The third sector we need to examine ~ garding progress in prevention is the activities of the dental profeSSionals themselves. As part of the continuing education programme, all dental assistants have attended a workshop' on epidemiology, health education and planning of preventive programmes. They accepted this new.
... Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and Clinical Support Centers Program Announcement Type...' oral health by directly addressing the perceived needs of dental personnel and Area or regional dental... clinic-based and community-based oral health promotion/disease prevention (HP/DP) initiatives. Centers...
... FAQs CDC SEALS Software CDC State Strategies: Preventing Tooth Decay CDC Oral Health Data Other Sites MedlinePlus – Child Dental Health MedlinePlus – Tooth Decay American Dental Association – Evidence-based clinical practice guideline ...
Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O
Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-u...
Huebner, Colleen E; Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin; Milgrom, Peter
This study examined the preventive dental health care experiences of young children with special needs and determined the feasibility of conducting clinical dental examinations at a community-based early intervention services center. Study methods included 90 parent interviews and dental examinations of their preschool-age children. Thirteen percent of the children received optimal preventive care, defined as twice daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste and two preventive dental visits in the prior 12 months; 37% experienced care that fell short in both areas. Optimal care was more common among children of parents who reported tooth brushing was not a struggle and those with a personal dentist. Parents' opinion of the study experience was generally positive. Few children with special needs receive effective preventive care early, when primary prevention could be achieved. Barriers to optimal care could be readily addressed by the dental community in coordination with early intervention providers. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Indirawati Tjahja Notohartojo
Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary TB is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. Dental health professionals such as dentists and dental nurses are in charge of health personnel to prevent, treat, cure, teeth the mouth, so as not to arise or aggravate toothache. In doing their job as dental health workers is expected to use gloves or masks, and always wash their hands to avoid the transmission of pulmonary TB disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted involving 78 dental health professionals in 50 primary health centers that were chosen in six districts in three provinces of Banten, South Kalimantan and Gorontalo. Data were obtained by interviews and processed using SPSSResults: More than 90% dental health workers in work wore masks gloves and washed their hands after work. There was a signifi cant relationship between exercise with dental health professionals with a p value of 0.007, which means a signifi cant. Conclusion: In performing their duties, dental health workers have already used personal protective equipment such asmasks, gloves, and washed their hands and did enough exercise. Recommendation: need to increase knowledge about pulmonary TB in dental health professionals.
Cashmore, Aaron W; Noller, Jennifer; Ritchie, Jan; Johnson, Bronwyn; Blinkhorn, Anthony S
Reorienting primary care dental services towards prevention is a priority for improving the oral health of Australian children with extensive dental caries. We explored the attitudes and beliefs of dental staff about the factors that helped or hindered the establishment and implementation of a hospital-based parent counselling program to manage existing, and prevent new, carious lesions in children. A further aim was to explore the influence of the program on the hospital's reorientation to prevention. Eight of nine program staff participated in two focus group interviews, and two co-ordinating staff participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Interview recordings and transcripts were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. The participants identified a number of factors that they felt influenced the establishment and implementation of the program, including the dental team's support of the initiative, the advantages of building on existing clinic infrastructure and procedures, the utility of harnessing dental assistants as a resource for oral health promotion, and the confidence of dental professionals to provide parent counselling. Efforts to establish a preventive program in a public paediatric dental service should ensure that all members of the dental team are engaged during all phases of the program, that dental assistants are trained and supported to deliver parent counselling, and that interprofessional partnerships with services such as dietetics are fostered.
Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O
To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-up by a dentist or a classmate within the last year was defined as preventive care use. Students who performed oral self-care and attended dental clinic for check-ups were noted to have complied with recommended oral self-care. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. More male respondents agreed that the use of fluoride toothpaste was more important than the tooth brushing technique for caries prevention (P dental floss was very low (7.3%), more females were more likely to report using dental floss (p=0.03). Older students were also more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care (pdental care (p=0.008) were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day. Gender differences in the awareness of the superiority of using fluoridated toothpaste over brushing in caries prevention; and in the use of dental floss were observed. While older students were more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care measures, younger students with good knowledge of preventive dental care were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day.
Riedy Christine A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the content and general readability of pediatric oral health education materials for parents of young children. Methods Twenty-seven pediatric oral health pamphlets or brochures from commercial, government, industry, and private nonprofit sources were analyzed for general readability ("usability" according to several parameters: readability, (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Flesch Reading Ease, and SMOG grade level; thoroughness, (inclusion of topics important to young childrens' oral health; textual framework (frequency of complex phrases, use of pictures, diagrams, and bulleted text within materials; and terminology (frequency of difficult words and dental jargon. Results Readability of the written texts ranged from 2nd to 9th grade. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level for government publications was equivalent to a grade 4 reading level (4.73, range, 2.4 – 6.6; F-K grade levels for commercial publications averaged 8.1 (range, 6.9 – 8.9; and industry published materials read at an average Flesch-Kincaid grade level of 7.4 (range, 4.7 – 9.3. SMOG readability analysis, based on a count of polysyllabic words, consistently rated materials 2 to 3 grade levels higher than did the Flesch-Kincaid analysis. Government sources were significantly lower compared to commercial and industry sources for Flesch-Kincaid grade level and SMOG readability analysis. Content analysis found materials from commercial and industry sources more complex than government-sponsored publications, whereas commercial sources were more thorough in coverage of pediatric oral health topics. Different materials frequently contained conflicting information. Conclusion Pediatric oral health care materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely. In general, government publications are more readable than their commercial and industry counterparts. The criteria for usability and results of the analyses
Shaban, R; Kassim, S; Sabbah, W
Aim To assess socioeconomic inequality regarding specific preventive interventions (fissure sealants or any treatment to prevent caries) and dental visits among UK children.Method Data were from the Children's Dental Health Survey 2003, which included participants from England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The number of children in the analysis was 2,286. Variables were sex, age, area of residency (for example, England), mother's education, family social class, and deprivation level. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed.Results There were no significant socioeconomic differences in the use of preventive services. Deprivation and family social class (for example, intermediate and manual) were significantly associated with less regular dental visits (odd ratio 0.41, 95% CI [0.28, 0.63]; odd ratio 0.53, 95% CI [0.31, 0.89]; odd ratio 0.37, 95% CI [0.24, 0.58], respectively). Regular dental visits were associated with reporting preventive care for caries (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI [1.45, 3.49]) and with the number of sealed tooth surfaces (rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI [1.16, 2.60]).Conclusion Despite apparent socioeconomic inequalities in regular dental visits, there was no significant inequality in using specific preventive interventions by children in the UK. This finding should be interpreted with caution considering the relatively small subsample included in this analysis.
Kranz, Ashley M; Preisser, John S; Rozier, R Gary
Most Medicaid programs reimburse nondental providers for preventive dental services. We estimate the impact of comprehensive preventive oral health services (POHS) on dental caries among kindergarten students, hypothesizing improved oral health among students with medical visits with POHS. We conducted a retrospective study in 29,173 kindergarten students by linking Medicaid claims (1999-2006) with public health surveillance data (2005-2006). Zero-inflated regression models estimated the association between number of visits with POHS and (1) decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) and (2) untreated decayed teeth while adjusting for confounding. Kindergarten students with ≥4 POHS visits averaged an adjusted 1.82 dmft (95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 2.09), which was significantly less than students with 0 visits (2.21 dmft; 95% confidence interval: 2.16 to 2.25). The mean number of untreated decayed teeth was not reduced for students with ≥4 POHS visits compared with those with 0 visits. POHS provided by nondental providers in medical settings were associated with a reduction in caries experience in young children but were not associated with improvement in subsequent use of treatment services in dental settings. Efforts to promote oral health in medical settings should continue. Strategies to promote physician-dentist collaborations are needed to improve continuity of care for children receiving dental services in medical settings. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Horowitz, Alice M; Catalanotto, Frank A; DeBate, Rita D; Merrell, Laura K; Griner, Stacey B; Vazquez-Otero, Coralia; Kline, Nolan S
Purpose: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a causal agent for oropharyngeal cancers, suggesting a new role for dental hygienists in HPV-related cancer prevention strategies. Health literacy assessment is an approach that can be used to understand providers' informational assets and needs for educating and discussing HPV prevention with patients. This study aimed to understand dental hygienists' level of health literacy regarding HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Methods: Four focus group sessions with dental hygienists (n=48) were conducted at a national conference. The constant comparison method, with a priori codes for health literacy competencies (i.e., access/understand/appraise/apply), was utilized for this qualitative study. Results: Participants mentioned a variety of modes (e.g., magazines, journals) for accessing HPV-information; however, descriptions of understanding HPV and its relationship to oropharyngeal cancer varied. Participants considered patients' personal characteristics, the dental practice environment, and professional factors to appraise HPV-related information. Additionally, participants self-described themselves as being "prevention specialists." These factors influenced how dental hygienists applied primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related care issues with their patients (e.g., education and oral-cancer screenings). Conclusions: Dental hygienists recognized the importance of HPV and oropharyngeal cancer prevention efforts, including oral-cancer screenings and promotion of the HPV vaccine. The study findings identified opportunities for intervention focusing on primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary
In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M
To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Holt, R D
Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
Kowash, M B; Toumba, K J; Curzon, M E J
To evaluate the benefit-cost (B/C) and cost-effectiveness (C/E) of a long-term dental health education program to prevention early childhood caries (ECC) through home visits. The data collected over a three year period in a dental health education programme (DHE), previously reported [Kowash et al., 2000] for infants aged 8 months at start were analysed for B/C and C/E. Dental caries indices (BASCD) for dmft and dmfs were used. Costs were based on British National Health Service (UK) fees for treating children by general dental practitioners and salaries for community dental officers in the Community Dental Services in the UK. Comparisons were made for B/C and C/E with results from a clinical trial of a slow releasing fluoride device (SRFD), community water fluoridation (CMF) and a school based fissure sealant program (FSP) using the hypothetical community of Niessen and Douglass, . The cavities, as ECC, saved over the three year period indicated a B/C ratio for the DHE of 5.21 compared with SRFD of 4.17; CWF of 1.15 and FSP of 0.42. The C/E results were 1.92, 2.40, 8.66 and 23.74 respectively. A dental health education program of home visits with mothers of young infants to prevent early childhood caries and starting at 8 months of age, gave better benefit-costs and costs effectiveness ratios than other preventive programs.
Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin
Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE+MI, and CE+MI+RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n=690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE+MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE+MI+RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting
Wu, Andrew; Switzer-Nadasdi, Rhonda
Dental caries is a highly prevalent, yet preventable disease that is commonly overlooked in the adult population. It is strongly related to health-related behaviors and knowledge, and therefore, is potentially receptive to a behavioral health intervention. However, prevention strategies that target health behaviors in adults are fundamentally different from those in children, whom most current intervention strategies for dental caries target. This study attempts to pilot design, implement, and assess health behavior intervention tools for adults, in order to improve their oral health. To increase knowledge about dental caries by 80% and increase positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors by 80% in low-income adult participants at Interfaith Dental Clinic by piloting novel interventional and educational tools based on the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior. A convenience sample of newly registered participants to the Interfaith Dental Clinic between August 2011 and May 2013, were interviewed on each participant's first appointment, exposed to the interventional tools, and subsequently interviewed at their next appointment. A control group, comprised of participants who had completed their caries care as deemed by the clinic and had not been exposed to the interventional tools, were also interviewed on their last appointment before graduating the clinic's program. A total of 112 participants were exposed to the intervention, and forty-two participants comprised the control group. Follow-up for the intervention group was 20.5% (n = 23). Knowledge about the cause of caries increased by 29.9%, and positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors increased by 25.4%. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significance between the interview scores of the post-intervention group and that of the control group (p = 0.18 for knowledge, p = 0.284 for behaviors). Qualitative results show the vast majority of participants blamed diet for cause of caries, that this participant
White, D J
Dental calculus, both supra- and subgingival occurs in the majority of adults worldwide. Dental calculus is calcified dental plaque, composed primarily of calcium phosphate mineral salts deposited between and within remnants of formerly viable microorganisms. A viable dental plaque covers mineralized calculus deposits. Levels of calculus and location of formation are population specific and are affected by oral hygiene habits, access to professional care, diet, age, ethnic origin, time since last dental cleaning, systemic disease and the use of prescription medications. In populations that practice regular oral hygiene and with access to regular professional care, supragingival dental calculus formation is restricted to tooth surfaces adjacent to the salivary ducts. Levels of supragingival calculus in these populations is minor and the calculus has little if any impact on oral-health. Subgingival calculus formation in these populations occurs coincident with periodontal disease (although the calculus itself appears to have little impact on attachment loss), the latter being correlated with dental plaque. In populations that do not practice regular hygiene and that do not have access to professional care, supragingival calculus occurs throughout the dentition and the extent of calculus formation can be extreme. In these populations, supragingival calculus is associated with the promotion of gingival recession. Subgingival calculus, in "low hygiene" populations, is extensive and is directly correlated with enhanced periodontal attachment loss. Despite extensive research, a complete understanding of the etiologic significance of subgingival calculus to periodontal disease remains elusive, due to inability to clearly differentiate effects of calculus versus "plaque on calculus". As a result, we are not entirely sure whether subgingival calculus is the cause or result of periodontal inflammation. Research suggests that subgingival calculus, at a minimum, may expand the
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs. Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/18/2016.
Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.
Devlin, Dee; Henshaw, Michelle
The lack of access to preventive dental services, such as dental sealants, can be a major barrier to optimal dental health. School-based dental sealant programs can serve as programs to improve access to preventive dental services. This school-based dental sealant program managed by a Boston dental school with collaborating partners in the metro west area of Massachusetts provides free dental sealants to second grade children. The number of second grade children having dental sealants was tracked for 6 school years and compared with the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% of all children aged 8 years to have at least 1 dental sealant. From school years 2003 to 2004 through 2008 to 2009, 1,609 dental screenings were provided for second grade children. Of those, 1,189 received dental sealants. To determine whether or not the Healthy People 2010 objective was met, the number of children who received dental sealants from the school-based program was added to the number of children who already had their permanent first molars sealed by their own dentist at the time of the dental screening, plus children with sealants per parent report. In total, the aggregate second grade enrollment having sealants during the designated school years was 54%. The specific Healthy People 2010 objective was achieved over the designated time period. School-based dental sealant programs can help to decrease or eliminate barriers for access to preventive dental services by increasing the number of children who receive dental sealants.
Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A
To investigate factors that influence Dental Therapists and Oral Health Therapists (Therapists) plan preventive oral health care for adolescents attending New South Wales (NSW) Public Oral Health Services. A cross-sectional postal survey using two clinical vignettes were used to record the preventive care treatment plans offered by Therapists working across sixteen NSW Local Health Districts (LHDs). Data were tabulated and Chi square statistics were used in the analysis. One hundred and seventeen Therapists returned questionnaires giving a 64.6% response rate. The participants highlighted the importance of offering oral hygiene instruction (97.0%); dietary advice (95.0%) and topical fluoride applications (74.0%). Recommended home use products included fluoride toothpaste 5000ppmF (59.0%) and casein phosphopeptide amorphous phosphates plus fluoride (CPP-ACPF) paste (57.7%). Over 50% used fissure sealants. More respondents (88%) would utilise Motivational Interviewing strategies for a patient with dental caries concerns, however, only 63% would use this technique for a patient in pain (pdental disease, suggesting a need for Clinical Directors to consider providing more advice to Therapists on the scientific basis of preventing dental caries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wiener, R Constance; Vohra, Rini; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Madhavan, S Suresh
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the burdens of caregivers on perception of the need and receipt of preventive dental care for a subset of children with special health care needs-children with Autism Spectrum disorder, developmental disability and/or mental health conditions (CASD/DD/MHC). Methods The authors used the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN. The survey included questions addressing preventive dental care and caregivers' financial, employment, and time-related burdens. The associations of these burdens on perceptions and receipt of preventive dental care use were analyzed with bivariate Chi square analyses and multinomial logistic regressions for CASD/DD/MHC (N = 16,323). Results Overall, 16.3 % of CASD/DD/MHC had an unmet preventive dental care need. There were 40.0 % of caregivers who reported financial burden, 20.3 % who reported employment burden, and 10.8 % who reported time burden. A higher percentage of caregivers with financial burden, employment burden, and time-related burden reported that their CASD/DD/MHC did not receive needed preventive dental care (14.1, 16.5, 17.7 % respectively) compared to caregivers without financial, employment, or time burdens (9.0, 9.6 %, 11.0 % respectively). Caregivers with financial burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.38 [95 % CI 1.02, 1.86] and employment burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.45 [95 % CI 1.02, 2.06] were more likely to report that their child did not receive preventive dental care despite perceived need compared to caregivers without financial or employment burdens. Conclusions for practice Unmet needs for preventive dental care were associated with employment and financial burdens of the caregivers of CASD/DD/MHC.
Vohra, Rini; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Madhavan, S. Suresh
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the burdens of caregivers on one perception of the need and receipt of preventive dental care for a subset of children with special health care needs—children with Autism Spectrum disorder, developmental disability and/or mental health conditions (CASD/DD/MHC). Methods The authors used the 2009–2010 National Survey of CSHCN. The survey included questions addressing preventive dental care and caregivers’ financial, employment, and time-related burdens. The associations of these burdens on perceptions and receipt of preventive dental care use were analyzed with bivariate Chi square analyses and multinomial logistic regressions for CASD/DD/MHC (N=16,323). Results Overall, 16.3% of CASD/DD/MHC had an unmet preventive dental care need. There were 40.0% of caregivers who reported financial burden, 20.3% who reported employment burden, and 10.8% who reported time burden. A higher percentage of caregivers with financial burden, employment burden, and time-related burden reported that their CASD/DD/MHC did not receive needed preventive dental care (14.1 %, 16.5%, 17.7% respectively) compared to caregivers without financial, employment, or time burdens (9.0%, 9.6%, 11.0% respectively). Caregivers with financial burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.38 [95%CI: 1.02, 1.86]) and employment burden (adjusted multinomial odds ratio, 1.45 [95%CI: 1.02, 2.06]) were more likely to report that their child did not receive preventive dental care despite perceived need compared to caregivers without financial or employment burdens. Conclusions for practice Unmet needs for preventive dental care were associated with employment and financial burdens of the caregivers of CASD/DD/MHC. PMID:27465058
Ramroop, V; Wright, D; Naidu, R
To assess the dental health knowledge of primary school teachers, their attitudes toward the prevention of dental diseases and to identify any barriers to the implementation of oral health promotion programmes in schools. Teachers' knowledge of the causes and prevention of dental decay and gum disease, their attitudes toward oral health and barriers to the implementation of dental health education programmes were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. School teachers were generally very well informed about the causes and prevention of dental decay and gum disease. Knowledge of the appropriate management of serious dental trauma was very poor among this group although they seemed to have greater awareness of the appropriate management for less serious dental injuries. The majority of teachers demonstrated positive attitudes toward dental health and its incorporation into the school curriculum. Teachers'attitudes to their own involvement in school-based dental health education were also positive. Lack of training and resources and time within the curriculum were identified as major barriers to the implementation of a dental health education programme in primary schools. Developing teacher training programmes that include oral health knowledge and an evidence-based approach to dental health education within a school setting could enable primary school teachers to play a significant part in oral health promotion for young children in Trinidad.
Atchison, Kathryn; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Bhoopathi, Vinodh
The curriculum for graduating dental and dental hygiene students must prepare them to contribute to the improvement or maintenance of health for individual patient's and the public's health. The objective is to describe the background for and the process used to develop a core Dental Public Health Curriculum for such students. The process used was to solicit and review existing dental public health curriculum in dental and dental hygiene schools; review curriculum for other health professionals; identify the themes needed to frame the curriculum; select usable materials and identify gaps in existing curricular materials; and develop appropriate curriculum materials that would embody the competencies developed for undergraduate dental and dental hygiene education. Twenty-three topics were identified as embodying the eight competencies. Based on these topics, six courses, Principles of Dental Public Health, Evidence-Based Dentistry, Ethics and Dental Public Health, Dental Public Health Policy and Advocacy, Oral Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Oral Health Literacy and Dental Public Health, were prepared. Each course includes syllabus, PowerPoint presentations, student assignments and activities, instructor guide, and classroom discussion points. Depending on the hours available in the existing curriculum at the dental or hygiene school, lecture presentations and take home assignments/discussions may be used independently or in combination with presentations from other courses. In addition, individual discussions and activities may be used to integrate dental public health materials into other courses. A flexible curriculum is available at the AAPHD website to enable the incorporation of DPH topics into the curriculum. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
The invention relates to a therapeutic method for preventing and/or inhibiting dental erosion in a mammalian subject, and the provision of a dental care product for performing the method. The dental care product of the invention comprises a starch-degrading enzyme of E. C. 18.104.22.168, wherein said...... product comprises less than 1 wt.% ionic surfactant, and preferably is substantially free of endoprotease and/or lipase. The properties of the dental care product serve to prevent and/or inhibit dental erosion in a subject that typically results from repeated exposure of the patient's tooth surfaces...
Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...
Pourat, Nadereh; Choi, Moonkyung Kate; Chen, Xiao
Preventive dental health services are intended to reduce the likelihood of development of tooth decay and the need for more intensive treatment overtime. The evidence on the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing treatment services and expenditures is lagging for adults, particularly those with lower incomes and chronic conditions. We assessed the impact of preventive dental services on dental treatment service use and expenditures overall and by category of service. We calculated the annual numbers of preventive (periodic diagnostic and prophylactic procedures) and treatment (restorative, surgery, prosthodontic, endodontic, and periodontic) services per beneficiary using Medicaid enrollment and claims data for beneficiaries with three categories of conditions (diabetes, heart disease, and respiratory disease) from 10 largest California counties. We used Cragg hurdle exponential regression models controlling for past service use, demographics, length of enrollment, and county. We found that using preventive services in 2005-2007 was associated with higher likelihood and number of treatment dental services used, but associated with lower treatment expenditures in 2008. The reduction in expenditures was noted only in restorative, prosthodontics, and periodontic services. The findings provide much needed evidence of the contribution of preventive dental care in maintaining oral health of low-income adults with chronic conditions and potential for savings to the Medicaid program. Providing lower cost preventive dental care to the individuals with chronic conditions would achieve better oral health and lower treatment expenditures. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Meyerhoefer, Chad D; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Manski, Richard
Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which limited dental coverage and high out-of-pocket costs reduce dental service use by the nonelderly privately insured and uninsured. Using data from the 2001-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and an American Dental Association survey of dental procedure prices, we jointly estimate the probability of using preventive and both basic and major restorative services through a correlated random effects specification that controls for endogeneity. We found that dental coverage increased the probability of preventive care use by 19% and the use of restorative services 11% to 16%. Both conditional and unconditional on dental coverage, the use of dental services was not sensitive to out-of-pocket costs. We conclude that dental coverage is an important determinant of preventive dental service use, but other nonprice factors related to consumer preferences, especially education, are equal if not stronger determinants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Dentist and dental nurse as dental health personnel in community health center are spearheads in community dental health service. The effectiveness and efficacy of community dental health service needs updated adequate dental health knowledge and skill. One effort to assure the fulfillment of those needs is by providing community dental health survey training. This training aims at improving the skill and capability of dental health personnel to conduct dental health survey. The training consisted of materials on community dental health survey, principles of survey implementation, and field survey activity as an integral part of the training. Survey was conducted among third grade students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI in Tangerang city. Targeting and sampling part of the survey was implemented by city health office. There were 224 students, 182 parents, and 16 teachers who were successfully examined and/or interviewed. The survey showed that the participant’s knowledge was significantly (p<0.05 improved. The survey also showed that only 34% of the students had good oral hygiene score. There were 46.9% of students who suffered M1 caries and 47.3% had caries on their permanent teeth. Parents’ knowledge and attitude regarding child dental health was quite good and teachers had implemented students dental care effort. In conclusion, the survey-training model was proved to be useful to refresh the community dental health science while simultaneously obtained important data through survey. This model had never been conducted before and new breakthrough in the community dental health science refreshing activity targeted to local dental health personnel.
Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327
... National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center Xylitol: The Decay-Preventive Sweetener - English PDF Xylitol: The Decay-Preventive Sweetener - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese ...
Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Nethra; Sambamoorthi, Usha
Background The association between poor oral health and diabetes is well documented. Therefore, preventive oral health is strongly indicated for individuals with diabetes. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine if there were a difference in preventive dental care utilization among older adults with diabetes from 2002 and 2011, and 2) to compare preventive dental care utilization of older adults with and without diabetes from 2002 and 2011. Methods The data were from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The sample included older, fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries (ages 65 years and above). The key outcome was self-reported preventive dental care. In 2002, there were 8,725 participants; in 2011, there were 7,425 participants. Chi square and logistic regressions were conducted. Results In 2002, 28.8 % of participants with diabetes had preventive dental care. In 2011, this percentage increased to 36.0%. Similar results were seen among individuals without diabetes (42.9% in 2002 and 45.5% in 2011). The increase in preventive dental care was statistically significant for individuals with and without diabetes. The participants with diabetes, as compared with participants without diabetes, remained statistically less likely to have preventive dental care in adjusted logistic regression analysis with and without considering the interaction between observation year and diabetes (adjusted odds ratios= 0.73, and 0.86, respectively). Conclusion While the increase in preventive dental care is welcoming, older adults with diabetes continue to have significant preventive dental care need. Practical Implication Additional efforts are needed to encourage individuals with diabetes to obtain preventive dental care. PMID:27189741
Anna Vladimirovna Fomina
Full Text Available Background: To give a characteristic of the preventation of disease and dental care to military retirees organization based on the research of self-reported health status, dental health status and assessment of the dental care level. Materials and methods: The research is based on sociological research of military retirees’ self-reported health status materials (300 profiles and analyses of the sample cards from medical documentation about recourses for dental care, orthopedic care, about recourses in medical institution which gives medical care for this contingent (300 cards. Results: A medico-social characteristics of military retirees opinion about organization of dental care and prevention of dental diseases was made. Among the reasons for going dentist the absolutely biggest one is necessary to make a dental prosthesis because of missing teeth (76%. Only 24,1% of respondents are following dentist’s recommendations. In most cases dentist can make a necessary dental care, but only in 7,2% there is no result which is linked to patient’s missing the second medical reception. Conclusion: A low level of medical literacy knowledge about prevention of dental diseases and their treatment among military retirees was recorder. This research affirms the need of development the events about military retirees rehabilitation complex.
Templeton, Anna Rose; Young, Linda; Bish, Alison; Gnich, Wendy; Cassie, Heather; Treweek, Shaun; Bonetti, Debbie; Stirling, Douglas; Macpherson, Lorna; McCann, Sharon; Clarkson, Jan; Ramsay, Craig
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of adult and childhood, a largely preventable yet widespread, costly public health problem. This study identified patient-, organization-, and system-level factors influencing routine delivery of recommended care for prevention and management of caries in primary dental care. A convergent mixed-methods design assessed six guidance-recommended behaviours to prevent and manage caries (recording risk, risk-based recall intervals, applying fluoride varnish, placing preventive fissure sealants, demonstrating oral health maintenance, taking dental x-rays). A diagnostic questionnaire assessing current practice, beliefs, and practice characteristics was sent to a random sample of 651 dentists in National Health Service (NHS) Scotland. Eight in-depth case studies comprising observation of routine dental visits and dental team member interviews were conducted. Patient feedback was collected from adult patients with recent checkups at case study practices. Key informant interviews were conducted with decision makers in policy, funding, education, and regulation. The Theoretical Domains Framework within the Behaviour Change Wheel was used to identify and describe patient-, organization-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to care. Findings were merged into a matrix describing theoretical domains salient to each behaviour. The matrix and Behaviour Change Wheel were used to prioritize behaviours for change and plan relevant intervention strategies. Theoretical domains associated with best practice were identified from the questionnaire (N-196), case studies (N = 8 practices, 29 interviews), and patient feedback (N = 19). Using the study matrix, key stakeholders identified priority behaviours (use of preventive fissure sealants among 6-12-year-olds) and strategies (audit and feedback, patient informational campaign) to improve guidance implementation. Proposed strategies were assessed as appropriate for immediate
Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott
Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.
American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.
Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…
Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Clarkson, John J
To compare dental caries levels of schoolchildren stratified in different social classes whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth (Dublin) with those living in an area where fluoridated salt was available (Freiburg). A representative, random sample of twelve-year-old children was examined and dental caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. A total of 699 twelve-year-old children were examined, 377 were children in Dublin and 322 in Freiburg. In Dublin the mean decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 0.80 and in Freiburg it was 0.69. An examination of the distribution of the DMFT score revealed that its distribution is highly positively skewed. For this reason this study provides summary analyses based on medians and inter-quartile range and nonparametric rank sum tests. In both cities caries levels of children in social class 1 (highest) were considerably lower when compared with the other social classes regardless of the fluoride intervention model used. The caries levels showed a reduced disparity between children in social class 2 (medium) and 3 (lowest) in Dublin compared with those in social class 2 and 3 in Freiburg. The evidence from this study confirmed that water fluoridation has reduced the gap in dental caries experience between medium and lower social classes in Dublin compared with the greater difference in caries experience between the equivalent social classes in Freiburg. The results from this study established the important role of salt fluoridation where water fluoridation is not feasible.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that dental caries is a severe public health problem across the world. The current global and regional patterns of dental caries reflect distinct risk profiles of countries which relate to the structure of the society, living conditions......, lifestyles, and the existence of preventive oral health programmes. Research conducted in high income countries documents that systematic use of fluoride reduces the burden of dental caries; such research is scarce in low and middle income countries. Objectives: This article reviews the evidence on effective...... use of fluoride, highlights the public health approach to fluoridation, and clarifies how automatic fluoridation contributes to breaking social inequities in dental caries. Data collection: Scientific publications on fluoride administration stored in PubMed/Medline and caries data from the WHO...
Schou, L; Wight, C
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations......-home materials were distributed to all children. Dental officers provided 20 minute information sessions for each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities within the classes. For the purpose of the evaluation, schools were categorised as deprived and non-deprived according...
Abdullah R AlShammery
Full Text Available Dental caries levels in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have been a cause of concern to public health planners for sometime. The dental caries symposium of the 14th Makkah Dental Conference brought together leaders from the different academic and clinical stakeholders in the provision of dental health care in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of the symposium was to establish consensus on the role of different public health measures to be implemented in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that could help reduce the overall dental caries rate. This consensus statement summarizes the key findings of the panel and presents a consensus statement on six major topics: (1 water fluoridation, (2 dental health care provision by the Ministry of Health, (3 cost-effectiveness of preventive dental care, (4 caries risk assessment, (5 evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of dental caries, and (6 the role of the dental academic sector in the prevention of dental caries. These six factors were discussed in the background of international best practices in caries prevention and how these practices could be adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Dental amalgam is one of the most widely used, but also the most controversial of dental restorative materials. Since its introduction during the first half of the 19 th century, concerns have been raised about health hazards related to the toxicity of a major component of amalgam, mercury. This has been a particularly contentious issue in Swed en, where amalgam use was discontinued in 2009, on environmental grounds. Two aspects of particular concern are the release...
The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Registry, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline and Embase were consulted to find relevant work. Searches were made by hand of numerous journals pertinent to oral implantology. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCT) with a followup of at least 3 months were chosen. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Two reviewers independently assessed the quality and extracted relevant data from included studies. The estimated effect of the intervention was expressed as a risk ratio together with its 95% confidence interval (CI). Numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated from numbers of patients affected by implant failures. Meta-analysis was done only if there were studies with similar comparisons that reported the same outcome measure. Significance of any discrepancies between studies was assessed by means of the Cochran's test for heterogeneity and the I2 statistic. Only two RCT met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of these two trials showed a statistically significantly higher number of patients experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics (relative risk, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.86). The NNT to prevent one patient having an implant failure is 25 (95%CI, 13-100), based on a patient implant failure rate of 6% in people not receiving antibiotics. The following outcomes were not statistically significantly linked with implant failure: prosthesis failure, postoperative infection and adverse events (eg, gastrointestinal effects, hypersensitivity). There is some evidence suggesting that 2 g of amoxicillin given orally 1 h preoperatively significantly reduces failures of dental implants placed in ordinary conditions. It remains unclear whether postoperative antibiotics are beneficial, and which is the most effective antibiotic. One dose of
Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described.......Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described....
... Topic - English Salud dental del niño: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Foods For Healthy Teeth - English PDF Foods For Healthy Teeth - español (Spanish) PDF Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Office of Oral Health Healthy Teeth, Healthy ...
Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J
The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J
Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631.
Pewa, Preksha; Garla, Bharath K; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Solanki, Jitendra
In rural India, dental diseases occur due to many factors, which includes inadequate or improper use of fluoride and a lack of knowledge regarding oral health and oral hygiene, which prevent proper screening and dental care of oral diseases. The objective of the study was to evaluate the dental attendance, awareness and utilization of dental services in public health center. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 study subjects who were visiting dental outpatient department (OPD) of public health centre (PHC), Guda Bishnoi, and Jodhpur using a pretested proforma from month of July 2014 to October 2014. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding socioeconomic status and demographic factors affecting the utilization of dental services. Pearson's Chi-square test and step-wise logistic regression were applied for the analysis. Statistically significant results were found in relation to age, educational status, socioeconomic status and gender with dental attendance, dental awareness and felt needs. p-value health center should be based on the felt need of the population to increase attendance as well as utilization of dental services, thereby increasing the oral health status of the population.
Alabama Univ., Birmingham. Dental Advisory Committee.
Guidelines to aid attendants to maintain good dental health among institutionalized mentally retarded persons are presented. Aspects considered include reasons for taking care of the mouth and means of adapting the oral hygiene program to each individual. Also described are oral hygiene programs now existing in group living settings and methods of…
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of
Rijckevorsel, J.L.A. van; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
Contributions to this volume discuss the application of statistics in public health and prevention, dealing with subjects in the field of working conditions and occupational health, sexually transmissible disease, dental health, public health tables, the geographical distribution of diseases,
Dental professionals are expected to engage in oral disease prevention, but their tools limit the approach to chair side activities based on the common notion that the major dental diseases, dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, are behavioural diseases shaped by individual lifestyles. However, lifestyles also have causes and individual behaviours reflect cultural norms, expectations and opportunities that are socio-economically determined and structurally maintained. Importantly, the effects of the societal and socio-economic determinants reach way above their influences as individual attributes, and effective approaches to the prevention and control of oral diseases are aligned with this causal chain. Unfortunately, the ethos and philosophy of dentistry is focused to a downstream, patient-centred, curative and rehabilitative approach to oral diseases. Whilst such services are needed to care for those who have already suffered the consequences of oral diseases, they do not influence population oral health. A more balanced distribution of efforts and resources along the whole range of intervention points from the downstream curative to the upstream structural healthy policy approaches is required if appropriate, evidence-based, effective, cost-effective, sustainable, equitable, universal, comprehensive and ethical delivery of health care, including oral health care, is the goal. The implementation of healthy policies and sound approaches to population oral health will require substantial commitment and political will on the part of the public and their elected officials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. Objective: To determine the ...
Bell, Janice F; Huebner, Colleen E; Reed, Sarah C
This study examines associations between parents' report of their children's oral health and receipt of a dental visit for preventive care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental visit among US children and youth, ages 1-17 years, using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (n = 86,764). Survey-weighted logistic regression was used to estimate associations between perceived oral health status and receipt of a preventive dental health visit in the prior 12 months. Overall, 78 % of children and youth received at least one preventive dental health visit in the prior year. Among the youngest children, lower oral health status was associated with higher odds of receiving a preventive dental visit; among older children, lower oral health status was associated with lower odds of receiving a dental visit for preventive care. Use of preventive dental health care is below national target goals. Younger children in worse oral health are more likely, and older youth less likely, to receive preventive dental care. Public health efforts to educate parents to seek early and ongoing preventive oral health care, rather than services in response to problems, may yield oral health benefits later in childhood and over the life course.
Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik
Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for an association between nutrition, diet and dental diseases and to present dietary recommendations for their prevention. Nutrition affects the teeth during development and malnutrition may exacerbate periodontal and oral infectious diseases. However, the most significant effect of nutrition on teeth is the local action of diet in the mouth on the development of dental caries and enamel erosion. Dental erosion is increasing and is associated with dietary acids, a major source of which is soft drinks. Despite improved trends in levels of dental caries in developed countries, dental caries remains prevalent and is increasing in some developing countries undergoing nutrition transition. There is convincing evidence, collectively from human intervention studies, epidemiological studies, animal studies and experimental studies, for an association between the amount and frequency of free sugars intake and dental caries. Although other fermentable carbohydrates may not be totally blameless, epidemiological studies show that consumption of starchy staple foods and fresh fruit are associated with low levels of dental caries. Fluoride reduces caries risk but has not eliminated dental caries and many countries do not have adequate exposure to fluoride. It is important that countries with a low intake of free sugars do not increase intake, as the available evidence shows that when free sugars consumption is countries with high consumption levels it is recommended that national health authorities and decision-makers formulate country-specific and community-specific goals for reducing the amount of free sugars aiming towards the recommended maximum of no more than 10% of energy
Salwa A. AlSadhan
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the current knowledge about oral health and preventive dentistry among adults seeking dental care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which 900 questionnaires were randomly distributed to adults seeking dental care in all health settings in Riyadh; 450 questionnaires were distributed in each of the governmental and the private sectors. The questionnaire included questions regarding socio-demographic factors (age, education, occupation, etc and others concerning the patient’s knowledge of preventive dental measures; the oral hygiene procedures, fluoride and sealant applications and the healthy dietary habits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and simple descriptive statistics as means and frequency distributions were calculated for the study variables. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-six percent of the study subjects knew that dental caries could be prevented. Almost 59% were aware of the relation between frequency of sugar intake and dental caries. The prevalence of patients who knew that fluoride prevents dental caries was 50.3%, however, only 34.2% reported previous applications of topical fluoride in dental clinics. About 16% of the participants had received fissure sealants although 42.4% knew about them. The study sample’s dietary knowledge had statistically significant relations with education and occupation (p < 0.0001. Correct knowledge of visiting the dental clinic was statistically significantly related to education (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the majority of adults in Riyadh have the correct preventive dental knowledge, which is mostly related to the individuals’ educational level and occupation.
Schou, L; Wight, C
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations...... took place immediately before (T1), a month after (T2) and 4 months after the campaign (T3). A total of 342 (70 per cent) children received all 3 examinations. Oral hygiene and gingival health were examined using a modified Silness and Löe and the Ainamo and Bay Index. Toothbrushes and take...... to established social indicators. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in plaque scores at T2 and T3 (P gingival health improved at T2 and T3 (P
Ludenia, K; Donham, G W
Examined relationships between the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait subscales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory, and dental ratings of oral hygiene and presence of periodontal disease with dental outpatients (N = 101) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center Dental Clinic. Results indicated that this sample of outpatients scored comparably on MHLC Health Internality and Health Externality to a sample reported by Wallston and Wallston. Older dental patients, in the present sample, scored significantly higher on Powerful Others Externality in contrast to younger Ss, which suggests greater reliance on health professionals for dental health. Confirmatory evidence is presented on the negative correlations of depression, anger, and anxiety with Health Internality. Differential approaches to dental treatment are discussed.
Bracksley-O'Grady, Stacey A; Dickson-Swift, Virginia A; Anderson, Karen S; Gussy, Mark G
Dental diseases are a major burden on health; however, they are largely preventable. Dental treatment alone will not eradicate dental disease with a shift to prevention required. Prevention of dental diseases is a role of dental professionals, with most countries having formalized health promotion competencies for dental and oral health graduates. In spite of this, there may be minimal health promotion being undertaken in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review to identify some published studies on health promotion training in dental and oral health degrees. Key search terms were developed and used to search selected databases, which identified 84 articles. Four articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the review. Of these studies, the type of oral health promotion tasks and instructions received before the tasks varied. However, for all studies the health promotion content was focused on health education. In terms of evaluation of outcomes, only two studies evaluated the health promotion content using student reflections. More good-quality information on health promotions training is needed to inform practice.
Indah Listiana Kriswandini
Probiotic therapy is one of the therapies to prevent dental caries prospectively. Such therapy has been used in the medical area but not in dentistry. Probiotic therapy is important to be done since this therapy study ecosystem in oral cavity which has many commensal bacteria more detail. The probiotic material used to prevent dental caries is the microorganism which counter microorganism causing dental caries and its virulent product (acid lactic). Veillonella sp. use lactic acid as the end ...
Full Text Available Background: Patients with thalassemia major needs more dental care due to their medically compromised condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental health and dental treatment needs of these patients at Zahedan university school of Dentistry in 2009.Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytical study, 75 patients with thalassemia major were selected in which 42 boys and 33 girls with mean age of 10.79±6.2 referred to community dentistry center as the case group and 75 patients' relatives referred to Zahedan school of Dentistry as the control group. Two groups matched for age and sex. The studied variables were patient's educational level and their parents, dental caries and treatment needs. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi-squared test and t-test.Results: Thalassemic patient had increased average dental caries and missing (d=2.24, m=0.13, D=2.49, M=0.52 than the control group (d=2.13, m=0.05, D=0.97, M=0.35. Pulp therapy was the most needed treatment in patient group and in the other group filling dental caries was needed more. Conclusion: According to the high incidence of dental caries in patient with thalassemic major, effective preventive measures, health education and dental treatment are needed for this group.
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet
Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis.
Wang, N J; Aspelund, G Ø
Skewed caries distribution has made interesting the use of a high risk strategy in child dental services. The purpose of this study was to describe the preventive dental care given and the recall intervals used for children and adolescents in a low caries risk population, and to study how the time spent for preventive care and the length of intervals were associated with characteristics of the children and factors related to care delivery. Time spent for and type of preventive care, recall intervals, oral health and health behaviour of children and adolescents three to 18 years of age (n = 576) and the preventive services delivered were registered at routine dental examinations in the public dental services. The time used for preventive dental care was on average 22% of the total time used in a course of treatment (7.3 of 33.4 minutes). Less than 15% of the variation in time spent for prevention was explained by oral health, oral health behaviours and other characteristics of the children and the service delivery. The mean (SD) recall intervals were 15.4 (4.6) months and 55% of the children were given intervals equal to or longer than 18 months. Approximately 30% of the variation in the length of the recall intervals was explained by characteristics of the child and the service delivery. The time used for preventive dental care of children in a low risk population was standardized, while the recall intervals to a certain extent were individualized according to dental health and dental health behaviour.
Juan, S P
There is a compelling need to apply preventive programs in both private and community practice of dentistry. This is to maintain improvements in oral health in developed and industrialized countries, and to stem increases in oral diseases in underserved and developing ones. At the outset, the terms prevention and control must be understood. The former is considered to mean a procedure or course of action that prevents the onset of disease, whereas the latter, implies reversing or stabilizing disease conditions. To be more precise, prevention will refer to the pre-pathologic or pre-clinical stage encompassing the promotive and specific protection levels--primary prevention stage. On the other hand, control will encompass early diagnosis and prompt treatment, disability limitation and rehabilitation levels-termed also collectively, as pathologic, clinical and final stages, or secondary and tertiary prevention. Community-based programs are usually structured to compliment therapeutic interventions of oral diseases, as well as prevention. In this era, and towards the next millennium, preventive and control programs are given high priorities in order to minimize the need for curative, restorative and therapeutic management of oral diseases. This review of the literature will give emphasis on established methods and programs for the prevention and control of the two most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease. The problems, background, and oral health objectives for the year 2000 as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI), as well as the recent advances in oral health relative to these diseases will be discussed. Finally, to better improve the efficacy of existing prevention and control methods, research needs and areas of concern relative to these diseases will be given consideration.
Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.
Arheiam, Arheiam; Bankia, Ibtesam; Ingafou, Mohamed
A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively). The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%). There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05). This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Full Text Available Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early management of dental caries. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among internship students attending the Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry in Faculty of Dentistry, Benghazi, Libya. The participants were asked to provide demographic information, to respond to statements about their attitudes towards preventive dentistry, and to answer questions regarding their perceived competence in applying preventive dentistry procedures. Results: Data from 108 Libyan dental graduates were analysed for this study, of which 64% of them were females and 42.1% of them passed their final year with grade: acceptable. The most acknowledged aspects of preventive dentistry were being useful and essential to the community (95.4 and 90.8%, respectively. The percentage of participants expressing a proficiency in providing oral hygiene instructions was the highest (95.4%. There were differences between study subgroups in their perceived competence of preventive dental practices by gender and academic performance (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study highlighted that the currently implemented undergraduate education programme in Benghazi dental school does not provide dentists with the required attitude and skills to fulfil their role in providing preventive-oriented health services.
Rainchuso, Lori; Salisbury, Helen
Purpose: The aim of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of public health dental hygienists on providing preventive care to underserved populations in Massachusetts. Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used for initial participant recruitment, and snowball sampling occurred thereafter. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews. Qualitative analysis was conducted using Pitney and Parker's eight-step CREATIVE process. Results: Data saturation occurred with 10 participants (n=10), one-third of the public health dental hygienists who are practicing in Massachusetts. The majority of practice settings included school-based programs (70%), while programs for children with special needs (10%) were the least common. Two major themes emerged from the data; (a) the opportunity to be an oral health change agent and (b) barriers to practice. Six subcategories emerged from the data and are reviewed within the context of their associated themes. Additionally, career satisfaction emerged as an unintended theme, and was reported as the driving force for the majority of participants. Conclusion: This study revealed a better understanding of the public health dental hygiene workforce model in Massachusetts. Public health dental hygienists in Massachusetts perceive themselves as change agents within the health care profession, and although barriers to practice are plentiful, these oral health care professionals are committed to improving access to dental care. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. All U.S. residents are likely exposed to some degree to fluoride, which is available from multiple sources. Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (i.e., age <6 years). The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these
Indah Listiana Kriswandini
Full Text Available Probiotic therapy is one of the therapies to prevent dental caries prospectively. Such therapy has been used in the medical area but not in dentistry. Probiotic therapy is important to be done since this therapy study ecosystem in oral cavity which has many commensal bacteria more detail. The probiotic material used to prevent dental caries is the microorganism which counter microorganism causing dental caries and its virulent product (acid lactic. Veillonella sp. use lactic acid as the end product of S. mutans which cause the dental caries. The principle of probiotic therapy is the comensalism symbiosis found in oral cavity ecosystem. Veillonella sp could be added to anticipate the lactic acid which cause enamel demineralization. Hopefully dentist will apply probiotic therapy, so there will be more study of Veillonella sp. as probiotic material for dental caries prevention. Further research on Veillonella sp in probiotic therapy and Immunology need to be done to achieve the balance of ecosystem.
Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.
Torriani, D D; Goettems, M L; Cademartori, M G; Fernandez, R R; Bussoletti, D M
Paediatric dentistry requires knowledge of preventive measures, restorative skills and an understanding of child development. This exploratory, descriptive and qualitative study has analysed children's drawings regarding their perception of dental treatment and oral health. Children aged from six to ten years attending a dental school for treatment were randomly invited to create a drawing about 'dental treatment' and 'oral health'. Verbal expressions made by the children whilst drawing were also recorded and attached to the drawings. These representations were analysed and categorised using Vygotsky postulations for context reading. During the drawing analysis different themes emerged. Five categories regarding perceptions of dental treatment were identified: personal relationship; power relation; trauma; childhood resistance; and contextualisation of dental care in the child's life. Three categories relating to oral health were determined: dichotomy of health/sickness; ludic representation of health; and sickness seen as a process. Drawing can be used to understand children's emotions and expectations about dental treatment. Besides possessing technical skills and scientific knowledge, dentists have an obligation to pay attention to children's feelings.
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental students are the future leaders in oral health care and are expected to be teachers of oral hygiene as well as role models of self-care regimens for their patients. Objective: The objective was to assess self-reported oral health attitude and behavior among undergraduate dental students and to analyze variations between gender and level of education. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire based on the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI was distributed among 270 undergraduate students which consisted of 20 dichotomous responses (yes-no. Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Females had better oral health attitude and behavior toward visiting the dentist and oral hygiene practices, mean HU-DBI score of 8.8 (P < 0.05. Furthermore, the preclinical students (1 st , 2 nd years had better oral health attitude and behavior especially towards gingival health, oral hygiene practices and visiting the dentist (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Among dental students, the overall attitude of oral health was good, even though there were deficits in a few areas. The oral health attitudes and behavior were better among female′s dental students and were not improved with increasing levels of education. Better comprehensive dental education with exposure to dental health and prevention is suggested to improve dental students′ oral health attitudes and behavior.
Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient…
Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A
The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.
May 1, 2013 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 90 No. 5 May 2013. SELF-ASSESSED DENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE OF NIGERIAN DOCTORS. S. O. Nwhator, BDS, FMCDS, Senior Consultant Periodontologist, Department of Preventive Dentistry, University of. Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja-Nigeria, C. O. Olojede, ...
Ripa, Louis W.; Johnson, Robin M.
A survey of 113 graduates of the State University of New York at Stony Brook dental school now in general practice found a high rate of self-reported use of preventive practices (oral hygiene instruction, pit-and-fissure sealants, fluorides, and diet analysis) included in the dental school's curriculum. (MSE)
This podcast is based on the October 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Dental sealants, applied soon after a child's permanent molars come in, can protect against cavities for up to nine years. Applying sealants in schools for low-income children could save millions in dental treatment costs. Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/18/2016.
Baltutis, L M; Gussy, M G; Morgan, M V
A review of the literature on dental hygienists and their utilisation in the dental workforce is presented. Dental hygienists are employed as part of a dental team in the prevention and management of the two most common and costly oral diseases; dental caries and periodontal disease. The potential scope for dental hygienists in the public health sector in Australia is examined in the light of broader issues relating to changing disease patterns, service delivery and the treatment of patients with special needs. Prevention and treatment of oral disease by the dental hygienist in schools, institutions, nursing homes, hospitals and residential facilities is discussed, with emphasis on such issues as legislation, productivity and quality assurance. Implications for the future training of dental hygienists are presented and recommendations made for increasing their utilisation in the public sector.
Watters, William; Rethman, Michael P; Hanson, Nicholas Buck; Abt, Elliot; Anderson, Paul A; Carroll, Karen C; Futrell, Harry C; Garvin, Kevin; Glenn, Stephen O; Hellstein, John; Hewlett, Angela; Kolessar, David; Moucha, Calin; O'Donnell, Richard J; O'Toole, John E; Osmon, Douglas R; Evans, Richard Parker; Rinella, Anthony; Steinberg, Mark J; Goldberg, Michael; Ristic, Helen; Boyer, Kevin; Sluka, Patrick; Martin, William Robert; Cummins, Deborah S; Song, Sharon; Woznica, Anne; Gross, Leeaht
The Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures evidence-based clinical practice guideline was codeveloped by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association. This guideline replaces the previous AAOS Information Statement, "Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Bacteremia in Patients With Joint Replacement," published in 2009. Based on the best current evidence and a systematic review of published studies, three recommendations have been created to guide clinical practice in the prevention of orthopaedic implant infections in patients undergoing dental procedures. The first recommendation is graded as Limited; this recommendation proposes that the practitioner consider changing the long-standing practice of routinely prescribing prophylactic antibiotic for patients with orthopaedic implants who undergo dental procedures. The second, graded as Inconclusive, addresses the use of oral topical antimicrobials in the prevention of periprosthetic joint infections. The third recommendation, a Consensus statement, addresses the maintenance of good oral hygiene.
Christensen, L B; Petersen, P E; Hede, B
To describe and analyse oral health of children and adolescents under two types of dental health care schemes under the Public Dental Health Service in Denmark, and to analyse possible influence of socio-economic and socio-cultural factors. Data on children's oral health status was obtained from public oral health registers and were pooled with data from questionnaires sent to parents of the children and adolescents. The study comprised individuals aged 5, 12 and 15, in total 2168 persons, randomly drawn from four municipalities with dental care provided by salaried dentists in public dental clinics and three municipalities with dental care provided by dentists in private practice. 70% of the parents completed a questionnaire including questions on socio-economic and socio-cultural background, lifestyle-related factors, self assessment of parents' oral- and general health. After the data were merged, the final study population represented 60% of the original target population. The mean caries experience (DMFS+dmfs) was 2.2 and further analysis of caries experience in each age group showed no variations in relation to type of provider of dental care. However, multiple dummy regression analyses demonstrated that low education, poor general health, foreign citizenship and smoking habits of the parents were important determinants for high level of caries in their children. Occurrence of dental caries as well as changes over time in levels of dental caries of Danish children did not vary by scheme of Public Dental Health Service, i.e. whether dental health care was provided by public employed dentists or by private practitioners. However, social inequalities still relate to caries experience in children and adolescents. Adjustment of preventive oral health activities strategy seems to be needed.
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet
Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. ...
Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie
Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially
Full Text Available Vaishnavi Bhaskar,1 Kathleen A McGraw,2 Kimon Divaris3 1Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Health Sciences Library, 3Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Background: Dental caries, the most common childhood chronic disease, disproportionately affects vulnerable parts of the population and confers substantial impacts to children, families, and health systems. Because efforts directed toward oral health promotion and disease prevention are fundamentally superior to dental rehabilitation secondary to disease development, early preventive dental visits (EPDVs are widely advocated by professional and academic stakeholders. The aim of this comprehensive review was to critically review and summarize available evidence regarding the effectiveness of EPDVs in improving children's oral health outcomes. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed and Embase electronic databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed publications investigating the effectiveness of EPDVs on oral health outcomes, including clinical, behavioral, and cost end points up to October 30, 2013. Outcomes of the identified studies were abstracted and summarized independently by two investigators. Results: Four manuscripts met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All studies were conducted in the US and employed a retrospective cohort study design using public insurance-claims data, whereas one study matched claims files with kindergarten state dental surveillance data. That study found no benefit of EPDVs in future clinically determined dental caries levels in kindergarten. The other three studies found mixed support for an association of EPDVs with subsequent more preventive and fewer nonpreventive visits and lower nonpreventive service-related expenditures. Selection bias and a problem-driven dental care
Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya
BACKGROUND: Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries in the pits and fissures of mainly the occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to dental decay. There is evidence to suggest that fissure sealants are effective...... in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to no sealants. Their effectiveness may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in permanent teeth in children and adolescents. SEARCH...... 2012). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing sealants for preventing caries of occlusal or approximal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth with no sealant or different type of sealant in children and adolescents under 20 years...
Bailit, Howard L; Devitto, Judy; Myne-Joslin, Ronnie; Beazoglou, Tryfon; McGowan, Taegan
Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) dental clinics are a major component of the dental safety net system, providing care to 3.75 million patients annually. This study describes the financial and clinical operations of a sample of FQHCs. In cooperation with the National Network for Oral Health Access, FQHC dental clinics that could provide 12 months of electronic dental record information were asked to participate in the study. Based on data from 28 dental clinics (14 FQHCs), 50 percent of patients were under 21 years of age. The primary payers were Medicaid (72.4 percent) and sliding-scale/self-pay patients (17.5 percent). Sites averaged 3.1 operatories, 0.66 dental hygienists, and 1.9 other staff per dentist. Annually, each FTE dentist and hygienist provided 2,801 and 2,073 patient visits, respectively. Eighty percent of services were diagnostic, preventive, and restorative. Patient care accounted for 82 percent of revenues, and personnel (64.2 percent) and central administration (13.4 percent) accounted for most expenses. Based on a small convenience sample of FQHC dental clinics, this study presents descriptive data on their clinical and financial operations. Compared with data from the UDS (Uniform Data System) report, study FQHCs were larger in terms of space, staff, and patients served. However, there was substantial variation among clinics for almost all measures. As the number and size of FQHC dental clinics increase, the Health Resources and Services Administration needs to provide them access to comparative data that they can use to benchmark their operations. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Frujeri, Maria de Lourdes V; Pinto, Adriana B Silveira; Bezerra, Ana C B; de Toledo, Orlando A; Cortes, Maria I de S; Pordeus, Isabela de A
This study evaluated the knowledge of dental assistants (DA) and hygienists (DH) on dental trauma management and dental caries prevention. Secondarily, other aims were 2-fold: (1) to update the assistants/hygienists through courses supported on scientific evidence-based information and (2) to evaluate their job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 46 participants, DHs and Das, working in the Secretary of Education of the city of Brasilia (Federal District, Brazil). The information was gathered through 2 self-administered questionnaires during 2 training meetings. The first questionnaire was applied before the first meeting and the second questionnaire after the last meeting. All participants were women older than 38 years and with more than 15 years of experience. The participants demonstrated knowledge on dental trauma types but lack of knowledge on dental trauma first-aid approaches. Concerning to dental caries, the professional demonstrated knowledge on both etiology and prevention. Lectures, periodical training, and inclusion in multidisciplinary training groups aiming to caries prevention and dental trauma are necessary.
Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; de Oliveira, Elaine Helena; Bezerra, Marcelo Ferraro; Nogueira, Alexandre Simões; Soares, Eduardo Costa Studart; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves
The international literature emphasizes the importance of evaluating the knowledge of different groups such as teachers, students, dentists, physicians, parents, and athletes regarding dental injuries. In Brazil, community health workers are professionals who can reach a wide variety of people and who have a marked influence on prevention and health promotion strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers regarding dental trauma. A questionnaire consisting of 19 questions divided into 3 parts was applied: demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes. Data from 206 respondents were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Approximately 28% of the participants reported to have been called to assist individuals with dental trauma. Only 42 subjects had received education on dental injuries, with 34 of them being instructed by a dentist. In cases of tooth avulsion, only 1.9% of the health workers reported that they would search for the tooth and reimplant it. The most frequently indicated storage media for avulsed teeth were nonphysiological media (69.42%). The educational level of the community health workers somehow influenced their knowledge (P Educational programs for this group are needed to improve the management of traumatic dental injuries.
Asan, Onur; Ye, Zhan; Acharya, Amit
The use of electronic health records (EHRs) in dental care and their effect on dental care provider-patient interaction have not been studied sufficiently. The authors conducted a study to explore dental care providers' interactions with EHRs during patient visits, how these interactions influence dental care provider-patient communication, and the providers' and patients' perception of EHR use in the dental clinic setting during patient visits. The authors collected survey and interview data from patients and providers at three dental clinics in a health care system. The authors used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze data obtained from patients and dental care providers. The provider survey results showed significant differences in perceptions of EHR use in patient visits across dental care provider groups (dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants). Patient survey results indicated that some patients experienced a certain level of frustration and distraction because of providers' use of EHRs during the visit. The provider survey results indicated that there are different perceptions across provider groups about EHRs and the effect of computer use on communication with patients. Dental assistants generally reported more negative effects on communication with patients owing to computer use. Interview results also indicated that dental care providers may not feel comfortable interacting with the EHR without having any verbal or eye contact with patients during the patient's dental visit. A new design for dental operatories and locations of computer screens within the operatories should be undertaken to prevent negative nonverbal communication such as loss of eye contact or forcing the provider and patient to sit back to back, as well as to enhance patient education and information sharing.
Kelly, Mary C; Caplan, Daniel J; Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Cowen, Howard J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Marchini, Leonardo; Momany, Elizabeth T
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the utilization rate of preventive oral health care services while senior adults were community-dwelling differed from the rate after those same senior adults were admitted to nursing facilities. A secondary objective was to evaluate other significant predictors of receipt of preventive oral health procedures after nursing facility entry. Iowa Medicaid claims from 2007-2014 were accessed for adults who were 68+ years upon entry to a nursing facility and continuously enrolled in Medicaid for at least three years before and at least two years after admission (n = 874). Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. During the five years that subjects were followed, 52.8% never received a dental exam and 75.9% never received a dental hygiene procedure. More Medicaid-enrolled senior adults received ≥1 preventive dental procedure in the two years while residing in a nursing facility compared to the three years before entry. In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictor of preventive oral health care utilization after entry was the receipt of preventive oral health services before entry (p senior adult establishing a source of dental care while community-dwelling. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Shane, Dan M; Wehby, George L
Oral health problems are the leading chronic conditions among children and younger adults. Lack of dental coverage is thought to be an important barrier to care but little empirical evidence exists on the causal effect of private dental coverage on use of dental services. We explore the relationship between dental coverage and dental services utilization with an analysis of a natural experiment of increasing private dental coverage stemming from the Affordable Care Act's (ACA)-dependent coverage mandate. To evaluate whether increased private dental insurance due to the spillover effect of the ACA-dependent coverage health insurance mandate affected utilization of dental services among a group of affected young adults. 2006-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We used a difference-in-difference regression approach comparing changes in dental care utilization for 25-year olds affected by the policy to unaffected 27-year olds. We evaluate effects on dental treatments and preventive services RESULTS:: Compared to 27-year olds, 25-year olds were 8 percentage points more likely to have private dental coverage in the 3 years following the mandate. We do not find compelling evidence that young adults increased their use of preventive dental services in response to gaining insurance. We do find a nearly 5 percentage point increase in the likelihood of dental treatments among 25-year olds following the mandate, an effect that appears concentrated among women. Increases in private dental coverage due to the ACA's-dependent coverage mandate do not appear to be driving significant changes in overall preventive dental services utilization but there is evidence of an increase in restorative care.
Full Text Available The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s – some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. Conclusion. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme.
Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an occupational hazard for them and a leading cause of death globally. Prevention strategies include vaccination and observance of standard precaution. However, available reports claim utilization of the prevention ...
Full Text Available Context Oral health status plays an essential role in human health. Recently, enhancement in oral health caries has been noted in both developed and developing countries. Dental caries is still very common among children. Screening and preventive interventions is necessary. The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic and preventive approaches for dental caries in children. Evidence Acquisition Searching PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library (for 5 recent years from 2011 - 2016, and reference lists for keywords and phrases such as “dental caries in children” and prevention and diagnosis, we included trials and controlled observational studies regarding the diagnosis and preventive techniques for dental caries in children. Results We found no study demonstrating the effects of screening by primary care providers on clinical outcomes. In a cohort study, pediatrician examination associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 was reported to identify dental caries in children. The results of the new randomized trials that were confirmed by previous studies showed that the efficacy of fluoride varnish is more than no varnish in reduction of dental caries from 18% to 59%. Some of the trials regarding xylitol had no results regarding the effects on dental caries. New observational studies have shown an association between early childhood fluoride use and enamel fluorosis. There is no evidence on the accuracy of prediction instruments in primary care settings. Conclusions We found no direct evidence that reveals that screening by primary care clinicians can decrease early childhood caries. Previous evidences reviewed by the United State Preventive Services Task Force demonstrated that oral fluoride supplementation is effective in decreasing caries incidences, and recent evidences supported the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in higher-risk children.
Vigild, M.; Skougaard, M.; Hadi, R.
caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren......caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren...
Holde, Gro Eirin; Baker, Sarah R; Jönsson, Birgitta
To utilise Andersen's behavioral model as the theoretical framework to examine direct and indirect relationships between population characteristics, oral health behaviours and periodontitis and oral health impacts. The model was tested in a general adult population (n = 1,886) in Norway, using structural equation modelling. Socioeconomic status, sense of coherence (SOC), dental anxiety, perceived treatment need, oral health behaviours and oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) were collected through questionnaire. Periodontal examinations consisted of full-mouth recordings. Andersen's model explained a large part of the variance in use of dental services (58%) and oral health-related impacts (55%), and to a less extent periodontitis (19%). More social structure and stronger SOC was related to more enabling resources, which in turn was associated with more use of dental services. More use of dental services was related to more periodontitis and more periodontitis was associated with increased oral health impacts. There was no association between use of dental services and oral health impacts. The result demonstrated complex relationships between population characteristics, oral health-related behaviours and oral health outcomes. The findings suggest a need for further studies examining the effectiveness of dental health care utilization related to periodontitis prevention and control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Maupome, Gerardo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette; Westerhold, Chi
The objectives of this study were to identify dental hygiene themes voiced by adults and teenagers of Mexican origin [or Mexican Americans (MAs)] and place these themes within the larger landscape of oral health and dental care perceptions. Interviews with urban-based MAs were analyzed to identify barriers, beliefs, and behaviors influencing engagement in dental hygiene practices. Adult (n = 16, ages 33-52) and teenage (n = 17, ages 14-19) MAs reported themes pertaining to structural factors (financial and economic-related barriers, the dual challenges of reduced access to care vis-à-vis successfully navigating the dental care system, and the effects of reduced social support derived from migration) and to individual factors (different agendas between MAs and health systems for dental care utilization and indications for oral self-care, including limited dental hygiene instruction from professionals and larger impacts from school-based and mass media). Also, prior experiences with dental hygiene, prevention, and associated themes were characterized by a range of attitudes from fatalistic to highly determined agency. Good family upbringing was instrumental for appropriate dental hygiene, anteceding good oral health; and outlining a loose structure of factors affecting oral health such as diet, having "weak" teeth, or personal habits. Themes from adults and teenagers in the Midwest United States were generally similar to other groups of MA parents and younger children. Dental hygiene was not salient relative to other oral health and dental care matters. Several opportunities for improvement of knowledge and enhancing motivation for dental hygiene practices were identified, both within and outside professional resources. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Dho, María Silvina
This paper seeks to analyze the factors associated with the use of dental health services (UDHS) by adults in the city of Corrientes, Argentina. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Information concerning the study variables was collected via a home survey. The sample size was established with a 95% confidence interval level (381 individuals). A simple random sampling design was used, which was complemented with a non-probability quota sampling. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and Epidat version 3.1 softwares. Socio-economic level, dental health coverage, perception of oral health care, perception of oral health, knowledge about oral health, and oral hygiene habits were significantly associated with the UDHS over the last twelve months. These same factors, excluding dental health coverage and knowledge about oral health, were associated with the UDHS for routine dental check-ups. Measures should be implemented to increase the UDHS for prevention purposes in men and women of all socio-economic levels, particularly in less-privileged individuals.
All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.
Mar 15, 2010 ... demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life activity, dental attendance and perceived dental ... optimal oral health status. Oral health problems can impact quality of life in .... dental health of Chinese adolescents was generally good. Only 12% of the students ...
Full Text Available Background: In a country like India, with limited resources and skilled manpower, the most feasible and cost effective method of controlling oral diseases should be preventive based, either in the form of information dissemination or specific protective measures. But the curriculum of our dental education does not train students in practicing or applying primary prevention, which remains the need of the hour. This review aims to emphasise the importance of primary prevention when compared to curative dentistry.
Dental Surgeons working in public sector have an important role to play in school dental health pro-gram to reinstitute the oral and dental health of growing population of India. Even though the oral health policy was drafted in India in 1995, it was not implemented till this date (1). It is im-portant to enhance the knowledge about good oral health in teachers and parents by caring out workshops and seminars on oral and dental health by dental Surgeons working in public health sector. Dental...
This curriculum is comprised of 31 instructional units divided into eight subject areas: orientation (6 units), anatomy and physiology (6 units), dental histology (1 unit), microbiology and bacteriology (2 units), pharmacology (2 units), chairside assistance (9 units), roentgenology (2 units), and practice administration (3 units). Each…
... Plaster models of the teeth are made How Orthodontic Problems are Treated If you were a “metal mouth” as a teenager, you’ll immediately notice that modern dental appliances are less conspicuous than the braces you wore. “ ...
To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.
Hartnett, Erin; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara
Early childhood dental caries (dental cavities) is an infectious process. The development of oral problems during cancer care results in pain, fever, and delay in treatment. . The objective of this project was to integrate preventive oral care into pediatric oncology care. . This project consisted of an educational program for pediatric oncology providers who completed pre- and postprogram surveys assessing oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice; attended an oral health education session; and performed oral assessment and fluoride varnish application on children during cancer treatment. . Three major outcomes resulted from this project.
Oct 26, 2017 ... Background: It is important to be aware of oral and dental problems in the early period in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) to prevent late complications. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the oral and dental health status in children with. CLD. Methods: The three groups of children (3–18 years old); ...
Togoo, Rafi Ahmed; Al-Rafee, Mohammed A; Kandyala, Reena; Luqam, Master; Al-Bulowey, Mohammed A
The aim of this study was to determine the dentists' opinions on causes for high prevalence of dental caries in the country and to assess their level of knowledge about preventive dental care. A questionnaire based national crosssectional survey among 500 dentists was conducted under the auspices of Directorate of Dentistry, Ministry of Health. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. The response rate was 87.8% (n = 439). 83% of dentists identified poor oral hygiene as the major reason for high prevalence of caries, only 39% of patients reportedly brushed teeth at least once a day, oral prophylaxis (83%) is the most common preventive practice followed, social factors (62.5%) are the most challenging barriers in preventive dental programs, 71.3% always give chair side dental health education, school based programs (66.6%) are most effective tools for dental health education. Majority of dentists in Saudi Arabia are adequately informed and motivated toward preventive dental care but they are in need of further support from policy makers to enhance preventive dental programs in the Kingdom. Oral hygiene should be improved in the country by reaching out to the entire community through extensive and continued education programs.
Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh
Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.
Roslind Preethi George
Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.
Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad
Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.
Brugman, E.; Verrips, G.H.; Danz, M.J.; Kalsbeek, H.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which dental prevention among Turkish parents differs from that among Moroccan parents in one of the large cities in the Netherlands. Design: Turkish and Moroccan mothers with a child of approximately six months old, who visited the
Cross sectional evaluation of awareness of prevention of dental caries among general paediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. ... Pre‑tested, structured and self administered questionnaire was used in the survey and data analysis was done by using 'SPSS' software version 16.0 (IBM, United States). Results: Our study ...
Kochlashvili, L Sh; Gogilashvili, K T; Gerzmava, O Kh
Dental health is an integral part of a normal state of a human body and, first of all, depends on knowledge of the population of bases of individual hygiene of an oral cavity and ability to use them in practical life. Numerous researches indicate low level of knowledge of the population in questions of prevention of dental diseases and individual hygiene of an oral cavity that testifies to existence of problems in the organization of sanitary education. Existing practice of hygienic training and education, in a certain measure, lags behind modern requirements, and some questions demand specification and optimization. For efficiency of sanitary and preventive actions it is necessary to study character and motivation structure to prevention and treatment of dental diseases and to develop an effective method of its increase. Therefore actual search of new forms of psycho hygiene and psycho prevention with use of modern information technologies which should provide high level of dental health of the military personnel is represented. The purpose of the real research was establishment of the factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases, and development of a psycho physiological method of its increase. The carried-out research allows to expand and systematize ideas necessary for the practical doctor of the major factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases. Development of an objective technique of a complex assessment of level of motivation of patients to prevention and treatment of dental pathology will allow to prove the new perspective direction of the sanitary educational work, allowing to reduce fobiya level, effectively to increase motivation of the patient to receiving the timely dental help. It especially is important if to consider that numerous programs of hygienic training and the education, applied in our country, didn't lead to change of hygienic skills of the population in expected
Yaling, Jiang; Mingye, Feng; Lei, Cheng
Dental caries and periodontal diseases are common chronic infectious diseases that cause serious damage to oral health. Bacteria is the primary factor leading to such conditions. As a dental plaque control method, chemotherapeutic agents face serious challenges in dental care because of the specific physiological and anatomical characteristics of the oral cavity. Nanodrug delivery system is a series of new drug delivery systems at nanoscale, and it can target cells, promote sustainedrelease effects, and enhance biodegradation. This review focuses on research progress on nanodrug delivery systems for prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases.
Wilson, Nairn H F; Shamshir, Z Abidin; Moris, Sylviana; Slater, Mabel; Kok, Ei Chuen; Dunne, Stephen M; Said, Samsiah H M; Lee, James M K; Gallagher, Jennifer E
Brunei Darussalam is a Sultanate with a Malay Islamic monarchy. There are high levels of dental disease among its 406,200 population. The population's oral health needs require an integrated blend of primary and specialist care, together with oral health promotion. This paper describes the planning and measures taken to address these needs. In accordance with an oral health agenda published and launched in 2008, focusing on access, health promotion and prevention, and the education and training of the dental workforce, the Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Health is seeking to improve oral health status and reduce the burden of oral disease. It also seeks to transform the country's oral health services into a preventatively orientated, high-quality, seamless service underpinned by the concept of 'teeth for life'. In the process of effecting this transition, the Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Health is developing a dental workforce fit for future purpose, with an emphasis on a modern approach to skill mix. An important element of this programme has been the development of a highly successful Brunei Darussalam Diploma in Dental Therapy and Dental Hygiene. It is concluded that the Brunei Darussalam oral health agenda and, in particular, the forward-looking programme of dental workforce development is a model for other countries facing similar oral health challenges. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.
Grignon, Michel; Hurley, Jeremiah; Wang, Li; Allin, Sara
We study the extent and drivers of income-related inequity in utilization of dental services in Canada using the concentration-index approach that has been widely applied to study inequity in physician and hospital services. Because dental care is almost wholly privately financed in Canada, our estimates provide a benchmark for income-related inequity of utilization in private health systems. Although a number of studies document a link between income and utilization, our study is one of the few measuring income-related inequity in dental care utilization. A unique feature of our study is that we analyze separately inequity in total dental visits and in preventive visits. This is important because the case for equity is much clearer for preventive dental care. We also examine the impact of controlling for need using a wider variety of need indicators than previous analyses. We confirm that most oral health indicators perform poorly as need adjustors because they reflect past dental care use: individuals with higher levels of utilization also are in better oral health. Our most important finding is that access to preventive care is the most "pro-rich" type of dental care utilization and that income-related inequity in preventive dental care utilization is three times larger than what is measured for specialist services utilization in Canada. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singhal, Astha; McKernan, Susan C; Sohn, Woosung
Dental public health is a unique specialty of dentistry that focuses on prevention of oral diseases among populations rather than individual patients. It encompasses several complementary disciplines and greatly varies in its functions and activities. Several federal, state, local, and nonpublic entities operationalize the mission of dental public health to improve population oral health through a diverse and vibrant workforce. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Uribe, Lorena; Barahona, Pilar; Lipari, Alejandra; Molina, Yerko; Herrera, Andrea; Ríos, Matías
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between early dental experiences and clinical indicators of oral health and dental anxiety upon admission to a comprehensive oral health program for six-year-old children in Chile. One hundred twenty-nine six-year-old children were enrolled in the Recreo Family Health Center of the Municipality of San Miguel, Santiago, Chile. Oral health status was assessed based on the decayed, extracted, or filled teeth index, simplified oral hygiene index, and Streptococcus mutans score. Dental anxiety was assessed using the facial image scale and Frankl scale. Early dental experience was classified as: no previous dental visits; preventive control; restorative treatment; and emergency visit. Children who had previous experience of restorative treatment and emergency visits showed greater dental caries damage (Kruskal-Wallis, P dental experience and the anxiety level or oral hygiene index. Invasive dental treatment resulted in greater susceptibility to dental caries damage; however, these experiences did not influence dental anxiety levels.
Achembong, Leo N; Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary
To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. An ecologic study using panel data of 920,505 kindergarten students with 11,694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, -0.40 to -0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.09) decrease in dmft. IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina.
Suellen R. Mendes
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.
the district is administered by the district autho- rities. HEALTH SERVICES. The pattern is similar to the rest of Tanzania with nearly the same providers of health services. There are three basic levels of health facilities; a Regional Hospital, MCH centres and dispen- saries. They are operated by the Regional authori-.
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services
Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.
Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V
Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs
Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.
Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…
... address changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, fluid intake among children, and the contribution... dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The proposed recommendation was published in... Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...
Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik
Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review...
Este podcast se basa en la ediciÃ³n de octubre del 2016 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los selladores dentales, que se aplican poco despuÃ©s de que les salgan las muelas permanentes a los niÃ±os, pueden protegerlos contra las caries hasta por nueve aÃ±os. Aplicarles los selladores dentales a los niÃ±os de bajos ingresos en las escuelas podrÃa ahorrar millones de dÃ³lares en costos de tratamientos. Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/18/2016.
Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A
Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, remain one of the most common chronic health problems for adolescents, and are a major public health concern. Public dental services in New South Wales, Australia offer free clinical care and preventive advice to all adolescents under 18 years of age, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This care is provided by dental therapists and oral health therapists (therapists). It is incumbent upon clinical directors (CDs) and health service managers (HSMs) to ensure that the appropriate clinical preventive care is offered by clinicians to all their patients. The aims of this study were to 1) explore CDs' and HSMs' perceptions of the factors that could support the delivery of preventive care to adolescents, and to 2) record the strategies they have utilized to help therapists provide preventive care to adolescents. In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 19 CDs and HSMs from across NSW local health districts. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. The 19 CDs and HSMs reported that fiscal accountability and meeting performance targets impacted on the levels and types of preventive care provided by therapists. Participants suggested that professional clinical structures for continuous quality improvement should be implemented and monitored, and that an adequate workforce mix and more resources for preventive dental care activities would enhance therapists' ability to provide appropriate levels of preventive care. CDs and HSMs stated that capitalizing on the strengths of visiting pediatric dental specialists and working with local health district clinical leaders would be a practical way to improve models of preventive oral health care for adolescents. The main issue raised in this study is that preventive dentistry per se lacks strong support from the central funding agency, and that increasing prevention activities is not a simple
Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya
Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or
... Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health... facilities designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas... primary care, dental, or mental health services in these HPSAs. NHSC health [[Page 38839
Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee
Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in
Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith
The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.
Lewis, Charlotte W
This paper grew out of a project reviewing progress in children's oral health after Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General was published in 2000. It includes a summary of advances in national surveillance of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and presents more recent data on unmet dental care need among CSHCN. To that end, we used the 2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs to determine the prevalence of unmet dental care need among CSHCN and to compare this within subgroups of CSHCN, as well as to children without special health care needs, and to results from the previous iteration of this survey. Dental care remains the most frequently cited unmet health need for CSHCN. More CSHCN had unmet needs for nonpreventive than preventive dental care. CSHCN who are teens, poorer, uninsured, had insurance lapses, or are more severely affected by their condition had higher adjusted odds of unmet dental care needs. CSHCN who were both low income and severely affected had 13.4 times the adjusted odds of unmet dental care need. In summary, CSHCN are more likely to be insured and to receive preventive dental care at equal or higher rates than children without special health care needs. Nevertheless, CSHCN, particularly lower income and severely affected, are more likely to report unmet dental care need compared with unaffected children. Despite advances in knowledge about dental care among CSHCN, unanswered questions remain. Recommendations are provided toward obtaining additional data and facilitating dental care access for this vulnerable population.
Chleborád, K.; Zvára Jr., Karel; Dostálová, T.; Zvára, Karel; Ivančáková, R.; Zvárová, Jana; Smidl, L.; Trmal, J.; Psutka, J.
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 50-50 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dentistry * medical documentation * electronic health record Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, remain one of the most common chronic health problems for adolescents, and are a major public health concern. Public dental services in New South Wales, Australia offer free clinical care and preventive advice to all adolescents under 18 years of age, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This care is provided by dental therapists and oral health therapists (therapists. It is incumbent upon clinical directors (CDs and health service managers (HSMs to ensure that the appropriate clinical preventive care is offered by clinicians to all their patients. The aims of this study were to 1 explore CDs’ and HSMs’ perceptions of the factors that could support the delivery of preventive care to adolescents, and to 2 record the strategies they have utilized to help therapists provide preventive care to adolescents. Subjects and methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 19 CDs and HSMs from across NSW local health districts. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: The 19 CDs and HSMs reported that fiscal accountability and meeting performance targets impacted on the levels and types of preventive care provided by therapists. Participants suggested that professional clinical structures for continuous quality improvement should be implemented and monitored, and that an adequate workforce mix and more resources for preventive dental care activities would enhance therapists’ ability to provide appropriate levels of preventive care. CDs and HSMs stated that capitalizing on the strengths of visiting pediatric
Natapov, Lena; Sasson, Avi; Zusman, Shlomo P
The National health insurance law enacted in 1995 did not include dental care in its basket of services. Dental care for children was first included in 2010, initially up till 8 years of age. The eligibility age rose to 12 years in 2013. The dental survey of 6 year-olds in 2007 found that the average of decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft) was 3.31 and 35 % of children were caries free. The current cross sectional survey of dental health for 6 year-olds was conducted as a comparison to the pre-reform status. Twenty-three local authorities were randomly selected nationwide. Two Grade 1 classes were randomly chosen in each. The city of Jerusalem was also included in the survey because of its size. The children were examined according to the WHO Oral Health Survey Methods 4th ed protocol. The dental caries index for deciduous teeth (dmft: decayed, missing, filled teeth) was calculated. One thousand two hundred ten children were examined. 61.7 % of the children suffered from dental decay and only 38.3 % were caries free. The mean dmft was 2.56; d = 1.41 (teeth with untreated caries), f = 1.15 (teeth damaged by decay and restored), virtually none were missing due to caries. Dental caries prevalence was rather consistent, an average of over 2 teeth affected per child. Although there is no major change in comparison to former surveys, there is more treated than untreated disease. In the present survey the f component is higher than in the past, especially in the Jewish sector where it is the main component. It is still lower in the Arab sector. Although the level of dental disease remained rather constant, an increase in the treatment component was observed. In order to reduce caries prevalence, preventive measures such as school dental services and drinking water fluoridation should be extended and continued. Primary preventive dental services should be established for children from birth, with an emphasis on primary health care and educational
Buck, D J; Malik, S; Murphy, N; Patel, V; Singh, S; Syed, B; Vora, N
'Ethnicity' is an important concept in dental health services research and in enabling general dental practitioners to gain insight into their patients values and expectations. Since more health services research is being undertaken in primary dental care settings it is becoming an important issue for dental professionals and researchers in primary care to be aware of. Ethnicity is thought to be related to dental health inequalities and access and is often used as a stratifying variable in many dental studies. The meaning and use of the term however differs among researchers and among the public. It is clear that researchers and professionals need to pause for thought when considering what this often bandied about term actually means and the impact of different definitions. This is illustrated using examples from the authors' own research and published papers in the medical and dental literature. There is also much debate about whether ethnicity--however defined--is an important predictor of differences in dental health in itself or is merely a marker for other factors such as social deprivation or the impact of 'place' on dental health. While the jury on this debate is out we suggest guidelines on the reporting of ethnicity should be outlined in the dental literature--perhaps updating those published in 1996 in the British Medical Journal.
Moynihan, Paula; Makino, Yuka; Petersen, Poul Erik
professionals and supporting patients to eat less free sugars are key actions for the dental profession. All dental health professionals should have the skills and confidence to provide their patients with healthier eating advice, including how to limit free sugars intake. It is therefore important that dental...
Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S
To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics. The baseline caries risk assessment was carried out by the patient's regular team in four classes according to a predetermined model, and the team was responsible for all treatment decisions. Based on the variables 'oral health information', 'additional fluoride' and 'professional tooth cleaning', a cumulative score was constructed and dichotomized to 'basic prevention' and 'additional prevention'. More additional preventive care was provided to the patients in the 'low-risk' and 'some risk' categories than to those classified as 'high' or 'very high' risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-3.0; P risk' and 'some risk' categories, respectively. Around 15% of the patients in the high-risk categories did not receive additional preventive measures over the 3-year period. There was an insignificant tendency that patients with additional prevention developed less caries than those that received basic prevention in all risk categories except for the 'very high-risk' group. The caries risk assessment process was not accompanied by a corresponding targeted individual preventive care in a cohort of young adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murakami, Keiko; Aida, Jun; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Hideki
Preventive dental care use remains relatively low in Japan, especially among working-age adults. Universal health insurance in Japan covers curative dental care with an out-of-pocket payment limit, though its coverage of preventive dental care is limited. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that income inequality in dental care use is found in preventive, but not curative dental care among working-age Japanese adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a computer-assisted, self-administered format for community residents aged 25-50 years. In all, 4357 residents agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (valid response rate: 31.3%). Preventive dental care use was measured according to whether the participant had visited a dentist or a dental hygienist during the past year for dental scaling or fluoride or orthodontic treatments. Curative dental care use was assessed by dental visits for other reasons. The main explanatory variable was equivalent household income. Logistic regression analyses with linear trend tests were conducted to determine whether there were significant income-related gradients with curative or preventive dental care use. Among the respondents, 40.0% of men and 41.5% of women had used curative dental care in the past year; 24.1% of men and 34.1% of women had used preventive care. We found no significant income-related gradients of curative dental care among either men or women (p = 0.234 and p = 0.270, respectively). Significant income-related gradients of preventive care were observed among both men and women (p income-related differences were no longer significant (p = 0.126) after adjusting for education and other covariates. Compared with men with the lowest income, the highest-income group had a 1.79-fold significantly higher probability for using preventive dental care. The prevalence of preventive dental care use was lower than that of curative care. The results showed income-related inequality in
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage......-based health promotion programs in China is urgently needed, and promotion of oral health lifestyles should be integrated with other general health actions....
Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron
Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057
Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V
Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries in the pits and fissures of mainly the occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent the growth of bacteria that can lead to dental decay. There is evidence to suggest that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents when compared to no sealants. Their effectiveness may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in permanent teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 1 November 2012); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 1 November 2012); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 1 November 2012); SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS and PASCAL via STN Easy (to 1 September 2012); and DARE, NHS EED and HTA (via the CAIRS web interface to 29 March 2012 and thereafter via Metaxis interface to September 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We also searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov (to 23 July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing sealants for preventing caries of occlusal or approximal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth with no sealant or different type of sealant in children and adolescents under 20 years of age. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. For trials with a split-mouth design, the Becker-Balagtas odds ratio was used. For mean caries increment we used the mean difference. All measures are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. We conducted the meta-analyses using a random-effects model for those
Khan, Aishah; Thapa, Janani R; Zhang, Donglan
This study aimed to assess the relationship between rural or urban residence and having a usual source of care (USC), and the utilization of preventive dental checkups among adults. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2012. We performed a logit regression on the relationship between rural and urban residence, having a USC, and having at least 1 dental checkup in the past year, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. After controlling for covariates, rural adult residents had significantly lower odds of having at least 1 dental checkup per year compared to their urban counterparts (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.86, P rural and urban residents, having a USC was significantly associated with an 11% (95% CI = 9%-13%) increase in the probability of having a preventive dental checkup within a year. Individuals with a USC were more likely to obtain a preventive dental visit, with similar effects in rural and urban settings. We attributed the lower odds of having a checkup in rural regions to the lower density of oral health care providers in these areas. Integration of rural oral health care into primary care may help mitigate the challenges due to a shortage of oral health care providers in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L
Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight
Bresch, Jack E; Luke, Gina G; McKinnon, Monette D; Moss, Myla J; Pritchard, Daryl; Valachovic, Richard W
The current political environment in the nation's capital threatens federal support for programs vital to the academic dental community. To develop a strong cadre of advocates who can deliver an effective and unified message to members of Congress on behalf of dental education and dental research, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) created a new organizational structure: the National Oral Health Advocacy Committee (NOHAC) and the National Advocacy Network (NAN). The basic skills and knowledge required to function as an effective advocate include an understanding of the political environment, a working knowledge of the legislative processes and the political players, and the ability to build and work with grassroots networks and coalitions. NOHAC and NAN are designed to provide leadership in these areas to support effective advocacy for dental education and dental research.
Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed.
Mak, K K; Day, J R
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and socioeconomic differences in dental health behaviours among Hong Kong early adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4927 students (44.7% boys) aged 14-15 from 36 secondary schools in 2000-2001. Students reported their socioeconomic information and dental health behaviours using the Health Related Behaviour General Questionnaire (HRBGQ). Logistic regression models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of regular tooth brushing (at least twice daily), weekly use of dental floss (in the past 7days) and annual dental visit (in the past 12months) for different socioeconomic characteristics. Of the subjects, 77.8% reported to have brushed regularly, but only 22.3% used dental floss weekly and 37.9% had annual dental visit. Male gender and Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing, use of dental floss and annual dental visit. Two or more siblings and not living with both parents were also significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing and annual dental visit. Furthermore, students living in non-private housing were significantly less likely to have annual dental visit than those in private housing. Regular brushing was common, but not use of dental floss and annual dental visits among Hong Kong early adolescents. In general, socioeconomic disparity in dental health behaviours was observed. Extending the existing government-run dental health programmes to secondary school students in Hong Kong is warranted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Mohamed Abdullah Jaber
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI and Met Need Index (MNI for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61 or fair 37.8% (23/61 oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61 of the autistic children had gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.
Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.
Lee, Ilbin; Monahan, Sean; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L
To quantify the impact of multiyear utilization of preventive dental services on downstream dental care utilization and expenditures for children. We followed 0.93 million Medicaid-enrolled children who were 3-6 years old in 2005 from 2005 to 2011. We used Medicaid claims data of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. We clustered each state's study population into four groups based on utilization of topical fluoride and dental sealants before caries-related treatment using machine learning algorithms. We evaluated utilization rates and expenditures across the four groups and quantified cost savings of preventive care for different levels of penetration. We extracted all dental-related claims using CDT codes. In all states, Medicaid expenditures were much lower for children who received topical fluoride and dental sealants before caries development than for all other children, with a per-member per-year difference ranging from $88 for Alabama to $156 for Mississippi. The cost savings from topical fluoride and sealants across the six states ranged from $1.1M/year in Mississippi to $12.9M/year in Texas at a 10 percent penetration level. Preventive dental care for children not only improves oral health outcomes but is also cost saving. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Stuart, Jackie; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Len; Barnett, Tony
Collaboration between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers has the potential to improve oral health care for people in rural and remote communities, where access to oral health services is limited. However, there is limited research on collaboration between these professional disciplines. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships between dental practitioners and non-dental primary care providers from rural and remote areas of Queensland and to identify strategies that could improve collaboration between these disciplines from the perspective of dental participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between 2013 and 2015 with visiting, local and regional dental practitioners (n = 12) who had provided dental services to patients from eight rural and remote Queensland communities that did not have a resident dentist. Participants were purposely recruited through a snow ball sampling technique. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis with the assistance of QSR Nvivo v.10. Four major themes emerged from the data: (1) Communication between dental practitioners and rural primary care providers; (2) Relationships between dental and primary care providers; (3) Maintenance of professional dualism; (4) Strategies to improve interprofessional relationships (with subthemes: face to face meetings; utilisation of technology; oral health training for primary care providers; and having a community based oral health contact person). Participants observed that there was a lack of communication between the dental providers who saw patients from these rural communities and the primary care providers who worked in each community. This was attributed to poor communication, the high turnover of staff and the siloed behaviours of some practitioners. Visiting dental practitioners were likely to have stronger professional relationships with hospital nursing, administrative and allied health care staff who were often long term
Chen, C J; Jallaludin, R L
In recent years, the concept of a Health-Promoting School has received much interest. In Malaysia, dental nurses are ideally placed to play a lead role in promoting Oral Health within the school setting. This study aims to provide information on the knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion in schools, among dental nurses. A postal questionnaire was used to measure dental nurses' knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion. The majority (60%) of dental nurses had good knowledge of Oral Health Promotion. Generally, they perceived that they play an important role in promoting Oral Health in schools. However, a sizeable proportion (25%) did not think they had a role to play in working together with school authorities to provide children with healthy food choices in school canteens. The majority (60%) of dental nurses did not perceive Oral Health Promotion to be important as a whole. They had a good perception of the concepts: it supports behaviour change, it has appropriate goals, it integrates oral health and general health and relieves anxiety. However, they had a poorer perception of the concepts; diverse educational approaches, participation, focus on prevention, early intervention, "spread of effect" of dental health education and "make healthier choices the easier choices". Years of service was not significantly associated with knowledge and perception of Oral Health Promotion. Dental nurses should be reoriented towards a more holistic practice of Oral Health Promotion. Workshops that invite active participation from dental nurses should be conducted to equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills.
Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk. PMID:24133379
Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet
NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk.
Dounis, Georgia; Ditmyer, Marcia M; McClain, Mildred A; Cappelli, David P; Mobley, Connie C
The growing proportion of older adults in the U.S. population, as well as escalating dental expenditures, is leading to major changes in the demands on oral health care delivery. Researchers over the years have clearly demonstrated the shortcomings of traditional restorative treatment and the cycle of repeat interventional care. Oral health care professionals are constantly seeking advances in technology, protocols, methodologies, and materials to meet the needs of the growing, diverse older population. Early stages of oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease are vigorous, preventable, and reversible. Assessment of social, systemic, and oral risk factors that emphasize patient counseling to facilitate risk reduction, along with individualized evidence-based disease prevention planning, is more cost-effective than traditional restorative treatment and will improve overall outcome. The purposes of this article are to briefly describe current issues and challenges related to oral health promotion for older adults and to examine strategies for disease prevention and health promotion in health and dental care settings.
Full Text Available This article aims to compare statutory health insurance policy during the dental healthcare reforms in Germany and Japan. Germany and Japan have categorized their statutory health insurance systems. People in both countries have been provided with a wide coverage of dental treatment and prosthetics. To compare the trends of the indicators of oral healthcare systems over time, it has been suggested that the strategic allocation of dental expenditure is more important than the amount of expense. German dental healthcare policy has shifted under political and socio-economic pressures towards a cost-effective model. In contrast, Japanese healthcare reforms have focused on keeping the basic statutory health insurance scheme, whereby individuals share more of the cost of statutory health insurance. As a result, Germany has succeeded in dramatically decreasing the prevalence of dental caries among children. On comparing the dental conditions of both countries, the rate of decline in replacement of missing teeth among adults and the elderly in Germany and Japan has been interpreted as indicating the price-conscious demands of prosthetics. The difference in the decline of DMFT in 12-year-olds in Germany and Japan could be described as being due to the dental health insurance policy being shifted from treatment-oriented to preventive-oriented in Germany. These findings suggest that social health insurance provides people with equal opportunity for dental services, and healthcare reforms have improved people's oral health. A mixed coverage of social health insurance coverage for dental care should be reconsidered in Japan.
Bhavana Gupta; Attiuddin Siddique
Background: To study the association between dental health status and pregnancy in rural India. Methods: The cohort study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Integral Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Lucknow from March 2012 to April 2013, for the period of 1year. The dental health statuses of 600 antenatal cases were studied. The prevalence of gingivitis, dental caries and periodontal disease were studied. The association between poor oral hygiene, ...
Yildiz, Sinem; Dogan, Basak
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the differences in self-reported oral health attitudes and behaviour between preclinical and clinical dental students in Turkey using Hiroshima University Dental Behavioural Inventory (HU-DBI). Methods: A Turkish version HU-DBI questionnaire with additional 7 questions, totally 27 items, was distributed among 1022 dental students. Results: The response rate was 75% (486 preclinical and 278 clinical students). Significantly higher (P=0.000) perc...
Hayashi, T; Kimura, M; Tamura, N; Hirata, S; Yabunaka, T; Kamimura, Y
Home patients have few chances for going out, so communication with their family means a lot. Talking and eating are particular pleasures. Therefore, oral and dental health and oral and dental support are very important for home patients. A dental hygienist from our clinic visits and offers oral and dental health (oral care) and oral and dental support (oral rehabilitation) to home patients as part of a care plan with home care nurses. Moreover, as general conditions are closely related with oral function, maintaining oral and dental health and regular oral and dental support are very important in order to improve the quality of life (QOL) of home patients.
Halappa, Mythri; B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa
India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm.
Ma, Kuen Wai; Wong, Hai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming
Occupational noise is unavoidably produced from dental equipment, building facilities, and human voices in the dental environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise exposure on the dental professionals' health condition. The psychoacoustics approach noise exposure assessment followed by the health risk assessment was carried on at the paediatric dentistry clinic and the dental laboratory in the Prince Philip Dental Hospital of Hong Kong. The A-weighted equivalent sound level, total loudness, and sharpness values were statistically significantly higher for the noise at the laboratory than that at the clinic. The degree of perceived influences and sharpness of noise were found to have the impacts on the dental professionals' working performance and health. Moreover, the risk of having a bad hearing state would a have 26% and 31% higher chance for a unit increment of the short-term and long-term impact scores, respectively. The dental professionals with the service length more than 10 years and the daily working hours of more than eight showed the highest risk to their hearing state. The worse the hearing state was, the worse the health state was found for the dental professionals. Also, the risk of dissatisfaction would be increased by 4.41 and 1.22 times for those who worked at the laboratory and a unit increment of the long-term impact score. The constructed health risk mode with the scientific and statistical evidence is hence important for the future noise management of environmental improvement.
Abstract. Objective: To determine the perceived oral health status and treatment needs of Nigerian dental therapists in students from Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted using self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on demography, self-reported oral health status, ...
Lamster, Ira B; Myers-Wright, Noreen
The health care environment in the U.S. is changing. The population is aging, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing, edentulism is decreasing, and periodontal infection/inflammation has been identified as a risk factor for NCDs. These trends offer an opportunity for oral health care providers to broaden the scope of traditional dental practice, specifically becoming more involved in the management of the general health of patients. This new practice paradigm will promote a closer integration with the larger health care system. This change is based on the realization that a healthy mouth is essential for a healthy life, including proper mastication, communication, esthetics, and comfort. Two types of primary care are proposed: screenings for medical conditions that are directly affected by oral disease (and may modify the provision of dental care), and a broader emphasis on prevention that focuses on lifestyle behaviors. Included in the former category are screenings for NCDs (e.g., the risk of cardiovascular disease and identification of patients with undiagnosed dysglycemia or poorly managed diabetes mellitus), as well as identification of infectious diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis C. Reducing the risk of disease can be accomplished by an emphasis on smoking cessation and dietary intake and the prevention of obesity. These activities will promote interprofessional health care education and practice. While change is always challenging, this new practice paradigm could improve both oral health and health outcomes of patients seen in the dental office. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Podgórska, Marta; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Chojecka, Agnieszka
The dental health-care settings is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic stuffmust adopt certain basic routines while practicing. Infections may be transmitted in the dental operatory through direct contact with blood, oral fluids or other secretions; via indirect contact with contaminated instruments, equipment or environmental surfaces; or by contact with airborne contaminants present in either droplet splatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids. Strategies to prevent dental patient infections have focused on disinfection and sterilization. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dentistry. The sample comprised 100 dentists, who completed questionnaires. Based on inquires the conditions for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: the way of disinfection and preparation of the disinfectants, the localization of disinfection, preparing to disinfection, washing and packing of dental devices, the frequency of disinfection, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system, type of sterilizers and the available cycles. The dental practices are well equiped to proceed the steam sterilization, but 33% of dentists don't know the available cycles in their autoclaves. Only 35% of them made sterilization process protocols. Very common are three failures of instruments disinfections: multiple use of disinfectant, adding of disinfectant, adding new instruments. There is still need for improvement in disinfection and sterilization in dental practice, especially including: monitoring and documentation of sterilization process, proper use of disinfectants according to manufactures instructions, frequent disinfection of surfaces which contact with patients. Dental stuff should take part in advanced training courses about disinfection and
Sari A. Mahasneh; Adel M. Mahasneh
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating ora...
Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Liu, Jia; Ong, Ana C.; Kilian, Mogens; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter
Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU’s reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression. PMID:23520516
Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J
Diagnosis and prevention are among the most frequently provided services in Australian private general dental practice, and have increased over recent times. The aims of this study were to examine the provision of examinations, radiographs, prophylaxis and topical fluoride, and to assess whether these services varied by patient, visit and oral health characteristics. Data were collected by a mailed survey of a random sample of dentists from each State/Territory in Australia in 1998-99 with a response rate of 71%. Data were collected from a log of service items provided on a typical day. Multivariate analyses of services showed that emergency visits were associated with higher rates [RR = Rate ratio, 95%CI] of radiographs (RR = 1.32, 1.06-1.66) but lower rates of prophylaxis (RR = 0.37, 0.29-0.48) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.20, 0.08-0.47) compared to non-emergency visits. Capital city patients had a higher rate of topical fluoride (RR = 2.06, 1.17-3.64) services than non-capital city patients. Patients with decayed teeth had a lower rate of prophylaxis services (RR = 0.82, 0.68-0.99) than patients with no decay. Compared to the reference of caries, patients with aesthetic problems had lower rates of radiographs (RR = 0. 19, 0.08-0.47) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.24, 0.08-0.71), those with cuspal fracture/failed restoration also had lower rates of radiographs (RR = 0.54, 0.37-0.80) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.52, 0.28-0.95), those with denture problems had lower rates of examinations (RR = 0.53, 0.32-0.87), radiographs (RR = 0.05, 0.01-0.28), prophylaxis (RR = 0.13, 0.04-0.37) and topical fluoride (RR = 0.04, 0.01-0.32), those with periodontal disease had higher rates of examinations (RR = 1.45, 1.13-1.85) and prophylaxis (RR = 2.39, 1.79-3.19), those with pulpal/periapical infection had lower rates of examination (RR = 0.55, 0.42-0.74) and prophylaxis (RR = 0.36, 0.19-0.66), but higher rates of radiographs (RR = 1.92, 1.48-2.50), those with recall
Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marcos Britto Correa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in professional Brazilian soccer players, the level of knowledge of the teams' medical departments about mouthguards, and the conducts adopted in cases of dental trauma during the match. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Closed questionnaires were sent to the physicians in charge of the medical departments of the 40 teams enrolled in the first and second divisions of the Brazilian professional soccer league in 2007. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. RESULTS: Physicians from 38 (95% of the 40 teams in the first and second divisions answered the questionnaires and 71.1% reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice, dental fractures (74.1% and avulsions (59.3% being the most prevalent ones. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 50% answered that a successful replantation could be obtained in periods from 6 to 24 h after injury, and 27.8% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 48.6% of the physicians did not know about mouthguards, and only 21.6% usually recommended their use by the soccer players. Among the physicians who do not recommend the use of mouthguards, 50% justified that it was not necessary. Almost 50% of the medical departments do not have a dentist as part of the health professional staff. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during professional soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the medical departments related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.
Mahasneh, Sari A; Mahasneh, Adel M
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare.
Petersen, P E; Baez, R J; Lennon, M A
coverage. Participants acknowledged that automatic fluoridation through water, salt, and milk is the most effective and equitable strategy for the prevention of dental caries. Concerns were expressed that government-subsidized community fluoride prevention programs may face privatization. In addition...
Understanding Task Force Recommendations Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement ...
Howat, P M; Varner, L M; Wampold, R L
Individuals with bulimia nervosa have been found to experience a variety of dental complications. Because of purging behaviors and erratic food consumption, the oral manifestations of bulimia frequently include irreversible enamel erosion, xerostomia, and oral mucosal irritation. A pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the dental/dietitian team in assessing the dental health of individuals with bulimia. Control and bulimic subjects were compared. The results demonstrated a significantly different (p less than .05) intake of folacin-412 micrograms in controls compared with 207 micrograms in bulimic subjects. Control subjects were found to have significantly greater (p less than .05) amounts of calculus deposits on teeth; however, subjects with bulimia demonstrated a lower (p less than .05) saliva pH. We conclude that the collaborative effort of the dental/dietitian team was useful in the assessment of dental health. The team approach may also help to identify clients with bulimia and facilitate therapy.
Dahiya, Parveen; Kamal, Reet; Sharma, Varun; Kaur, Saravpreet
Today, viral hepatitis has become a silent epidemic worldwide. It is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. In a dental office, infections can be expedited through several routes, including direct or indirect contact with blood, oral fluids, droplet splatter, aerosols, etc. The aim of the present review is to increase the awareness among dental practitioners, so as to reduce the burden of hepatitis in their community. Electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. were searched using the keywords hepatitis, dentist, liver disease, and infection control. Manual search of various journals and books was also carried out. Only highly relevant articles from English literature were considered for the present review. The results revealed that the dentists were among the high-risk groups for hepatitis, and they have little information on the factors associated with adherence to hepatitis B vaccination. A dentist can play a major role in the prevention of hepatitis by considering each and every patient as a potential carrier of hepatitis. Proper infection control, sterilization, and prophylactic vaccination protocols should be followed in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis. PMID:26097847
Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne
BACKGROUND: The majority of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention...... of dental decay on occlusal surfaces. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and 10 other databases were searched to November 2009. There were no language or publication restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Random or quasi-random allocation study design......; sealants versus fluoride varnish or sealants and fluoride varnish combination versus fluoride varnish alone; and subjects under 20 years of age. The primary outcome of interest was the increment in the numbers of carious occlusal surfaces of permanent premolars and molars. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...
Herrera, Miriam del Socorro; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo
Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Mean age was 7.49 ± 1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54 ± 3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (pBrushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators.
... used dental needles. This paper introduces a technique of discarding the used dental needle in a safe manner which can reduce the risk of percutaneous injuries to dentists and their support staff and health care workers involved in medical waste disposal leading to safe incineration. Keywords: dental needle, prick, injury ...
Olmsted, Jodi L; Rublee, Nancy; Zurkawski, Emily; Kleber, Laura
The purpose of this research was to document quality of life (QoL) and quality of care (QoC) measures for families receiving care from dental hygienists within public health departments, and to consider if oral health for families with economic disparities and cultural differences was improved. A descriptive research study using a retrospective record review was conducted considering QoC. A review of state epid "Do preventive oral health programs based in local health departments provide quality care services, thus impacting QoL for underserved populations?" A dental hygienist working in public health made significant contributions to improving access to care and QoL in a rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged community. A total of 2,364 children received education, 1,745 received oral screenings and 1,511 received dental sealants. Of these, 804 children with caries were referred, with 463 receiving restorations and follow-up care. QoL metrics basis assessed Health Outcomes & Health Determinants. Initial QoL data was ranked in the bottom half of the state, while 70% of original determinant data was also ranked in the bottom half of reported metrics. Dental hygienists in public health settings can positively affect patients offering preventive care outreach services. Education and sealant placement were considered effective as measured by access, delivery and, when required, referral for restorative care. Improvement in QoL for individuals was noted through improved health outcomes and determinant metrics.
Whelton, Helen; Fox, Christopher
Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease.
Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide
Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.
Kline, Nolan; Vamos, Cheryl; Thompson, Erika; Catalanotto, Frank; Petrila, John; DeBate, Rita; Griner, Stacey; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Merrell, Laura; Daley, Ellen
The rise in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer incidence necessitates novel prevention efforts including multiple provider types. Although dental providers screen for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, little is known about their needs to advance "primordial prevention," or interventions at the earliest possible stage, to prevent HPV-related cancers. This study assessed dentists' and dental hygienists' perceived roles and needs regarding HPV-related primordial prevention. We conducted a mixed-method study with data from focus groups with dentists (n= 33) and dental hygienists (n= 48) and surveys from both provider types (n= 203) among providers from a diverse set of practice settings and geographic communities. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis and chi square tests. Participants affirmed dental professionals' roles in preventing HPV-related cancers and identified needs to overcome barriers to fulfilling prevention objectives. Barriers included: (1) practice environment and patient characteristics, and (2) the sensitive topic of HPV. Further, participants identified needs to improve HPV-related cancer prevention. Findings from this study suggest that dental providers may become the next line of prevention for HPV-related cancers. Dental providers' professional associations have provided guidance on HPV and oropharyngeal cancers, but our study reveals dental providers' needs for following professional organizations' guidance to advance prevention efforts and reduce HPV-related cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
Martin, John; Mills, Shannon; Foley, Mary E
Innovative models of dental care delivery and coverage are emerging across oral health care systems causing changes to treatment and benefit plans. A novel addition to these models is digital risk assessment, which offers a promising new approach that incorporates the use of a cloud-based technology platform to assess an individual patient's risk for oral disease. Risk assessment changes treatment by including risk as a modifier of treatment and as a determinant of preventive services. Benefit plans are being developed to use risk assessment to predetermine preventive benefits for patients identified at elevated risk for oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, Jerrold S.
Although the school has an important role in teaching children good dental care habits, the example and guidance of parents is of first importance in helping children to develop the right attitudes toward dental health and the proper care of their teeth. (JD)
Full Text Available Almost all dental Colleges run a mobile dental operation for people living in far inaccessible areas who are not able to avail dental care. Mobile dental clinics provide a mode of reaching the unreached by delivering dental care in areas where alternative i.e. private practitioners and fixed clinics are unavailable or inaccessible. Oral diseases account for high morbidity in the community which is compounded by the gross mal-distribution of provision of oral health services in India. In order to ensure accessibility to basic oral health services innovative models of service delivery are being explored. In this context the health economics of mobile oral health care is critically evaluated in this paper. Thus a cost analysis was undertaken to determine the operating expenses for the existing mobile dental unit. Requisite permission of Head of institution was obtained and data was extracted from the records of the mobile dental unit for the year 2014-15.Information on the operating expenses was collected. Costing was done using step down accounting method. Total operating cost of the unit for the year 2014-15 was Rs. 184888/-.Unit cost for each camp was Rs.3625/- and for each patient Rs.76/-. Mobile dental programs can play a vital role in providing access to care to underserved populations and ensuring their mission requires long-term planning. Careful cost analysis based on sound assumptions is of utmost importance.
43.5% and females - 56.5%). Oral health related behavior and knowledge on causes and prevention of dental caries were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Caries experience was assessed using WHO methods. Results: Tooth brushing at least once/day was reported by 92.1% of the children and 71.9 % used ...
Gaines, Julie K; Levy, Linda S; Cogdill, Keith W
The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of "power information users" among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provided public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel.
Gaines, Julie K.; Levy, Linda S.; Cogdill, Keith W.
The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of “power information users” among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provide public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242
Lalani, Afsheen; Dasar, Pralhad L; Sandesh, N; Mishra, Prashant; Kumar, Sandeep; Balsaraf, Swati
The behavior of oral health providers toward their own oral health reflects their understanding of the importance of preventive dental procedures and of improving the oral health of their target population. This study was done with an aim to assess the relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of third and final year dental students from a Dental College in Indore City, India. A total of 137 dental students participated in the study. The students were invited to complete the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire. The HU-DBI questionnaire consisted of twenty polar responses (agree/disagree) regarding oral health-related behavior. In addition, two further questions about the frequency of brushing and flossing were included. Subsequently, oral health examination was conducted to assess plaque and gingival status. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Independent sample t-test, and Pearson's correlation. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. The results showed that about 66.6% of the students checked their teeth in the mirror after brushing. Only 20.1% of the students reported bleeding from gums. The mean oral heath behavior score (HU-DBI) was 6.47 ± 2.0. A negative correlation of HU-DBI scores with plaque (r = -0.501) and gingival scores (r = -0.580) was observed. Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Haysom, Leigh; Indig, Devon; Byun, Roy; Moore, Elizabeth; van den Dolder, Paul
To describe the prevalence and risk factors for markers of poor oral health in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young people in custody in Australia. All incarcerated youth, aged 13-21 years, in New South Wales Juvenile Custodial Centres between August and October 2009 were invited to participate and undertake a dental exam. The main outcome measures were an assessment of moderate/abundant plaque, periodontal disease, dental caries experience, mean decayed and/or filled and/or missing teeth (DMFT) index and untreated decay. Two hundred ninety-four participants (91% male, 46% Aboriginal) underwent a dental exam. Markers of poor oral health were common - 49.4% with moderate/abundant plaque, 34.4% with periodontal disease, mean DMFT 3.56 and 54% having untreated decay. Risk factors independently associated with poor oral health were geographical remoteness and non-fluoridation of the water supply of the usual residence, a shorter incarceration time and dental treatment outside of custody. Young people entering custody have poor oral health, with those from geographically remote areas without water fluoridation at highest risk. The incarceration period is an opportunity for oral health improvements in these young people through access to dental treatment services. Better triaging systems are needed to identify those of greatest priority, and prevention services are needed. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Full Text Available Considerable effort has been made to address the issue of occupational health and environmental exposure to mercury. This review reports on the current literature of mercury exposure and health impacts on dental personnel. Citations were searched using four comprehensive electronic databases for articles published between 2002 and 2015. All original articles that evaluated an association between the use of dental amalgam and occupational mercury exposure in dental personnel were included. Fifteen publications from nine different countries met the selection criteria. The design and quality of the studies showed significant variation, particularly in the choice of biomarkers as an indicator of mercury exposure. In several countries, dental personnel had higher mercury levels in biological fluids and tissues than in control groups; some work practices increased mercury exposure but the exposure levels remained below recommended guidelines. Dental personnel reported more health conditions, often involving the central nervous system, than the control groups. Clinical symptoms reported by dental professionals may be associated with low-level, long-term exposure to occupational mercury, but may also be due to the effects of aging, occupational overuse, and stress. It is important that dental personnel, researchers, and educators continue to encourage and monitor good work practices by dental professionals.
... Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage Areas AGENCY: Health... care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of September 1, 2011... 22, 1992 (57 FR 2473). Currently funded PHS Act programs use only the primary medical care, mental...
Daly, Blánaid; Smith, Kerry
Good dental health enables a person to eat, speak, and socialise. It contributes to nutrition, general health, and quality of life. The dental health of people living in the UK has improved in the last 40 years, and older people are retaining their natural teeth throughout their life; nontheless, a significant proportion of people over 75 years still rely on partial and full dentures. Dental disease in all age groups is readily prevented by daily oral hygiene and adherence to a healthy diet, avoidance of smoking, and sensible alcohol intake. Some older people may simply need reminding and encouragement to carry out oral hygiene, while more dependent adults may need support and active help to do so. Nursing teams and health professionals play a key role in promoting oral health by supporting oral hygiene and adequate nutrition, preventing discomfort, and detecting dental diseases early. This article gives a brief overview of how nursing teams and health professionals can promote oral health and provides details of resources from which further detailed information may be obtained.
Muralidharan, Dhanya; Fareed, Nusrath; Shanthi, M
Provision of oral health care in India, especially for the underprivileged is limited due to inadequate finances and manpower. Resources of dental colleges in such a scenario can be utilized to provide prevention oriented oral health care. To improve the oral health status of children at an institute in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India, through prevention based comprehensive dental health care program (CDHP). A longitudinal institution based interventional study conducted among the primary grade children (n=162). Baseline data collection included (i) basic demographic data (ii) body mass index (BMI) (iii) assessment of the dentition status and treatment needs according to WHO 1997 criteria. The CDHP included group based dental health education, professional oral prophylaxis, weekly (0.2%) sodium fluoride mouth rinse program, biannual application of topical fluoride (1.23% APF), pit and fissure sealants for all first permanent molars and provision of all necessary curative services. Mean treatment requirements per child decreased at 18 months. New caries lesions developed among four children. BMI of children with decay was seen to improve significantly after instituting the CDHP. CDHP is effective in overall improvement of general and oral health. In resource limited countries like India, such programs organized by dental schools can improve oral health.
Acute periapical periodontitis and chronic marginal gingivitis were common clinical presentations. Conclusion: Some dental patients were unaware of their blood pressure levels. It is important for all dental patients to be screened for hypertension to avoid the complications that may arise therefrom. Keywords: Hypertension ...
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597
Sari A. Mahasneh
Full Text Available Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare.
Khanal, S; Acharya, J
Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.
Blinkhorn, Fiona; Wallace, Janet; Smith, Leanne; Blinkhorn, Anthony S
Dental caries (decay) is a serious problem for young Aboriginal children, causing pain and stress. Treatment often involves extraction of teeth under a general anaesthetic. However, dental caries can be prevented by reducing the frequency of sugar consumption and brushing teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Such straightforward advice could be given to families by Aboriginal Health Workers who are trusted by their communities and have an existing advisory role. This paper reports on the development of dental health advice leaflets for use in Aboriginal communities. An Aboriginal reference panel was recruited to comment on dental health advice leaflets prepared by an Aboriginal graphic designer. The panel was asked to consider the design, cultural appropriateness and practicality of the leaflets. Comments were collected through email and face-to-face discussions, which were collated and the leaflets altered accordingly. The advice from the panel resulted in greater use of pictures. For example large green ticks and red crosses highlighted healthy and unhealthy behaviours, respectively. The tooth brushing leaflet was amended to emphasise the safe storage of toothpaste in order to keep it out of reach of young children. The panel stated that all leaflets should incorporate the Aboriginal flag, and proposed that fridge magnets might be beneficial as all family members would benefit from seeing the messages every day. The consultation process refined dental advice leaflets to reflect the views of an Aboriginal Reference Panel, in terms of design, cultural competence and practicality. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Gaszynska, Ewelina; Szatko, Franciszek; Godala, Malgorzata; Gaszynski, Tomasz
To determine oral health status, dental treatment needs, and to identify barriers that prevent easy access to dental care by elderly care home residents in Lodz. Studies in many countries show that oral health status of elderly care home residents is poor and there is an urgent need to improve it. The study included 259 care home residents, aged 65 years and older. The oral examination was performed. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked about frequency of cleaning teeth and/or dentures, whether they needed assistance, and whether the assistance was available; they were also asked about the perceived dental needs, and about the time since their last visit to a dentist and the purpose of the visit. If they had not visited the dentist in the past 12 months, they were asked about reasons for failing to visit the dentist. Forty-six percent of the subjects were edentulous. Only 5.8% of all participants had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Dental treatment was found to be necessary in 59.8% of the respondents. One in four subjects reported reduced ability of correctly cleaning teeth and dentures themselves, of whom only one-third were helped by others. An insufficient level of hygiene was found in every other subject. About 42% of residents had not visited a dentist for over 5 years, mainly due to organizational reasons. Expanding the current scope of medical care for the elderly care home residents to include dental care would improve their currently poor oral health status.
Burgette, J M; Lee, J Y; Baker, A D; Vann, W F
The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of association between dental utilization and oral health literacy (OHL). As part of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project, clients in the Women, Infants, and Children's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program completed a structured 30-min in-person interview conducted by 2 trained interviewers at 9 sites in 7 counties in North Carolina. Data were collected on clients' OHL, sociodemographics, dental utilization, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge. The outcome, OHL, was measured with a dental word recognition test (30-item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry). Descriptive and multiple linear regression methods were used to examine the distribution of OHL and its association with covariates. After adjusting for age, education, race, marital status, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge, multiple linear regression showed that dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
Manu Raj Mathur
Full Text Available Dentistry has always been an under-resourced profession. There are three main issues that dentistry is facing in the modern era. Firstly, how to rectify the widely acknowledged geographical imbalance in the demand and supply of dental personnel, secondly, how to provide access to primary dental care to maximum number of people, and thirdly, how to achieve both of these aims within the financial restraints imposed by the central and state governments. The trends of oral diseases have changed significantly in the last 20 years. The two of the most common oral diseases that affect a majority of the population worldwide, namely dental caries and periodontitis, have been proved to be entirely preventable. Even for life-threatening oral diseases like oral cancer, the best possible available treatment is prevention. There is a growing consensus that appropriate skill mix can prove very beneficial in providing these preventive dental care services to the public and aid in achieving the goal of universal oral health coverage. Professions complementary to dentistry (PCD have been found to be effective in reducing inequalities in oral health, improving access and spreading the messages of health promotion across entire spectrum of socio-economic hierarchy in various studies conducted globally. This commentary provides a review of the effectiveness of skill mix in dentistry and a reflection on how this can be beneficial in achieving universal oral health care in India.
Sheridan, P G
The National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was created by President Harry S Truman on June 24, 1948, as the third of the National Institutes of Health. NIDR's legislation contained the mandate to conduct research and research training to improve oral health. An impetus for federally funded dental research was the finding in World War II that the major cause of rejection for military service was missing teeth. Because of the population's widespread tooth decay problems, early NIDR resear...
Bourgeois, Denis M; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Horn, Virginie; Carlile, Monica; Eiselé, Jean-Luc
Ensuring that members of society are healthy and reaching their full potential requires the prevention of oral diseases through the promotion of oral health and well-being. The present article identifies the best policy conditions of effective public health and primary care integration and the actors who promote and sustain these efforts. In this review, arguments and recommendations are provided to introduce an oral health collaborative promotion programme called Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2, arising from an unique partnership between FDI World Dental Federation, the global company Unilever plc and an international network of National Dental Associations, health-care centres, schools and educators populations. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V
We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once
To assess whether children's dental health behavior differs between family compositions of either natural parents or birth mothers together with stepfathers. We use data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) public use file. This is the first nationally r ep resentative sample on child health in Germany and particularly contains variables for dental attendance, tooth care, and eating behavior of 13,904 children below 14 years of age. A series of zero-inflated Poisson, ordinary least squares, binary, and ordered logistic regression models was set up in order to identify whether family composition is a significant explanatory variable for children's dental health behavior. Family composition turned out as a significant parameter for some aspects of children's dental health behavior. Specifically, children who grow up in families with a birth mother and a stepfather have only half the probability to access dental services but, once seeking treatment, the number of visits is significantly higher in comparison with children raised by their natural parents. Moreover, children growing up in such a patchwork family setting consume a higher amount of sugary foods and drinks. This appears mainly attributable to differential consumption habits for juices, cookies, and chocolate. Children who grow up in settings other than the nuclear family may develop different dental health behaviors than children who grow up with both natural parents, albeit more research is needed to identify the extent to which such behavioral changes lead to variations in caries occurrence.
BACKGROUND: Hurler Syndrome is associated with a deficiency of a specific lysosomal enzyme involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in early infancy is undertaken to help prevent the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and improve organ function. AIM: To investigate the oral features and dental health of patients with Hurler Syndrome who have undergone successful HSCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (median age 8.6 years) post-HSCT (mean age 9.4 months) underwent oral assessment (mean of 7.5 years post-HSCT). RESULTS: Dental development was delayed. Numerous occlusal anomalies were noted including: open-bite, class III skeletal base, dental spacing, primary molar infra-occlusion and ectopic tooth eruption. Dental anomalies included hypodontia, microdontia, enamel defects, thin tapering canine crowns, pointed molar cusps, bulbous molar crowns and molar taurodontism. Tooth roots were usually short\\/blunted\\/spindle-like in permanent molars. The prevalence of dental caries was low in the permanent dentition (mean DMFT 0.7) but high in the primary dentition (mean dmft 2.4). Oral hygiene instruction with plaque and or calculus removal was indicated in 71% of those that were dentate. CONCLUSION: Patients with Hurler Syndrome post-HSCT are likely to have delayed dental development, a malocclusion, and dental anomalies, particularly hypodontia and microdontia.
Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L
The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gerwatowski, L J; McFall, D B; Stach, D J
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is well recognized as an occupational risk for dental hygienists. The contributing risk factors fall primarily into two categories: medical and occupational. The purposes of this paper are to examine the factors that predispose one to CTS in order to increase awareness among dental hygienists, and to offer preventive strategies that can be incorporated into daily practice.
Torales, Julio; Barrios, Iván; González, Israel
Patients with mental disorders are subject to a greater number of risk factors for oral and dental disease than the general population. This is mostly caused by the side effects of the medications that they receive, lack of self-care, difficulty to access health services, a negative attitude towards healthcare providers, and patients lack of cooperation in dental treatments. The most common psychiatric disorders in our population are depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dementia. In disorders such as anxiety and depression, the main issue is the loss of interest in self-care, which results in a poor hygiene. The most frequent oral and dental diseases in these patients are dental cavities and periodontal disease. The purpose of this brief review is to provide up-to-date information about the management of oral and dental diseases of patients with mental disorders.
Beil, Heather A; Rozier, R Gary
In this study we estimated factors associated with children being advised to see the dentist by a doctor or other health provider; tested for an association between the advisement on the likelihood that the child would visit the dentist; and estimated the effect of the advisement on dental costs. We identified a sample of 5268 children aged 2 to 11 years in the 2004 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. A cross-sectional analysis with logistic regression models was conducted to estimate the likelihood of the child receiving a recommendation for a dental checkup, and to determine its effect on the likelihood of having a dental visit. Differences in cost for children who received a recommendation were assessed by using a linear regression model. All analyses were conducted separately on children aged 2 to 5 (n = 2031) and aged 6 to 11 (n = 3237) years. Forty-seven percent of 2- to 5-year-olds and 37% of 6- to 11-year-olds had been advised to see the dentist. Children aged 2 to 5 who received a recommendation were more likely to have a dental visit (odds ratio: 2.89 [95% confidence interval: 2.16-3.87]), but no difference was observed among older children. Advice had no effect on dental costs in either age group. Health providers' recommendation that pediatric patients visit the dentist was associated with an increase in dental visits among young children. Providers have the potential to play an important role in establishing a dental home for children at an early age. Future research should examine potential interventions to increase effective dental referrals by health providers.
Lu, Y; Levin, G V
Dental plaque develops when early bacterial colonizers adhere to the acquired pellicle (saliva-derived proteinous coating on the tooth surface) followed by adhesion of late interspecies colonizers to form this type of biofilm (coaggregation). In developing a d-tagatose-based toothpaste, we examined 15 oral isolates, including both early colonizers (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, and Actinobacillus), and tested them for their ability to coaggregate with each other. We then tested the ability of d-tagatose to reverse any such coaggregations. Coaggregation was examined visually and scored by using a system ranging from 0, for no visible coaggregation to 4, for maximum coaggregation. d-Tagatose, at a concentration of less than 750 mm, completely reversed the coaggregation of 17 (60%) of 28 strongly coaggregating pairs (coaggregation score = 2 or higher) tested. In contrast, d-sorbitol had little reversal effect. d-Tagatose-sensitive coaggregations were d-galactose-reversible as well. d-Tagatose acted on both early and late colonizers; both groups, especially the late colonizers, were frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, d-tagatose has the potential for preventing and removing plaque development and for altering the subgingival microbiota. These effective qualities offer conservative control of gingival and periodontal disease.
Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek
The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.
Kervanto-Seppälä, Sari; Pietilä, Ilpo; Meurman, Jukka H; Kerosuo, Eero
Pit and fissure sealants (sealants) are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991-2001). A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO) of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP) applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342). A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28) choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD +/- 0.49) at age 12 (year 2000) compared to a value of 1.2 (SD +/- 0.47) for those health centres (N = 177) applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants over detected or suspected enamel caries lesions instead of sealing sound teeth.
Ferracane, J; Hilton, T; Korpak, A; Gillette, J; McIntyre, P Speed; Berg, J
This cross-sectional study assessed the use of caries preventive services by Northwest PRECEDENT dental network practitioners and compared the caries experience of patients who received such services in the past 12 months with those who had not. An oral health survey was conducted on approximately 20 patients seen by each of 97 private practice dental practitioners in the network. Eligible patients (total of 1877 aged 3-92) were randomly assessed for the occurrence of one or more new caries lesions as well as having received the following preventive services within the past 12 months: fluoride varnish or gel, sealant in molar or premolar, and prophylaxis. Patients were stratified by gender and age (1-17 years old, 18-64 years old, and 65+ years old). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the practitioner characteristics and the use of preventive services, as well as the preventive services and the presence of a new caries lesion in the past 12 months. The percent of patients in age category 1-17 years old/18-64 years old/65+ years old receiving each preventive treatment varied as follows: 95%/85%/81% for prophylaxis, 87%/24%/22% for fluoride, and 27%/2%/0% for sealant. There was a very limited association between the use of a specific preventive service and practitioner gender, and no significant association between use of services and practice location (rural, urban or suburban). There was a significant association between greater use of sealants for dentists with 0-15 years of practice experience as compared with those having more than 25 years of experience. For the 1-17-year-old age group, boys had about 1.7 times the odds of having a new lesion than girls in the past 12 months, and patients receiving a sealant had 1.9 times the odds of having a new caries lesion. In the 18-64-year-old group, receiving a prophylaxis in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower odds for having a new lesion (odds ratio = 0.57). This
Simone De Melo Costa
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dental auxiliaries and the community health workers (CHWs are practitioners that represent an important part in the Family Health Policy in Brazil and have several tasks. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attributes of the dental auxiliaries and of the CHWs, regarding the application of their services and their education/training, to identify the similarities and contrasts between these health care practitioners. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative and census method data collection performed on the context of the Education Program for Health Workers - PET‑Saúde, 2010‑2012. The data collection method was a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis has a level of significance of p0.05. CONCLUSION: Similarities and contrasts were identified between these health care workers. The dental auxiliaries, despite being mostly issued to specific assignments on a clinical environment, are able to shift their praxis by taking actions on a family and community context once integrated to a family health team.
Shaefer, H Luke; Miller, Matthew
Nearly one-third of U.S. citizens lack access to basic preventive and primary oral health care services, which is primarily the result of the high costs of care and the uneven geographic distribution of dental providers. This article examines the case for and against one possible solution to address these barriers to oral health care: the introduction of a mid-level dental provider (MDP) position within the dental field.
Seiffert, Andrea; Zaror, Carlos; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Ormeño, Andrea; Martínez-Zapata, María José; Alonso-Coello, Pablo
To evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for dental caries prevention in children and adolescents MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of CPGs on caries preventive measures between 2005 and 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, TripDatabase, websites of CPG developers, compilers of CPGs, scientific societies and ministries of health. We included CPGs with recommendations on sealants, fluorides and oral hygiene. Three reviewers independently assessed the included CPGs using the AGREE II instrument. We calculated the standardised scores for the six domains and made a final recommendation about each CPG. Also, we calculated the overall agreement among calibrated reviewers with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Twenty-two CPGs published were selected from a total of 637 references. Thirteen were in English and nine in Spanish. The overall agreement between reviewers was very good (ICC = 0.90; 95%CI 0.89-0.92). The mean score for each domain was the following: Scope and purpose 89.6 ± 12%; Stakeholder involvement 55.0 ± 15.6%; Rigour of development 64.9 ± 21.2%; Clarity of presentation 84.8 ± 14.1%; Applicability 30.6 ± 31.5% and Editorial independence 59.3 ± 25.5%. Thirteen CPGs (59.1%) were assessed as "recommended", eight (36.4%) "recommended with modifications" and one (4.5%) "not recommended". The overall quality of CPGs in caries prevention was moderate. The domains with greater deficiencies were Applicability, Stakeholder involvement and Editorial independence. Clinicians should use the best available CPGs in dental caries prevention to provide optimal oral health care to patients.
Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha
Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services.
Kassim, B A; Noor, M A; Chindia, M L
To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter
Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73 and dental hygienists (n = 22 in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Results Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion' to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'. The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4 and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion
Amemori, Masamitsu; Michie, Susan; Korhonen, Tellervo; Murtomaa, Heikki; Kinnunen, Taru H
Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Clinical guidelines recommend that dental providers promote tobacco abstinence and provide patients who use tobacco with brief tobacco use cessation counselling. Research shows that these guidelines are seldom implemented, however. To improve guideline adherence and to develop effective interventions, it is essential to understand provider behaviour and challenges to implementation. This study aimed to develop a theoretically informed measure for assessing among dental providers implementation difficulties related to tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines, to evaluate those difficulties among a sample of dental providers, and to investigate a possible underlying structure of applied theoretical domains. A 35-item questionnaire was developed based on key theoretical domains relevant to the implementation behaviours of healthcare providers. Specific items were drawn mostly from the literature on TUPAC counselling studies of healthcare providers. The data were collected from dentists (n = 73) and dental hygienists (n = 22) in 36 dental clinics in Finland using a web-based survey. Of 95 providers, 73 participated (76.8%). We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Mean domain scores were calculated to assess different aspects of implementation difficulties and exploratory factor analysis to assess the theoretical domain structure. The authors agreed on the labels assigned to the factors on the basis of their component domains and the broader behavioural and theoretical literature. Internal consistency values for theoretical domains varied from 0.50 ('emotion') to 0.71 ('environmental context and resources'). The domain environmental context and resources had the lowest mean score (21.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.2 to 25.4) and was identified as a potential implementation difficulty. The domain emotion provided the highest mean score (60%; 95% CI, 55
RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infan...
Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Azevedo, Marina
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease in which the fermentation of food sugars by bacteria from the biofilm (dental plaque) leads to localised demineralisation of tooth surfaces, which may ultimately result in cavity formation. Resin composites are widely used in dentistry to restore teeth. These restorations can fail for a number of reasons, such as secondary caries, and restorative material fracture and other minor reasons. From these, secondary caries, which are caries lesions developed adjacent to restorations, is the main cause for restorations replacement. The presence of antibacterials in both the filling material and the bonding systems would theoretically be able to affect the initiation and progression of caries adjacent to restorations. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2009. To assess the effects of antibacterial agents incorporated into composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 23 July 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 23 July 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 23 July 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform (www.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials comparing resin composite restorations containing antibacterial agents with composite restorations not containing antibacterial agents. Two review authors conducted screening of studies in duplicate and independently, and although no eligible trials were identified, the two authors had planned to extract data independently and
Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong
Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the US, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care can progress until the tooth is destroyed. In this paper, the etiology of dental caries is briefly introduced. It is followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. TAKE HOME MASSAGE: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field.
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D
OBJECTIVE: To undertake formative studies investigating how the experience of dental caries in young children living in diverse settings relates to familial and cultural perceptions and beliefs, oral health-related behaviour and oral microflora. PARTICIPANTS: The scientific consortium came from 2...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....
RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350
The WHO´s aims regarding healthcare for the European region are mainly based on health promotion and preventive as well as supporting health education. The Ottawa Charta declares health promotion as a process to provide all people with a higher degree of self-determination regarding their health and thereby enabling them to increase it. General practitioners are of major importance regarding the medical area of behaviour oriented prevention by promoting health and acting preventive. ...
Isong, Inyang; Dantas, Laila; Gerard, Macda; Kuhlthau, Karen
Background Significant disparities exist in children’s receipt of preventive dental care (PDC) in the United States. Many of the children at greatest risk of dental disease do not receive timely PDC; when they do receive dental care, it is often more for relief of dental pain. Chelsea is a low-income, diverse Massachusetts community with high rates of untreated childhood caries. There are various dental resources available in Chelsea, yet many children do not access dental care at levels equivalent to their needs. Objective Using Chelsea as a case-study, to explore factors contributing to forgone PDC (including the age 1 dental visit) in an in-depth way. Methods We used a qualitative study design that included semi-structured interviews with parents of preschool children residing in Chelsea, and Chelsea-based providers including pediatricians, dentists, a dental hygienist and early childhood care providers. We examined: a) parents’ dental attitudes and oral health cultural beliefs; b) parents’ and providers’ perspectives on facilitators and barriers to PDC, reasons for unmet needs, and proposed solutions to address the problem. We recorded, transcribed and independently coded all interviews. Using rigorous, iterative qualitative data analyses procedures, we identified emergent themes. Results Factors perceived to facilitate receipt of PDC included Head-Start oral health policies, strong pediatric primary care/dental linkages, community outreach and advertising, and parents’ own oral health experiences. Most parents and providers perceived there to be an adequate number of accessible dental services and resources in Chelsea, including for Medicaid enrollees. However, several barriers impeded children from receiving timely PDC, the most frequently cited being insurance related problems for children and adults. Other barriers included limited dental services for children dental practices, lack of emphasis on prevention-based dental care, poor care
Gomez, Grace Felix
The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…
Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Sibilio, Fabio; Amenta, Francesco
This study has assessed the dental hygiene habits and problems of seafarers and their attitudes/ perceptions regarding oral hygiene using a dental hygiene/habits questionnaire. A research questionnaire on oral hygiene habits was prepared along with a summary of all the questions and sent to ships via e-mail by Centro Internazionale Radio Medico (CIRM) networks. CIRM, is the Italian Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS), and represents the Centre with the largest number of seafarers assisted on board ships worldwide. CIRM proposed the questionnaire to all ships (n = 1,198) asking for medical advice from 1 July 2014 till 31 October 2014. Two dental professionals were involved in the development and analysis of the questionnaire. Seafarers are at risk of several dental health problems due to their oral hygiene and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, poor oral hygiene knowledge and motivation. Dietary habits during voyages were also questionable and seafarers consume food rich in fermentable carbohydrates, which is a major risk factor for dental caries. Seafarers need better oral hygiene education and care to enable them to manage their oral health in a better way. Life at the sea, under challenging circumstances is not without stress, that is why it is important that seafarers are given complete information about correct oral hygiene protocols and dental hygiene and the advantages for their health of keeping a healthy mouth.
Karki, A J; Holyfield, G; Thomas, D
Dental prescribing data in Wales have not been studied in detail previously. The analysis of national data available from Health Solutions Wales showed that dental prescribing in Wales accounted for 9% of total antibacterial prescribing in primary care in 2008. Penicillin and metronidazole constituted the bulk of antibiotics prescribed by dentists. Since the publication of National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance (March 2008) on prophylaxis against infective endocarditis, dental prescriptions for amoxicillin 3g sachets and clindamycin capsules have decreased. Dental prescriptions for fluoride preparations increased in number from 2007 to 2008. Dental prescribing of controlled drugs raises no concern. The figure for antibiotic prescribing in Wales is similar to that of England. Nevertheless, the figure seems a little high, indicating potential inappropriate prescribing behaviour among dentists. Antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue and many patients each year die from infections from bacterial strains that are resistant to one or more antibiotics. Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a major cause of antibiotic resistance and every effort should be made to reduce the number of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions in dental practice.
Lindmark, U; Wagman, P; Wåhlin, C; Rolander, B
The purpose was to explore self-reported psychosocial health and work environments among different dental occupations and workplaces from a salutogenic perspective. A further purpose was to analyse possible associations between three salutogenic measurements: The Sense of Coherence questionnaire (SOC), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS) and the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS). Employees in the Public Dental Service in a Swedish county council (n = 486) were invited to respond to a self-reported web survey including demographics, work-related factors, the SOC, the SHIS and the WEMS. This study showed positive associations between employee characteristics and self-reported overall psychosocial health as well as experienced work environment. Autonomy was reported more among men than women (P job satisfaction, autonomy and positive to reorganization were reported by personnels aged less than 40 years (P ≤ 0.047). Clinical coordinators reported significant better health (SOC, SHIS) and experienced more autonomy, better management and more positive to reorganization than other dental professions. Dental hygienists and nurses experienced less time pressure than dentists (P ≤ 0.007). Better health and positive work experiences were also seen in smaller clinics (P ≤ 0.29). Dental professionals reported a high degree of overall psychosocial health as well as a positive work experience. Some variations could be seen between employee characteristics such as gender, years in dental care, professionals, managing position and workplace size. Identify resources and processes at each workplace are important and should be included in the employee's/employers dialogue. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sarah J. Clark MPH
Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children.
Kuthy, RA; Jones, M; Kavand, G; Momany, E; Askelson, N; Chi, D; Wehby, G; Damiano, P
Objective The study assessed the time until first dental caries for young children seen at 5 Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) in Iowa and the relationship with the frequency and gaps (in months) of dental episodes, the number of topical fluoride treatments, and the number of dentists caring for the subject. Methods Forty children were randomly selected at each FQHC (n=200). All children were continuously enrolled in the Medicaid program and had their first dental visit prior to age 6. Dental chart findings, claims data for the child and family, and birth certificate information were merged into one dataset. Dental visits were followed for a minimum of 36 months, including dental visits external to the FQHCs. Using time until first caries as the dependent variable, the data were subject to left, interval, and right censoring and were analyzed via Weibull regression. Results Slightly more than half of the 200 children experienced caries. Regression analysis indicated that the hazard rate of first dental caries increased by approximately 2% with each additional month that transpired between preventive recall examinations. In addition, children with older siblings who had a dental visit at the same center during the previous year prior to the subject’s first visit were more likely to have a longer time until first dental caries. Conclusions Timing of dental care episodes was associated with caries experience in young children from low income families. Dental professionals should focus on regularity of dental care in order to prevent or delay caries experience in young children. PMID:24483730
Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae
Dental caries is induced by oral biofilm containing Streptococcus mutans. Probiotic bacteria were mainly studied for effect on the gastrointestinal tract and have been known to promote human health. However, the information of probiotics for oral health has been lack yet. In this study, we investigated influence of various probiotics on oral bacteria or cariogenic biofilm and evaluated candidate probiotics for dental caries among them. The antimicrobial activity of the spent culture medium of probiotics for oral streptococci was performed. Probiotics were added during the biofilm formation with salivary bacteria including S. mutans. The oral biofilms were stained with a fluorescent dye and observed using the confocal laser scanning microscope. To count bacteria in the biofilm, the bacteria were plated on MSB and BHI agar plates after disrupting the biofilm and cultivated. Glucosyltransferases (gtfs) expression of S. mutans and integration of lactobacilli into the biofilm were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Among probiotics, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited growth of oral streptococci. Moreover, Lactobacillus species strongly inhibited formation of cariogenic biofilm model. The expression of gtfs was significantly reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The integration of L. rhamnosus into the biofilm model did not exhibit. However, L. acidophilus and L casei integrated into the biofilm model. These results suggest that L. rhamnosus may inhibit oral biofilm formation by decreasing glucan production of S. mutans and antibacterial activity and did not integrate into oral biofilm, which can be a candidate for caries prevention strategy.
Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Dantas de Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima; Barbosa, Ailma de Souza; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney
The dental care must be driven by preventive and curative measures that can contribute to the population's oral health promotion. To evaluate the impact of the actions proposed by a comprehensive dental care protocol (CDCP) on the oral health condition of primary care users. The sample consisted of 32 volunteers, assisted throughout the six phases proposed by the CDCP: diagnosis of dental needs; resolution of urgencies; restorative interventions; application of promotional measures; evaluation of the achieved health level; and periodic controls. Data were collected through clinical exams, which measured the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) Index, before and after the CDCP was implemented. Statistical analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon test, at 5% significance level (α = 0.05). The OHI-S and GBI indices showed a significant reduction (p 0.05), showing final values equal to 12.7 ± 9.6 and 5.6 ± 7.8, respectively. Decayed elements were fully converted into filled elements, and the final values of the decayed and filled elements were, respectively, 0.0 ± 0.0 and 7.3 ± 5.7 (p health of the population assisted by the dental services offered in primary care and this protocol seems to ft the public dental service demands. The CDCP can be useful to public dental service planning since it showed an efficient clinical outcome to the patients. We consider that this protocol should be employed in primary care oral health services in order to achieve overall upgrade, access enlargement and public oral health promotion.
Spencer A John
Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the hypothesis that a vicious cycle of dental fear exists, whereby the consequences of fear tend to maintain that fear, the relationship between dental fear, self-reported oral health status and the use of dental services was explored. Methods The study used a telephone interview survey with interviews predominantly conducted in 2002. A random sample of 6,112 Australian residents aged 16 years and over was selected from 13 strata across all States and Territories. Data were weighted across strata and by age and sex to obtain unbiased population estimates. Results People with higher dental fear visited the dentist less often and indicated a longer expected time before visiting a dentist in the future. Higher dental fear was associated with greater perceived need for dental treatment, increased social impact of oral ill-health and worse self-rated oral health. Visiting patterns associated with higher dental fear were more likely to be symptom driven with dental visits more likely to be for a problem or for the relief of pain. All the relationships assumed by a vicious cycle of dental fear were significant. In all, 29.2% of people who were very afraid of going to the dentist had delayed dental visiting, poor oral health and symptom-driven treatment seeking compared to 11.6% of people with no dental fear. Conclusion Results are consistent with a hypothesised vicious cycle of dental fear whereby people with high dental fear are more likely to delay treatment, leading to more extensive dental problems and symptomatic visiting patterns which feed back into the maintenance or exacerbation of existing dental fear.
Azogui-Lévy, S; Rochereau, T
Poorly controlled diabetes leads to serious complications including periodontal disease, oral disease leading to tooth loss. Diabetics benefit from care facilitated follow-up. Social inequalities are observed in oral health and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the social factors on oral health and use of dental care for people with diabetes from the Health and Social Protection Survey 2008 (ESPS) and to compare it with that observed among non-diabetic people. The ESPS is a representative survey of the French population. In 2008, data were derived from a self-administered health questionnaire given to all household members aged 16 or older. The scope of this study was restricted to persons aged 35 and over (12.082) having filled out their health survey (8961). Diabetes was defined from self-reports of disease or use of anti-diabetic medication. Oral health was estimated from perceived oral health and the number of missing teeth not replaced. Use of dental care was measured by self-report of a visit within the last two years. Socio-demographic and social coverage indicators were collected. The participation rate was 74.1% and prevalence of diabetes was 7.2% (648). People with diabetes had a poorer dental status (42.7% vs 26.5% - OR=1.22, 95% CI [1.01-1.47]), related to social characteristics. The effect of level of precariousness on dental health was equivalent in diabetic and non-diabetic populations. The use of dental care (73.4% of participants) was associated with social factors. Diabetics were less likely to consult dentists than non-diabetics (61.5% vs 74.4%), but this difference was not statistically significant (OR=0.86, 95%CI [0.72-1.04]). The effect of the level of precariousness on use of dental care was the same in both populations. This study raises the question of the impact of recommendations on monitoring dental health among diabetics especially for vulnerable populations despite better management and coverage
Rademacher, Willem M H; Walenkamp, Geert H I M; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Hendriks, Johannes G E; Goedendorp, Theo A; Rozema, Frederik R
Background and purpose To minimize the risk of hematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (HPJI), international and Dutch guidelines recommended antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Unclear definitions and contradictory recommendations in these guidelines have led to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. To formulate new guidelines, a joint committee of the Dutch Orthopaedic and Dental Societies conducted a systematic literature review to answer the following question: can antibiotic prophylaxis be recommended for patients (with joint prostheses) undergoing dental procedures in order to prevent dental HPJI? Methods The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reviews, and observational studies up to July 2015. Studies were included if they involved patients with joint implants undergoing dental procedures, and either considered HPJI as an outcome measure or described a correlation between HPJI and prophylactic antibiotics. A guideline was formulated using the GRADE method and AGREE II guidelines. Results 9 studies were included in this systematic review. All were rated “very low quality of evidence”. Additional literature was therefore consulted to address clinical questions that provide further insight into pathophysiology and risk factors. The 9 studies did not provide evidence that use of antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of dental HPJI, and the additional literature supported the conclusion that antibiotic prophylaxis should be discouraged in dental procedures. Interpretation Prophylactic antibiotics in order to prevent dental HPJI should not be prescribed to patients with a normal or an impaired immune system function. Patients are recommended to maintain good oral hygiene and visit the dentist regularly. PMID:28639846
Karimalakuzhiyil Alikutty, Fazeena; Bernabé, Eduardo
The aim of this study was to explore the association between long-term pattern of dental attendance and periodontal disease among British adults. We used data from 3272 adults who participated in the 1998 Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four trajectories (current, always, former and never regular attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental attendance patterns. The numbers of teeth with pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA) ≥4 mm were the outcome measures. The association between dental attendance patterns and each periodontal measure was assessed in crude and adjusted models using negative binomial regression. Never and former regular attenders had more teeth with PD ≥4 mm (Rate Ratios with 95% Confidence Interval: 1.58 [1.28-1.95] and 1.34 [1.12-1.60] respectively) and LOA ≥4 mm (1.34 [1.04-1.72] and 1.37 [1.07-1.75] respectively) than always regular attenders, after adjustments for demographic (sex, age and country of residence) and socioeconomic factors (education and social class). However, no differences in periodontal measures were found between always and current regular attenders. This analysis of national cross-sectional data shows that adults with different long-term patterns of dental attendance have different periodontal health status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, A M; Gabe, S M; Nightingale, J M; Burke, M
Background disease processes, medication and therapies in people with intestinal failure receiving home parenteral nutrition may affect their oral health. To inform oral health advice for this group a study of their oral health status was carried out. Fifty-two HPN outpatients recruited from specialised nutrition clinics at a national referral centre listed their medical and medication history, perceived oral health and dental treatment experience in a structured interview and underwent an oral health examination. Findings were compared with 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data, using one-sample t tests. Oral health of the HPN cohort was poorer than the UK norm; patients had more decay (poral rehydration fluids and polypharmacy (in 96%) are identifiable risk factors for caries, xerostomia (in 81%) and thus oral infection risk (including oral candidiasis). Patients were experiencing current problems (60%) and psychological discomfort (56%) from poor oral health. The patient pathway does not include oral health information. Dental teams should be aware of the management and prevention of HPN related complications with bisphosphonates, anticoagulant therapy, and parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis. HPN patients may benefit from increased awareness of their oral health risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others
To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)
Background: Individuals, generally, in this environment are known to rate their oral health status favourably despite the presence of oral diseases and conditions, probably due to sub optimal awareness level about oral health, however it is not known if this is the case with members of the dental team especially those who ...
Fontana, Margherita; González-Cabezas, Carlos; de Peralta, Tracy; Johnsen, David C
To be able to meet the demands for care in 2040, dental graduates will need to address challenges resulting from the rapidly changing health care environment with knowledge and sets of skills to build on current standards and adapt to the future. The purposes of this article are to 1) analyze key challenges likely to evolve considerably between now and 2040 that will impact dental education and practice and 2) propose several sets of skills and educational outcomes necessary to address these challenges. The challenges discussed include changes in prevalence of oral diseases, dental practice patterns, materials and technologies, integrated medical-dental care, role of electronic health records, cultural competence, integrated curricula, interprofessional education, specialty-general balance, and web/cloud-based collaborations. To meet these challenges, the dental graduate will need skills such as core knowledge in basic and clinical dentistry, technical proficiency, critical thinking skills for lifelong learning, ethical and professional values, ability to manage a practice, social responsibility, and ability to function in a collegial intra- and interprofessional setting. Beyond the skills of the individual dentist will be the need for leadership in academia and the practice community. Academic and professional leaders will need to engage key constituencies to develop strategic directions and agendas with all parties pointed toward high standards for individual patients and the public at large. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
Beazoglou, Tryfon; Bailit, Howard; Maule, Margaret Drozdowski
We analyzed the operation of one Connecticut federally qualified health center (FOHC) dental program with seven delivery sites. We assessed the financial operation of the different delivery sites and contrasted the overall performance of the FOHC with private practices. We obtained data from a pretested financial survey instrument, electronic patient visit records, and site visits. To assess clinic productivity, we used two output measures: patient visits and market value of services. For the latter, we estimated the implicit fee of each service provided in patient visits. On average, these clinics were running a modest deficit, mainly due to startup costs of two new clinics. The primary factor that impacted net revenues was low reimbursement rates, including privately insured patients. When FOHC dental revenues were adjusted to market rates, revenues were close to expenses. FOHC dental clinics are major components of the dental safety net system. This case study suggests that the established clinics use resources as effectively as private practices.
Lalloo, Ratilal; Kroon, Jeroen; Tut, Ohnmar; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Jamieson, Lisa M; Wallace, Valda; Boase, Robyn; Fernando, Surani; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Scuffham, Paul A; Johnson, Newell W
The aim of the study is to reduce the high prevalence of tooth decay in children in a remote, rural Indigenous community in Australia, by application of a single annual dental preventive intervention. The study seeks to (1) assess the effectiveness of an annual oral health preventive intervention in slowing the incidence of dental caries in children in this community, (2) identify the mediating role of known risk factors for dental caries and (3) assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the intervention. The intervention is novel in that most dental preventive interventions require regular re-application, which is not possible in resource constrained communities. While tooth decay is preventable, self-care and healthy habits are lacking in these communities, placing more emphasis on health services to deliver an effective dental preventive intervention. Importantly, the study will assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness for broader implementation across similar communities in Australia and internationally. There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of dental decay in these communities, by implementing effective, cost-effective, feasible and sustainable dental prevention programs. Expected outcomes of this study include improved oral and general health of children within the community; an understanding of the costs associated with the intervention provided, and its comparison with the costs of allowing new lesions to develop, with associated treatment costs. Findings should be generalisable to similar communities around the world. The research is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), registration number ACTRN12615000693527; date of registration: 3rd July 2015.
Carey, Clifton M.
Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594
Langelier, Margaret; Continelli, Tracey; Moore, Jean; Baker, Bridget; Surdu, Simona
Dental hygienists are important members of the oral health care team, providing preventive and prophylactic services and oral health education. However, scope-of-practice parameters in some states limit their ability to provide needed services effectively. In 2001 we developed the Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index, a numerical tool to measure the state-level professional practice environment for dental hygienists. We used the index to score state-level scopes of practice in all fifty states and the District of Columbia in 2001 and 2014. The mean composite score on the index increased from 43.5 in 2001 to 57.6 in 2014, on a 100-point scale. We also analyzed the association of each state's composite score with an oral health outcome: tooth extractions among the adult population because of decay or disease. After we controlled for individual- and state-level factors, we found in multilevel modeling that more autonomous dental hygienist scope of practice had a positive and significant association with population oral health in both 2001 and 2014. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Umoh, Agnes O
The few existing studies on herpes labialis among health care workers have been predominantly among non-dental health care workers. The purpose of this study was to determine Nigerian dental health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, preventive behaviors for, and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. This cross-sectional study was conducted among final-year dental students at the University of Benin, dental house officers, and residents at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Data collection was via a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 110 were completed and returned, giving a 91.7% retrieval rate. However, 15 of the returned questionnaires were discarded because they were improperly completed, leaving a total of 95 questionnaires for final analysis in this study. The majority of participants were over 28 years old (54.7%), male (67.4%), unmarried (66.3%), and postgraduate dental health care providers (51.6%). Less than half (43.2%) of participants demonstrated adequate overall knowledge of herpes labialis. About one-tenth (10.5%) and more than three-quarters (87.4%) of participants reported a positive attitude and performance of adequate preventive behaviors, respectively. A total of 16.8% of participants reported a high tendency to refuse treatment to patients with herpes labialis. Although not statistically significant, young, unmarried, male undergraduate participants reported a greater likelihood to refuse treatment to herpes labialis patients. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. However, marital status and the attitude of participants toward these patients emerged as the determinants for refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. Data from this study revealed a high level of
Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul
Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik
OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study...... protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44...... consortium members from 18 countries. To complete the development of the questionnaire, the initial set of items was administered to parents (n = 23) with children in nursery schools in Dundee, Scotland and sent to the same parents one week later. A standardised measure examining barriers to providing dental...
Brondani, Mario A; Ramanula, Dhorea; Pattanaporn, Komkhamn
Health care professionals, particularly dentists, are subject to high levels of stress. Without proper stress management, problems related to mental health and addiction and, to a lesser extent, deliberate self-harm such as suicide may arise. There is a lack of information on teaching methodologies employed to discuss stress management and suicide prevention in dental education. The purpose of this article is to describe a University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry module designed to address stress management and suicide prevention, using students' personal reflections to illustrate the impact of the pedagogies used. The module enrolls more than 200 students per year and has sessions tailored to the discussion of stress management and suicide prevention. The pedagogies include standardized patients, invited guest lectures, in-class activities, video presentation, and self-reflections. More than 500 students' self-reflections collected over the past five years illustrate the seriousness of the issues discussed and the level of discomfort students experience when pondering such issues. The instructors hope to have increased students' awareness of the stressors in their profession. Further studies are needed to unravel the extent to which such pedagogy influences a balanced practice of dentistry.
Zero, Domenick T; Brennan, Michael T; Daniels, Troy E; Papas, Athena; Stewart, Carol; Pinto, Andres; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Navazesh, Mahvash; Rhodus, Nelson; Sciubba, James; Singh, Mabi; Wu, Ava J; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Tracy, Sharon; Fox, Philip C; Ford, Theresa Lawrence; Cohen, Stephen; Vivino, Frederick B; Hammitt, Katherine M
Salivary dysfunction in Sjögren disease can lead to serious and costly oral health complications. Clinical practice guidelines for caries prevention in Sjögren disease were developed to improve quality and consistency of care. A national panel of experts devised clinical questions in a Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes format and included use of fluoride, salivary stimulants, antimicrobial agents, and nonfluoride remineralizing agents. The panel conducted a systematic search of the literature according to pre-established parameters. At least 2 members extracted the data, and the panel rated the strength of the recommendations by using a variation of grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation. After a Delphi consensus panel was conducted, the experts finalized the recommendations, with a minimum of 75% agreement required. Final recommendations for patients with Sjögren disease with dry mouth were as follows: topical fluoride should be used in all patients (strong); although no study results link improved salivary flow to caries prevention, the oral health community generally accepts that increasing saliva may contribute to decreased caries incidence, so increasing saliva through gustatory, masticatory, or pharmaceutical stimulation may be considered (weak); chlorhexidine administered as varnish, gel, or rinse may be considered (weak); and nonfluoride remineralizing agents may be considered as an adjunct therapy (moderate). The incidence of caries in patients with Sjögren disease can be reduced with the use of topical fluoride and other preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Juhee; Kaste, Linda M
Despite that the majority of US children use nonparental childcare (NPC), research examining its effects on children's preventive healthcare utilization is lacking. Our aim was to contrast NPC against parental childcare in terms of preventive medical and dental care utilization. Associations of childcare and healthcare utilization were evaluated using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone interview of parent-reported children's health (22,773 children ages 1- to 5-year old). The type of childcare was categorized as parental care, center-based care (CBC), nonrelative home care (NRHC), relative care (RCC), and mixed care (MCC). The outcome measures were preventive medical care (≥ 1 physical examination/well child check-up visit) and preventive dental care (≥ 1 check-ups/dental cleanings visit) during the past 12 months. Overall, 94.7% of 1- to 5-year-old children received preventive medical care, while only 53.6% received preventive dental care. The highest odds for preventive medical care was for 1- to 2-year-old children utilizing CBC [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.11-7.30] and for 3- to 5-year-old children utilizing MCC (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.23-3.26) followed by CBC (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.13-2.42). Considering preventive dental care, a statistically significant increase occurred for 1- to 2-year-old children with CBC (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.62-2.30), and none occurred for any NPC above the parental childcare rates for 3- to 5-year-old children. Childcare use, particularly center-based care, may provide a means to raise preventive healthcare utilization for young children. Future regulations, as well as policy and program development, should consider promoting childcare settings as a means to improve preventive health care utilization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gorter, R; Freeman, R; Hammen, S; Murtomaa, H; Blinkhorn, A; Humphris, G
Psychological stress in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools. To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), consisting of three scales: Emotional Exhaustion (EE, alpha = 0.90), Depersonalisation (alpha = 0.80) and Personal Accomplishment (alpha = 0.72). Physical health was measured by the Physical Symptoms Questionnaire (alpha = 0.82), psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, alpha = 0.89) and student stress was captured using seven subscales of the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES, alpha = 0.92). A total of 132 fifth year students responded from five dental schools (Manchester, Belfast, Cork, Helsinki and Amsterdam), a 51% response. Fifth year students showed relatively high mean MBI scores when compared with first year results, especially on EE; 39% could be labelled 'high scorers'; 44% of the students met the criteria for 'cases' on the GHQ. Highest mean scores on the DES were obtained on the subscales: Study Obligations, Patient-Related Aspects and Study Pressure respectively. Between schools interesting differences were detected on all variables. As hypothesised, a clear direct effect of stress on both burnout and physical symptoms was shown. An indirect effect of stress on mental health via burnout was shown. Dental students showed a negative development through the years from first to fifth year with regard to EE and psychological distress. Both burnout constructs related to physical and mental health. It is recommended that dental faculty focus on the importance of prevention and intervention of stress amongst undergraduates.
Barasuol, Jéssica Copetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between parents' dental anxiety (DA) and independent variables. One hundred sixty-eight dyads of parents and six- to 12-year-old children who were undergoing treatment at a university pediatric dentistry clinic were recruited. Two examiners evaluated parents' DA and oral health literacy (OHL) using the Brazilian version of Corah's dental anxiety scale and the Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30), respectively. Children's DA was reported by parents through the dental anxiety question (DAQ). Demographic data was also collected. A single examiner used the decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth and primary teeth (DMFT/dmft) indices to assess the children's oral health status. The data analysis involved univariate and multivariate Poisson regression. In the multivariate regression, higher levels of parents' DA were associated with a household income equal to or less than the Brazilian monthly minimum wage (prevalence ratio [PR]=4.9; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=2.1 to 11.7) and a lower degree of OHL (PR=1.68; 95 percent CI=1.01 to 2.8). Associations between parents' DA and children's DA and DMFT/dmft index were not found. Parents' dental anxiety was related to a low household income and low oral health literacy.
Teusner, Dana N; Anikeeva, Olga; Brennan, David S
Previous studies have reported that socioeconomically disadvantaged Australians have poorer self-rated dental health (SRDH), are less likely to be insured for dental services and are less likely to have regular dental visits than their more advantaged counterparts. However, less is known about the associations between dental insurance and SRDH. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between SRDH and dental insurance status and to test if the relationship was modified by household income. A random sample of 3,000 adults aged 30-61 years was drawn from the Australian Electoral Roll and mailed a self-complete questionnaire. Analysis included dentate participants. Bivariate associations were assessed between SRDH and insurance stratified by household income group. A multiple variable model adjusting for covariates estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of having good to excellent SRDH and included an interaction term for insurance and household income group. The response rate was 39.1% (n = 1,093). More than half (53.9%) of the participants were insured and 72.5% had good to excellent SRDH. SRDH was associated with age group, brushing frequency, insurance status and income group. Amongst participants in the $40,000- insured had a higher proportion reporting good to excellent SRDH (80.8%) than the uninsured (66.5%); however, there was little difference in SRDH by insurance status for those in the $120,000+ income group. After adjusting for covariates, there was a significant interaction (p insurance and income; there was an association between insurance and SRDH for adults in the $40,000- insured was associated with better SRDH, but there was no association for those in the highest income group. Insurance coverage may have the potential to improve dental health for low income groups.
Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.
Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678
Fedyai, S. G.; Prochonchukov, Alexander A.; Zhizhina, Nina A.; Metelnikov, Michael A.
We report results of clinical application of the new computer-laser system. The system includes hardware and software means, which are applied for new efficient methods of prevention and treatment of main dental diseases. The hardware includes a laser physiotherapeutic device (LPD) `Optodan' and a fiberoptic laser delivery system with special endodontic rigging. The semiconductor AG-AL-AG laser diode with wavelengths in the spectral range of 850 - 950 nm (produced by Scientific-Industrial Concern `Reflector') is used as a basic unit. The LPD `Optodan' and methods of treatment are covered by Russian patent No 2014107 and certified by the Russian Ministry of Health. The automated computer system allows us to examine patients quickly and to input differential diagnosis, to determine indications (and contraindications), parameters and regimen of laser therapy, to control treatment efficacy (for carious -- through clinical indexes of enamel solubles, velocity of demineralization and other tests; for periodontal diseases trough complex of the periodontal indexes with automated registry and calculation). We present last results of application of the new technique and methods in treatment of dental diseases in Russian clinics.
Lin, Mei; Sappenfield, William; Hernandez, Leticia; Clark, Cheryl; Liu, Jihong; Collins, Jennifer; Carle, Adam C
The objectives of this study is to identify factors associated with lack of preventive dental care among U.S. children and state-level factors that explain variation in preventive dental care access across states. We performed bivariate analyses and multilevel regression analyses among 68,350 children aged 5-17 years using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health data and relevant state-level data. Odds ratios (ORs) for child- and state-level variables were calculated to estimate associations with preventive dental care. We calculated interval odds ratios (IOR), median odds ratios (MOR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to quantify variation in preventive dental care across states. Lack of preventive dental care was associated with various child-level factors. For state-level factors, a higher odds of lack of preventive dental care was associated with a higher percentage of Medicaid-enrolled children not receiving dental services (OR = 1.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.47); higher percentage of children uninsured (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.29-1.69); lower dentist-to-population ratio (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.80); and lower percentage of dentists submitting Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program claims (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI: 1.01-1.06). IORs for the first three state-level factors did not contain one, indicating that these state-level characteristics were important in understanding variation across states. Lack of preventive dental care varied by state (MOR = 1.40). The state-level variation (ICC = 3.66 %) accounted for a small percentage of child- and state-level variation combined. Child- and state-level characteristics were associated with preventive dental care access among U.S. children aged 5-17 years. State-level factors contribute to variation in dental care access across states and need to be considered in state-level planning.
Kumar, P; Kumar, P; Dixit, A; Gupta, V; Singh, HP; Sargaiyan, V
Background: Oral diseases are largely preventable and it is hoped that with the early exposure to oral health-care activities, the prevalence of oral diseases will be reduced in children and they would be more receptive to dental services. Aim: The present study evaluated the awareness of prevention of dental caries among pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India. Total subjects including in the survey were 88 pediatricians, through systemic random sampling. Both the gender was including Male-37.8% (35/88) and Female-62.2% (53/88). Pre-tested, structured and self administered questionnaire was used in the survey and data analysis was done by using ‘SPSS’ software version 16.0 (IBM, United States). Results: Our study indicated that most of the pediatricians in Ghaziabad district had moderate knowledge 39.7% (35/88), followed by good knowledge 36.5% (32/88) and poor knowledge 23.8% (21/88) about dental caries. Practice guidelines and opinions of pediatricians in the survey were moderate 64.7% (57/88) in about more than half, followed by poor 23.8% (21/88) and followed by good 11.5% (10/88). The attitude for prevention of dental caries was positive in almost everybody 81.8% (72/88). Conclusion: The present survey concluded that pediatricians in Ghaziabad district, India had a good attitude and practices, but had moderate knowledge and lacked proper awareness about dental caries. PMID:25364606
The papers II and III of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper II: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl, J.: “The association between oral health literacy and alexithymia: Implications for patient-clinician communication”. (Manuscript). Published version with title “Exploring the association between oral health literacy and alexithymia” available in Community Dental Health 2015, 32(3):143 - 147. Paper III: Stein, L., Bergdahl, M., Pettersen, K. S., Bergdahl...
Widström, E; Tillberg, A; Byrkjeflot, L I; Skudutyte-Rysstad, R
Objective and setting In Norway, the Public Dental Service (PDS) caters for the young (chair-side preventive measures used in the public clinics and compared them with recommendations in evidence-based guidelines in the neighbouring countries.Materials and methods After ethical approval, the regional Chief Dental Officers (CDOs) emailed questionnaires to their local clinics (N = 421) where the most experienced dentist and dental hygienist were asked to respond on behalf of the clinic. Answers were received from 256 clinics (response rate 61%). Altogether, 215 dentists and 166 dental hygienists answered.Results Of the respondents, 26% reported that their clinic had agreed guidelines on preventive treatment to be used by all staff. Oral hygiene and fluoride toothpaste recommendations were considered appropriate. Almost 60% claimed that flossing instructions were given to all children and adolescents and 40% that fluoride varnish was used on all the young. Fissure sealants were used after individual assessment (80%). A third of the respondents claimed that fluoride tablets and fluoride rinse were recommended for all or most children and fluoride rinses for adults, even in addition to regular use of fluoride toothpaste. Dental hygienists used all methods more often than dentists. On adults, preventive measures were more often used on individual assessment. Half (48%) of the respondents were interested in new evidence-based national guidelines on preventive care.Conclusions Chair-side preventive treatment measures were numerous in the well-resourced Norwegian PDS, but partly outdated.
Anya Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of dental decay in institutionalized children (shelteror not (stable family situation, with and without access to dental care, verifying the impactof this in both groups. Methods: The study had 133 participants of both sexes, with the same socioeconomic level and aged 3 to 6 years old, divided into four different groups. Two groups consisted of institutionalized children, one of whom had regular dental treatment and the other not; the other two groups consisted of children from nursery school, one group presenting dental treatment and the other not. Data collection consisted of medical history and clinical examination performed by one researcher properly calibrated. The index of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth (dmf-t was used to determine the prevalence of caries. Results: Data analysis showed statistically significant difference between groups in the dmf-t that, although high for everyone, was significantly lower for those who haddental care (p <0.001. The comparison between shelters and schools also provided statistically different values of dmf-t (p <0.001, as well as the comparison of schools and shelters among themselves (p = 0.012. In addition, we observed that treatment needs in primary dentition were higher than treatment received and, thus, the preventive approach should be highlighted, both in schools and in shelters for the effective reduction of dental caries rates in this population. Conclusion: Institutionalization as factor did not indicate a higher probability of dental decay in children. However, the absence of the dentist turned significantly higher the probability of dental caries’ occurrence.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify similarities and differences in oral health attitudes, behavior and values among 1 st year dental students studying in two dental colleges of Chennai city. Materials & Method: The study was carried out in two dental colleges of Chennai city among 120 first year dental students aged 18-19 years. They were grouped under different zones (north, East, South and West and those who responded to the self-administered questionnaire were included in the study. An 18 item closed ended questionnaire primarily associated with oral health attitude, behaviour and tooth brushing was used. This questionnaire is a modified version of the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI. Results: About 64% of the study subjects agreed that they were worried about visiting the dentist; 73.3% of the study subjects were concerned about the color of their teeth; the students from south and north were more concerned compared to the people from east. Significant differences (p<0.05 were seen among students of different zones regarding not worrying much about visiting the dentist, about bleeding gums while brushing, worrying about having a bad breath and the thought that it was impossible to prevent gum disease with tooth brushing alone. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences in the oral health attitude/behavior were recorded among 120 first year dental students from the two dental colleges in Chennai city yielding plausible results, using the HU-DBI. Oral health education needs to be provided in those areas where there are deficits in knowledge.
Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Kunzel, Carol; Wolfson, Natalie H.; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Moats, Harmon L.; Mitchell, Dennis A.
To examine the types of dental fear experienced by African American adults and the role of these fears in the utilization of dental care, in-depth interviews were conducted with a street-intercept sample of 118 African Americans living in Harlem, New York City, who had experienced at least one oral health symptom in the past six months. Despite their oral symptoms, participants delayed or avoided dental care (often for years) due to a variety of dental fears, including fears of: 1) pain from needles; 2) the dental drill; 3) having teeth extracted; 4) contracting an illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS) from unsanitary instruments; 5) X-rays; 6) receiving poor quality care or mistreatment. These findings provide insights into the situations that provoke fears about dental treatment among African Americans and suggest strategies to address these fears in order to remove these barriers and increase the utilization of dental care by African American adults. PMID:24212175
Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D
This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.
Gould, I M; Buckingham, J K
BACKGROUND--Although antimicrobial prophylaxis for infective endocarditis (IE) is common practice for many dental procedures, there is little information on whether it represents value for money. A study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylaxis for all at risk patients in routine dental practice with published data from the United Kingdom. METHODS--The risk of contracting infective endocarditis was calculated from published data to find (for high risk patients) both the annual number of deaths attributable to infective endocarditis and the number of high risk dental procedures performed without prophylaxis. Costs are estimated by examining the notes of 63 patients with proved IE during the decade 1980-90. RESULTS--Such prophylaxis is highly cost effective before dental extractions, but its value for other invasive dental procedures is unproved. It was calculated that, for every 10,000 extractions in at risk patients, appropriate prophylaxis will prevent 5.7 deaths and a further 22.85 cases of non-fatal IE. This represents a saving in the costs of hospital care of 289,600 pounds for 10,000 extractions. CONCLUSION--Prophylaxis to prevent IE in at risk patients undergoing dental extraction is highly cost effective. Net savings each year throughout the United Kingdom, that might be achieved by improving the existing proportion of such patients given antibiotics from its present level of about 50% would amount to 2.5 million pounds and would prevent over 50 deaths. PMID:8038004
Erdsiek, Fabian; Waury, Dorothee; Brzoska, Patrick
Migrants in many European countries including Germany tend to utilize preventive measures less frequently than the majority population. Little is known about the dental health of migrants as well as about their oral health behaviour, particularly in the adult population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the uptake of annual dental check-ups in adult migrants and non-migrants in Germany. We used data from the cross-sectional survey 'German Health Update 2010' conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 22,050). Data from 21,741 German-speaking respondents with information on the use of dental check-ups was available, of which 3404 (15.7%) were migrants. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to adjust for demographic and socioeconomic confounders, including the place of residence as well as type of health insurance. Migrants were generally younger, had a lower socioeconomic status and showed a lower utilization of dental check-ups. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for utilization was 0.67 (95%-CI = 0.61-0.73). After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic confounders the chance only increased slightly (adjusted OR = 0.71; 95%-CI = 0.65-0.77). The analysis shows that migration status is associated with a reduced chance of attending dental check-ups, independently of demographic and socioeconomic factors. The influence of other factors, such as type of health insurance and place of residence had also no influence on the association. Migrants are exposed to different barriers in the health care system, comprising the patient, provider and system level. Further studies need to examine the relevant barriers for the uptake of preventive dental services in order to devise appropriate migrant- sensitive measures of dental prevention.
Tapias Ledesma, M A; Gil de Miguel, A; Regidor, E; Domínguez Rojas, V
To know the efficacy and effectivity od dental health program after 2 years. The study of prospective cohorts not aleatorized. The exposed cohort is composed of 583 school children, 296 girls and 287 boys, the non-exposed cohort is composed of 261 school children, 132 girls and 129 boys. We carried out and odontological exploration following the criteria of the WHO the preventive measures we carried out are health education, weekly mouthrinse of NaFl at 0.2%, occlusive sealant in the first permanent molar and external application fluorine gel. We measured and compared the different indexes of tooth decay and sociodemographic variables between both cohorts, the statistic meaning has been determined through the U est of Mann Whitney. We have found statistically significant differences between both cohorts in the indexes of decay in the exposed cohorts. The indexes of decay in the exposed cohort being DMFT: 0.31; DMFM (first permanent molar): 0.31; DMFS: 0.4. And in the non-exposed cohort DMFT: 0.81; DMFM: 0.81; DMFS; 1.09. Existing an epidemiological association between the preventive program and the prevention of dental decay with a relative risk of 0.24 (95% CI, 0.17-0.33) and the prevention fraction of 76.3% (95% CI, 67-83). The preventive program after two years elapsed is effective and has a clear protector effect.
Melissa Almeida Souza
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypophosphatemic rickets represents a group of heritable renal disorders of phosphate characterized by hypophosphatemia, normal or low serum 1,25 (OH2 vitamin D and calcium levels. Hypophosphatemia is associated to interglobular dentine and an enlarged pulp chambers. AIM: Our goal was to verify the dental abnormalities and the oral health condition in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study of oral conditions in patients with Hypophosphatemic rickets. This report employed a simple method to be easily reproducible: oral clinical exam and radiographic evaluation. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were studied, 5 males, median age of 11years (4 to 26. Occlusion defects (85,7% and enamel hypoplasia (57,1% were significant more frequently than dental abscesses (one patient. We observed enlarged pulp chambers in 43% of the patients and hypoplasia and dentin abnormalities in 14,3%. We could not detect a significant correlation between dental abnormalities and delayed treatment (p>0,05. DMFT index for 6 to 12 years patients (n = 12 showed that the oral health is unsatisfactory (mean DMFT = 5. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets frequently present dental alterations and these are not completely recovered with the treatment, unless dental abscess and they need a periodical oral examination.
Heaivilin, N; Gerbert, B; Page, J E; Gibbs, J L
On Twitter, people answer the question, "What are you doing right now?" in no more than 140 characters. We investigated the content of Twitter posts meeting search criteria relating to dental pain. A set of 1000 tweets was randomly selected from 4859 tweets over 7 non-consecutive days. The content was coded using pre-established, non-mutually-exclusive categories, including the experience of dental pain, actions taken or contemplated in response to a toothache, impact on daily life, and advice sought from the Twitter community. After excluding ambiguous tweets, spam, and repeat users, we analyzed 772 tweets and calculated frequencies. Of the sample of 772 tweets, 83% (n = 640) were primarily categorized as a general statement of dental pain, 22% (n = 170) as an action taken or contemplated, and 15% (n = 112) as describing an impact on daily activities. Among the actions taken or contemplated, 44% (n = 74) reported seeing a dentist, 43% (n = 73) took an analgesic or antibiotic medication, and 14% (n = 24) actively sought advice from the Twitter community. Twitter users extensively share health information relating to dental pain, including actions taken to relieve pain and the impact of pain. This new medium may provide an opportunity for dental professionals to disseminate health information.
Barnett, T; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, J; Crocombe, L; Bell, E
People who have limited access to dental care may present to non-dental health practitioners for dental treatment and advice. This review synthesised the available evidence regarding the use of non-dental health practitioners for oral health problems and the services provided by non-dental health practitioners to manage such presentations. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using key search terms to identify all relevant quantitative and qualitative English-language studies published between 1990 and March 2014. Snowballing techniques were then applied whereby the reference lists of retrieved articles were searched for other relevant citations. Grey literature was searched via Google using the same search terms to identify unpublished work and government reports. Of the 43 papers which met the review criteria, 25 papers reported on the use of non-dental health practitioners for oral health problems and 18 on dental care education and training for non-dental health practitioners. Four reports were located from the grey literature on the involvement of non-dental health practitioners in the management of oral health care. The review of literature showed that both children and adults utilise non-dental health practitioners for oral health problems. Despite this, Emergency Department medical staff, medical practitioners and pharmacists generally lacked training and knowledge in the maragement of oral health. Services from non-dental health practitioners mainly focussed on children. The literature on education and training for non-dental health practitioners was limited.
Full Text Available This study used six toy Chihuahua dogs in relationship. They underwent four 8 week periods differing in type of food (dry, soft, dental diet and preventive means of periodontitis (tooth-brushing and enzymatic chewing strips. The results showed nonsignificant influence of food consistency on dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores. Dental diet nonsignificantly decreased dental calculus deposition in comparison to common commercial food. The best results were achieved with toothbrushing. The enzymatic chewing strips significantly decreased dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores only on carnassial teeth. These results confirm that there are no absolute preventive measures of periodontitis.
Schuller, A.A.; Willumsen, T.; Holst, D.
Epidemiological studies of the relationship between dental fear, use of dental services, and oral health in different age groups in a common population are scarce. Dental fear and its relationships are usually described in individuals with high dental fear only. The purposes of this study were to
Esposito, Marco; Worthington, Helen V; Loli, Vassiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella
Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis, for patients with reduced host-response, when surgery is performed in infected sites, in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions and when large foreign materials are implanted. To minimise infections after dental implant placement various prophylactic systemic antibiotic regimens have been suggested. More recent protocols recommended short term prophylaxis, if antibiotics have to be used. With the administration of antibiotics adverse events may occur, ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening allergic reactions. Another major concern associated with the widespread use of antibiotics is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in implant dentistry is controversial. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to 2nd June 2010. Several dental journals were handsearched. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the
Houle, Bonnie A.
A study evaluated the impact of five years' exposure to a dental health curriculum on the oral hygiene of fifth-grade students. Findings of the study indicate that a well-designed dental health curriculum based on cognitive and behavioral objectives can result in a greater accumulation of dental health knowledge. (JN)
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in a group of students at a university in Japan. A total of 2,220 university students (1,276 males, 944 females volunteered to undergo an oral examination and answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior (e.g., daily frequency of tooth brushing, use of dental floss and regular dental checkups. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for oral health behavior based on dental knowledge and source of dental knowledge were calculated using logistic regression models. Of the participants, 1,266 (57.0% students obtained dental knowledge from dental clinics, followed by school (39.2% and television (29.1%. Logistic regression analyses indicated that use of dental floss was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge from dental clinics (P = 0.006. Receiving regular dental checkups was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge; the positive source was dental clinic (P < 0.001 and the negative sources were school (P = 0.004 and television (P = 0.018. Dental clinic was the most common source of dental knowledge and associated with better oral health behavior among the Japanese university students in this study.
The development of a video titled “Itoju Eyin” (meaning care of the teeth) was prompted by research findings which revealed poor oral hygiene among Nigerian children from the lower socioeconomic class. Videos have been employed as a medium of dental health education and research has shown them to be useful and ...
Levin, Liran; Zini, Avraham; Levine, Jonathan; Weiss, Maor; Lev, Ron A; Hai, Avihai; Chebath-Taub, Daniella; Almoznino, Galit
To measure dental anxiety levels and oral health-related qualities of life (OHRQoL) in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to controls and analyze their association with various demographic and clinical parameters. Sixty consecutive patients with AgP were compared to 80 age- and sex-matched controls with no known history of periodontal disease. Collected data included demographics, smoking habits, numerical rating scale (NRS), Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), DMFT index (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth), Plaque Index (PI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and radiographic bone loss. AgP patients exhibited statistically significant higher scores in the DAS total as well as sub-scores, except from DAS 1st question. Compared to the control group, AgP patients exhibited worse OHIP-14 global as well as in all individual OHIP-14 domains scores. Among both AgP and control patients, the physical pain domain was where the highest impact was recorded, while the lowest impact was recorded in the functional limitation domain. AgP patients were positively associated with higher levels of dental anxiety and worse OHRQoL. Self-perception of dental anxiety and OHRQoL should be regarded as an integral element in routine diagnostic work-up process of periodontal diseases. Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients exhibited higher dental anxiety levels and worse oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) compared to controls. Professionals should design strategies that will cope with the dental anxiety associated with the treatment and prevent decreases in OHRQoL.
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
cluster sampling and covered three age groups: 11, 13, and 15 years. Data on dental and general health were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Self-assessment of dental health of Chinese adolescents was generally good, only 12% of the students answered that their teeth were "poor" or "very...... poor", and 9% claimed having "poor" or "very poor" gums. Eleven percent of participants said that other students made fun of their teeth; 24% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and 41% claimed that they had experienced toothache or symptoms during the previous 12...... months. Positive attitudes towards dental care were found in all age groups; 67% of adolescents brushed their teeth at least twice a day and 48% of the students used fluoridated toothpaste. Only 26% of the students visited a dentist during the previous 12 months. In all, 6% of the adolescents had tried...
Dahlén, Gunnar; Alenäs-Jarl, Elna; Hjort, Gunilla
Presence of bacteria in high levels in the water lines of dental units is well known. The extent of this problem is however less well studied.This study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of all dental units within the Public Dental Health Service (Folktandvården, FTV) of the city of Göteborg, Sweden. 405 dental units in 35 clinics were tested.The evaluation included both "fast growing" (2 days incubation) and "slow growing" (7 days incubation) bacteria in 50 ml water sample from the units. The presence of potential pathogens, e.g., coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and Legionella pneumophila were also examined. Of the 405 dental units, 303 (75%) did not have acceptable (desinfection of all units of the Public Dental Health Service is needed.
Mohammad Reza Nokhostin
Full Text Available Background: Oral and dental health are among the most important aspects of individual health. Thus, it is necessary to determine community’s oral health status. Various epidemiological studies are required at different levels to assess the efficacy of preventive, oral and dental health control programs in a society. Complications such as nutritional adverse effects, periodontal diseases and adverse psychological effects of dental caries and etc. could be prevented by in-time diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to assess DMF, dmf index and periodontal status in 6-12 year-old students in Kermanshah City in 2009. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using disposable dental explorer, dental mirror, periodontal probe, a flash light and a marker. Data were entered into a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and oral and dental health status of subjects (WHO oral health assessments form. A total of 1050 students aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for their oral health status in Kermanshah City. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 14 software. T-test and chi square test were also used for analysis. Results: A total of 50% of boys and 52% of girls were susceptible to dent facial problems due to caries, extraction, premature loss of deciduous teeth, and congenital or acquired maxillofacial problems following conditions like mouth breathing due to adenoid and etc. Overall, 18.3% of 6 year old students were caries free. Among middle school students, DMFT was 1.65±1.82 and 3.88±2.72 among female and male 12 year old students, respectively. In general, 19.8% of elementary and 16.8% of 12 year old students had clinically healthy gingiva 21.6% of 6 to 12 year old students did not brush their teeth. A significant correlation was found between the frequency of tooth brushing per day and mean dmft, mean DMFT and gingival health (P<0
Brondani, Mario A; Pattanaporn, Komkham; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta
To discuss the extent to which an undergraduate dental module addresses dental public health competencies via its different learning pedagogies and to explore the relevance of students' written reflections on these dental public health competencies. This article uses a literature review to situate the extent to which dental public health competencies are addressed by the University of British Columbia undergraduate dental module entitled "Professionalism and Community Services" (PACS). It also uses students' written individual self-reflections (between 100 and 500 words) on community service learning activities to critically illustrate how dental public health competencies support their learning. The PACS dental module is delivered to undergraduate students in all 4 years, more than 190 in total, and addresses six dental public health competencies, including oral health promotion, ethics, and evidence-based practice. The multifaceted pedagogical approach employed to discuss aspects of dentistry related to dental public health includes guest lectures, community activities, small group activities, self-reflection, and reports. Given the falling number of dental public health professionals in North America, the discussed undergraduate pedagogy aims to sensitize future dentists to a career focused on dental public health. Through reflections, students pondered ideas related to dental public health; they also engaged in developing meaningful activities in various underserved communities. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of this community-based curriculum upon students' practice choice. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Brickle, Colleen M; Self, Karl D
The development of dental therapy in the U.S. grew from a desire to find a workforce solution for increasing access to oral health care. Worldwide, the research that supports the value of dental therapy is considerable. Introduction of educational programs in the U.S. drew on the experiences of programs in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, with Alaska tribal communities introducing dental health aide therapists in 2003 and Minnesota authorizing dental therapy in 2009. Currently, two additional states have authorized dental therapy, and two additional tribal communities are pursuing the use of dental therapists. In all cases, the care provided by dental therapists is focused on communities and populations who experience oral health care disparities and have historically had difficulties in accessing care. This article examines the development and implementation of the dental therapy profession in the U.S. An in-depth look at dental therapy programs in Minnesota and the practice of dental therapy in Minnesota provides insight into the early implementation of this emerging profession. Initial results indicate that the addition of dental therapists to the oral health care team is increasing access to quality oral health care for underserved populations. As evidence of dental therapy's success continues to grow, mid-level dental workforce legislation is likely to be introduced by oral health advocates in other states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."
A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... dentist-patient roles were changed, and the sessions were repeated. No dental treatment was included. The control group did not participate in the DHE-programme. Plaque (PII) and gingivitis (GI) were scored before the program, immediately after, and 6 months and 31/2 yr after the last session...
... Childbearing Deaths Deaths and Mortality Leading Causes of Death Life Expectancy Race and Ethnicity Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Health of ...
Maria Aparecida Gonçalves Melo Cunha
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe dental prosthesis provision in the Brazilian public health service and report the performance of dental prosthesis procedures according to the Brazilian macroregions. Methods. A structured interview was conducted with senior-level health professionals from each of the 18,114 oral health teams (OHT. The dependent variables were performance of removable prostheses and prosthesis procedures, including provision of fixed prostheses by OHT. Descriptive statistics were produced together with performing a cluster analysis using SPSS version 19.0. Results. The manufacture of any type of prosthesis was done by a minority of OHT (43%. The most commonly provided types of dental prosthesis were removable full and partial dentures. Cluster 1 (teams that performed prosthesis procedures the most was composed of a smaller number of teams (n = 5,531, and Cluster 2 (composed of teams that do not perform prosthetics or that perform them in small amounts consisted of 12,583 teams. The geographic distribution of clusters reveals that the largest proportion of Cluster 1 teams is located in the Northeast (33.9% and Southeast (33.6%. Conclusions. A minority of OHT produce dental prostheses. There is an unequal geographical distribution of clusters.
Lin, Diana Louise; Harrison, Rosamund; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta
Some pregnant women may be at increased risk of poor oral health. A publicly funded prenatal dental program in Vancouver, British Columbia, called Healthiest Babies Possible (HBP), has been providing oral health education and limited clinical services for over 20 years to low-income women assessed to be at high risk of preterm or low-weight births. This report is an assessment of the initial outcomes. A prospective before-after evaluation of a non-probability convenience sample of women was undertaken over 1 year (2005-2006). Participants were seen at the customary 2 clinic visits, and were asked to return for a postnatal visit. Data collected by an inside evaluator, the program's dental hygienist, included questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, observations, clinical indices, appointment statistics and self-reports. Univariate and bivariate analyses (Student's t test and ANOVA) were performed. Of the 67 women in the sample, 61 agreed to participate; 36 (59%) attended all 3 appointments at the clinic, and 40 (66%) completed all 3 interviews and questionnaires either at the clinic or by telephone. Clinical indices of gingival health improved significantly over the time of the evaluation. Improvements in tooth cleaning were demonstrated by a significant decrease in plaque (p dental care increased significantly (p dental visits for their children.
Zero, Domenick T; Fontana, Margherita; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Ferreira-Zandoná, Andréa; Ando, Masatoshi; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Bayne, Stephen
Scientific advances in cariology in the past 150 years have led to the understanding that dental caries is a chronic, dietomicrobial, site-specific disease caused by a shift from protective factors favoring tooth remineralization to destructive factors leading to demineralization. Epidemiologic data indicate that caries has changed in the last century; it now is distributed unequally in the U.S. population. People who are minorities, homeless, migrants, children with disabilities and of lower socioeconomic status suffer from the highest prevalence and severity of dental caries. Scientific advances have led to improvements in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental caries, but there is a need for new diagnostic tools and treatment methods. and Future management of dental caries requires early detection and risk assessment if the profession is to achieve timely and cost-effective prevention and treatment for those who need it most. Dental professionals look forward to the day when people of all ages and backgrounds view dental caries as a disease of the past.
Berdahl, Terceira; Hudson, Julie; Simpson, Lisa; McCormick, Marie C
To examine general dental and orthodontic utilization and expenditures by health insurance status, public health insurance eligibility, and sociodemographic characteristics among children aged 0 to 17 years using data from 2010-2012. Nationally representative data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2010-2012) provided data on insurance status, public health insurance eligibility, and visits to dental providers for both general dental care and orthodontic care. Overall, 41.9% of US children reported an annual dental office-based visit for general (nonorthodontic) dental care. Fewer Hispanic (34.7%) and non-Latino black children (34.8%) received dental care compared to non-Hispanic whites (47.3%) and Asians (40.3%). Children living in families with the lowest income were also the least likely to have a visit (32.9%) compared to children in the highest-income families (54.7%). Among children eligible for public coverage, Medicaid-eligible children had the lowest percentage of preventive dental visits (29.2%). Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in use and expenditures for orthodontic care are much greater than those for general and preventive dental care. Average expenditures for orthodontic care were $1,823, of which 56% ($1,023) was paid out of pocket by families. Our findings provide a baseline assessment for examining trends in the future, especially as coverage patterns for children may change as the Affordable Care Act is implemented and the future of the State Child Health Insurance Program remains uncertain beyond 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background Child neglect is a pernicious child protection issue with adverse consequences that extend to adulthood. Simultaneously, though it remains prevalent, childhood dental caries is a preventable disease. Public health nurses play a pivotal role in assessing oral health in children as part of general health surveillance. However, little is known about how they assess dental neglect or what their thresholds are for initiating targeted support or instigating child protection measures. Understanding these factors is important to allow improvements to be made in care pathways. Methods We investigated public health nurses’ assessment of oral health in preschool children in relation to dental neglect and any associations they make with child neglect more broadly. A qualitative study was conducted in Scotland during 2011/12. Sixteen public health nurses were recruited purposively from one health region. Individual, semi-structured interviews were undertaken and data were analyzed inductively using a framework approach. Categories were subsequently mapped to the research questions. Results Public health nurses assess oral health through proxy measures, opportunistic observation and through discussion with parents. Dental neglect is rarely an isolated issue that leads on its own to child protection referral. It tends to be other presenting issues that initiate a response. Threshold levels for targeted support were based on two broad indicators: social issues and concerns about child (and parental) dental health. Thresholds for child protection intervention were untreated dental caries or significant dental pain. Barriers to intervention are that dental neglect may be ‘unseen’ and ‘unspoken’. The study revealed a communication gap in the care pathway for children where a significant dental problem is identified. Conclusions Public health nurses take their child protection role seriously, but rarely make a link between dental caries and child neglect. Clear
Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F
The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.
Shimoji, Shigehiro; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Shibutani, Tohru; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Furusawa, Kiyofumi
Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%), 6 splash exposures (18.8%), and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66) reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58) and 60.3% (35/58) in dentists and 88.6% (39/44) and 61.4% (27/44) in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58) for dentists and 34.1% (15/44) for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood’ (90%, 99/110) and ‘dental operations at our clinic are performed based only on a questionnaire without serious examinations for HBV, HCV, and HIV’ (71.8%, 79/110). The reason of low compliance of protective eyewear among dentists might relate to fine dental procedures. Appropriate information is important for the motive of wearing personal protective equipment, and an early educational program may have a potential to increase compliance with the use of that equipment. PMID:23745061
Yüzügüllü, Bulem; Gülşahi, Ayse; Celik, Cigdem; Bulut, Sule
The aim of this study was to assess fear and anxiety in dental patients. Five hundred patients were evaluated using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Fear Scale, along with a questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT)/Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) index. Statistic al analysis was performed (P dental anxiety (P dental fear (P dental anxiety or fear (P > .05). Female sex alone was a significant predictor of dental anxiety; female sex, adulthood, marriage, having children, and time passed since last visit to a clinician are significant predictors of fear.
Saddichha, Sahoo; Rekha, Dorothy P; Patil, Basanagouda K; Murthy, Pratima; Benegal, Vivek; Isaac, Mohan K
We assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Bangalore, Karnataka, concerning use of tobacco in their patients. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to all dental surgeons prior to a sensitization program on nicotine dependence. The dental surgeons who responded (n=100) reported a need for increasing sensitization on the issue of tobacco especially among health professionals. Only 33% knew that nicotine is the most addictive drug and knowledge was poor about pharmacological as well as non pharmacological methods of treatment of nicotine dependence. Only 52% asked all their patients about tobacco use. However, almost all dental surgeons agreed that there should be a ban on public use of tobacco. The results of this study call for sensitizing health professionals on a larger scale on the issue of tobacco use and its treatment.
Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Tennant, Marc
Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the costs of teledentistry and traditional dental screening approaches in Australian school children. Methods A cost-minimisation analysis was performed from the perspective of the oral health system, comparing the cost of dental screening in school children using a traditional visual examination approach with the cost of mid-level dental practitioners (MLDPs), such as dental therapists, screening the same cohort of children remotely using teledentistry. A model was developed to simulate the costs (over a 12-month period) of the two models of dental screening for all school children (2.7million children) aged 5-14 years across all Australian states and territories. The fixed costs and the variable costs, including staff salary, travel and accommodation costs, and cost of supply were calculated. All costs are given in Australian dollars. Results The total estimated cost of the teledentistry model was $50million. The fixed cost of teledentistry was $1million and that of staff salaries (tele-assistants, charters and their supervisors, as well as information technology support was estimated to be $49million. The estimated staff salary saved with the teledentistry model was $56million, and the estimated travel allowance and supply expenses avoided were $16million and $14million respectively; an annual reduction of $85million in total. Conclusions The present study shows that the teledentistry model of dental screening can minimise costs. The estimated savings were due primarily to the low salaries of dental therapists and the avoidance of travel and accommodation costs. Such savings could be redistributed to improve infrastructure and oral health services in rural or other underserved areas. What is known about the topic? Caries is a preventable disease, which, if it remains untreated, can cause significant morbidity requiring costly treatment. Regular dental screening and oral health education have the great
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases. The WHO has classified it as one of the major public health problems worldwide. That is why a special emphasis has been paid to developing new preventive methods and the use of gum without sugar has been included as one of them. This strategy has significant benefits on oral health due to: (1 saliva stimulation, which favors teeth clearance and regulates the pH; (2 remineralization promotion as a result of the above and incorporation of minerals to the gum; (3 mechanical control of the bacterial plaque; (4 replacement of sugar by sweeteners which are harmful for bacteria (the most commonly used is xylitol and (5 incorporation of active agents such as bicarbonate, casein, urea, chlorhexidine and chitosan, among others. Despite these benefits, the effect of the gum is considered to be weak for dental caries prevention when used instead of brushing. Therefore, its implementation must be proposed as a complement to oral hygiene routines and not as a preventive measure by itself. It is necessary to carry out a greater amount of clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness in a context of high biological variability in the short and long term and including patients of different sex, age, socio-economic status and systemic health.
Poelman, Marcella R; Brand, Henk S; Forouzanfar, Thymour; Daley, Ellen M; Jager, Derk H Jan
The aim of this study is to assess dental students' opinions of the dentists' role in primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancer using a cross-sectional web-based survey. A questionnaire, containing questions about knowledge of HPV and oral cancer, confidence in head and neck examination and role of the dentist in preventing HPV-related oral cancer, was sent to all students of the Academic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (n = 912). One hundred and twenty-six (n = 126) students completed the questionnaire. Significantly, more master students (75%) than bachelor students (54.3%) were aware that HPV is a causative factor for oral cancer. Master students had more knowledge of HPV than bachelor students, but knowledge about HPV vaccination was irrespective of the study phase. The majority of dental students agreed that it is important to discuss HPV vaccination with patients. Eighty-nine percent of the students think that more education about symptoms of oral cancer will increase screening for oral cancer. Development of a protocol for screening in dental practices was considered even more important. According to dental students, dentists should discuss HPV as a risk factor for oral cancer with patients. Future dentists are willing to be involved in both primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related oral cancer. Therefore, screening for oral cancer and education about HPV vaccination should be integral elements of the dental curriculum.
Full Text Available The oral health care system is to promote, maintain and prevent oral disease. It also aims at adequate treatment to arrest the disease at an early stage .There is a lack of clearly stated objectives and many a time lack of implementation. There are around 300 plus colleges(2in India today. Opening up of private sector to dental college has both a positive and negative impact. Today dental treatment is available in many rural parts of India and there is an increased awareness as compared to before. Technology and infrastructure is widely available. The question is are the department and infrastructure used .Definitely not to the optimumas the are not performing for what they are designed. For example Community dentistry department has been used only to increase number of patients to dental colleges. It is seen as an advertisement agency for these colleges. Role of Community dentist has become that of is of a referring body. Other subjects relating to dental public health like fluoridation of drinking water, Commercial mouthwashes have also been a cause for concern, with some studies linking them to an increased risk of oral cancer(3, 4, 5, 6 has taken a back seat. The maximum permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water in India is 1.2 mg/L7. There are programs on tobacco awareness but its use in India does not show significant decline in users. Most of these programs are not involving dentist actively
Zhao, Xiuhong; Rockne, Karl J; Drummond, James L
Although research has demonstrated that Hg is methylated in the reducing conditions of the dental clinic wastewater collection system, studies are inconclusive as to whether further methylation occurs in the aeration basin of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) which typically treats this waste. Given the high levels of methyl Hg reported in dental wastewater (DWW), it is important to determine whether additional methylation occurs once it enters the WWTP. To achieve this objective, we incubated DWW under conditions designed to mimic the oxidized conditions of the activated sludge aeration basin in a WWTP. Duplicate bioreactors were charged with raw DWW collected from a 12-chair dental clinic and incubated both with and without aeration. Aeration was continued for 15 days, consistent with the typical mean cell residence time (MCRT) necessary for both heterotrophic carbon oxidation (typically 5-6 days) and nitrification (typically 12-15 days), thus ensuring that incubation time exceeded those for most conceivable MCRTs used in the activated sludge process. Results demonstrate a rapid increase in pH concomitant with an increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) to near saturation in the aerated reactor. The non-aerated reactor remained low or at zero DO due to low surface reaeration coupled with the high levels of organic matter. The rate of mercury methylation increased in the unaearated reactors rapidly upon incubation, reaching highest levels when DO was at the lowest levels during the experiment. In great contrast, methyl mercury levels were much lower and net mercury methylation does not appear to occur at any significant rate under aeration. These results imply that although some mercury methylation may occur in the sewer collection system (or anaerobic digesters), net methylation is unlikely to occur in the aeration basin in activated sludge WWTPs, and thus methyl Hg influent levels from DWW represent an upper bound on effluent levels.
Figueiredo, Rafael L F; Hwang, Stephen W; Quiñonez, Carlos
This study aimed to assess the oral health status of the Toronto adult homeless population; to learn how they perceive their own oral health; and to correlate the presence of oral disease with length of homelessness and unemployment. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from 191 homeless adults who were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample at 18 shelters. A questionnaire and clinical oral examination were conducted with participants. The mean Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth (DMFT) score of the subjects was 14.4 (SD = 8.1). Only 32% of them had visited a dentist during the last year, 75% believed that they had untreated dental conditions, and 40% had their last dental visit for emergency care. The clinical oral examination observed that 88% needed fillings, 70% periodontal, 60% prosthodontic, and 40% emergency treatment. Homeless adults in Toronto have poor oral health, significant oral health treatment needs, and a lack of access to dental care. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
McMahon, Alex D; Elliott, Lawrie; Macpherson, Lorna Md; Sharpe, Katharine H; Connelly, Graham; Milligan, Ian; Wilson, Philip; Clark, David; King, Albert; Wood, Rachael; Conway, David I
There is limited evidence on the health needs and service access among children and young people who are looked after by the state. The aim of this study was to compare dental treatment needs and access to dental services (as an exemplar of wider health and well-being concerns) among children and young people who are looked after with the general child population. Population data linkage study utilising national datasets of social work referrals for 'looked after' placements, the Scottish census of children in local authority schools, and national health service's dental health and service datasets. 633 204 children in publicly funded schools in Scotland during the academic year 2011/2012, of whom 10 927 (1.7%) were known to be looked after during that or a previous year (from 2007-2008). The children in the looked after children (LAC) group were more likely to have urgent dental treatment need at 5 years of age: 23%vs10% (n=209/16533), adjusted (for age, sex and area socioeconomic deprivation) OR 2.65 (95% CI 2.30 to 3.05); were less likely to attend a dentist regularly: 51%vs63% (n=5519/388934), 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58) and more likely to have teeth extracted under general anaesthesia: 9%vs5% (n=967/30253), 1.91 (1.78 to 2.04). LAC are more likely to have dental treatment needs and less likely to access dental services even when accounting for sociodemographic factors. Greater efforts are required to integrate child social and healthcare for LAC and to develop preventive care pathways on entering and throughout their time in the care system. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira Alves
Full Text Available Introduction: Social factors determine the child′s behavior and motivation is an important task in the teaching-learning process. This longitudinal and cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a motivational activity program for oral hygiene habits formation after motivation and without constant reinforcement. Materials and Methods: The sample was constituted of 26 children (mean 6 years old from a Public Kindergarten School in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected applying a test-chart, with figures reporting the process of dental health/illness. Some figures were considered positive to dental health (dentist/Cod 1, toothbrush/Cod 3, dentifrice/dental floss/Cod 6, fruits/vegetables/Cod 7 and tooth without caries lesion/Cod 8 and negative on dental health (sweets/Cod 2, bacteria/Cod 4, tooth with caries lesion/Cod 5. The figures presentation occurred in three different stages: First stage - figures were presented to children without previous knowledge; second stage - following the motivational presentation, and third stage - 30 days after the first contact. Results: On the first stage, most children select good for the figures considered harmful to their teeth (Cod 2-88%; Cod 4-77% and Cod 5-65%. On the second stage, there was a lower percentage: 23% (P < 0.0001, 8% (P < 0.0001, and 23% (P = 0.0068 related to the Cod 2, 4, and 5. On the third stage, the results showed again an association with the good choice to these figures considered harmful (Cod 2-85%, Cod 4-65% and Cod 5-54% similar the results obtained on the first stage. Conclusion: The motivational programs performed without constant reinforcement does not have a positive influence in changing the child′s behavior related to a better dental care.
Meurman Jukka H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342. Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28 choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49 at age 12 (year 2000 compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47 for those health centres (N = 177 applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p Conclusion There seems to be a need for defined guidelines for sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants
Kervanto-Seppälä, Sari; Pietilä, Ilpo; Meurman, Jukka H; Kerosuo, Eero
Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants) are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001). Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO) of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP) applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342). Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28) choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49) at age 12 (year 2000) compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47) for those health centres (N = 177) applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants over detected or suspected enamel caries lesions instead of sealing sound teeth
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Twelve year-old is selected as the global indicator of age group to compare and monitor oral diseases at the international level. The aim of this study was to assess the state of oral health in the 12 year-old students to determine their needs and design oral health prevention programs in Jolfa. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was done on 146 students, with 12 years of age that were selected on a multistage cluster sampling method through the seven health centers which provided health services to schools in 2014 academic year in Jolfa city. Data were collected through interview and dental clinical examination using World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form for Children, 2013 questionnaire that consists of two parts: 1 demographic information and 2 the mouth status, including: dentition status, periodontal status, dental erosion, dental trauma, oral mucosa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software and applying descriptive statistics (Mean and Frequency, chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The mean of DMFT in the studied population was 4.30 ± 2.93 with 4.38 ± 2.26 for the boys and 4.21 ± 3.60 for the girls. According to the results, 92.5% of the students had at least one decayed tooth and 85.6% of those surveyed had at least one of the first permanent molar. Also, a significant association was observed between male gender and tooth decay (P value Conclusion: The results of this study showed poor oral health status in the students of Jolfa and needs to serious attention to community-based health programs in education and implementation of preventive dentistry.
Griffin, Susan; Naavaal, Shillpa; Scherrer, Christina; Griffin, Paul M; Harris, Kate; Chattopadhyay, Sajal
Untreated cavities can have far-reaching negative consequences for people's ability to eat, speak, and learn. By adolescence, 27 percent of low-income children in the United States will have untreated cavities. School-based sealant programs typically provide dental sealants (a protective coating that adheres to the surface of molars) at little or no cost to students attending schools in areas with low socioeconomic status. These programs have been shown to increase the number of students receiving sealants and to prevent cavities. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school sealant programs using data (from school programs in fourteen states between 2013 and 2014) on children's cavity risk, including the effects of untreated cavities on a child's quality of life. We found that providing sealants in school programs to 1,000 children would prevent 485 fillings and 1.59 disability-adjusted life-years. School-based sealant programs saved society money and remained cost-effective across a wide range of reasonable values. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
This article discusses the oral health status of California children, including sealant prevalence, and reasons why sealants are underutilized, including current reimbursement levels. The article also explains similarities and differences between sealant use in private practice versus public health settings, as well as the effectiveness and economic aspects of school-based sealant programs. Finally, the article briefly discusses the advantages of combined topical fluoride and sealant programs in public health settings.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A
Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations across the world, problems still persist particularly among poor and disadvantaged groups in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Oral Health Report 2003, dental caries remains a major public health problem...... in most industrialized countries, affecting 60-90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Although it appears that dental caries is less common and less severe in developing countries of Africa, it is anticipated that the incidence of caries will increase in several countries of that continent......, due to changing living conditions and dietary habits, and inadequate exposure to fluorides. Research on the oral health effects of fluoride started around 100 years ago; the focus has been on the link between water and fluorides and dental caries and fluorosis, topical fluoride applications, fluoride...
Full Text Available Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population.This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health.A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors.Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety.This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment.
Friedman, Jay W; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R
Disparities in dental health care that characterize poor populations are well known. Children suffer disproportionately and most severely from dental diseases. Many countries have school-based dental therapist programs to meet children's primary oral health care needs. Although dental therapists in the United States face opposition from national and state dental associations, many state governments are considering funding the training and deployment of dental therapists to care for underserved populations. Dental therapists care for American Indians/Alaska Natives in Alaska, and Minnesota became the first state to legislate dental therapist training. Children should receive priority preference; therefore, the most effective and economical utilization of dental therapists will be as salaried employees in school-based programs, beginning in underserved rural areas and inner cities.
Moyer, Virginia A
Update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on prevention of dental caries in preschool-aged children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on prevention of dental caries by primary care clinicians in children 5 years and younger, focusing on screening for caries, assessment of risk for future caries, and the effectiveness of various interventions that have possible benefits in preventing caries. This recommendation applies to children age 5 years and younger. The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation starting at age 6 months for children whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians apply fluoride varnish to the primary teeth of all infants and children starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of routine screening examinations for dental caries performed by primary care clinicians in children from birth to age 5 years. (I Statement). Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Al-Hussyeen, Al Johara A.
Objectives This study was conducted to determine factors affecting utilization of dental health services among intermediate female school students in Riyadh. In addition to assessing their satisfaction with the dental care received during the last dental visit. Subjects and methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students attending eight public and four private schools. These schools were selected randomly to represent the four different administrative zones in Riyadh. Results Of 600 questionnaires distributed, 531 were complete and suitable for analysis. Nearly three quarters of the students visited the dentist more than once during the last 2 years. A bout 75% had their treatment in private dental clinics and 63% made their visits for routine treatment. The quality of dental care was found to be the most encouraging factor for utilization of dental services, whereas, far geographic location of the dental clinics was the most discouraging factor. For those who received treatment in the government clinics, the most discouraging factor was post operative complications (P dental care was the most discouraging factor for utilizing the dental services for those who visited private clinics (P dental care was the most encouraging factor (P pain highly considered modern clinics and those recommended by friends as highly encouraging factors (P dental care as discouraging factor for using dental services (P dental care as encouraging for the use of dental clinics (P dental care was found to be significantly associated with high quality of dental care, convenient appointment, friendly staff, modern dental clinics and clinics recommended by friends. Conclusion Quality of dental care, reasonable fees for dental services and close location of dental clinics to students’ homes are encouraging factors for utilization of dental services. PMID:23960475
Davis, Joan M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Mattheos, Nikos; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Compton, Sharon; Al-Hazmi, Nadia; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Suvan, Jean; Antohé, Magda E; Forna, Doriana; Radley, Nicki
The use of tobacco continues to be a substantial risk factor in the development and progression of oral cancer, periodontitis, implant failure and poor wound healing. Dental and dental hygiene education providers have made great advances towards the incorporation of tobacco education into their curricula in recent years. Unfortunately, however, both medical and dental education research has consistently reported schools providing only basic knowledge-based curricula that rarely incorporate more effective, behaviourally-based components affecting long-term change. The limited training of oral healthcare students, at least in part, is reflected in practising dental professionals continuing to report offering incomplete tobacco interventions. In order to prepare the next generation of oral healthcare providers, this paper proposes a paradigm shift in how tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) may be incorporated into existing curricula. It is suggested that schools should carefully consider: to what level of competency should TUPAC be trained in dental and dental hygiene schools; the importance of establishing rapport through good communication skills; the core knowledge level for TUPAC; suggested instructional and assessment strategies; the importance of continuing professional education for the enhancement of TUPAC.
Taichman, L Susan; Griggs, Jennifer J; Inglehart, Marita R
This population-based analysis examined the prevalence of periodontal diseases along with the self-perceived oral health and patterns of dental care utilization of breast cancer survivors in the United States. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys were utilized, examining information from 3,354 women between 50 and 85 years of age. Primary outcomes were gingivitis and periodontitis, self-perceived oral health, and dental care utilization. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate relationships of breast cancer diagnosis and primary outcomes while controlling for confounding factors. Breast cancer survivors were more likely to be older than 55 years, white, nonsmokers, have higher levels of education and income, and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Breast cancer survivors were significantly less likely to have dental insurance (P = 0.04). Utilization of dental services and reason for last dental visit did not significantly differ between groups. A history of a breast cancer diagnosis did not increase the odds of gingivitis [odds ratio (OR): 1.32; 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 0.53-3.63], periodontitis (OR: 1.82; 95 percent CI: 0.89-4.01), or poor self-perceived oral health (OR: 0.89; 95 percent CI: 0.61-1.33) after adjusting for age, race, education, dental care utilization, and smoking status. In this sample, a history of breast cancer does not significantly impact periodontal health, self-perceived oral health, and dental care utilization. However, efforts should be made to assure that breast cancer survivors have dental insurance. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Gnanamanickam, E S; Teusner, D N; Arrow, P G; Brennan, D S
Private health insurance plays a key role in financing dental care in Australia. Having private dental insurance has been associated with higher levels of access to dental care, visiting for a check-up and receiving a favourable pattern of services. Associations with better oral health have also been reported. In the absence of any existing review, this paper aims to systematically review the relationship between dental insurance and dental service use and/or oral health outcomes in Australia. A systematic search of online databases and subsequent sifting resulted in 36 publications, 33 of which were cross sectional and three cohort analyses. Dental service outcomes were more commonly reported than oral health outcomes. There was considerable heterogeneity in the outcome measures reported, for both service use and health outcomes. Overall, the majority of the evidence was from cross sectional studies and few studies reported analyses adjusted for confounding factors. The consolidated evidence points towards a positive association between dental insurance and dental visiting. Dentally insured adults are likely to have more regular access to dental care and have a more favourable pattern of service use than the uninsured. However, evidence of associations between dental insurance and oral health are mixed. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.
Tinanoff, N; Coll, J A; Dhar, V; Maas, W R; Chhibber, S; Zokaei, L
There has been significant advances in the understanding of preventive restorative procedures regarding the advantages and disadvantages for restorative procedures; the evidence for conservative techniques for deep carious lesions; the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants; and the evidence for use of resin infiltration techniques. The intent of this review is to help practitioners use evidence to make decisions regarding preventive restorative dentistry in children and young adolescents. This evidence-based review appraises the literature, primarily between the years 1995-2013, on preventive restorative strategies. The evidence was graded as to strong evidence, evidence in favor, or expert opinion by consensus of authors Results: The preventive strategy for dental caries includes individualized assessment of disease progression and management with appropriate preventive and restorative therapy. There is strong evidence that restoration of teeth with incomplete caries excavation results in fewer signs and symptoms of pulpal disease than complete excavation. There is strong evidence that sealants should be placed on pit and fissure surfaces judged to be at risk for dental caries, and surfaces that already exhibit incipient, non-cavitated carious lesions. There is evidence in favor for resin infiltration to improve the clinical appearance of white spot lesions. Substantial evidence exists in the literature regarding the value of preventive dental restorative procedures.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.
Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Yamane-Takeuchi, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior in a group of students at a university in Japan. A total of 2,220 university students (1,276 males, 944 females) volunteered to undergo an oral examination and answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed dental knowledge, the source of dental knowledge and oral health behavior (e.g., daily frequency of tooth brushing, use of dental floss and regular dental checkups). The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for oral health behavior based on dental knowledge and source of dental knowledge were calculated using logistic regression models. Of the participants, 1,266 (57.0%) students obtained dental knowledge from dental clinics, followed by school (39.2%) and television (29.1%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that use of dental floss was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge from dental clinics (P = 0.006). Receiving regular dental checkups was significantly associated with source of dental knowledge; the positive source was dental clinic (P behavior among the Japanese university students in this study. PMID:28594914
Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio
Oral diseases can be prevented or improved with regular dental visits. Our objective was to assess and compare national estimates on self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed self-reported oral health information on 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) from NHANES 1999-2004. We used χ(2) and 2-sample t tests to assess statistical differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, poverty, and education. We applied the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Our data show significant differences in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits among women, regardless of pregnancy status, when stratified by selected sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences were also found in self-reported oral health conditions and dental visits between pregnant and nonpregnant women, especially among young women, women from minority race/ethnicity groups, and women with less than high school education. We found disparities in self-reported oral health conditions and use of dental services among women regardless of pregnancy status. Results highlight the need to improve dental service use among US women of childbearing age, especially young pregnant women, those who are non-Hispanic black or Mexican American, and those with low family income or low education level. Prenatal visits could be used as an opportunity to encourage pregnant women to seek preventive dental care during pregnancy.
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D
important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....
David A. Sleet
Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering . Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts .
Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo
Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.
Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Goto, Takaharu; Sato, Yutaka; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo
This paper demonstrates a simple method using sacrificial protection for preventing the corrosion of dental metals. Dental metals are directly connected or/and wound with a pure commercial aluminum/zinc wire/plate with high ionization tendency, before their immersion into oxidizing functional water. Dental materials such as Co-Cr alloy wires, stainless steel, and Au-Ag-Pd alloys did not corrode when this method was used. Thus, this method is very simple and effective for preventing corrosion of dental metals during disinfection using functional water. Copyright 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marsh, P D; Zaura, Egija
The oral microbiome is diverse and exists as multispecies microbial communities on oral surfaces in structurally and functionally organized biofilms. To describe the network of microbial interactions (both synergistic and antagonistic) occurring within these biofilms and assess their role in oral health and dental disease. PubMed database was searched for studies on microbial ecological interactions in dental biofilms. The search results did not lend themselves to systematic review and have been summarized in a narrative review instead. Five hundred and forty-seven original research articles and 212 reviews were identified. The majority (86%) of research articles addressed bacterial-bacterial interactions, while inter-kingdom microbial interactions were the least studied. The interactions included physical and nutritional synergistic associations, antagonism, cell-to-cell communication and gene transfer. Oral microbial communities display emergent properties that cannot be inferred from studies of single species. Individual organisms grow in environments they would not tolerate in pure culture. The networks of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions generate microbial inter-dependencies and give biofilms a resilience to minor environmental perturbations, and this contributes to oral health. If key environmental pressures exceed thresholds associated with health, then the competitiveness among oral microorganisms is altered and dysbiosis can occur, increasing the risk of dental disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amemori, Masamitsu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kinnunen, Taru; Michie, Susan; Murtomaa, Heikki
Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling guidelines recommend that healthcare providers ask about each patient's tobacco use, assess the patient's readiness and willingness to stop, document tobacco use habits, advise the patient to stop, assist and help in quitting, and arrange monitoring of progress at follow-up appointments. Adherence to such guidelines, especially among dental providers, is poor. To improve guideline implementation, it is essential to understand factors influencing it and find effective ways to influence those factors. The aim of the present study protocol is to introduce a theory-based approach to diagnose implementation difficulties of TUPAC counselling guidelines among dental providers. Theories of behaviour change have been used to identify key theoretical domains relevant to the behaviours of healthcare providers involved in implementing clinical guidelines. These theoretical domains will inform the development of a questionnaire aimed at assessing the implementation of the TUPAC counselling guidelines among Finnish municipal dental providers. Specific items will be drawn from the guidelines and the literature on TUPAC studies. After identifying potential implementation difficulties, we will design two interventions using theories of behaviour change to link them with relevant behaviour change techniques aiming to improve guideline adherence. For assessing the implementation of TUPAC guidelines, the electronic dental record audit and self-reported questionnaires will be used. To improve guideline adherence, the theoretical-domains approach could provide a comprehensive basis for assessing implementation difficulties, as well as designing and evaluating interventions. After having identified implementation difficulties, we will design and test two interventions to enhance TUPAC guideline adherence. Using the cluster randomised controlled design, we aim to provide further evidence on
Tomar, S L; Lester, A
This study compared yearly dental visits of diabetic adults with those of nondiabetic adults. For adults with diabetes, we compared the frequency of past-year dental visits with past-year visits for diabetes care, dilated eye examinations, and foot examinations. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a sample of 105,718 dentate individuals aged > or =25 years, including 4,605 individuals with diabetes who participated in the 1995-1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 38 states. Dentate adults (i.e., those with at least some natural teeth) with diabetes were less likely than those without diabetes to have seen a dentist within the preceding 12 months (65.8 vs. 73.1%, P = 0.0000). Adults with diabetes were less likely to have seen a dentist than to have seen a health care provider for diabetes care (86.3%); the percentage who saw a dentist was comparable with the percentage who had their feet examined (67.7%) or had a dilated eye examination (62.3%). The disparity in dental visits among racial or ethnic groups and among socioeconomic groups was greater than that for any other type of health care visit for subjects with diabetes. Promotion of oral health among diabetic patients may be necessary, particularly in Hispanic and African-American communities. Information on oral health complications should be included in clinical training programs. Oral and diabetes control programs in state health departments should collaborate to promote preventive dental services, and the oral examination should be listed as a component of continuous care in the American Diabetes Association's standards of medical care for diabetic patients.
Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Topothai, Thitikorn; Seneerattanaprayul, Parinda; Pudpong, Nareerut; Putthasri, Weerasak
The dental profession has played an important role in the development of the health system in Thailand. However, it is not known if dental graduates' standards of knowledge, skills, and capabilities are fulfilling the health needs of Thais. This study aimed to assess the level of confidence in dental public health competency among final-year dental students who graduated in 2013. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 571 new dental graduates who participated in an official meeting arranged by the Ministry of Public Health in 2013. Self-administered questionnaires were used for collecting data on their confidence levels in selected public-health competencies. Of the total graduates, 72.5% anonymously responded to the questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics, factor analysis, and stepwise regression were applied for data analysis. The majority of respondents expressed confidence in their ability to care for patients, but less confidence in public-health and administration competencies. The results also show that there was no significant association between demographic and educational profiles of respondents and confidence in their clinical competency. However, significantly more students who graduated from schools located outside Bangkok and vicinity rated themselves as competent in public health (coefficient = 0.333, P=0.021). New dentists who graduated from dental schools in Bangkok and vicinity had lower levels of confidence in their public-health competencies compared to those who graduated from dental schools outside Bangkok. Thus, working in rural areas after graduation could help new dentists gain more experience in rural practice, leading to higher confidence levels. The findings from this study could contribute to the improvement of the dental curriculum and contract-bonding policy to work in rural areas.
Yao, Xiaoxi; Dembe, Allard E; Wickizer, Thomas; Lu, Bo
Regular use of recommended preventive health services can promote good health and prevent disease. However, individuals may forgo obtaining preventive care when they are busy with competing activities and commitments. This study examined whether time pressure related to work obligations creates barriers to obtaining needed preventive health services. Data from the 2002-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) were used to measure the work hours of 61,034 employees (including 27,910 females) and their use of five preventive health services (flu vaccinations, routine check-ups, dental check-ups, mammograms and Pap smear). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association between working hours and use of each of those five services. Individuals working long hours (>60 per week) were significantly less likely to obtain dental check-ups (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.91) and mammograms (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.31-0.73). Working 51-60 h weekly was associated with less likelihood of receiving Pap smear (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.96). No association was found for flu vaccination. Time pressure from work might create barriers for people to receive particular preventive health services, such as breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening and dental check-ups. Health practitioners should be aware of this particular source of barriers to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linh T. Nguyen
Full Text Available Despite recent advances in airway management, perianesthetic dental injury remains one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigation against anesthesia providers. Recommended precautions for prevention of dental damage may not always be effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted on vulnerable teeth. We describe a novel approach using the retromolar space to insert a flexible fiberscope for tracheal tube placement as a reliable method to achieve atraumatic tracheal intubation. Written consent for publication has been obtained from the patient.
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise
% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (P... that the economic barrier was eliminated a lower attendance rate was observed for patients transferred to the private practice system....
Marshman, Zoe; Baker, Sarah R; Robinson, Peter G
Prisoners have worse oral health and greater unmet dental treatment needs than the general population. However, little is known about the impact of the mouth, or attitudes such as dental indifference and consequent patterns of dental service use in this disadvantaged group. The aim was to determine whether dental indifference was associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of prisoners using Andersen's behavioural model of service utilization as the theoretical framework. The sample was male prisoners aged 20-35 years attending three prisons in the north of England. Participants took part in interviews and oral examinations. The variables were selected to populate Andersen's model including: predisposing characteristics (socioeconomic status), enabling resources (dental indifference and dental attendance patterns before prison), perceived need (perceived treatment need, satisfaction with appearance of teeth, global rating of oral health), evaluated need (number of decayed teeth), health behaviours (use of dental services while in prison) and health outcomes (OHQoL). Structural equation modelling was used to estimate direct and indirect pathways between variables. Of the 700 men approached, 659 completed the interview and clinical examination. Worse OHQoL was associated with less dental indifference (i.e. greater interest in oral health), previous regular use of dental services, perceived need for treatment and use of prison dental services. The number of decayed teeth and predisposing factors such as qualifications and employment did not predict OHQoL. Dental indifference was related to the OHQoL of prisoners in addition to previous regular use of dental services, a perceived need for treatment and use of dental services while in prison. Dental services in prisons might incorporate methods to address dental indifference in their attempts to improve oral health. The findings also have general implications for the assessment of population oral
Full Text Available Background: Orphans lack parental support and receive little oral health care. Therefore there is a propensity to develop a variety of oral lesions. Sometimes these lesions are exclusive to oral cavity or may present as an initial manifestation of a more complex underlying problem. Objective: This study hereby aims to compare the oral and dental health status of children living in orphanages and children living with their families. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Lucknow city among children of age group 5-14 years living in orphanages and school children living with their parents of Lucknow city. A total of 80 orphan children and 80 school children of age group 5-14 years were taken for the study. To obtain the requisite number of school children, three schools of the similar socio economic strata as of orphanages were selected randomly from nearby area of orphanages. Results: About 21.8 percent school children were without any clinical finding whereas only 2.5 percent orphan children had no clinical finding. The hard tissue lesions were found in 83.7 percent while these were in 57.2 percent school children. The soft tissue lesions were found in 70.0 percent orphan children while these were in 31.2 percent school children. Conclusions: Majority of orphan children were suffering from oral and dental problem. Most common hard tissue finding was dental caries and soft tissue finding were Aphthous and Coated tongue in orphanages. Overall oral and dental health of orphan children were poorer than school children.
Sjursen, Therese Thornton
Patients with medically unexplained health complaints attributed to dental amalgam often wish to have their amalgam fillings replaced with other materials. The main purpose of this thesis was to explore how patients with health complaints attributed to dental amalgam experienced changes in health after removal of all amalgam fillings. Forty patients with health complaints attributed to dental amalgam were included and assigned to a treatment group (n=20; amalgam removal) and a reference gr...
Weatherspoon, Darien J; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V
The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland physicians' knowledge and understanding of dental caries etiology and prevention, opinions related to prevention effectiveness, and their prevention practices. In 2010, a 30-item, self-administered survey questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,472 Maryland family physicians and pediatricians, with 294 surveys being returned and usable, yielding a 20 percent return rate. Statistical analyses in this descriptive study included distributions and cross-tabulations for the survey responses. Thirty-five percent of family physicians and 45 percent of pediatricians indicated they provide caries prevention education to their patients. Approximately half of the physicians reported performing some type of caries risk assessment. Out of 10 dental caries knowledge questions, there was not a single question that the majority of physicians answered correctly with certainty. Nine percent of family physicians and 12 percent of pediatricians reported they provided fluoride varnish treatment to their three- to six-year-old patients at the time of this survey. This study identified specific areas, related to Maryland physicians' dental caries etiology and prevention knowledge, that continuing education and training programs could enhance.
Rigo, Lilian; Dalazen, Jaqueline; Garbin, Raíssa Rigo
To analyze the perception of mothers about oral health of their children, as well as to check the influence of demographic variables, perception and preventive practice in oral health of mothers regarding guidance received during pregnancy. Quantitative and cross-sectional field study, with a non-probability sample formed by all mothers who attended the primary healthcare unit of Ijuí (RS), Brazil, from January to July 2014, comprising a sample of 79 women. Self-applied questionnaires were given to these mothers. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and inferential statistics, the χ2 test at a significance level of 5%. The mothers who received dental orientation during pregnancy had greater perception of oral health of their children. The mean age of mothers was 26 years, most of them attended high school education (32.9%) and worked outside the home (60.8%). There was a statistically significant relation between the outcome variable, dental orientation during pregnancy, and the independent variables: schooling level of mothers, occupation, baby's first visit to the dentist, duration of breastfeeding, beginning of baby's tooth brushing and knowledge about dental decay (pinfluencia as mães nos procedimentos adotados com seus filhos, em relação ao início da higienização bucal, primeira consulta ao dentista, tempo de amamentação, o conhecimento sobre os fatores que levam ao aparecimento da cárie dentária.
Raphael, Sarah; Blinkhorn, Anthony
It is important for Dental Professionals to consider the evidence for the effectiveness of the preventive strategies used to maintain good oral health and reduce the risk of caries in their patients. Whilst many of the traditional preventive activities, including the recommendation and use of fluoride products and the placement of fissure sealants have a wealth of clinical evidence to support their use, some of the newer preventive agents have a more limited evidence base. In order to investigate the level of scientific support behind one such technology, a systematic literature review was carried out to assess the effectiveness of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) in the prevention and treatment of early dental caries. A broad search strategy using Medline via OvidSP and EMBASE was performed in order to capture all published studies to related Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate. In addition to the above searches the terms "CPP ACP" and "casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate" were searched using PREMEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Inclusion criteria were clinical trials of participants of any age, comparing the use of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) or Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) to a routine oral care regimen and reporting recognised clinical outcome measures for early caries lesions. Only research studies in English were selected. 7576 articles were identified, but the majority were duplicates. Once these were removed 172 articles were inspected and the focus on 'CPP-ACP formulations of Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) and Tooth Mousse Plus (MI Paste Plus) resulted in 29 articles being selected, and of these 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered acceptable for the systematic review. The overall findings of this review did not show any significant benefits of using Tooth Mousse (MI Paste) products over brushing with a fluoride toothpaste for the prevention of early
Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung
Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.
Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17
A personnel management problem exists within dental public health that interferes with its mission of improving the nation's oral health. A major cause of this problem may be that many administrators who write position descriptions and hire professional staff are unaware of differences between clinical and public health dental practitioners. A marketing plan has been developed to address this lack of awareness about proper use of dental public health professionals. Its main goal is to establish more appropriate personnel and employment practices within dental public health. The expected outcomes of this plan could assist both recipients of dental public health services and members of the profession. The purpose of this article is to introduce the marketing strategy to dental public health professionals.
Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow
Gerodontology 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00383.x The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health Background: In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established. Objectives: To describe...... the design, measurement procedures, and baseline values for COHS including spatial distribution of restorations and dental caries as well as reasons for non-participation. Materials and methods: Seven hundred and eighty-three individuals aged 65 years or older, from a total of 1918 invited elderly people...
What factors influence a general dental practitioner to offer preventive care to patients? A potential answer to this question is presented based on the findings of a qualitative study recently undertaken in general dental practice in Australia. A model of how practices come to be oriented towards preventive or restorative care is described, condensing all of the findings of the study into a single framework. Eight practices were studied and highlighted the interaction between two factors: leadership in practice and prioritisation of cultural, social and economic resources. In this model, dentists' leadership to reorient the prioritisation of resources towards preventive care was crucial. Ideally a whole practice changed to preventive philosophy, but change was also possible in a single dentist within a practice. Prioritisation of resources was also key and interacted with dentist leadership. Prioritisation could be seen in the reorganisation of space, routines and fee schedules. During this process, one key support factor for dentists was their external networks of trusted peers and respected practicing dentists. These peers were crucial for transferring preventive knowledge within small networks of dentists who trusted one another; their influence was reportedly more important than centrally produced guidelines or academic advice. In order to help dentists change their practices towards preventive care, the findings from our study suggest that it is important to intervene in these local networks by identifying local dental opinion leaders. During this study, the key conditions needed for practices to reorient to preventive care included the presence of a committed leader with a prevention-supportive peer network, and the reorientation of space, routines and fee schedules to support preventive practice.
Wert, Katie M Lapps; Lindemeyer, Rochelle; Spatz, Diane L
To identify dental health advice offered by healthcare providers (HCPs) to mothers that cosleep and breastfeed at night. Mothers were recruited via local contacts, e-mail, and support groups. In-person, digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 14 cosleeping, breastfeeding mothers with children from 6 months to 2 years. Interviews included seven open-ended questions about cosleeping patterns, night breastfeeding patterns, and dental health advice offered by HCPs. These HCPs included pediatricians, family medicine physicians, midwives, and obstetricians. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and qualitative descriptive analysis was done. The majority of women reported keeping their child in bed with them for most, if not all, of the night. All of the mothers reported breastfeeding on demand. Approximately half of the mothers did not disclose their sleeping patterns to their HCP. Mothers reported few HCPs initiated a discussion on cosleeping or oral hygiene for their child. Mothers did not readily share their cosleeping, nor did most HCPs initiate a conversation about cosleeping and dental hygiene. This qualitative study identifies the need for education on anticipatory guidance of oral hygiene discussions from HCPs. As HCPs, it is our responsibility to initiate the conversation with the mother because this study demonstrates that mothers will be unlikely to do so.
Johnson, Alice; And Others
This publication has been designed to help nurses, teachers, volunteers, health administrators, social workers, and other individuals in the community in improving dental care instruction for the children in a community dental care program. The publication is based on the premise that availability of dental care services does not necessarily…
The use of effective preventive methods has produced good results in developed countries, where caries is declining and periodontal disease is probably getting no worse. There are special problems with prevention in developing countries, principally high periodontal disease prevalence, rising caries rates and lack of resources to deal with these problems. With appropriate assistance, much can still be accomplished in these developing countries. Depending on economic resources and disease patterns, the following procedures for oral disease prevention can be recommended. Priority order will vary from country to country, and national and local laws may also determine what procedures can or cannot be employed. Fluoridation of water supplies is the most effective action to prevent caries in communities where piped water supplies are in place. It is relatively cheap and does not depend on individual action. Where water fluoridation is not feasible, community-based alternatives are salt fluoridation, school-water fluoridation or supervised ingestion of fluoride supplements. Supervised mouthrinsing with fluoride solutions, usually in schools, is effective in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dentists or auxiliaries can also apply fluoride gels or solutions to the teeth of individual patients. The use of fluoride toothpastes is recommended wherever possible as a routine part of self care. All preventive activities have an educational component. Community leaders and others should be educated regarding the institution and maintenance of community preventive measures which affect them. Individual patients should be educated regarding their oral hygiene, use of fluoride, restriction of sugary snacks between meals and the necessity for regular dental visits when services are available. Dental health education of the public can be concentrated in special target groups such as expectant mothers. Because dental caries is a public health problem in many countries, public
Tomar, Scott L; Reeves, Anne F
We examined progress in US children's oral health and dental public health infrastructure since the Healthy People 2010 Oral Health Objectives were issued. We summarize trends in the prevalence of dental caries and dental sealants on the basis of national and state-specific data. Trends in state oral health program activities, funding, and staffing were derived from annual surveys. The prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth of children aged 2-4 years increased from 18% in 1988-1994 to 24% in 1999-2004. Racial disparities persisted in that age group, with caries significantly more prevalent among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American children than among non-Hispanic white children. Caries prevalence in primary teeth of non-Hispanic white children aged 6-8 years remained unchanged, but increased among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American children. State-specific prevalence of caries among third-graders ranged from 40.6% to 72.2%. Caries in permanent teeth declined among children and adolescents, while the prevalence of dental sealants increased significantly. State oral health programs' funding and staffing remained modest, although the proportion of states with sealant programs increased 75% in 2000 to 85% in 2007 and the proportion with fluoride varnish programs increased from 13% to 53%. Progress toward improving the oral health of America during the past decade has been mixed. Greater attention to the oral health of young children is clearly needed, and child health professionals can be valuable partners in the effort. With continued high prevalence of a largely preventable disease, ongoing problems with access to basic oral health services, and increased national attention to health care reform, there is a clear need and opportunity for governments to make serious and sustained investments in dental public health.
Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V
Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries, mainly in the pits and fissures of occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent bacteria growth that can lead to dental decay. Evidence suggests that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents compared to no sealants. Effectiveness may, however, be related to caries incidence level of the population. This is an update of a review published in 2004, 2008 and 2013. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth in children and adolescents. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 3 August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 3 August 2016), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 3 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 3 August 2016. No restrictions were placed on language or date of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sealants with no sealant or a different type of sealant material for preventing caries of occlusal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth in children and adolescents aged up to 20 years. Studies required at least 12 months follow-up. We excluded studies that compared compomers to resins/composites. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We presented outcomes for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth as odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR). We used mean difference (MD) for mean caries increment. All measures were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model for comparisons where there were more than three trials; otherwise we used the fixed
Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik
Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used...... of fluoridated toothpaste and caries-preventive programs implemented by the municipal dental services in Denmark. Linking Danish health registers with environmental and administrative registers offers an opportunity for obtaining sample sizes large enough to identify health effect, which otherwise could...
Materials & Method: A total of 152 students participated in the study. Dental anxiety was assessed using the 5 item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS and Locus of Control was assessed using the 18 item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC scale. Results: A Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the internal dimension of MHLC and dental anxiety. Conclusions: HLC was found to play an important role in predicting the dental anxiety among physiotherapy students.
Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar
During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and
Mitchell, Jean M; Gaskin, Darrell J
Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care.
Cabral, Etenildo Dantas
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In spite of the relevance of controlling pain during dental procedures and of the fundamental role of Family Health Units in the Brazilian health system, there are few studies integrating both subjects. So, this study aimed at analyzing some aspects of dental anesthesia in Family Health Units of the city of Caruaru-PE. METHODS: We have interviewed 372 adolescent and adult patients from 12 units, in the waiting room or close to it, after dental treatment, ...
Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H
of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy...
Yılmaz, Hınç; Tutkun, Engin; Demiralp, Kemal Ö; Yılmaz, Fatma M; Aliyev, Vugar; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin
To investigate the current status of exposure to mercury (Hg) among dental health workers in Turkey. A total of 115 persons working in the same hospital were included in the study and were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 67 dentists; group 2 consisted of 21 dental personnel who work with amalgam, and group 3 consisted of 27 control subjects who work in the same hospital but are non-dental personnel. The number of amalgam fillings that have been made by the dentists and the number of own fillings of the subjects were recorded. Plasma Hg levels were found to be 3.76 ± 1.84, 3.54 ± 1.83, and 2.69 ± 0.97 µg/L in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Hg concentrations in group 1 were significantly higher than the control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The number of amalgam fillings made by the dentists in the previous year correlated significantly with plasma Hg levels (r = 0.378, p amalgam fillings in the teeth of the subjects and Hg levels. Preventive measures for protection from exposure to Hg are necessary for occupational health in dentistry and proper industrial hygiene rules should be emphasized to avoid contamination during work. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,2 Thitikorn Topothai,1 Parinda Seneerattanaprayul,1 Nareerut Pudpong,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Banphai Hospital, KhonKaen, Thailand Objective: The dental profession has played an important role in the development of the health system in Thailand. However, it is not known if dental graduates' standards of knowledge, skills, and capabilities are fulfilling the health needs of Thais. This study aimed to assess the level of confidence in dental public health competency among final-year dental students who graduated in 2013. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 571 new dental graduates who participated in an official meeting arranged by the Ministry of Public Health in 2013. Self-administered questionnaires were used for collecting data on their confidence levels in selected public-health competencies. Of the total graduates, 72.5% anonymously responded to the questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics, factor analysis, and stepwise regression were applied for data analysis. Results: The majority of respondents expressed confidence in their ability to care for patients, but less confidence in public-health and administration competencies. The results also show that there was no significant association between demographic and educational profiles of respondents and confidence in their clinical competency. However, significantly more students who graduated from schools located outside Bangkok and vicinity rated themselves as competent in public health (coefficient = 0.333, P=0.021. Conclusion: New dentists who graduated from dental schools in Bangkok and vicinity had lower levels of confidence in their public-health competencies compared to those who graduated from dental schools outside Bangkok. Thus, working in rural areas after graduation could help new dentists gain more experience in rural
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and related health care professionals involved in delivering, leading, or researching nursing care. The CNCF produces "Cochrane Corner" columns (summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews) that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-care-related journals. Information on the processes this Field has developed can be accessed at: http://cncf.cochrane.org/evidence-transfer-program-review-summaries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thomson, E M
In 1985, the ADHA, in response to the changing health care environment, identified six roles for the future of dental hygiene. The administrator/manager role, one of the six, is an expansion of dental hygiene skills to facilitate the provision of quality oral health care. Oral health care settings require personnel trained in management to accomplish practice-related goals and objectives. Dental hygiene is preparing individuals to assume managerial roles to fill this health care need. This paper discusses the skills and knowledge level required to assume managerial roles and strategies for marketing the dental hygienist as a manager.
Gokmen Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Kutuk, Nukhet; Aydin, Serdar; Adanir, Ilknur; Ates, Seda; Bademler, Neslihan
Dental hygienic habits should be maintained in pregnancy despite challenges. We aimed to study the dental attitudes and habits of pregnant women. The patients attending our hospital clinic were invited to fill out a structured questionnaire categorised into three major domains: (1) general oral hygiene status, (2) dental habits, and (3) dental attandence both during pregnancy and prior to pregnancy. Four hundred and seventy four women agreed to participate. Mean age of participants was 28 (18-43). While 184 (38%) women reported brushing twice a day, only 98 (20%) women claimed using floss and or mouth rinse. Fifty-nine (12.4%) women had a dental visit in their current pregnancy and 24 (5.1%) received professional treatment. Obstetric care givers should convey the importance of dental care to their patients. We suggest that dental health should be improved antenatally, and be assessed in detail by dental health care providers. Impact Statement Poor oral health conditions have shown to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in low-income countries and regions. There is escalating evidence to support the lack of awareness among pregnant women about health consequences and long term risks associated with poor oral hygiene. Our results showed that dental hygienic practices of pregnant women are disconcerting in Turkey. The need for inter-professional collaboration among obstetric healthcare providers and dental specialistis is crucial for conveying to women the importance of dental care in pregnancy and beyond.
Ramnarine, Carol Anne
This report describes and evaluates a program to improve the dental health of Hispanic migrant children in a Los Angles County school district. Difficulties in providing dental health care to this population included the high cost of dental care, limited access to dental services, poor nutrition, and lack of parental involvement. The 3-month…
Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.
Mobile and portable dental services catering to the basic oral health needs of the underserved population in developing countries: a proposed model. ... still seem to be the only way to reach every section of the community in the absence of national oral health policy and organized school dental health programs in India.
Silverton, Susan; Sinkford, Jeanne; Inglehart, Marita; Tedesco, Lisa; Valachovic, Richard
This report presents the analytical results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools conducted during 1997 by the American Association of Dental Schools. It documents how women's health and oral health issues are addressed in the curriculum. It also presents an annotated bibliography of research involving oral and craniofacial health and…
Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Worthington, Helen V
Some dental implant failures may be due to bacterial contamination at implant insertion. Infections around biomaterials are difficult to treat, and almost all infected implants have to be removed. In general, antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery is only indicated for patients at risk of infectious endocarditis; with reduced host-response; when surgery is performed in infected sites; in cases of extensive and prolonged surgical interventions; and when large foreign materials are implanted. A variety of prophylactic systemic antibiotic regimens have been suggested to minimise infections after dental implant placement. More recent protocols recommended short-term prophylaxis, if antibiotics have to be used. Adverse events may occur with the administration of antibiotics, and can range from diarrhoea to life-threatening allergic reactions. Another major concern associated with the widespread use of antibiotics is the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in implant dentistry is controversial. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic or placebo administration and, if antibiotics are beneficial, to determine which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 17 June 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 17 June 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 17 June 2013). There were no language or date restrictions placed on the searches of the electronic databases. Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least three months, that compared the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to people undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures included prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse
Motivação e comportamento preventivo de saúde bucal em programa de assistência odontopediátrica na primeira infância Motivation and oral health preventive behavior in a pediatric dental assistance program for the early childhood
Antonio Bento Alves de MORAES
dental examination. The compliance of the mothers with the dietary recommendations during the program was obtained in 27% of the cases. A cognitive model for change of behavior is proposed to understand the behavior of mothers related with the oral health of their children, while taking part in a preventive dental program. Guidance and training are necessary but not sufficient to change the behavior of mothers.
Blue, Christine M; Lopez, Naty
In 2009, Minnesota Governor Pawlenty signed into law a bill approving the creation of a new dental team member: the dental therapist. The intent of this legislation was to address oral health disparities by creating a dental professional who would expand access to dental care in Minnesota. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the first class of dental therapy students at the University of Minnesota and to ascertain the values and motivations that led them to choose a career in dental therapy. Four surveys were used to create the composite profile of the ten students in this first dental therapy class: 1) the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, 2) the Learning Type Measure, 3) the Attitudes Toward Healthcare Survey, and 4) a values and motivation survey that included demographic data. The results of the surveys revealed interacting influences of the students' background, personal self-concept, and environment leading to a career decision to pursue dental therapy.
Pit and fissure sealants ... that your bite is not right Lose your sealant ... American Dental Association. Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/dental-sealants . ...
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian; Janczarek, Monika; Szczodrak, Janusz
Dental plaque is a highly diverse biofilm, which has an important function in maintenance of oral and systemic health but in some conditions becomes a cause of oral diseases. In addition to mechanical plaque removal, current methods of dental plaque control involve the use of chemical agents against biofilm pathogens, which however, given the complexity of the oral microbiome, is not sufficiently effective. Hence, there is a need for development of new anti-biofilm approaches. Polysaccharides, especially (1→3),(1→6)-α-D-glucans, which are key structural and functional constituents of the biofilm matrix, seem to be a good target for future therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have focused on (1→3)-α-glucanases, which can limit the cariogenic properties of the dental plaque extracellular polysaccharides. These enzymes are not widely known and have not been exhaustively described in literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.
Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V
1.04; p = 0.11]. The mean number of tooth surfaces affected by caries was 7.2 in the intervention group, compared with 9.6 in the control group (p = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups (p = 0.81). However, 164 out of the total of 400 (41%) children who converted to caries active reported toothache, compared with 62 out of 696 (9%) caries-free children (OR 7.1 95% CI 5.1 to 9.9; p children (p = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had ARs of a minor nature. The average direct dental care cost was £155.74 for the intervention group and £48.21 for the control group over 3 years (p develop, pain is likely. There was a statistically significant difference in dmfs in caries-active children in favour of the intervention. Although adequately powered, the effect size of the intervention was small and of questionable clinical and economic benefit. Future work should assess the caries prevention effects of interventions to reduce sugar consumption at the population and individual levels. Interventions designed to arrest the disease once it is established need to be developed and tested in practice. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN36180119 and EudraCT 2009-010725-39. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 71. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... an experimental and a control group, each of 68 unskilled workers, aged 18-64. Active participation was obtained by various means: Teaching was carried out in pre-existing peer groups, the participants' own goals and needs were included, the traditional dentist-patient barriers were excluded, the traditional...... of active involvement of the participants in the DHE-program....
Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik
protocol and development of two standardised measures. First, to investigate how parental attitudes may impact on their children's oral health-related behaviours and second, to assess how dentists' attitudes may impact on the provision of dental care. SUBJECTS: Core research team, lead methodologists, 44.......001) with very good internal reliability (alpha = 0.89). Dentists questionnaire: excellent test-re-test reliability r = 0.88, (alpha = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Interaction between consortium members enhanced the validity of the questionnaires and protocols for different cultural locations. There were challenges...
Cederlund, Andreas; Lundgren, Frida; Tranaus, Sofia; Norlund, Anders
At a national level, planning and management of dental services should be based on assess- ments of equity, effectiveness and costs. In Sweden, data for the adult population are now acces- sible through The Swedish dental health register, at The National Board of Health and Welfare. This study, on two large cohorts of Swedish adults, is based on longitudinal follow-up data, retrieved from the Swedish dental health register.The aims were twofold: to assess frequencies and costs of fillings and crowns, including subsequent repair; secondly to study the relationship between preventive and restorative dental treatment.The Swedish dental health register pro- vides data on the adult population which offers a new perspective on public health aspects of management of dental care at the national level. A longitudinal, prospective study model was used to follow-up two large cohorts for over four years. In the first cohort, data on 1,088,923 adult patients were analysed with reference to provision of single crowns and fillings over a period of 42 -48 months.The second cohort comprised 1,703,147 adult patients: the data were analysed with reference to preventive interventions over a period of 48 - 54 months. Frequencies of distribution of dental care by age group showed that the cohorts were representative for the whole patient group.With respect to equity, the average number of dentist appointments per i,ooo inhabitants for all 21 regions of Sweden was 140 to 160, despite major variations in geographic conditions and population densities. With respect to effectiveness, about 76% of the teeth with index interven- tions required no additional intervention over four consecutive years of follow-up. For the remain- ing 24% of the teeth 77% had only one additional intervention. When differences of case-mix were taken into account, the costs of repairs to earlier ihterventions were basically similar, regardless of age-group.There were no gender differences. However, there were
Altman, Donald; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina
The American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) currently recognizes 10 core competencies, which identify the skills, knowledge and understanding expected of all dental public health specialists. The last update to the competencies was 1998. The American Board of Dental Public Health, along with the American Association of Public Health Dentistry and its many partners, initiated a process to revise the competencies. This report presents the process and the new competencies for the dental public health specialist of the 21 st century. Each of the developed competencies is supported by a "statement of intent". These competencies take effect immediately. The new competencies will be used in testing candidates for specialty status beginning with the 2018 ABDPH examination. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry and American Board of Dental Public Health.
Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P
Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.
Sung, Janet; Gluch, Joan I
Dental schools need to produce graduates who are adequately prepared to respond to the complex needs and challenges of the increasingly diverse and interconnected world in which they will practice dentistry. To enhance discussions about the coverage of global oral health competencies in dental education, the aims of this study were to assess how global health education is currently incorporated into predoctoral dental training in the U.S. and which global oral health competencies are being covered. Surveys were emailed to all 64 accredited U.S. dental schools during the 2015-16 academic year. Respondents from 52 schools completed the survey (response rate 81%). The results showed that social determinants of oral diseases and conditions, how to identify barriers to use of oral health services, and how to work with patients who have limited dental health literacy were covered in the greatest number of responding schools' curricula. Key areas of global health curricula that were covered rarely included global dental infrastructure, data collection design, and horizontal and vertical programming approaches to health improvement. Despite current dialogue on the addition of global oral health competencies to dental curricula, only 41% of the responding schools were currently planning to expand their global oral health education. Based on these results, the authors conclude that it may be most feasible for dental schools to add recommended global oral health competencies to their curricula by incorporating didactic content into already established courses.
Nascimento, Marcelle M; Mugayar, Leda; Tomar, Scott L; Garvan, Cynthia W; Catalanotto, Frank A; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S
The high prevalence of early childhood caries and many general dentists' reluctance to treat young children and pregnant women demand new educational programs to foster delivery of oral health services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an Infant Oral Health Program (IOHP) at the University of Florida College of Dentistry on dental students' knowledge about and willingness to provide dental care for infants, children up to three years of age, and pregnant women. A total of 233 dental students in the first through fourth years and recent graduates completed a survey that assessed the educational outcomes of the IOHP; only the fourth-year students had received IOHP training. The results showed that females were more likely than males to provide counseling to caregivers about dental and physical development (p=0.024) and to offer restorative treatment to young children (p=0.021). Older students were more likely than younger students to provide restorative treatment (p=0.013). A greater percentage of IOHP-trained students (96%) reported knowing how to use the lap examination technique compared with untrained students (71%; pdental chair (p=0.0175). The graduates and fourth-year students were significantly more likely than the other cohorts to provide preventive (p=0.001) and restorative (p<0.001) care for pregnant women. The graduates were least likely to use some form of caries risk assessment (p<0.001). These findings highlight the need for earlier and greater exposure to the IOHP and the importance of promoting awareness about risk assessment and oral disease management.
... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...
... Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This Diabetes Month, Don’t Forget About the Importance of Exercise for People with Type 1 Diabetes In honor ...
Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.
Wisk, Lauren E.; Walsh, Matthew; McWilliams, Christine; Eggers, Shoshannah; Olson, Melissa
Objectives. We used objective oral health screening and survey data to explore individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors of oral health status in a statewide population of adults. Methods. We examined oral health status in a sample of 1453 adult Wisconsin residents who participated in the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin Oral Health Screening project, conducted with the Wisconsin Department of Health Services during 2010. Results. We found significant disparities in oral health status across all individual-, psychosocial-, and community-level predictors. More than 15% of participants had untreated cavities, and 20% did not receive needed oral health care. Individuals who self-reported unmet need for dental care were 4 times as likely to have untreated cavities as were those who did not report such a need, after controlling for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions. Our results suggested that costs were a primary predictor of access to care and poor oral health status. The results underscored the role that primary care, in conjunction with dental health care providers, could play in promoting oral health care, particularly in reducing barriers (e.g., the costs associated with unmet dental care) and promoting preventive health behaviors (e.g., teeth brushing). PMID:25905843
Perinetti, G; Caputi, S; Varvara, G
The Italian Oral Health of Schoolchildren of the Abruzzo Region (OHSAR) Survey was designed to assess indicators associated with the prevalence of caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions in the same schoolchildren, and it comprised a representative sample of 5,938 7-, 9- and 11-year-old schoolchildren from three provinces within the region of Abruzzo, Italy, a low fluoride concentration area. Gender, age, geographic location, socioeconomic level, dietary and oral hygiene habits, and the use of F supplements were all considered as indicators. The subsequent multivariate analyses showed that the socioeconomic level, snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweets and the use of F supplements were mostly associated with caries prevalence in both dentitions. Other indicators, such as gender, age, geographic location, between-meal snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweet drinks, toothbrushing frequency and onset of regular toothbrushing habits also showed some significant associations with dental caries across the age groups and/or dentitions. Of interest, the consumption of commercial bottled mineral water was also seen to be a preventive indicator for dental caries of the primary dentition, particularly in the 7-year-old group. The consumption of sweet snacks, use of interdental floss and kind of toothbrush mainly used (manual or electric) did not show any relevant association with the outcomes. The strong effect of the geographic location, socioeconomical level and the preventive effects of commercial bottled mineral water are worth further investigation. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Gileva, O. S.; Libik, T. V.; Chuprakov, M. A.; Yakov, A. Y.; Mirsaeva, F. Z.
Oral mucositis (OM) is the severe inflammation, lesioning and ulceration of the epithelia, accompanied by bleeding and intensive pain. OM is a common complication of dental implantation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been found to enhance the repair and healing of epithelia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive and treatment use of LLLT (B-Cure Laser Dental Pro technology in original author's techniques) in the patients who have undergone dental implantation. Simple blind randomized prospective one-center comparative placebo-controlled clinical trial is carried out on the group of 30 partially edentulous patients. It is proved that the use of LLLT before and after installation of dental implants provides: 1) reliable reduction (by 3.5 times) of the frequency of implication and intensity of pain in the first days after operation; 2) reduction (by 3.3-3.7 times) of frequency, duration and intensity of local edematous and inflammatory processes in peri-implant zone and facial soft tissue edema; 3) effective prophylaxis of postoperative sensory, paresthesia and neurologic disturbances in maxillofacial area.
Shanbhag, Vagish K L
Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.
Bernabé, Eduardo; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth
To evaluate the contribution of dental anxiety to social gradients in different oral health outcomes and whether social gradients in oral health persist once dental anxiety is removed from the population examined. Data from 9035 British adults were analysed. Participants' socioeconomic position (SEP) was measured through education and household income. Dental anxiety was measured with the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. Poor subjective oral health, oral impacts on quality of life and edentulism among all adults and the number of teeth, the number of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS) and sextants with pocketing among dentate adults were the oral health outcomes. The contribution of dental anxiety to absolute and relative social inequalities in each oral health outcome (measured with the Slope and Relative Index of Inequality [SII and RII], respectively) was estimated from regression models without and with adjustment for dental anxiety and quantified with the percentage attenuation. Interactions between each SEP indicator and dental anxiety were used to test what would happen if dental anxiety were removed from the whole population. The largest contribution of dental anxiety to explaining oral health inequalities was found for education gradients in perceived outcomes (11%-13%), but dental anxiety explained oral impacts were nonsignificant among anxiety-free adults but were significant at higher levels of dental anxiety. Little support was found for the role of dental anxiety in explaining social inequalities in various perceived and clinical oral health measures. Oral health inequalities were found among both nondentally anxious and anxious participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik
and many countries do not have adequate exposure to fluoride. It is important that countries with a low intake of free sugars do not increase intake, as the available evidence shows that when free sugars consumption is ... with high consumption levels it is recommended that national health authorities and decision-makers formulate country-specific and community-specific goals for reducing the amount of free sugars aiming towards the recommended maximum of no more than 10% of energy intake. In addition, the frequency...... of consumption of foods containing free sugars should be limited to a maximum of 4 times per day. It is the responsibility of national authorities to ensure implementation of feasible fluoride programmes for their country....
Montero, Javier; Albaladejo, Alberto; Zalba, José-Ignacio
To evaluate the influence of dental visiting patterns on the dental status and Oral Health-related Quality of Life (OHQoL) of patients visiting the University Clinic of Salamanca (Spain). This cross-sectional study consisted of a clinical oral examination and a questionnaire-based interviewin a consecutive sample of patients seeking a dental examination. Patients were classified as problem-based dental attendees(PB) and regular dental attendees(RB). Clinical and OHQoL(OHIP-14 & OIDP)data were compared betweengroups. Pair-wise comparisons were performed and a Logistic Regression Model was fitted for predicting the Odds Ratio (OR) of being a PB patient. The sample was composed of 255 patients aged 18 to 87 years (mean age: 63.1 ± 12.7; women: 51.8%). The PB patients had a poorer dental status (i.e. caries, periodontal and prosthetic needs), brushed their teethless,and were significantly more impaired in their OHQoL according to both instruments.The logistic regression coefficients demonstrated that on average the OR of being a PB patient was high in this dental patient sample, but this OR increased significantly if the patient was a male (OR= 1.1-5.0) or referred pain-related impacts according to the OHIP and, additionally, the OR decreased significantly as a function of the number of healthy fillings and the number of sextants coded as CPI=0. Regular dental check-ups are associated with better dental status and a better OHQoL after controlling for potentially related confounding factors.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline "Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures." This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to prevent patients undertaking dental procedures from orthopaedic implant infection. The guideline is developed on the basis of a collaborative systematic review to provide practical advice for training clinicians, dentists and any qualified physicians who need to consider prevention of orthopaedic implant (prosthesis) infection in their patients. This systematic review found no explicit evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between dental procedures and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This LTTE wishes to present a vivid summary of AAOS/ADA clinical practice guideline as a clinical update and an academic implementation to inform and assist Iranian competent clinicians and dentists in the course of their treatment decisions, to enrich the value and quality of health care on the latest international basis.
Cohen, Leonard A; Manski, Richard J
Although poor and minority adults experience greater levels of dental disease, they frequently face cost and other system-level barriers to obtaining dental care. These individuals may be forced to use physicians or hospital emergency rooms for the treatment of dental problems. This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the role that non-dentist health care providers play in providing access to oral health care services. Dental conditions and dental condition-related visits to non-dentist health care providers during 2001 for the US civilian noninstitutionalized population were analyzed using data from the Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. During 2001, approximately 3.1% of the US population experienced at least one dental problem reported outside of the traditional office-based dental delivery system. Of these, approximately 2.7% received care in a hospital emergency room setting while 7.0% received care in other medical settings. A majority (68.1%) had contact with the formal health care system via a prescription associated with their identified dental problem. Approximately 22.5% did not seek any formal treatment for their problem. Overall, low-income individuals were more likely not to seek formal care than were middle/high-income individuals (32.5% versus 19.7%). Individuals not using traditional sources of dental care appear to have greater access to physician offices and other medical settings than to hospital emergency rooms for the treatment of dental problems.
Ramos-Gomez, F J; Crystal, Y O; Domejean, S; Featherstone, J D B
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children throughout the world highlight the need for a simple but effective infant oral care programme. This programme needs to include a medical disease prevention management model with an early establishment of a dental home and a treatment approach based on individual patient risk. This article presents an updated approach with practical forms and tools based on the principles of caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA. This method will aid the general practitioner to develop and maintain a comprehensive protocol adequate for infant and young children oral care visits. Perinatal oral health is vitally important in preventing early childhood caries (ECC) in young children. Providing dental treatment to expectant mothers and their young children in a 'dual parallel track' is an effective innovative strategy and an efficient practice builder. It promotes prevention rather than intervention, and this may be the best way to achieve long-lasting oral health for young patients. General dental practice can adopt easy protocols that will promote early preventive visits and anticipatory guidance/counselling rather than waiting for the need for restorative treatment.
Riley, Philip; Moore, Deborah; Ahmed, Farooq; Sharif, Mohammad O; Worthington, Helen V
Dental caries is a highly prevalent chronic disease which affects the majority of people. It has been postulated that the consumption of xylitol could help to prevent caries. The evidence on the effects of xylitol products is not clear and therefore it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine its effectiveness and safety. To assess the effects of different xylitol-containing products for the prevention of dental caries in children and adults. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 14 August 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 14 August 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 14 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 14 August 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 14 August 2014), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 14 August 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We attempted to contact study authors for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, we used means and standard deviations to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the continuous data to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, we reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. As there were less than four studies included in the meta-analysis, we used a fixed-effect model. We planned
The Global Health Beyond 2015 was organized in Stockholm in April 2013, which was announced as public engagement and where the dialogue focused on three main themes: social determinants of health, climate change and the non-communicable diseases. This event provided opportunity for both students and health professionals to interact and brainstorm ideas to be formalized into Stockholm Declaration on Global Health. Amongst the active participation of various health professionals, one that was found significantly missing was that of oral health. Keeping this as background in this debate, a case for inclusion of oral health professions is presented by organizing the argument in four areas: education, evidence base, political will and context and what each one offers at a time when Scandinavia is repositioning itself in global health.
Mario A. Brondani
Full Text Available Objectives. This paper discusses the controversies surrounding the antibiotic prophylaxis preceding dental interventions within the following research question: how effective is dental antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing comorbidity and complications in those at risk? Methods. A synthesis of the available literature regarding antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry was conducted under the lenses of Kazanjian’s framework for health technology assessment with a focus on economic concerns, population impact, social context, population at risk, and the effectiveness of the evidence to support its use. Results. The papers reviewed show that we have been using antibiotic prophylaxis without a clear and full understanding of its benefits. Although the first guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis was introduced in 1990, it has been revised on several occasions, from 1991 to 2011. Evidence-based clinical guidelines are yet to be seen. Conclusions. Any perceived potential benefit from administering antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures must be weighed against the known risks of lethal toxicity, allergy, and development, selection, and transmission of microbial resistance. The implications of guideline changes and lack of evidence for the full use of antibiotic prophylaxis for the teaching of dentistry have to be further discussed.
Shah, K K; Tabari, E D
This paper describes the process of undertaking a dental health needs assessment of older people resident in care homes in the North East of England and the challenges involved. It illustrates many competency areas of interest to dental public health practitioners: oral health surveillance, dental public health intelligence and collaborative working.
Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding
Clapeau, G; Decroix, B; Bakayoko-Ly, R; Varenne, B; Dosso-Hien, D; Decroix, M O
The International Aid for Ontology (IAO) carried out this survey of hygiene in the dental health services of 5 French-speaking African countries in 1994, in association with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences of Paris. This study received support from the World Health Organization (WHO), the French Ministry for Cooperation and the European Community and the Ivory Coast Oral and Dental Hygiene and Health Committee (CIHSBD). Twenty-nine dental services from Benin (3), Burkina Faso (6), Ivory Coast (12), Mali (5), Niger (3) participated in this survey which gives an insight into the daily hygiene routines of these services. The cleaning, decontamination, disinfection and sterilization procedures for premises, dental equipment, instruments, hands and disposable items were investigated. No individual protocols are reported. Bench tops were cleaned or disinfected daily in 73% of centers and floors were cleaned or disinfected daily in 59% of centers. Walls were cleaned once per week in 44% of the centers. Hands were always washed between patients, with 68% of dental surgeons using only solid or liquid cleansing soaps and the others using antiseptic or disinfectant solutions. The dentist's chair was cleaned or disinfected daily in 68% of centers, mostly with soap (43%) or diluted bleach (23%). Vacuum equipment was cleaned with soap (50%) or diluted bleach (57%), with some surgeries using a combination of the two. Hand pieces and turbines were cleaned and disinfected after each use with alcohol (35%) or diluted bleach (26%) and were sterilized in 9% of centers. Instruments were sterilized with a Poupinel (63%), unspecified sterilizer (26%), autoclave (7%) or low temperature disinfection procedure (4%). Instruments were regularly sterilized in all centers. Single-use disposable items were often reused: 88% of centers reused gloves, 64% anesthetic cartridges and 32% disposable needles. This survey demonstrates that dentists do attempt to achieve appropriate
Besseling, S.; Ngonephady, S.; van Wijk, A.J.
Aim The burden of dental caries in young Lao children is high. As a result, these children suffer from toothache, and school absenteeism is high. There is a need for the Lao Government to develop a strategy to prevent dental disease, such as caries. The aim of this study was to collect data on the
Higher caries experience was related to lower brushing frequency, irregular use of toothpaste and high frequency of sugary snack consumption (P. < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of dental caries among 12-year-olds was lower than the WHO global goal, knowledge on the causes and prevention of dental caries were ...
Kuthy, Raymond A; Kavand, Golnaz; Momany, Elizabeth T; Jones, Michael P; Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Wehby, George L; Damiano, Peter C
To study the factors associated with young children who had their first dental visit (FDV) at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) and returned within 12 months for a second dental episode. Two hundred Medicaid-enrolled children who were less than 6 years old were randomly selected from five Iowa FQHCs. Dental utilization was followed for 36 months using dental charts and Medicaid medical and dental claims data, regardless of provider. Child's birth certificate data were also used as covariates. Multivariable logistic regression, using backward elimination, was used to identify variables that were associated with whether a child returned for a dental recall visit within 1 year of the initial dental episode. About 56% of the children returned for dental care within 1 year of their initial episode. The number of children in the household had a positive impact on children returning for a second dental episode. However, an increase in the frequency of medical well-child visits at the FQHC prior to the FDV had a negative influence. Unadjusted analysis demonstrated that children with dental caries at the FDV were less likely to return within 12 months; however, this variable failed to make the final regression model. Moreover, age at FDV did not make a difference in regard to returning for a second episode within 12 months. The experience gained from having other Medicaid-enrolled children in the household appears to be important for younger children entering into continuous and comprehensive dental care. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len
Objectives To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Setting Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. Participants 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. Results In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Conclusions Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. PMID:26515687
Barnett, Tony; Hoang, Ha; Stuart, Jackie; Crocombe, Len
To investigate the challenges of providing oral health advice/treatment as experienced by non-dental primary care providers in rural and remote areas with no resident dentist, and their views on ways in which oral health and oral health services could be improved for their communities. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four remote communities in outback Queensland, Australia. 35 primary care providers who had experience in providing oral health advice to patients and four dental care providers who had provided oral health services to patients from the four communities. In the absence of a resident dentist, rural and remote residents did present to non-dental primary care providers with oral health problems such as toothache, abscess, oral/gum infection and sore mouth for treatment and advice. Themes emerged from the interview data around communication challenges and strategies to improve oral health. Although, non-dental care providers commonly advised patients to see a dentist, they rarely communicated with the dentist in the nearest regional town. Participants proposed that oral health could be improved by: enabling access to dental practitioners, educating communities on preventive oral healthcare, and building the skills and knowledge base of non-dental primary care providers in the field of oral health. Prevention is a cornerstone to better oral health in rural and remote communities as well as in more urbanised communities. Strategies to improve the provision of dental services by either visiting or resident dental practitioners should include scope to provide community-based oral health promotion activities, and to engage more closely with other primary care service providers in these small communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Poklepovic, Tina; Worthington, Helen V; Johnson, Trevor M; Sambunjak, Dario; Imai, Pauline; Clarkson, Jan E; Tugwell, Peter
Effective oral hygiene is a crucial factor in maintaining good oral health, which is associated with overall health and health-related quality of life. Dental floss has been used for many years in conjunction with toothbrushing for removing dental plaque in between teeth, however, interdental brushes have been developed which many people find easier to use than floss, providing there is sufficient space between the teeth. To evaluate the effects of interdental brushing in addition to toothbrushing, as compared with toothbrushing alone or toothbrushing and flossing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases, dental plaque and dental caries. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 March 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 March 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 March 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 7 March 2013), LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 7 March 2013), ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1980 to 7 March 2013) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 7 March 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) for ongoing trials to 7 March 2013. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth design, cross-over and cluster-randomised trials) of dentate adult patients. The interventions were a combination of toothbrushing and any interdental brushing procedure compared with toothbrushing only or toothbrushing and flossing. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly
Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher
The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to
Анатолій Михайлович Петрушанко
Full Text Available Schemes of prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs. It is proved their clinical effectiveness and evaluation criteria of developed gum recession land. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes, which observed in patients, improve the hygienic condition of the mouth, confirming the feasibility of their application.Methods. It is included 153 patients with various defects of individual teeth and dentition, including 85 women (55.6% and 68 men (44.4% aged from 25 to 55 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy individuals of the same age without metallic inclusions in the mouth.Results. In analyzing the evaluation index hygienic condition of the oral cavity in patients 25-34 years of gingivitis against the backdrop of orthopedic treatment non-removable denture constructions the indices Green-Vermillion and Silness-Loe following data were obtained: patients of the main group before treatment, the rate Green Vermillion index was an average of 1,70 ± 0,07 points to 1,75 ± 0,08 points, indicating a satisfactory level of oral hygiene. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes improve the hygienic condition of the oral cavity, which marked the studied index indicators hygiene.Analyzing the data should be noted that positive changes of hygienic condition of the oral cavity were observed throughout the study period in all age groups of patients in both subgroups of observation and comparison.Conclusions. We offer health care systems for the prevention and treatment of gum recession and chronic catarrhal gingivitis in patients after dental prosthetics of non-replaceable constructs allowed to suspend pathological processes in the gums and improve oral hygiene
Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan W V; Halken, Jette
To investigate in a prospective follow up the longevity of posterior resin composites (RC) placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service.......To investigate in a prospective follow up the longevity of posterior resin composites (RC) placed in permanent teeth of children and adolescents attending Public Dental Health Service....
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.
Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara
Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.
Mertz, Elizabeth; Mouradian, Wendy E
Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (SGROH) and National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health outlined the need to increase the diversity, capacity, and flexibility of the dental workforce to reduce oral health disparities. This paper provides an update on dental workforce trends since the SGROH in the context of children's oral health needs. Major challenges remain to ensure a workforce that is adequate to address the needs of all children. The dentist-to-population ratio is declining while shortages of dentists continue in rural and underserved communities. The diversity of the dental workforce has only improved slightly, and the the diversity of the pediatric population has increased substantially. More pediatric dentists have been trained, and dental educational programs are preparing students for practice in underserved areas, but the impact of these efforts on underserved children is uncertain. Other workforce developments with the potential to improve children's oral health include enhanced training in children's oral health for general dentists, expanded scope of practice for allied dental health professionals, new dental practitioners including the dental health aid therapist, and increased engagement of pediatricians and other medical practitioners in children's oral health. The evidence for increasing caries experience in young children points to the need for continued efforts to bolster the oral health workforce. However, workforce strategies alone will not be sufficient to change this situation. Requisite policy changes, educational efforts, and strong partnerships with communities will be needed to effect substantive changes in children's oral health.
This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
Full Text Available Ewelina Gaszynska,1 Franciszek Szatko,1 Malgorzata Godala,2 Tomasz Gaszynski3 1Department of Hygiene and Health Promotion, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 3Department of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: To determine oral health status, dental treatment needs, and to identify barriers that prevent easy access to dental care by elderly care home residents in Lodz.Background: Studies in many countries show that oral health status of elderly care home residents is poor and there is an urgent need to improve it.Methods: The study included 259 care home residents, aged 65 years and older. The oral examination was performed. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked about frequency of cleaning teeth and/or dentures, whether they needed assistance, and whether the assistance was available; they were also asked about the perceived dental needs, and about the time since their last visit to a dentist and the purpose of the visit. If they had not visited the dentist in the past 12 months, they were asked about reasons for failing to visit the dentist.Results: Forty-six percent of the subjects were edentulous. Only 5.8% of all participants had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Dental treatment was found to be necessary in 59.8% of the respondents. One in four subjects reported reduced ability of correctly cleaning teeth and dentures themselves, of whom only one-third were helped by others. An insufficient level of hygiene was found in every other subject. About 42% of residents had not visited a dentist for over 5 years, mainly due to organizational reasons.Conclusion: Expanding the current scope of medical care for the elderly care home residents to include dental care would improve their currently poor oral health status. Keywords: dental care, institutionalized elderly
Newsome, P R; Tran, D C; Cooke, M S
This paper examines the literature dealing with oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. In particular, the paper examines five different aspects of this topic: the risk of dental injury while playing sports, the role of the mouthguard in preventing injury, types of athletic mouthguard, implications for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and behavioural aspects of mouthguard wear. It is clear from this review that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. Although some evidence exists to the contrary, the majority of studies have found the mouthguard to be the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. Athletes undergoing orthodontic treatment present a particular problem as they are potentially at greater risk of injury because of increased tooth mobility and the presence of orthodontic appliances. The fabrication of mouthguards for these patients is also problematic and the literature covering this is reviewed. As with other preventive measures, mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are explored in a small number of studies. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.
Walsh, Tanya; Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M; Moore, Deborah
Dental caries (tooth decay) is a common disease that is preventable by reducing the dietary intake of free sugars and using topical sodium fluoride products. An antibacterial agent known as chlorhexidine may also help prevent caries. A number of over-the-counter and professionally administered chlorhexidine-based preparations are available in a variety of formulations and in a range of strengths. Although previous reviews have concluded that some formulations of chlorhexidine may be effective in inhibiting the progression of established caries in children, there is currently a lack of evidence to either claim or refute a benefit for its use in preventing dental caries. To assess the effects of chlorhexidine-containing oral products (toothpastes, mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, gums and sprays) on the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (25 February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 25 February 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2015). We handsearched several journals placed no language restrictions on our search. After duplicate citations were removed, the electronic searches retrieved 1075 references to studies. We included parallel-group, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the caries preventive effects of chlorhexidine gels, toothpastes, varnishes, mouthrinses, chewing gums or sprays with each other, placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents. We excluded trials with combined interventions of chlorhexidine and fluoride or comparisons between chlorhexidine and fluoride interventions. Two review authors independently extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias. We resolved disagreements by consensus. We contacted trial authors for clarification or additional study details when necessary. The number of included studies that were
Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem
Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R
Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1" = strongly disagree to "5" = strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools.
Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A
Dental Therapists and Oral Health Therapists (Therapists) working in the New South Wales (NSW) Public Oral Health Service are charged with providing clinical dental treatment including preventive care for all children under 18 years of age. Adolescents in particular are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions. However, there is a dearth of evidence about the type or the proportion of clinical time allocated to preventive care.The aim of this study is to record the proportion and type of preventive care and clinical treatment activities provided by Therapists to adolescents accessing the NSW Public Oral Health Service. Clinical dental activity data for adolescents was obtained from the NSW Health electronic Information System for Oral Health (ISOH) for the year 2011. Clinical activities of Therapists were examined in relation to the provision of different types of preventive care for adolescents by interrogating state-wide public oral health data stored on ISOH. Therapists were responsible for 79.7 percent of the preventive care and 83.0 percent of the restorative treatment offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services over the one year period. Preventive care provided by Therapists for adolescents varied across Local Health Districts ranging from 32.0 percent to 55.8 percent of their clinical activity. Therapists provided the majority of clinical care to adolescents accessing NSW Public Oral Health Services. The proportion of time spent undertaking prevention varied widely between Local Health Districts. The reasons for this variation require further investigation.
Fifty-seven dogs (30 males and 27 females) made up of 10 different breeds and presented at 3 major Veterinary Hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed for periodontal disease (PD), dental calculus (DC), dental abrasion (DA) and their association with other systemic diseases using Dental probe, Glucometer, Urinalysis ...
Main outcome measures: Knowledge of common dental diseases namely, dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis was evaluated using an open-ended questionnaire. The definition, etiology, treatment and age-related risk were assessed. Exposure to dental education during undergraduate training was assessed. Opinion ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use adversely affects oral health. Tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC counselling guidelines recommend that healthcare providers ask about each patient's tobacco use, assess the patient's readiness and willingness to stop, document tobacco use habits, advise the patient to stop, assist and help in quitting, and arrange monitoring of progress at follow-up appointments. Adherence to such guidelines, especially among dental providers, is poor. To improve guideline implementation, it is essential to understand factors influencing it and find effective ways to influence those factors. The aim of the present study protocol is to introduce a theory-based approach to diagnose implementation difficulties of TUPAC counselling guidelines among dental providers. Methods Theories of behaviour change have been used to identify key theoretical domains relevant to the behaviours of healthcare providers involved in implementing clinical guidelines. These theoretical domains will inform the development of a questionnaire aimed at assessing the implementation of the TUPAC counselling guidelines among Finnish municipal dental providers. Specific items will be drawn from the guidelines and the literature on TUPAC studies. After identifying potential implementation difficulties, we will design two interventions using theories of behaviour change to link them with relevant behaviour change techniques aiming to improve guideline adherence. For assessing the implementation of TUPAC guidelines, the electronic dental record audit and self-reported questionnaires will be used. Discussion To improve guideline adherence, the theoretical-domains approach could provide a comprehensive basis for assessing implementation difficulties, as well as designing and evaluating interventions. After having identified implementation difficulties, we will design and test two interventions to enhance TUPAC guideline adherence. Using the cluster
Edelstein, Burton L
Recent federal health care legislation contains explicit and implicit drivers for medical-dental collaboration. These laws implicitly promote health care evolution through value-based financing, "big data" and health information technology, increased number of care providers and a more holistic approach. Additional changes--practice aggregation, consumerism and population health perspectives--may also influence dental care. While dentistry will likely lag behind medicine toward value-based and accountable care organizations, dentists will be affected by changing consumer expectations.
This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....
Hunt, Ronald J; Ojha, Diptee
Concerns about health care quality have affected much of the health care delivery system including dentistry and dental education. Believing measurement is the key element in improving quality, the Dental Quality Alliance brought together major stakeholders in oral health care to lead the development of oral health performance measures that can be used to evaluate the performance of dental programs and practices. These measures complement the quality assurance measures dental schools use to ensure compliance with accreditation standards on patient care delivery. This article describes the rationale for and process of developing these performance measures and argues that dental schools should implement quality measurement processes in their clinical programs to improve the clinical practices of the present and better prepare their graduates for their practices of the future.
Klymenko, V I; Smirnova, I V
In the article is conducted assessment of the dental health of adults of Zaporozhye on the basis of epidemiological investigation. It is established that despite of the diversity of all diseases that were revealed during examination, adult population seeks dental help in the event of acute pain. It is shown, that there is dependence of level negotiability for dental help from social status, education and income.
Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.
Bagattoni, S; Sadotti, A; D'Alessandro, G; Piana, G
Dental trauma is a frequent finding in people with special health care needs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental trauma in a sample of Italian children and adolescents with special health care needs. 556 medical and dental records of children and adolescents visited from January 2010 to March 2015 were examined. Information about medical diagnosis, gender, site and type of dental trauma (DT) were collected. According to age and reflecting the dentition stage, the sample was divided into 3 groups: subjects aged 0-5 years (group A, primary dentition), 6-11 years (group B, mixed dentition), 12-18 years (group C, permanent dentition). 113 individuals experienced a DT (prevalence 20.3%), with no difference in relation to gender. Individuals with cerebral palsy and autism showed the highest frequency of DT: 39.6% and 30.4%, respectively. The highest frequency of DT occurred both in group A (21.8%) and B (21.5%), which differed significantly from group C (9%). Avulsion was the most frequent type of DT in the primary dentition (24%) and enamel-dentin fracture without pulp exposure in the permanent dentition (60%). Upper central incisors were the most affected teeth. The prevalence of DT in a sample of Italian children and adolescents with special health care needs is high, especially in young individuals with cerebral palsy and autism. Preventive strategies for those patients should be developed in order to reduce the risk of DT.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache...
Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik
Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... of fluoridated toothpaste and caries-preventive programs implemented by the municipal dental services in Denmark. Linking Danish health registers with environmental and administrative registers offers an opportunity for obtaining sample sizes large enough to identify health effect, which otherwise could...
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play.
Naavaal, Shillpa; Barker, Laurie K; Griffin, Susan O
We examined the association between utilization of care for a dental problem (utilization-DP) and parent-reported dental problem (DP) urgency among children with DP by type of health care insurance coverage. We used weighted 2008 National Health Interview Survey data from 2,834 children, aged 2-17 years with at least one DP within the 6 months preceding survey. Explanatory variables were selected based on Andersen's model of healthcare utilization. Need was considered urgent if DP included toothache, bleeding gums, broken or missing teeth, broken or missing filling, or decayed teeth and otherwise as non-urgent. The primary enabling variable, insurance, had four categories: none, private health no dental coverage (PHND), private health and dental (PHD), or Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Predisposing variables included sociodemographic characteristics. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify explanatory variables' association with utilization-DP. Using logistic regression, we obtained adjusted estimates of utilization-DP by urgency for each insurance category. In bivariate analyses, utilization-DP was associated with both insurance and urgency. In multivariate analyses, the difference in percent utilizing care for an urgent versus non-urgent DP among children covered by Medicaid/SCHIP was 32 percentage points; PHD, 25 percentage points; PHND, 12 percentage points; and no insurance, 14 percentage points. The difference in utilization by DP urgency was higher for children with Medicaid/SCHIP compared with either PHND or uninsured children. Expansion of Medicaid/SCHIP may permit children to receive care for urgent DPs who otherwise may not, due to lack of dental insurance. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Full Text Available In a nutshell SPA is something old and good, but nowadays enriched with the miraculous impact of the water culture and aqua practices. But in our opinion is very important to know that the SPA is the health prevention of a healthy people for their recovery from social and professional everyday stress. In most European countries and it became another kind of SPA effects called a short - Medical SPA. Our working hypothesis is based on the assumption that the development of modules for practicing aquaspinning will allow to optimize the proposed relaxing and procreative prevention programs and promoting the health and beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity of the effects aquaspinning through the application of current methods of prevention and health promotion.
Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A
Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, Kunwarjeet; Gupta, Nidhi
To suggest a technique to prevent trauma of the edentulous ridge from opposing dental implants when prosthesis kept out during night. In modern dentistry, implant-supported overdentures are commonly fabricated to minimise the problems associated particularly with mandibular conventional removable denture such as the lack of retention or stability, decreased chewing efficiency, difficulties in speech and soft tissue abrasion. The patients wearing two implant-retained overdentures that are mainly soft tissues supported-implant-retained overdentures are advised to keep prosthesis out of the oral cavity during night to allow the tissues to rest and remain healthy. Few of such patients might complaint about trauma of the opposing soft tissues by the dental implants when prosthesis is kept out. A thermoplastic resin mouthguard was fabricated by adapting the modelling wax over the abutments on the master cast from thermoplastic resin sheets. The wax was removed and guard was filled with chemically cure permanent silicone soft liner and immediately placed in the patient mouth. The trauma caused by dental implants to the opposing edentulous ridge was effectively managed by soft thermoplastic resin mouthguard filled with permanent silicone soft liner. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
With the aim to get a better picture of dental health, diet and nutrition in early medieval Ireland a population-based study focusing on several attributes of oral health in adult individuals was conducted. The study focused on possible differences between sexes and age groups in terms of frequency and distribution of studied pathologies in order to determine whether these differences result from different diets, cultural practices or are age-related. Permanent dentitions belonging to adult individuals from five Irish early medieval sites were examined for the evidence of caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, abscesses, calculus, alveolar bone resorption and tooth wear. All pathologies were analysed and presented by teeth and alveoli. A total of 3233 teeth and 3649 alveoli belonging to 167 individuals (85 males and 82 females) were included into the analysis. Males exhibited significantly higher prevalence of abscesses, heavy wear and alveolar bone resorption, while females exhibited significantly higher prevalence of calculus. All studied dento-alveolar pathologies showed a strong correlation with advanced age, except calculus in females. Additionally, dental wear associated with habitual activities was observed in two females. The results of the present study confirm the data gained by written sources and stable isotopes analyses suggesting the diet of the early Irish was rich in carbohydrates with only occasional use of meat. Furthermore, significant differences between the sexes in terms of recorded pathologies strongly suggest different nutritional patterns with females consuming foods mostly based on carbohydrates in comparison to males. The observed sex-differences might also occur due to differences between male and female sex such as reproductive biology and pregnancy, a somewhat different age distributions, but also as a result of different cultural practices between the sexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.
Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B
. Altogether 874 children were randomly selected and included in the study. Sugar-free meals and drinks were provided in all primary schools throughout the campaign week. Dental officers held 30-minute information sessions with each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities. Dental...... knowledge and behaviour were evaluated by interviews immediately before and after the campaign. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about diet and dental health and a significantly higher proportion of children claimed to choose non-cariogenic foods and drinks as a result of the campaign...... and the proportion of children who claimed to have received new information during the campaign and ate healthier food because of it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...
Baumgarten, Alexandre; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bulgarelli, Alexandre Fávero; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if the provision of clinical dental care, by means of the main curative procedures recommended in Primary Health Care, is associated with team structural characteristics, considering the presence of a minimum set of equipment, instrument, and supplies in Brazil’s primary health care services. METHODS A cross-sectional exploratory study based on data collected from 18,114 primary healthcare services with dental health teams in Brazil, in 2014. The outcome was created from the confirmation of five clinical procedures performed by the dentist, accounting for the presence of minimum equipment, instrument, and supplies to carry them out. Covariables were related to structural characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 1,190 (6.5%) dental health teams did not present the minimum equipment to provide clinical dental care and only 2,498 (14.8%) had all the instrument and supplies needed and provided the five curative procedures assessed. There was a positive association between the outcome and the composition of dental health teams, higher workload, performing analysis of health condition, and monitoring of oral health indicators. Additionally, the dental health teams that planned and programmed oral health actions with the primary care team monthly provided the procedures more frequently. Dentists with better employment status, career plans, graduation in public health or those who underwent permanent education activities provided the procedures more frequently. CONCLUSIONS A relevant number of Primary Health Care services did not have the infrastructure to provide clinical dental care. However, better results were found in dental health teams with oral health technicians, with higher workload and that plan their activities, as well as in those that employed dentists with better working relationships, who had dentists
Limeres Posse, J; Álvarez Fernández, M; Fernández Feijoo, J; Medina Henríquez, J; Lockhart, P B; Chu, V H; Diz Dios, P
Although controversy exists regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of infective endocarditis, expert committees continue to publish recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental extractions. The study population included 266 adults requiring dental extractions who were randomly assigned to the following five groups: control (no prophylaxis); 1000/200 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate intravenously; 2 g of amoxicillin by mouth; 600 mg of clindamycin by mouth; and 600 mg of azithromycin by mouth. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient at baseline and at 30 s, 15 min and 1 h after dental extractions. Samples were inoculated into BACTEC Plus culture bottles and processed in the BACTEC 9240. Conventional microbiological techniques were used for subcultures and further identification of the isolated bacteria. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with ID number NCT02115776. The incidence of bacteraemia in the control, amoxicillin/clavulanate, amoxicillin, clindamycin and azithromycin groups was: 96%, 0%, 50%, 87% and 81%, respectively, at 30 s; 65%, 0%, 10%, 65% and 49% at 15 min; and 18%, 0%, 4%, 19% and 18% at 1 h. Streptococci were the most frequently identified bacteria. The percentage of positive blood cultures at 30 s post-extraction was lower in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group than in the amoxicillin group (P dental extractions was undetectable with amoxicillin/clavulanate prophylaxis. Alternative antimicrobial regimens should be sought for patients allergic to the β-lactams. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado
The influence of socioeconomic factors and self-rated oral health on children's dental health assistance was assessed. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a multistage random sample of 792 12-year-old schoolchildren from Santa Maria, a city in southern Brazil. A dental examination provided information on the prevalence of dental caries (DMFT index). Data about the use of dental service, socioeconomic status, and self-perceived oral health were collected by means of structured i...
Saleh A Al-Bazie
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, perioperative oral antibiotics in combination with antibacterial mouthwashes are effective in preventing ORN following dental extractions in irradiated patients.
Nagendran Jayavel Pandiyan; Amitha Hedge
Introduction: Child′s behavior on dental visit depends on variables such as age, parental behavior, parental anxiety, medical/dental history, and dental procedures. Behavioral-screening questionnaire, such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), can be used to preassess the child′s mental health status which further predicts child behavioral pattern in dental clinics. Aim: To measure emotional status among children of 3-14 years age group attending dental clinics. Methodology: ...
Grembowski, D; Spiekerman, C; Milgrom, P
In a racial/ethnically-diverse sample of low-income mothers of children aged 3-6, we determine: (1) whether a regular source of dental care (RSDC), self-rated oral health, beliefs and behaviors differ by racial/ethnic group; (2) estimate whether a RSDC is associated with oral health, beliefs and behaviors, and whether these associations differ by racial/ethnic group; and (3) examine these relationships for mothers' dental utilization. Cross-sectional survey. Participants From a population of 108,151 Medicaid children aged 3-6 in Washington state, U.S., 10,909 eligible children were sampled stratified by racial/ethnic group. Eligible mothers completed a mixed-mode survey in the following groups: Black (n=818), Hispanic (n=1310), or White (n=1382). Measures were mothers' RSDC, personal characteristics, self-rated dental health, appearance of teeth, dental problems, brushing duration, flossing frequency, use of toothpicks or whiteners, belief that cleaning prevents cavities or loose teeth, and self-reported services at last dental visit. About 38-40% of mothers had a RSDC. For Black, Hispanic and White mothers, having a RSDC was associated consistently with better oral health, greater likelihood of a dental cleaning and less likelihood of tooth extraction. RSDC was not associated generally with oral health beliefs and behaviors. Oral health behaviors differ by racial/ethnic group. Relationships between RSDC and self-reported oral health, health behaviors, beliefs and dental services are similar for Black, Hispanic and White low-income mothers of young children. Oral health behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups, which may have implications for mother and child oral health.
de Albuquerque, Olga Maria Ramalho; Abegg, Claídes; Rodrigues, Cecile Soriano
This study focused on barriers to dental care for pregnant women registered with the Health Family Program in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brazil. A qualitative approach using three focal groups was adopted. Each focal group included four to nine pregnant women. The information was analyzed by means of content analysis. The main individual barriers were folk beliefs that discouraged dental care during pregnancy, lack of perceived need, and fear of pain. In addition, the women reported difficulties in leaving home in the early hours of the morning to meet a dental appointment, highlighting an aspect of barriers to dental care which has not been identified in other studies. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of health education for pregnant women, humanization of dental care, and continuing education for health professionals.
Reed, Susan G.; Adibi, Shawn S.; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; AbdulRahiman, Anitha; Hamil, Lindsey H.; Walji, Muhammad F.; O’Neill, Paula; Kalenderian, Elsbeth
The Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) is leading the way in use of the Dental Diagnostic System (DDS) terminology in the axiUm electronic health record (EHR). This collaborative pilot study had two aims: 1) to investigate whether use of the DDS terms positively impacted predoctoral dental students’ critical thinking skills measured by the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT), and 2) to refine study protocols. The study design was a natural experiment with cross-sectional data collection using the HSRT for 15 classes (2013–17) of students at three dental schools. Characteristics of students who had been exposed to the DDS terms were compared with students who had not, and the differences were tested by t-tests or chi-square tests. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome on the overall critical thinking score. The results showed that exposure was significantly related to overall score (p=0.01), with not-exposed students having lower mean overall scores. This study thus demonstrated a positive impact of using the DDS terminology in an EHR on the critical thinking skills of predoctoral dental students in three COHRI schools as measured by their overall score on the HSRT. These preliminary findings support future research to further evaluate a proposed model of critical thinking in clinical dentistry. PMID:26034034
Reed, Susan G; Adibi, Shawn S; Coover, Mullen; Gellin, Robert G; Wahlquist, Amy E; AbdulRah