basic knowledge about cellular engineering in dentistry.
Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V
With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.
Oladokun Majeed Olaide
Full Text Available As a response to the need to provide an acceptable thermal comfort and air quality in indoor environments, various ventilation performance indicators were developed over the years. These metrics are mainly geared towards air distribution, heat and pollutant removals. Evidence exists of influencing factors on these indicators as centered on ventilation design and operations. Unlike other indoor environments, health care environment requires better performance of ventilation system to prevent an incidence of nosocomial and other hospital acquired illnesses. This study investigates, using in-situ experiments, the ventilation efficiency in a dentistry surgical room. Thermal and hygric parameters were monitored on the air terminal devices and occupied zone over a period of one week covering both occupied and unoccupied hours. The resulting time-series parameters were used to evaluate the room’s ventilation effectiveness. Also, the obtained parameters were benchmarked against ASHRAE 170 (2013 and MS1525 (2014 requirements for ventilation in health care environment and building energy efficiency respectively. The results show that the mean daily operative conditions failed to satisfy the provisions of both standards. Regarding effectiveness, the findings reveal that the surgical room ventilation is ineffective with ventilation efficiency values ranging between 0 and 0.5 indicating air distribution short-circuiting. These results suggest further investigations, through numerical simulation, on the effect of this short-circuiting on thermal comfort, infection risk assessments and possible design improvements, an endeavour that forms our next line of research inquiries.
Cafiero, Carlo; Matarasso, Sergio
An impressive progress in dentistry has been recorded in the last decades. In order to reconsider guidelines in dentistry, it is required to introduce new concepts of personalised patient treatments: the wave of predictive, preventive and personalised medicine is rapidly incoming in dentistry. Worldwide dentists have to make a big cultural effort in changing the actual ?reactive? therapeutic point of view, belonging to the last century, into a futuristic ?predictive? one. The first cause of t...
The prevention of torture and the treatment of survivors are issues that concern an increasing number of physicians in their daily work. Every day, thousands of men, women, and children are subjected to violence and are forced to flee their homelands. There are more than 18 million refugees in the world and hundreds of thousands of persons seeking asylum, many of them in the United States. Physicians are often the first to interview these victims of abuse. Torture has serious and long-lasting health consequences. Thus, physicians can play a key role in documenting and preventing many forms of abuse and in treating survivors. In some areas, physicians may become the targets of arrest because of their work as clinicians or as influential members of their communities. They may also face disturbing ethical dilemmas as they witness torture or its results. As members of the medical profession, physicians have an obligation to their peers around the world. This report reviews the current state of physicians' involvement in the prevention of international torture and in the treatment of its victims. We propose ways in which physicians can become involved by caring for survivors of torture and by providing expert testimony on behalf of victims who seek asylum. We discuss how the medical profession complements the efforts of individual physicians by providing an infrastructure to support and guide their work. Medical organizations can adopt and disseminate ethical principles that specifically address human rights and their violation. They can coordinate letter-writing networks for human rights, organize or sponsor fact-finding missions, and develop continuing medical education courses on topics such as the identification and treatment of victims of torture. We conclude that physicians can make a difference, both as clinicians and as advocates for the health of the public and the protection of the human rights. The American College of Physicians will continue to advocate for
Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J
Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision.
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to explore the impact of preventive dimensions of a dentistry education program on the behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival health of a group of dentistry students of Yazd province. Methods: 51 junior and senior dentistry students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were asked to fill in the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI. Also, clinical examinations to assess Gingival Bleeding Index and O'leary Index were conducted. Results: Comparison of junior and senior participants’ responses to the HU-DBI items indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups on items 1, 8, 10, 15, 17, 18, 20, and 21. While the senior group showed lower Gingival Bleeding and O'leary indexes in comparison to its junior counterpart, the junior group showed a higher HU-DBI mean score in comparison to the junior group. Furthermore, participants with higher HU-DBI mean scores were found to show lower Gingival Bleeding and O'leary indexes. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicate that junior dentistry students, in comparison to senior ones, had better gingival health and oral hygiene.
Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O
Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-u...
As adopted by the 1997 ... disciplines of modern medical sciences over the centuries is exciting, interesting and thoughtful2. Formal ... 300 BC, Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry including the eruption pattern of teeth. These.
This paper, the second of a series of two, provides an introduction to treatment planning in implant dentistry for the general dental practitioner. Clinical relevance: Appropriate training has made implant placement and restoration a routine treatment option in general practice.
Jung, R.E.; Schneider, D.; Ganeles, J.; Wismeijer, D.; Zwahlen, M.; Hämmerle, C.H.F.; Tahmaseb, A.
Purpose: To assess the literature on accuracy and clinical performance of computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry. Materials and Methods: Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted to collect information about (1) the accuracy and (2) clinical performance of
Renton, T; Master, S
Since the 'Francis Report', UK regulation focusing on patient safety has significantly changed. Healthcare workers are increasingly involved in NHS England patient safety initiatives aimed at improving reporting and learning from patient safety incidents (PSIs). Unfortunately, dentistry remains 'isolated' from these main events and continues to have a poor record for reporting and learning from PSIs and other events, thus limiting improvement of patient safety in dentistry. The reasons for this situation are complex.This paper provides a review of the complexities of the existing systems and procedures in relation to patient safety in dentistry. It highlights the conflicting advice which is available and which further complicates an overly burdensome process. Recommendations are made to address these problems with systems and procedures supporting patient safety development in dentistry.
This Code of Practice applies to all those involved in the practice of dentistry and is designed to minimise radiation doses to patients, dental staff and the public from the use of dental radiographic equipment
Santangelo, Mario V.
A review of the history and current status of both the predoctoral dental curriculum and general dentistry programs gives insight into the nature and scope of the movement to make postdoctoral dental education a requirement. (MSE)
Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen
Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent and easy-to-use reinforced ribbon. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. This case report demonstrates usage of Ribbond as a space maintainer, a fixed partial denture with a natural tooth pontic, an endodontic post and cores and a splint material in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. PMID:19826607
Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L
Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.
Sílvio Augusto Fernandes de Menezes; Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro; Luciana Teixeira Passos; Camila de Almeida Smith; Tatiany Oliveira de Alencar Menezes
Objective: To assess the characteristics of special needs patients assisted at the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pará. Methods: A descriptive observational study conducted from March 2007 to December 2009, assessing 137 records of which were extracted the following data: gender, age, origin, current and past medical history, type of special needs and major oral diseases. We applied descriptive statistics, one-dimensional frequency table and prepare...
Diana Krystyna Harbuz; Michael O’Halloran
Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that li...
Eda Arat Maden
Full Text Available Polyethylene fiber (Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent material. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. Different clinical applications of Ribbond include space maintainers, fixed partial dentures with a natural tooth pontic, endodontic posts and cores and splint materials in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 110-115
Krokter Kogoj, Tina; Čebašek Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana
Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students’ mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for s...
Artênio José Isper Garbin
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether the professionals who make use of advertising in Dentistry by means of billboards respect the ethical aspects determined by the Federal Council of Dentistry Resolution No 71, 2006. Methods: This was an observational study in which 178 billboards of dental clinics in the municipality of São Paulo were assessed. Results: Among the billboards analyzed, 91.4% belonged to private persons and 9.6% to corporate bodies. With regard to the ethical aspects related to the advertisement, only 44.9% of the billboards presented all the mandatory items in accordance with the Federal Council of Dentistry. The item found the least number of times in the advertisements was the registration number in the Regional Council of Dentistry (34.8%. Among the items allowed by the Federal Council of Dentistry, the telephone number (65.2% was the most commonly found. Among the ethical infractions, 1.7% of the billboards advertised the terms of payment. Conclusion: Professionals are not following the ethical precepts established by the Code of Ethics in Dentistry, and awareness of these professionals needs to be aroused, so that information about their services is communicated and divulged in an ethical manner.
Gordon, M; Gorfil, C; Segal, S; Mass, E
This was to evaluate some suggested diagnostic procedures, treatment policies and professional attitudes of specialists in paediatric dentistry, in light of the periodically published guidelines by The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry and The British Society of Paediatric Dentistry. Using a structured questionnaire, 67% of the Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry, who agreed to participate in this study, were personally interviewed. Only 7.5% of the participants reported that they carry out pulp capping of primary teeth in cases of pulp exposure. Over 50% reported restoring teeth after pulpotomy with preformed crowns. Most indicated sealing pit and fissures after considering depth and morphology of the fissures and correlation with the patient's risk to caries. Cleaning teeth after eruption of the first tooth was suggested by 75.5% of the participants. A striking majority (96%) claimed that they restored permanent anterior teeth with composite resins and most used these materials for occlusal restoration in both primary and permanent posterior teeth. Most specialists advocated the use of amalgam in proximal posterior restorations. The presence of a parent in the operatory/surgery was preferred by 85% of the dentists. Israeli specialists in paediatric dentistry mostly comply with the mentioned guidelines. Further studies of this nature should also be encouraged in other countries to emphasize the importance of monitoring compliance with established and evidence based guidelines.
Willcocks, Stephen George
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.
Davis, Dustin M; Fadavi, Shahrbanoo; Kaste, Linda M; Vergotine, Rodney; Rada, Robert
To assess acceptance and use of protective stabilization devices (PSD) by Pediatric Dentistry Diplomates. Surveys were electronically mailed in 2013 to 2922 members of the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry's (ABPD) College of Diplomates. Bivariate (assessing provider personal and practice characteristics) and multivariate analyses were performed on reported acceptance and use of PSD. Response rate was 28 percent. Providers more likely to report acceptance and use of PSD were those in practices with lower SES patient base, where there was the perception that patients' parents were more accepting of PSD, and those with low patient volume. Provider who were more likely to report acceptance and use of PSD were female, not working solely in private practice, and from Southeast or North Central regions of the U.S. Neither PSD use during residency nor ABPD Board cohort (<2009 versus 2009-2013) was associated with current acceptance or PSD use. Upon multivariate assessments of practice and personal characteristics, only perception of parent acceptance was associated with provider acceptance whereas perception of parental acceptance, practitioner sex and practice setting were associated with provider use of PSD. Practitioner sex, practice setting, region, and perception of parental acceptance are all important factors related to PSD acceptance and use.
Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Marshall, Teresa A; Holmes, David C; Finkelstein, Michael W
This study investigated current trends of Iowa dental practitioners with regard to acquisition and utilization of scientific information resources to support decision making in the clinical practice of dentistry. A survey questionnaire regarding the utilization of various sources of information to support clinical decisions was mailed in September 2009 to all dentists licensed and practicing in the state of Iowa. Dentists appointed full-time within the University of Iowa College of Dentistry were excluded from this study. Continuing education courses were the most frequently utilized and preferred information source by respondents, followed by print journals and consultation with other health care professionals. Practice patterns according to decade of dental school graduation as well as scope of practice were noted. The results of this study demonstrate that dental practitioners utilize a variety of evidence-based and non-evidence-based information resources to support decisions in clinical practice. The habits of newer graduates vary somewhat from those of earlier graduates; the habits of specialists vary from those of general practitioners.
Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534
Tamal Kanti Pal
Full Text Available The practice of implant dentistry was not there a few decades ago It has its long historical retrospectives. The quest for rehabilitation of edentulous ridge has intrigued mankind since ancient times. The period from the time of Egyptian and Mayan civilizations to 1930s was unique when clinicians attempted to replace a missing tooth utilizing various materials. The spark of inquiry began from mid-1930s with the advent of an alloy named “vitallium;” attempts have been made to utilize this new material as an implant. Thereafter, in early 1950s, a good deal of fundamental and clinical research started taking place. These research data had given a boost to the tremendous growth of the practice of using dental implants made of vitallium that practically exploded to reach every general practitioner's clinic across the globe. Critical understanding of bone physiology, drilling protocol, implant design and surface texture, initial implant stability, single-stage implant surgery, and immediate loading of implants are the few factors based on which modern implant practice has become a predictable treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth.
Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, Corrado
In Italy, consent for health treatment, aside from being an ethical and deontological obligation, constitutes an essential requirement for any medical treatment according to articles 13 and 32 of the National Constitution and also in accordance with the Council of Europe's 'Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine'. An essential requirement for the validity of consent is that clear, exhaustive and adequate information be provided to the patient himself: the practice of informed consent is a communicative relationship in which the patient can express doubts, perplexities and clarification requests to the dentist. Furthermore, dental treatment has specific peculiarities: the relationship between dentistry and aesthetics, the concomitant presence of pathologies requiring different treatments, the elongated care process and the establishment of a trustworthy relationship and familiarity with the patient represent important aspects in the configuration of the dentist-patient relationship and in the process of acquiring informed consent. The dentist must offer correct information on diagnosis, prognosis, the therapeutic perspective and the likely consequences of therapy, alternative therapy and refusal of therapy, as well as eventual commitments for the period after treatment. Particular consideration must be given to minors and patients of unsound mind: the dentist's approach to these patients needs to be clear and appropriate to the person's age and understanding ability, even if the decisional power for sanitary treatment may be in the hands of a third person.
Versloot, J; Craig, K D
In this paper the communication model of pain is reviewed and the information then applied to understanding the acute pain experience of children in dentistry, with attention directed to improving the process of pain assessment. Expression of pain in children is of great importance as it enables them to engage others who may provide care. The experience of pain, however, is inherently private and not directly accessible to others. Therefore, it requires judgment and skill on the part of observers if pain is to be assessed accurately. In addition, there are striking individual differences in how people react to pain, which makes the assessment of pain in others an even greater challenge. Craig and colleagues  have proposed the use of the social communication model of pain that gives priority to understanding the numerous social factors that affect whether children are successful in communicating painful distress. When children's pain is underestimated or a child's self-report is not seen as credible, there is a considerable risk of failure to deliver needed dental care.
Duncan, H F
Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.
Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.
Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M
The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.
Kim, Eun Kyung
In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.
Bathala, Lakshmana Rao; Rachuri, Narendra Kumar; Rayapati, Srinivas Rao; Kondaka, Sudheer
After major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, tsunami, bomb blasts or terrorist attacks, accurate, and early identification of the dead and injured becomes an utmost importance. Restorations, cariesteeth, missingteeth and/or prostheses are most useful aids for the dental identification. At times, only identifiable remains are a victim's partial or complete dentures. The central principle of dental identification is that postmortem dental remains can be compared with antemortem dental records which include, studycasts, radiographs, etc., to confirm the identity of the victims. Marking/labeling dentures have been considered an important aid in forensic dentistry. Other than finger printing, when compared with all the methods, the marking/labeling of dentures is an accurate and rapid method to identify the unknown victims. There are no standardized methods to follow, but dental practitioners needs to maintain some dental records of their patients. This may include documentation of the "marking of dentures." The preparedness is the key to success in mass disaster identification. The aim of this review article is to discuss the methods of denture identification, advantages of denture labeling for the rapid identification during major disasters/accidents and the importance of maintaining the patient records.
Kelly, J. Robert
This review is intended to provide the ceramic engineer with information about the history and current use of ceramics in dentistry, contemporary research topics, and potential research agenda. Background material includes intra-oral design considerations, descriptions of ceramic dental components, and the origin, composition, and microstructure of current dental ceramics. Attention is paid to efforts involving net-shape processing, machining as a forming method, and the analysis of clinical failure. A rationale is presented for the further development of all-ceramic restorative systems. Current research topics receiving attention include microstructure/processing/property relationships, clinical failure mechanisms and in vitro testing, wear damage and wear testing, surface treatments, and microstructural modifications. The status of the field is critically reviewed with an eye toward future work. Significant improvements seem possible in the clinical use of ceramics based on engineering solutions derived from the study of clinically failed restorations, on the incorporation of higher levels of "biomimicry" in new systems, and on the synergistic developments in dental cements and adhesive dentin bonding.
Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.
Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...
Mejàre, Ingegerd A; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H A; Tranæus, Sofia H
To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps. Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Ingegerd A Mejàre
Full Text Available To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry.A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps.Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low.There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Brisky, Livia; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores
The aim of this study was to pay tribute to the memory of extraordinary Croatian Professor of children's and preventive dentistry Sime Kordić on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth. The biography and work of this scientist and teacher were presented, as well as his researches about the history of dentistry and medicine in our coastal cities. On the bases of his published papers, we analyzed a significant role of Professor Sime Kordić for the development of dental medicine and promotion of health culture in Croatia.
Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.
This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.
Methodology for the development of antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Guyatt, Gordon H; Norris, Susan L; Schulman, Sam; Hirsh, Jack; Eckman, Mark H; Akl, Elie A; Crowther, Mark; Vandvik, Per Olav; Eikelboom, John W; McDonagh, Marian S; Lewis, Sandra Zelman; Gutterman, David D; Cook, Deborah J; Schünemann, Holger J
To develop the Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (AT9), the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) assembled a panel of clinical experts, information scientists, decision scientists, and systematic review and guideline methodologists. Clinical areas were designated as articles, and a methodologist without important intellectual or financial conflicts of interest led a panel for each article. Only panel members without significant conflicts of interest participated in making recommendations. Panelists specified the population, intervention and alternative, and outcomes for each clinical question and defined criteria for eligible studies. Panelists and an independent evidence-based practice center executed systematic searches for relevant studies and evaluated the evidence, and where resources and evidence permitted, they created standardized tables that present the quality of the evidence and key results in a transparent fashion. One or more recommendations relate to each specific clinical question, and each recommendation is clearly linked to the underlying body of evidence. Judgments regarding the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were based on approaches developed by the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group. Panel members constructed scenarios describing relevant health states and rated the disutility associated with these states based on an additional systematic review of evidence regarding patient values and preferences for antithrombotic therapy. These ratings guided value and preference decisions underlying the recommendations. Each topic panel identified questions in which resource allocation issues were particularly important and, for these issues, experts in economic analysis provided additional searches and guidance. AT9 methodology reflects the current science of evidence-based clinical practice guideline
Hinton, Robert J.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; Dechow, Paul C.
In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents’ EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (pdentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143
Broudo, Marc; Walsh, Charlene
MEDICOL (Medicine and Dentistry Integrated Curriculum Online) provides a variety of Web-based resources that act as important adjuncts to all the teaching components of the medical and dental undergraduate curriculum. It uses WebCT, a course-management system, to provide the following educational functions: (1) track students' progress and present course information such as time-tables, learning objectives, handout materials, images, references, course assignments, and evaluations; (2) promote student-to-student and student-to-instructor interactions (through e-mail and bulletin boards); and (3) deliver self-directed learning components, including weekly self-assessment quizzes that provide immediate feedback and multimedia learning modules (clinical skills, radiology, evidence-based medicine, etc.). The University of British Columbia Faculties of Medicine and Dentistry feature a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum in which students access many of the same tools they will utilize in their professional practice. In the PBL curriculum, students must access the relevant clinical data and educational resources. A MEDICOL site has also been developed for medical students to use during their rural family practice, a four- to six-week experience in the summer after their second year. This site has been designed to be a supplemental learning environment for not only these students, but also for their physician preceptors. It is intended to foster communication among participants, bring new resources to the rural setting, and allow preceptors to develop their Internet skills with the help of students who are already familiar with the electronic environment. The MEDICOL sites enable the exchange of information about the learning issues between, as well as within, tutorial groups. MEDICOL also provides students with faculty-reviewed resources that are listed online; multimedia presentations; and access to histology, radiology, and pathology images through an online image
Anusavice, K J
The ART technique consists of hand excavating carious tissue and placing a highly viscous glass ionomer cement as a restoration material and as a sealant. Although the results of several studies are promising, the retention rates of these restorations for primary teeth are not impressive. Materials and methods that yield greater success rates are needed to improve long-term caries management outcomes. In principle, ART should yield outcomes similar to those associated with preservative dentistry, including the potential for minimal surgical intervention, conservation of sound tooth structure, avoidance of pain and need for local anesthetic injections, reduced risk for subsequent endodontics and tooth extraction, and increased survival time of the affected teeth. The ideal direct-filling ART material would be biocompatible and tooth colored; "forgiving" in its handling properties; insensitive to moisture or desiccation; hardenable without special equipment; able to form stable bonds to enamel and dentin; able to seal marginal gaps against bacteria; capable of releasing fluoride or remineralization and antibacterial agents when demineralization is most likely; and resistant to chemical attack. The highly viscous glass ionomer materials currently used for ART meet several of this criteria, though they may be deficient in their ability to seal marginal gaps against bacteria and in their sensitivity to desiccation. Furthermore, although they release fluoride over the lifetime of the restoration, this fluoride release alone may not prevent caries progression in all cases. It is necessary for cases of high caries risk to use chlorhexidine in conjunction with fluoride to achieve caries arrest and remineralization of adjacent areas of the affected teeth. Thus, while the ART technique offers some benefits in restoring function and reducing the rate of caries progression, it is unlikely that current materials will be able to arrest caries progression completely in high
Rakesh V. Somanathan
Full Text Available Dental implants have been considered to be a successful treatment modality. Recently, achieving a good osseointegration is not the ultimate goal for the restorative dentist. Successful implant treatment demands the best gingival esthetic success along with stability and function of the implant. This study was performed to obtain answers to some controversial points pertaining to esthetics and function of implants in maxilla. Immediate flapless implantation into the extraction sockets in maxillary anterior zone is an emerging treatment option in dentistry- the esthetic success of which was in debate for long. The proposed study compared the esthetic success of immediate flapless implants (ILA, to immediate implants with the need for flap (ILB and, delayed implants (DSL in single tooth restorations, in the anterior region of the maxilla. The other aim of the study was to find out if any relation exists between the interproximal crestal bone height and papilla height. Analysis was done irrespective of treatment procedure in the same study group using periodontal sounding and radiographs to find out the relation. From the study involving 106 participants, including 21 ILA, 22 ILB and 63 DSL cases, we received highest papillary index score of 2.6 average from group ILA, followed by ILB and DSL, after 3 months of prosthetic loading. From the periodontal sounding and radiographic study it was evident that, when the distance between the base of the contact point of crowns and height of interproximal bone was less than 5, the papilla was present 100 % of the time, but when the distance increased to 6 and more than 7 mm, the papilla was present only 46.5 and 24 percentage of the time respectively.
Roberts, J F; Curzon, M E J; Koch, G; Martens, L C
Behaviour management is widely agreed to be a key factor in providing dental care for children. Indeed, if a child's behaviour in the dental surgery/office cannot be managed then it is difficult if not impossible to carry out any dental care that is needed. It is imperative that any approach to behavioural management for the dental child patient must be rooted in empathy and a concern for the well being of each child. Based on various presentations given at Congresses of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD), documents reviewing behaviour management prepared by the Clinical Affairs Committee of the EAPD, and written submissions to the Executive Board of the EAPD, a review of the various approaches to the behaviour management of the child dental patient was completed. All aspects of non-pharmacological behavioural management techniques described in the literature over the past 80 years were reviewed. There is a very wide diversity of techniques used but not all are universally accepted by specialist paediatric and general dentists. Wide cultural and philosophical differences are apparent among European paediatric dentists that seem difficult to bridge when forming agreed guidelines. Accordingly, this review highlights those behaviour techniques that are universally accepted such as tell, show, do (TSD) or positive reinforcement, but nevertheless describes the most commonly mentioned techniques for which there are descriptions in the literature. A wide variety of behavioural management techniques are available to paediatric dentists which must be used as appropriate for the benefit of each child patient, and which, importantly, must take into account all cultural, philosophical and legal requirements in the country of dental practice of every dentist concerned with dental care of children.
Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende
Publication retraction is a mechanism to preserve the scientific literature against publications that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data, redundant publication, plagiarism, unethical research, and other features that compromise the integrity of science. An increase in the occurrence of retractions in recent years has been reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on this topic concerning publications in dentistry and related specialties. Thus, this study aimed to investigate retracted papers published in dental journals. Data collection included an exploratory search in PubMed and a specific search in SCImago Journal Rank indexed journals, complemented by the cases reported on the Retraction Watch website and in PubMed. All 167 dental journals included in SCImago were searched for identification of retracted articles up to March 2016. The selected retracted articles and their corresponding retraction notices were recorded and assessed for classification according to the reason for retraction and other additional information. Forty of the 167 journals scrutinised at SCImago (23.9%) had at least one retracted article, and four additional journals were identified from the Retraction Watch website. A total of 72 retracted found were retracted for the reasons: redundant publication (20.8%), plagiarism (18.1%), misconduct (13.8%), overlap (13.6%) and honest error (9.7%). Higher number of retractions were reported in those journals with cites/doc <2.0-n = 49 (74.2%). The types of studies were mainly laboratory studies (34.7%), case reports (22.2%) and review articles (13.9%). The approach to ethical problems in papers published in dental scientific journals is still incipient; retractions were mostly due to the authors' malpractice and were more frequently related to journals with less impact.
Jennifer D. Maderazo
Full Text Available This tracer study determines the employment status of the graduates of Doctor of Dental Medicine of Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU from 2008-2012. It assessed the relevance of the Dentistry curriculum, knowledge, skills and attitude acquired by the graduates deemed to be relevant for their employment; identify the personal and professional characteristics and job placement of Dentistry graduates and the school related factors associated with their employment. This tracer study used a descriptive research design. The study described the experiences of the graduates before and after employment. The graduates conveyed their personal observations regarding the situations they faced after graduation. The findings showed that majority of the Dentistry graduate-respondents are presently employed except for one whose primary reason is family concern and decided not to find a job. Most of the graduates had their first job as associate dentist with recommendation from the department or alumni of the college and opted to put up their own private practice after 6 months. Rewarding salaries and benefits are the main reason for staying on the job and are all enjoying a professional career in dentistry with initial gross income of 25,000 pesos and above. The following school related factors for job placement such as curriculum and instruction for the general education and professional subjects, student services and faculty instruction were found to be relevant in meeting the demands of the graduates’ dental profession. And the following are the work related values gained by the graduates such a love for God, honesty and truth, professional integrity and leadership. These values were found to be very relevant in the practice of the profession.
Aji P. Tjikman
Full Text Available Dental implant has become a fast developing and dynamic field in dental practice. It is acknowledged as a predictable treatment modality with high clinical success rates. Conventional fixed prostheses are no longer considered to be the first choice of treatment for replacing a missing tooth. Despite the increasing number of patients requesting dental implant treatments, there are only some clinicians who are offering implant therapy in their daily practice. The International team for Implantology described a straightforward case as a simple case such as implant placements in adquate soft and hard tissue conditions and single-tooth restorations in a non-aesthetic zone. A review of the current literature discussed the implementation of implant dentistry in universities worldwide into their curriculum for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs in general dentistry. The European consensus in implant dentistry education concluded that it is desirable to include the surgical technique for implant placement for straightforward cases into the dental curriculum. The levels and limitations to which the various aspects of implant dentistry and related skills are taught to be determined by the academic community. This review aimed at promoting awareness amongst dental practitioners and institutions in Indonesia of the shifting treatment paradigm in the maangement of a missing tooth. Hence clinicians will be able to include implant dentistry in the treatment planning of their patients and also undertake a significant part in the execution of such treatments.
Isharani, Sona J; Litch, C Scott; Romberg, Elaine; Wells, Anne; Rutkauskas, John S
The purpose of this study was to use Postdoctoral Application Support Service (PASS) data to study the quality and demographic trends for pediatric dentistry residency applicants. PASS data on grade point average (GPA) and National Dental Board Exam, Part I (NBI) scores were used to determine applicant quality. PASS demographic data included: (1) gender; (2) citizenship; (3) ethnicity; (4) previous practice of dentistry; and (5) completion of a residency or internship. GPAs showed a significant increase for the 6 years investigated. NBI scores also indicated a significant increase. Significantly more females than males applied to pediatric dentistry residencies. A significant increase in US/Canadian applicants was found. Ethnicity was similar to that of dental school graduates, with minor exceptions. In several of the years studied, there were significant differences in applicants who previously practiced dentistry or completed a residency/internship vs applicants who had no such previous experience. Significant increases in grade point averages and National Dental Board Exam, Part I scores suggest a high quality of pediatric dentistry residency applicants and this trend seem to be continuing. There are significantly more female than male applicants. More research is warranted on actual acceptance data.
Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. Recent studies have shown that it is also synthesized in various other parts of the body including salivary glands. The most significant effects of MLT are because of its potent antioxidant, antiageing, immunomodulatory, shielding and antineoplastic properties. Because of these effects, it might be used therapeutically in dentistry for the potentially malignant disorders, lesions of mechanical, bacterial, fungal or viral origin. It stimulates synthesis of collagen fibers and bone formation, and can be used in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions, periodontal therapies, and dental implants. Thus, it is important for the dental clinicians to be familiar with the possible therapeutic uses of MLT in dentistry. The aim of the present article is to review related articles in the literature that have focused on MLT and its applications in dentistry and to provide a quick sketch of applications of MLT in dentistry for dental clinicians. Our review concludes that the research to date certainly offers valid applications of MLT in dentistry. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success rates are needed for further interventions.
Hicks, Jeffery; Vishwanat, Lakshmi; Perry, Maureen; Messura, Judith; Dee, Kristin
The Special Care Dentistry Association (SCDA) has acted on a proposal regarding the status of training in the care of patients with special needs. Two phases of action were undertaken. Phase 1: (a) examination of the literature on existing training and curricula in the care of patients with special needs and (b) a survey of existing postdoctoral programs in special needs. Phase 2: establish a group of experts who: (a) submitted to the Commission on Dental Accreditation a request to approve a postdoctoral general dentistry residency program in Special Care Dentistry and (b) created suggested accreditation standards for such postdoctoral programs. This article describes efforts by the SCDA to evaluate: The status of existing training of dental students in the care of patients with special needs. The number and characteristics of postdoctoral general dentistry programs offering formal training in the care of patients with special needs. Whether additional training in the care of patients with special needs is needed for dental students and -dentists. Possible actions by SCDA to impact the numbers of dentists trained each year in the care of patients with -special needs. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio
Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.
Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.
Diana Krystyna Harbuz
Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.
Shashirekha, Govind; Jena, Amit; Mohapatra, Satyajit
Nanotechnology is emerging as an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid development and has brought about enormous changes in medicine and dentistry. Nanomaterial-based design is able to mimic some of the mechanical and structural properties of native tissue and can promote biointegration. Nanotechnology has various applications in dentistry, including dentition renaturalization, therapy for dentin hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonding diamondized enamel, enhancing properties of root canal sealers, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. A range of synthetic nanoparticles such as hydroxyapatite, bioglass, titanium, zirconia, and silver nanoparticles are proposed for dental restoration. This review focuses on the developments in the field of nanomaterials in dentistry in the form of tissue regeneration materials, implantable devices, nanocomposites, endodontic sealers etc. and issues of patient safety.
Schapira, Marta V
Approaching from the perspective of social and historical construction, the article addresses the professionalization of dentistry in Argentina from the late nineteenth century to 1940. The study analyzes the weight of different actors and dimensions, particularly the introduction of dentistry studies into Argentinean universities and the conflicts between dentists and those in related fields (especially physicians, mecánicos dentales, and informal practitioners like barbers and bleeders) as well as conflicts with the State. The article explores the union, political, and academic strategies developed in an effort to define a space for exclusive intervention, and also looks at the earliest successes in tracing out a specific domain that would ensure professional autonomy and monopoly in the practice of dentistry. A review of documentation reveals the weight of craftsmanship and the mercantile tradition in dental practice, very limited collective participation in the union environment and the field's weak commitment to public health.
Full Text Available Children’s dental anxiety has been of great worry for many years and it is still a barrier for dental care. According to recent guidelines for oral health prevention in childhood, additional strategies for a preventive care should be applied for pediatric patients. So it’s important to encourage pediatric dentists to develop a “child-friendly” environment for treating children. Environmental elements that produce positive feelings can reduce anxiety. The analysis of environmental design and features applied in Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, highlighted special attention to the aspects supporting sensory conditions (colors, light, spatial organization; reassurance strategies (decorations,dental team attire, drawings; anxiety control strategies (playing area, TV, comics, toys; behavioral management strategies (positive reinforcement, modeling; in-formation (brochures, posters.
Afrashtehfar, K I; Eimar, H; Yassine, R; Abi-Nader, S; Tamimi, F
Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) can help provide the best treatment option for every patient, however, its implementation in restorative dentistry is very limited. This study aimed at assessing the barriers preventing the implementation of EBD among dental undergraduate and graduate students in Montreal, and explore possible solutions to overcome these barriers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of a paper format self-administrated questionnaire distributed among dental students. The survey assessed the barriers and potential solutions for implementation of an evidence-based practice. Sixty-one students completed the questionnaire. Forty-one percent of respondents found evidence-based literature to be the most reliable source of information for restorative treatment planning, however, only 16% used it. They considered that finding reliable information was difficult and they sometimes encountered conflicting information when consulting different sources. Dental students had positive attitudes towards the need for better access to evidence-based literature to assist learning and decision making in restorative treatment planning and to improve treatment outcomes. Even for dentists trained in EBD, online searching takes too much time, and even though it can provide information of better quality than personal intuition, it might not be enough to identify the best available evidence. Even though dental students are aware of the importance of EBD in restorative dentistry they rarely apply the concept, mainly due to time constraints. For this reason, implementation of EBD would probably require faster access to evidence-based knowledge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tonmukayakul, U; Calache, H; Clark, R; Wasiak, J; Faggion, C M
Economic evaluation (EE) studies have been undertaken in dentistry since the late 20th century because economic data provide additional information to policy makers to develop guidelines and set future direction for oral health services. The objectives of this study were to assess the methodological quality of EEs in oral health. Electronic searching of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database from 1975 to 2013 were undertaken to identify publications that include costs and outcomes in dentistry. Relevant reference lists were also searched for additional studies. Studies were retrieved and reviewed independently for inclusion by 3 authors. Furthermore, to appraise the EE methods, 1 author applied the Drummond 10-item (13-criteria) checklist tool to each study. Of the 114 publications identified, 79 studies were considered full EE and 35 partial. Twenty-eight studies (30%) were published between the years 2011 and 2013. Sixty-four (53%) studies focused on dental caries prevention or treatment. Median appraisal scores calculated for full and partial EE studies were 11 and 9 out of 13, respectively. Quality assessment scores showed that the quality of partial EE studies published after 2000 significantly improved (P = 0.02) compared to those published before 2000. Significant quality improvement was not found in full EE studies. Common methodological limitations were identified: absence of sensitivity analysis, discounting, and insufficient information on how costs and outcomes were measured and valued. EE studies in dentistry increased over the last 40 y in both quantity and quality, but a number of publications failed to satisfy some components of standard EE research methods, such as sensitivity analysis and discounting. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Tredwin, Christopher J; Handy, Richard D
Interest in the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) as either nanomedicines or dental materials/devices in clinical dentistry is growing. This review aims to detail the ultrafine structure, chemical composition, and reactivity of dental tissues in the context of interactions with ENMs, including the saliva, pellicle layer, and oral biofilm; then describes the applications of ENMs in dentistry in context with beneficial clinical outcomes versus potential risks. The flow rate and quality of saliva are likely to influence the behavior of ENMs in the oral cavity, but how the protein corona formed on the ENMs will alter bioavailability, or interact with the structure and proteins of the pellicle layer, as well as microbes in the biofilm, remains unclear. The tooth enamel is a dense crystalline structure that is likely to act as a barrier to ENM penetration, but underlying dentinal tubules are not. Consequently, ENMs may be used to strengthen dentine or regenerate pulp tissue. ENMs have dental applications as antibacterials for infection control, as nanofillers to improve the mechanical and bioactive properties of restoration materials, and as novel coatings on dental implants. Dentifrices and some related personal care products are already available for oral health applications. Overall, the clinical benefits generally outweigh the hazards of using ENMs in the oral cavity, and the latter should not prevent the responsible innovation of nanotechnology in dentistry. However, the clinical safety regulations for dental materials have not been specifically updated for ENMs, and some guidance on occupational health for practitioners is also needed. Knowledge gaps for future research include the formation of protein corona in the oral cavity, ENM diffusion through clinically relevant biofilms, and mechanistic investigations on how ENMs strengthen the tooth structure.
Cranin, A Norman
Dentistry has a long, often well documented history. Evidence of tooth pullings has been discovered in crude carvings on the walls of caves that are over 10,000 years old. The ancient Egyptians, the Athenians, and the early inhabitants of Rome required oral health care; in addition to tooth extractions, they underwent tumor removal, tamponade for hemorrhage, reduction of jaw fractures with gold wire ligatures, cautery using white hot platinum loops, and an additional variety of remedies and nostrums. Pain relief was offered, with courses of treatment as varied as postural change, alteration of ambient temperature, and vegetable and organic medicines in poultices or via oral and rectal routes. Through the centuries, great surgeons and physicians introduced various methods of treatment: Hippocrates codified ethical standards; Maimonides established pragmatic rules for physicians; LeFort categorized facial fractures; Pasteur clarified the need for sterilization; Semmelweis standardized antiseptic conditions in the operating theater; Morton and Wells discovered safer methods of analgesia; Freud explored the theraupeutic uses of narcotics; Roentgen championed X-ray imaging; Curie pioneered the use of chemotherapy; and Barton and Nightingale were models of empathy and patient care. In more recent times, we have profited from the genius of Watson and Crick (DNA); Fleming (penicillin); Venable and Stuck (Chrome-cobalt--molybdenum alloy); Gershkoff and Goldberg (the subperiosteal implant); Chercheve, Branemark, Linkow, Misch, Tatum, and Niznick (innovative root forms, titanium and its alloys, and sinus floor grafting). The 20th century has brought to us phenomenal imaging, breathtaking intrauterine fetal surgery, wildly promising stem cell research, and astonishing CADCAM techniques. We've had great teachers and clinicians who have introduced us to new forms of therapy and advanced methods, including the role of the hemidesmasomes, the essential elements of bone grafting
Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways. In such a scenario, a professional obligation and social responsibility of dentists makes it imperative to transform the practice of dentistry from a hazardous to a sustainable one, by adopting environmental-friendly measures or 'green dentistry'. The NHS in the UK has been proactive in implementing sustainability in healthcare by setting targets, developing guidance papers, initiating steering groups to develop measures and implementing actions through its Sustainable Development Unit (SDU). Such sustainable frameworks, specific to dentistry, are not yet available and even the scientific literature is devoid of studies in this field although anecdotal narratives abound. Hence this paper attempts to present a comprehensive evaluation of the existing healthcare sustainability principles, for their parallel application in the field of dentistry and lays out a blueprint for integrating the two main underlying principles of sustainability - resource use efficiency and eliminating or minimising pollution - in the day-to-day practice. The article also highlights the importance of social values, community care, engaging stakeholders, economic benefits, developing policy and providing leadership in converting the concept of green dentistry into a practised reality.
Peterson, Devereaux; Kaakko, Tarja; Smart, Erica; Jorgenson, Mike; Herzog, Chris
The Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry is a Web-based (Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry (http://depts.washington.edu/peddent/) and disk-deployed comprehensive textbook of pediatric dentistry that features approximately 3,500 frames and 2,500 images, including color clinical photographs, illustrations, and radiographs; There are also end-of-chapter quizzes, laboratory manuals, photo banks, and a scrollable index incorporated as features in the book. The purpose of this study--which is among a series of studies being conducted at the University of Washington--was to evaluate dental student perceptions regarding online/computer-deployed education. 55 third year dental students were surveyed regarding their use of the Atlas of Pediatric Dentistry as the textbook resource during a comprehensive, introductory course in pediatric dentistry. The response rate was 84% of 55 dental students. Most students (80%) preferred the online textbook to traditional textbooks. Ninety-six percent rated the educational content of the Atlas as good, very good, or excellent, and all respondents indicated they would recommend the textbook highly to a colleague. Positive perceptions were associated with the: (1) scope of content; (2) large number of images (especially color images); and (3) ease of use. The most negative perceptions were due to technical problems associated with online use of computers running obsolete (Internet) browser software. The majority of respondents (87%) had access to a computer at home. Fifteen percent of the total 46 respondents used printouts of the text material. Students strongly preferred the online textbook to a traditional text. There continues to be a small number of students who do not have access to a computer at home and whose computers are equipped with obsolete software. To optimize student access to the online program, it is important to plan for students to be able to use computers at the university and to program any online
Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang
The aim of this study was to re-examine the teaching of geriatric dentistry in the USA dental schools, to identify curriculum content and compare the findings to previous reports. All dental schools in the United States were contacted via email with a questionnaire to assess the teaching of geriatric dentistry. Non-responding schools were sent a minimum of three reminder emails to complete the survey. A statistical analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile the variables of interest. Bivariate analysis was performed to explore if any of the variables were related using Fisher's exact test, non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Fifty-six of the 67 dental schools completed the questionnaire. Geriatric dentistry was taught in all dental schools; for 92.8%, the course was compulsory. We found that 62.5% were teaching it as an independent course, 25% as an organised series of lectures and 8.9% as occasional lectures in parts of other courses. Clinically, 84.2% have some form of compulsory education in geriatric dentistry. Public schools were marginally associated with an increased interest in expanding the geriatric dentistry curriculum (P = .078). No differences were found between these variables and school location. Geriatric dentistry is now required in 92.8% of dental schools. The teaching of traditional topics has not changed much; however, the number of gerontological topics has increased. Clinical teaching needs to be expanded, as in only 57.1% of schools was it a requirement. The ageing imperative will require research to determine the impact of teaching on services to the geriatric community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Knott, N J
As the use of information and communication technology (ICT) becomes more widespread in dentistry the risk of breaching electronic commerce laws and patient confidentiality increases. It is necessary to be aware of the responsibilities internet usage entails, especially within a dental practice where the protection of patient information is of the utmost importance. More should be done to outline the various precautions that should be taken to ensure ICT security within the professional domain, as it would appear dentistry has been neglected with regard to receiving the proper ICT education, training and support systems.
Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator. PMID:25177664
Shah, Purvi; Moles, David R; Parekh, Susan; Ashley, Paul; Siddik, Dania
Guidelines are used to inform clinical practice and improve the quality of health care. Poorly developed guidelines may emphasize the incorrect intervention. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the quality of pediatric dentistry guidelines using the AGREE instrument. A search was carried out to identify pediatric dentistry guidelines up to November 2007. Three independent assessors evaluated the guidelines using the AGREE tool. Fifty-seven guidelines produced by 11 organisations were evaluated. Most guidelines assessed were of poor quality, as determined by the AGREE instrument. Consideration should be given to using the AGREE instrument in the development of new guidelines and review of existing guidelines.
Basic requirement for an optimized application of radiation in dentistry is a qualified dosimetry. The paper introduces into new dosimetry techniques based on solid state phenomena, such as luminescence an exoelectron emission, which, in case of dentistry, appear superior to conventional methods such as film and ionization chamber dosimetry. Advantages of the TLDs dosimeters, such as miniature detector volume, dynamic detection range, tissue equivalence etc., and their dosimetric possibilities are described together with hints on operational problems with respect to achieving high dosimetric measurement accuracy. (orig.) [de
... Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension AGENCY: Health Resources... Funds for Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's (T17) Current Grantees. SUMMARY: The Health... for the Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry awards to Columbia University, The Regents of the...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD.... Glass, M.D., Ph.D., Advisory Committee Executive Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau...
... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Training in Primary CareMedicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD... Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Medicine and Dentistry. In the plenary...