WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive alcohol education

  1. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  2. The workplace and alcohol problem prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Paul M; Blum, Terry C

    2002-01-01

    Workplace programs to prevent and reduce alcohol-related problems among employees have considerable potential. For example, because employees spend a lot of time at work, coworkers and supervisors may have the opportunity to notice a developing alcohol problem. In addition, employers can use their influence to motivate employees to get help for an alcohol problem. Many employers offer employee assistance programs (EAPs) as well as educational programs to reduce employees' alcohol problems. However, several risk factors for alcohol problems exist in the workplace domain. Further research is needed to develop strategies to reduce these risk factors.

  3. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  4. The critical role of communications in a multilevel obesity-prevention intervention: Lessons learned for alcohol educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Daniel P; Sliwa, Sarah A; Folta, Sara C; Economos, Christina D; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel interventions to prevent underage drinking are more effective than individual-level strategies, and messaging campaigns are key to such approaches. Recognizing the benefits of translating best practices across public health domains, this paper details the communications campaign from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), an exemplar for multilevel community-based approaches to address pediatric obesity, highlighting lessons learned for alcohol educators. All elements of SUS, including the communications strategy, were developed collaboratively with local partners. Communication initiatives included community-engaged brand development to unify diverse intervention components; school-based communications to promote new opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity; and media partnerships to promote healthy behaviors community-wide. The overall SUS intervention was effective in reducing prevalence of overweight/obesity among first- to third-graders in Somerville relative to control communities. Process evaluation showed that communications successfully reached diverse community segments and raised awareness of and receptivity to changes. Communications campaigns are essential components of multilevel interventions addressing public health challenges including obesity and underage drinking. Such communications should be developed collaboratively with the target audience and stakeholders, designed to engage community members at multiple levels through multiple channels within a systems framework, and sustained through local partnerships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol in America: taking action to prevent abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R

    1985-01-01

    ... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...

  6. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  7. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  8. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...

  9. Gender Differences in Alcohol Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a study of the outcomes of a school-based alcohol abuse prevention initiative. The initiative was focused on identifying, developing, disseminating, and evaluating information for high school students based on the school community needs. Student learning outcomes were measured using pre- and post-tests…

  10. Alcohol Prevention and School Students: Findings from an Australian 2-Year Trial of Integrated Harm Minimization School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Ramsden, Robyn; Lester, Leanne; Cahill, Helen; Mitchell, Johanna; Foxcroft, David R.; Venning, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The Drug Education in Victorian Schools program provided integrated education about licit and illicit drugs, employed a harm minimization approach that incorporated participatory, critical thinking and skill-based teaching methods, and engaged parental influence through home activities. A cluster-randomized, controlled trial of the program was…

  11. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  12. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and

  13. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  14. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More

  15. Annotated Bibliography of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Violence Prevention Resources, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…

  16. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  17. The effectiveness of a multimedia program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2008-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) continues to be the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Because abstaining from alcohol prior to and throughout pregnancy is the only way to prevent FAS, some prevention programs try to target women before they become pregnant. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Teaching and Research Awareness Campaign (FASTRAC) is a multimedia, peer-delivered educational presentation designed to reduce the incidence of FAS. Results from an ethnically diverse sample of high school students indicate that the program increased participants' knowledge regarding FAS but had no significant effect on participants' attitudes, beliefs about the dangers of FAS or intention to use alcohol during pregnancy. The FASTRAC program failed partly because of its didactic approach and the lack of health education principles that have been shown to be effective in changing other substance use behaviors. Suggestions for improving FAS prevention education programs are offered.

  18. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  19. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  20. Crime prevention and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone Bæk

    , street worker, social workers) by focusing on how welfare workers form, reform and transform interventions, and thereby instigate the structure of welfare work with social effects. Finally, the paper aims to examine how an inter-professional meeting outside the school environment produces understandings...... of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... a statutory duty for schools to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. The school and education in general are seen as safe spaces. Notions like “safe space” and school as a “protection factor” reflect an educational discourse that reflect discoursive changes...

  1. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  2. Pharmacological interventions for alcohol relapse prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Health NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK ... ABSTRACT: Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important .... hours, or as long as alcohol remains in the blood. ... term and slightly improving days to relapse.

  3. Alcohol consuption among academics of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge da Costa Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study that aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol consumption among physical education students of a public university of São Luís-MA. The sample consisted of 80 students. It was identified the following profile: 44 men and 36 women, aged between 18 and 21 years, most Catholics and having family income between $ 1,440.00 and $ 2,400.00. The prevalence of alcohol use was 95%, being higher among men (97.72%. The problematic use of alcohol, detected by the CAGE test, showed that 15% had physical and psychic problems and 23.75% mentioned to have missed classes in the last 30 days because of alcohol consumption. The study showed a significant number of students that had an exacerbated level of alcohol consumption, which draws attention to the need of addressing the topic of alcoholism in the academic scenario.

  4. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  5. A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Abdullah; Onrust, Simone A; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2017-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) programme on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends upon subtypes of SE schools and the level of implementation. In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up, 363 students were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (n = 205) or usual curriculum (n = 158). Thirteen secondary SE schools spread throughout the Netherlands. Participants were recruited during the autumn of 2013 from three school subtypes: SE for adolescents with intellectual/physical disabilities (SEI; n = 13), behavioural/emotional difficulties (SEB; n = 136) and learning disabilities/developmental disorders (SEL; n = 214). Self-reported life-time smoking prevalence and life-time drinking frequency as outcomes, and school subtype (SEL/SEB) and implementation fidelity (high/low) as moderators. No significant differences were found at follow-up in life-time smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.12] and drinking frequency (d = 0.01; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.18). Interaction analyses revealed adverse effects in SEB students for alcohol use (d = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.16-0.69). Effect on tobacco refusal self-efficacy was moderated positively by implementation fidelity (d = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.07-0.63). The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes. This pilot study suggests further that, within special education, substance use interventions may need to be targeted at school subtypes, as these may have harmful effects among students with behavioural difficulties. Finally, limited evidence was found that programme effectiveness may depend upon implementation fidelity. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  8. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  9. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  10. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven

  11. Preventing foetal alcohol syndrome with motivational interviewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... Alcohol is widely established as a teratogenic drug that is capable of ... interviewing (MI) with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) practice, borrowed from health ... certain families, heritability, linked to genetically determined.

  12. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or

  13. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  14. The Israel Society for the Prevention of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shoshana; Gefen, Lia

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the profile of the Israel Society for the Prevention of Alcoholism (ISPA), which is a nation-wide, public, non-profit association. It portrays various aspects of ISPA treatment and rehabilitation facilities-the residential treatment center, the rehabilitative hostel and the 'warm home' for homeless alcoholics. It depicts ISPA prevention activities, prevention materials and its usage of the media, and deals with ISPA involvement in policy issues. The paper also addresses the research reality of ISPA and its scientific journal, and refers to the society's structure and its future.

  15. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  16. Evaluation Methods for Prevention Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…

  17. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  18. Creatine Supplementation Does Not Prevent the Development of Alcoholic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Murali; Feng, Dan; Barton, Ryan W; Thomes, Paul G; McVicker, Benita L; Tuma, Dean J; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol-induced reduction in the hepatocellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM):S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio impairs the activities of many SAM-dependent methyltransferases. These impairments ultimately lead to the generation of several hallmark features of alcoholic liver injury including steatosis. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction in the creatine biosynthetic process. The liver is a major site for creatine synthesis which places a substantial methylation burden on this organ as GAMT-mediated reactions consume as much as 40% of all the SAM-derived methyl groups. We hypothesized that dietary creatine supplementation could potentially spare SAM, preserve the hepatocellular SAM:SAH ratio, and thereby prevent the development of alcoholic steatosis and other consequences of impaired methylation reactions. For these studies, male Wistar rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol (EtOH) diet with or without 1% creatine supplementation. At the end of 4 to 5 weeks of feeding, relevant biochemical and histological analyses were performed. We observed that creatine supplementation neither prevented alcoholic steatosis nor attenuated the alcohol-induced impairments in proteasome activity. The lower hepatocellular SAM:SAH ratio seen in the EtOH-fed rats was also not normalized or SAM levels spared when these rats were fed the creatine-supplemented EtOH diet. However, a >10-fold increased level of creatine was observed in the liver, serum, and hearts of rats fed the creatine-supplemented diets. Overall, dietary creatine supplementation did not prevent alcoholic liver injury despite its known efficacy in preventing high-fat-diet-induced steatosis. Betaine, a promethylating agent that maintains the hepatocellular SAM:SAH, still remains our best option for treating alcoholic steatosis. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  20. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  1. Five typologies of alcohol and drug prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Laura Marie, Schierff

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents exhibit a high rate of use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Effect studies rarely describe the actual content of the interventions in detail. Less is known about what was actually done in the prevention than about their effects. Aim: This study is a review study grouping the qualitatively...

  2. Prevention before profits: a levy on food and alcohol advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Todd A; Mooney, Gavin

    2010-04-05

    The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic - the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice.

  3. [Alcoholism prevention and alcohol advertising investment in Spain: David versus Goliath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Santiago, Julio; Lado Castro-Rial, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol advertising correlates with consumption, particularly in young people. We studied the evolution of the amounts spent on alcoholic beverages advertising and on advertising as a whole in conventional media in Spain during the period 1995-2005. We analyzed the amounts spent on advertising in total and on alcoholic beverages advertising by studying the annual INFOADEX Survey on Advertising Investment in Spain in conventional media (TV, radio, the press, billboards and Internet). The results were subdivided into the periods 1995-2000 and 2001-2005. In the period 1995-2000 there was an increase (Delta) in alcoholic beverages advertising expenditure, from 268 to 347 million euro (Delta=29.5%), but a decrease in its percentage of advertising as a whole (from 7.6% to 6.1%). In the period 2001-2005 there was a rise in alcohol advertising expenditure from 145 to 186 million euro(Delta=28.0%), and also in its percentage of total advertising (from 2.7% to 2.8%). In 2001-2005, spending by Regional governments on preventive advertising increased from 22 to 52 million euro (Delta=136%). Alcohol advertising expenditure remains high in Spain, with young people as a primary target. In contrast, there is only modest investment in preventive advertising. Regulatory measures are necessary with a view to protecting populations especially susceptible to uncontrolled consumption.

  4. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Bon-Martens, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing

  7. O enfermeiro no ensino fundamental: desafios na prevenção ao consumo de álcool El enfermero en la enseñanza general básica: desafíos en la prevención al consumo de alcohol The nurse in fundamental education: challenges in the prevention to alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudes Teixeira Lopes

    2007-12-01

    orientación a los jóvenes.This study comes from some questions made by drug researchers about insertion of the nurse as promotional health agent in the fundamental school. Objective: to reflect the acting of the nurse in the fundamental school as agent in the prevention to alcohol consumption. This work shows that the prevention, as a sum of actions that aim at preventing problems caused by improper use of the alcohol, is a field that enables the nurse to develop activities of prevention in different scopes, along with the students, their families and the teachers. The reflections in this text about the work of the nurse as agent educator in fundamental level schools aiming at to the prevention to the alcohol use do not make a vindication nor recriminates the consumption, but consider the school as a privileged territory for the incorporation of knowledge on health, replacing the repressor approach by the orientation one to the youth.

  8. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...

  9. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  10. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  11. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  12. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  13. Improving Alcohol/Drug Education in Illinois Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This paper lists guidelines approved by the Illinois State Board of Education for improving alcohol and drug education in the schools. Statistics point out the seriousness of alcohol and drug abuse in terms of human costs to the victim, his/her family, and associates, and the economic costs of health care, accident losses, crime, social programs,…

  14. Is it how we tell them about alcohol? The role of presentation formats in health education materials for lower educated students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebregs, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands adolescents from lower secondary education levels are more likely to engage in alcohol abuse than adolescents from higher education levels. Low educated adolescents also begin to do so at an earlier age. This suggests that low educated students are more in need of prevention

  15. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  16. A systematic review of computerised serious educational games about alcohol and other drugs for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C

    2014-03-01

    Serious educational games (SEG) have been shown to be effective in educating young people about a range of topics, including languages and maths. This paper identifies the use of computerised SEGs in education about alcohol and other drugs and reviews their impact on the prevention of alcohol and drug use. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, psychINFO, pubMED and DRUG databases were searched in February 2013. Additional publications were obtained from the reference lists of the relevant papers. Studies were included if they described an evaluation of a computerised SEG that targeted alcohol and/or other drugs and had been trialled with adolescents. Eight SEGs were identified targeting tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine, ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine and opioids. Six reported positive outcomes in terms of increased content knowledge and two reported increased negative attitudes towards the targeted drugs. Only one reported a decrease in the frequency of drug use. This is the first review of the efficacy of computerised SEGs for alcohol and other drugs for adolescents. Results suggest that SEGs can increase content knowledge of alcohol and other drugs. Evidence concerning impacts on negative attitudes and alcohol and drug use is limited, with few studies examining these outcomes. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  18. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdurmen Jacqueline EE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a home-based prevention program called "In control: No alcohol!" was developed to delay the age of alcohol onset in children. The main aim of this project is to conduct a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Methods/Design The prevention program will be tested with an RCT among mothers and their 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old, randomly assigned to the prevention or control condition. The program consists of five printed magazines and an activity book designed to improve parental alcohol-specific socialization. Parent-child dyads in the control group receive a factsheet information brochure, which is the standard alcohol brochure of the Trimbos Institute (the Netherlands Institute for Mental Health and Addiction. Outcome measures are initiation of alcohol use (have been drinking at least one glass of alcohol, alcohol-specific parenting, susceptibility to drinking alcohol, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and frequency and intensity of child alcohol use. Questionnaires will be administered online on secured Internet webpages, with personal login codes for both mothers and children. Mothers and children in both the experimental and control condition will be surveyed at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months (follow-ups. Discussion The present study protocol presents the design of an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of the home-based "In control: No alcohol!" program for 6 grade primary school children (11-12 years old. It is hypothesized that children in the prevention condition will be less likely to have their first glass of alcohol, compared to the control condition. When the

  19. Countermarketing Alcohol and Unhealthy Food: An Effective Strategy for Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases? Lessons from Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmedo, P Christopher; Dorfman, Lori; Garza, Sarah; Murphy, Eleni; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2017-03-20

    Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.

  20. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  1. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  2. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  3. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Education in trauma:An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Daniel Charry; Juan Daniel Ochoa; Jorman Harvey Tejada; Sandra Liliana Navarro-Parra; Nicolas Esquivel; Yolercy Vasques

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent in-juries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80%of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5%to 24.3%(p=0.0001) and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3%to 8.1%(p=0.0001). Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia.

  5. Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This infrastructure, usually in national statistical offices, has been ... Tobacco Control Policy Survey -International Alcohol Control Survey Collecting and sharing ... both tobacco and alcohol data, and apply the same data collection processes.

  6. Public education in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, L G

    1986-01-01

    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  7. Spirit(ed) away: preventing foetal alcohol syndrome with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a growing concern in South Africa. In the Western Cape, prevalence rates for FAS are the highest in the world. Not surprisingly, the Western Cape also has some of the highest levels of alcohol consumption per capita. Although FAS is primarily caused by alcohol consumption during ...

  8. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A; Richardson, Ben D; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann; Rossi, David James

    2016-08-31

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1-2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV-VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%-60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic differences in

  9. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  10. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  11. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.

  12. Common ground: an investigation of environmental management alcohol prevention initiatives in a college community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark D; Dejong, William; Fairlie, Anne M; Lawson, Doreen; Lavigne, Andrea M; Cohen, Fran

    2009-07-01

    This article presents an evaluation of Common Ground, a media campaign-supported prevention program featuring increased enforcement, decreased alcohol access, and other environmental management initiatives targeting college student drinking. Phase 1 of the media campaign addressed student resistance to environmentally focused prevention by reporting majority student support for alcohol policy and enforcement initiatives. Phase 2 informed students about state laws, university policies, and environmental initiatives. We conducted student telephone surveys, with samples stratified by gender and year in school, for 4 consecutive years at the intervention campus and 3 years at a comparison campus. We did a series of one-way between-subjects analyses of variance and analyses of covariance, followed by tests of linear trend and planned comparisons. Targeted outcomes included perceptions of enforcement and alcohol availability, alcohol use, and alcohol-impaired driving. We examined archived police reports for student incidents, primarily those resulting from loud parties. There were increases at the intervention campus in students' awareness of formal alcohol-control efforts and perceptions of the alcohol environment, likelihood of apprehension for underage drinking, consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, and responsible alcohol service practices. There were decreases in the perceived likelihood of other students' negative behavior at off-campus parties. Police-reported incidents decreased over time; however, perceived consequences for off-campus parties decreased. No changes were observed for difficulty finding an off-campus party, self-reported alcohol use, or alcohol-impaired driving. The intervention successfully altered perceptions of alcohol enforcement, alcohol access, and the local alcohol environment. This study provides important preliminary information to researchers and practitioners engaged in collaborative prevention efforts in campus communities.

  13. Special Education of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Nam, Seungree; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to estimate the cost associated with special education among children (5 to 14 years) with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in elementary and middle school by sex, age group, and province and territory in Canada. It was estimated that there were 6,520 students with FASD receiving special education in Canada in…

  14. Educating Students in Preventive Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive set of competencies for counselors doing primary prevention. Describes 10 expanded clusters of skills (primary prevention perspective, personal attributes and behaviors, ethics, marketing, multiculturalism, group facilitation, organization and setting dynamics, trends and political dynamics, and research and evaluation)…

  15. hiv prevention among drug and alcohol users: models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users, as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other ... alcohol and drug addiction in many ... training in providing addiction recovery ..... because of its large scale availability and.

  16. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  17. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  18. Home-based alcohol prevention program for parents and children: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods: In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M = 12.15, SD = 0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in

  19. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents

  20. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  1. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  2. Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…

  3. The role of the primary care provider in preventing and treating alcohol problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends

  4. A educação em saúde como uma estratégia para enfermagem na prevenção do alcoolismo La educación en salud como una estrategia para enfermería en la prevención del alcoholismo The education in health as nursing strategy in the prevention of the alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Éder Dias da Silva

    2007-12-01

    organizations shows that 200 million of people consumed some illicit drug between 2001 and 2002, is to say 3.4% of the world-wide population. This article presents a reflection about the education in health as a viable strategy for the Nursing in the prevention and promotion of the health related to the alcoholism. In the first part of the text we deal with the alcoholism problem in the world; in the second part we present contextual theoretical aspects about the education in health, as support strategy to the promotion of the health and prevention of the alcoholism; in the third part we present some success experiences in the prevention of the use and abuse of alcohol and, finally, in the third part of this reflection we showed the importance of the Nursing performance and of the health team in the use of the education in health as possibility to act in a preventive way against the alcoholism.

  5. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  6. The economic benefits of wildfire prevention education

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen

    2011-01-01

    While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...

  7. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  8. The Literacy Educator's Role in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…

  9. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2015-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...

  10. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  11. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible....... CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism - irrespective of age and sex. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated....

  12. Prevention of fetal demise and growth restriction in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, C Y; Abebe, D T; Gozes, I; Brenneman, D E; Hill, J M

    2001-05-01

    Two peptides [NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and SALLRSIPA (ADNF-9)], that are associated with novel glial proteins regulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide, are shown now to provide protective intervention in a model of fetal alcohol syndrome. Fetal demise and growth restrictions were produced after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol to pregnant mice during midgestation (E8). Death and growth abnormalities elicited by alcohol treatment during development are believed to be associated, in part, with severe oxidative damage. NAP and ADNF-9 have been shown to exhibit antioxidative and antiapoptotic actions in vitro. Pretreatment with an equimolar combination of the peptides prevented the alcohol-induced fetal death and growth abnormalities. Pretreatment with NAP alone resulted in a significant decrease in alcohol-associated fetal death; whereas ADNF-9 alone had no detectable effect on fetal survival after alcohol exposure, indicating a pharmacological distinction between the peptides. Biochemical assessment of the fetuses indicated that the combination peptide treatment prevented the alcohol-induced decreases in reduced glutathione. Peptide efficacy was evident with either 30-min pretreatment or with 1-h post-alcohol administration. Bioavailability studies with [(3)H]NAPVSIPQ indicated that 39% of the total radioactivity comigrated with intact peptide in the fetus 60 min after administration. These studies demonstrate that fetal death and growth restriction associated with prenatal alcohol exposure were prevented by combinatorial peptide treatment and suggest that this therapeutic strategy be explored in other models/diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  13. Delivering prevention for alcohol and cannabis using the Internet: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Andrews, Gavin; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E

    2009-06-01

    To establish the efficacy of an internet based prevention program to reduce alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 764 13-year olds from ten Australian secondary schools in 2007-2008. Half the schools were randomly allocated to the computerised prevention program (n=397), and half to their usual health classes (n=367). The Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis prevention course is facilitated by the internet and consists of novel, evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and at six months following the intervention. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge at the end of the course and the six month follow-up. In addition, the intervention group showed a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of cannabis use at the six month follow-up. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes, or alcohol and cannabis related harms. The course is acceptable, scalable and fidelity is assured. It increased knowledge regarding alcohol and cannabis, and decreased use of these drugs.

  14. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible association between alcohol intake and autoimmune Graves' hyperthyroidism. This is a population-based, case-control study. In a well-defined Danish population (2,027,208 person-years of observation), we prospectively identified patients with new overt thyroid dysfunction and studied 272 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. For each patient, we recruited four age-gender-region-matched controls with normal thyroid function (n = 1088). Participants gave detailed information on current and previous alcohol intake as well as other factors to be used for analyses. The association between alcohol intake and development of hyperthyroidism was analysed in conditional multivariate Cox regression models. Graves' patients had a lower reported alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per week: 2 vs 4, P hyperthyroidism. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) compared with the reference group with a recent (last year) consumption of 1-2 units of alcohol per week were as follows: 0 units/week 1·73 (1·17-2·56), 3-10 units/week 0·56 (0·39-0·79), 11-20 units/week 0·37 (0·21-0·65), ≥21 units/week 0·22 (0·08-0·60). Similar results were found for maximum previous alcohol consumption during a calendar year. No interaction was found with the type of alcohol consumed (wine vs beer), smoking habit, age, gender or region of inhabitancy. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of Graves' disease with hyperthyroidism--irrespective of age and gender. Autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be much more dependent on environmental factors than hitherto anticipated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.

  16. Alcohol and other drug problems in Australia: the urgent need for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crespigny, C

    1996-07-01

    The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol and other drug use, including medicines, impact on the Australian community profoundly. Many Australians use alcohol and other drugs (AODs) on a regular basis and a significant number experience problems at some time. There are about 25,000 drug-related deaths annually, the majority of which are related to alcohol and tobacco use. Many young people die or are injured as a direct result of alcohol intoxication, accidental overdose and related problems, and significant numbers of elderly people are hospitalised, permanently incapacitated or suffer avoidable trauma through adverse drug reactions and side-effects of medications. It is estimated that at least 25 per cent of acute hospital beds hold patients with alcohol-related problems directly associated with the medical diagnosis, and there are comparable numbers of people needing social and other forms of assistance at some time. Despite the preventative nature of many AOD problems and the call for harm reduction, timely intervention and support for the thousands of Australians attending hospitals, community health and mental health services, nurses are yet to effectively assist the community in preventing and responding to the range of AOD problems. Nursing policy, guidelines and clinical expertise are required to assist the community in addressing this issue. Undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education have a vital role to play in providing the profession with the knowledge, skills and research base to meet this challenge.

  17. Recent Trends in Alcohol Outlet Density, Distances from Educational Institutions and Sales Campaigns in Chiang Mai Municipality (Metropolitan), Thailand: Should We Be Worried for Our Youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaikla, Kanittha; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Semmahasak, Sukho; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2016-03-01

    Since 2008, alcohol control policies in Thailand have been considered quite comprehensive. The study aimed to investigate the subsequent changes in alcohol outlet density and patterns of sales promotion, which may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of policies and helpful for planning prevention strategies to reduce alcohol-related harms. All accessible routes in the Chiang Mai Municipality (Metropolitan: CMM) were surveyed in 2009, 2011 and 2014. During each round of survey, the geographical coordinates of alcohol outlets and educational institutions in the CMM were recorded using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In addition, alcohol sales campaigns were documented. Three main trends emerged by 2014. The first was that alcohol outlet density had increased. Second, the average distances between alcohol outlets and educational institutions decreased with evidence of clustering near educational institutions. Lastly, increased advertising of alcohol promotions and new sales campaigns not previously seen in 2009 and 2011 promoted high volume drinking in Chiang Mai Municipality (CMM). Our study reflects the potential gaps between some of the intended consequences of alcohol control policies and the actural trends emerging in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Young people in CMM may be at a particularly high risk for alcohol-related problems due to high exposure to alcohol outlets and sales campaigns near their educational institution. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hollie; Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-08-08

    Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile app aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter "calculators") were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps.

  19. Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Sarah; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2015-10-01

    To document alcohol products and promotions that use the pink ribbon symbol and related marketing materials that associate alcohol brands with breast cancer charities, awareness and survivors. We conducted a basic Boolean public internet search for alcohol products with pink ribbon/breast cancer awareness marketing campaigns. There is strong and growing evidence of alcohol as a contributing cause of several types of cancer, including breast cancer. There is no U-shaped curve for cancer, and threshold of elevated relative risk is as low as one drink a day for certain cancers. We found 17 examples of alcohol product campaigns with websites, press releases and social media posts, along with news articles and blog posts from industry and non-profit organizations regarding alcohol products associated with breast cancer causes and charities. Various cancer charities have entered into alliances with sectors of the alcohol industry that raise funds for breast cancer research, treatment or prevention by promoting the purchase of certain alcoholic beverages. Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related images, messages and user-generated media to market a product that contributes to cancer disease and death. Therefore, cancer charities should adopt policies to separate them from alliances with the alcohol industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Alcohol and public health in Africa: can we prevent alcohol-related harm from increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Dias, Sonia; Babor, Thomas; Esser, Marissa B; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the total amount of alcohol consumed in the African region is expected to increase due to the growth of new alcohol consumers, especially young people and women. With the changing alcohol environment, increases in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease are inevitable. To our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of the factors that could be driving those increases. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the factors that could be instrumental in this process, in order to inform strategic policy-related decisions. A narrative review was conducted using a thematic analysis approach. We searched papers published between January 2000 and July 2014 in PubMed, the WHO's Global Health Library and African Journals Online. Our analysis identified seven factors (demographics, rapid urbanization, economic development, increased availability, corporate targeting, weak policy infrastructure and trade agreements) which are potentially tied to changes in alcohol consumption in Africa. Driven largely by globalization, a potential convergence of these various factors is likely to be associated with continued growth in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. To address the emerging risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption, African governments need to take a more active role in protecting the public's health. In particular, important strategic shifts are needed to increase implementation of intersectoral strategies, community involvement in the policy dialogue, health services re-orientation and better regulation of the alcohol beverage industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager may...

  2. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  3. Aripiprazole for relapse prevention and craving in alcohol use disorder: current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Orsolini, Laura; Fornaro, Michele; Vecchiotti, Roberta; De Berardis, Domenico; Iasevoli, Felice; Torrens, Marta; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Among other approaches, the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway has been advocated in the therapeutic management of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). A potential avenue toward the modulation of the dopaminergic pathway across varying substance disorders seems to be provided by aripiprazole, a second-generation antipsychotic characterized by a peculiar pharmacodynamics signature. In this review, the authors provided a qualitative synthesis and a critical perspective on the efficacy of aripiprazole in relapse prevention and craving in AUD. A systematic search was carried out through MEDLINE/Embase/PsycINFO/Cochrane Library from inception until September 2015, combining free terms and MESH headings for the topics of AUD and aripiprazole as following: (((Alcohol use Disorder) OR (Alcohol use)) AND aripiprazole). Based both on a qualitative synthesis and a critical interpretation of the evidence, the authors submit that aripiprazole would promote alcohol abstinence and reduce the alcohol seeking behaviour possibly via dopaminergic and serotoninergic modulations at the fronto-subcortical circuits underpinning alcohol reward and craving, impulsive behaviour as well as reduce alcohol-related anxiety/low mood and anhedonia. However, due to the lack of published studies, a conclusive statement about any direct effect of aripiprazole in the prevention of craving and/or alcohol consumption is not possible.

  4. HIV prevention among drug and alcohol users: models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users, as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other parts of the world. Few programs have been implemented in Africa to deal specifically with this issue. Since November 2006, the AED Capable Partners Program in Kenya project has provided technical ...

  5. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  6. [The legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation concerning prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of the laws "On prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania" introduced in some subjects of the Russian Federation (Permskaya, Tomskaya, Murmanskaya oblast, the Republics of Bashkortostan, Mordovia, Buryatia, Mari El, etc.). The laws stipulate the participation of the authorities of public and municipal administration, public health, social protection, home affairs and others in the prevention activities. The integral part of this activity is the approval of corresponding regional programs with adequate financing and coordination. The laws on prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania, adopted in the subjects of the Russian Federation are of advance character and testify the necessity of adoption of relevant Federal law.

  7. The effects of narrative versus non-narrative information in school health education about alcohol drinking for low educated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebregs, Simon; van den Putte, Bas; de Graaf, Anneke; Lammers, Jeroen; Neijens, Peter

    2015-10-23

    Traditionally most health education materials are written in an expository non-narrative format. Scholars have argued that the effectiveness of materials may increase when these texts are replaced by narrative texts, and that the non-narrative texts should be replaced by narrative texts. However, no previous studies have tested these claims in the context of school health education for low educated adolescents. This study aims to do so for an existing preventive health education intervention about alcohol for low educated adolescents. Based on the empirical findings of previous studies, it is expected that the claims about narratives being more effective than non-narrative texts are not true for effects on knowledge. Instead non-narrative texts are expected to have a stronger impact on this outcome variable. For attitude towards alcohol and intention to drink alcohol the claims are expected to be true, because participants are expected to be less aware of the persuasive intent of the narrative texts, which would make them less resistant. As a result, narrative texts are expected to have a stronger effect on attitude and intention. This study compares the effects on knowledge, attitude towards alcohol, and intention to drink alcohol of both information formats in a two-condition (non-narrative vs. narrative information) experiment with repeated measures (pre-measurement, immediate post-measurement, and delayed post-measurement). The experiment was conducted amongst 296 students of the two lowest levels of the Dutch secondary education system. The results showed immediate effects on knowledge and attitude towards alcohol, which did not differ between conditions and school levels. These effects did not persist over time. There were no effects on intention to drink alcohol. It is concluded non-narrative and narrative information are equally effective in the context of school health education, suggesting the claims that scholars have made about the superior effects of

  8. La escuela básica en la prevención del consumo de alcohol y tabaco: retrato de una realidad A escola fundamental na prevenção do consumo de álcool e tabaco: retrato de uma realidade Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Carvajal Chávez

    2005-10-01

    for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66,6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15,6% have experienced alcohol and the 13,4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems.

  9. Development of a student engagement approach to alcohol prevention: the Pragmatics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.

  10. Health Services Research for Drug and Alcohol Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.

  11. [Trans-Cultural Prevention of Alcohol-Related Disorders in Elderly Immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, I; Frank, F

    2015-09-01

    In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba.

  13. Skin preparation with alcohol versus alcohol followed by any antiseptic for preventing bacteraemia or contamination of blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Foxlee, Ruth

    2015-02-12

    Blood for transfusion may become contaminated at any point between collection and transfusion and may result in bacteraemia (the presence of bacteria in the blood), severe illness or even death for the blood recipient. Donor arm skin is one potential source of blood contamination, so it is usual to cleanse the skin with an antiseptic before blood donation. One-step and two-step alcohol based antiseptic regimens are both commonly advocated but there is uncertainty as to which is most effective. To assess the effects of cleansing the skin of blood donors with alcohol in a one-step compared with alcohol in a two-step procedure to prevent contamination of collected blood or bacteraemia in the recipient. In December 2014, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. All randomised trials (RCTs) comparing alcohol based donor skin cleansing in a one-step versus a two-step process that includes alcohol and any other antiseptic for pre-venepuncture skin cleansing were considered. Quasi randomised trials were to have been considered in the absence of RCTs. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. No studies (RCTs or quasi RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. We did not identify any eligible studies for inclusion in this review. It is therefore unclear whether a two-step, alcohol followed by antiseptic skin cleansing process prior to blood donation confers any reduction in the risk of blood contamination or bacteraemia in blood recipients, or conversely whether a one-step process increases risk above that associated with a two-step process.

  14. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  15. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  16. Educators' Perceptions on Bullying Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2017-01-01

    I report on an investigation into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reactions to incidences of bullying, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of a number of bullying prevention strategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions based on findings from previous…

  17. An Ounce of Prevention: Sexual Harassment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna

    1995-01-01

    To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)

  18. Alcohol Storylines in Television Episodes: The Preventive Effect of Countering Epilogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Grube, Joel W; McQuarrie, Edward

    2017-08-01

    This experimental study assessed whether alcohol television storylines impact youth drinking attitudes and intentions and whether corrective epilogues can potentially moderate this impact. Television episodes were professionally produced to depict heavy drinking leading to either positive or negative consequences. The pro- and anti-alcohol episodes were shown alone or with an epilogue where a main character discussed the deleterious effects of excessive drinking. Attitudes toward drinkers and drinking intentions were measured subsequently, along with reactions to the episode and demographic data, among participants aged 14-17 using an online study. Exposure to the pro-alcohol episode was related to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. Including an epilogue after a pro-alcohol episode was related to more negative viewers' attitudes toward drinkers and lower drinking intentions compared to a pro-alcohol episode with no epilogue. By contrast, including an epilogue after an anti-alcohol episode was unrelated to attitudes toward drinkers or drinking intentions. Viewing a single television episode with a pro-alcohol message may lead to more positive attitudes toward drinkers. The finding that a brief epilogue may reduce the impact of the pro-alcohol storyline suggests easily implemented preventive strategies to counter the adverse impact of substance use portrayals in entertainment programming.

  19. Smoking education and prevention: a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Baldwin, A R

    1992-01-01

    A developmental approach to smoking education and prevention for children and adolescents is proposed. Literature is reviewed concerning the most appropriate agent, content, and presentation, of anti-smoking education for each of three age groups: children to age ten, pre/early adolescents eleven to fifteen, and adolescents fifteen to eighteen. For children to age ten, it is suggested that parents are the best agents of education, with teachers, peers, and the mass media, also playing some role. For pre/early adolescents, peers are suggested as the best agents of education, building onto the earlier and ongoing work of the agents mentioned above. For adolescents, the role of the media hero-figure is discussed. It is emphasized that sources of influence may function additively in affecting the child or adolescent's decisions about smoking, and that education in each stage must build on the stage before.

  20. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  1. Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

  2. A Culturally Appropriate Framework for Educating Collegiate International Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    International students enrolling in American universities may receive education on alcohol use because alcohol consumption is a key concern across American colleges and universities. However, general alcohol education often overlooks the specific cultural, language, and learning needs of international students. This article reviews one current…

  3. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  4. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  5. Preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the role of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Deshpande, Sameer; Thurmeier, Robin; Lavack, Anne M; Agrey, Noreen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines health communication campaigns aimed at preventing alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or attempting to become pregnant. Relevant communication materials were gathered and a qualitative review was conducted. A majority of the campaigns followed the tenets of protection motivation theory by focusing on the threat variables of severity and vulnerability, as well as emphasizing response efficacy. Few campaigns focused on costs or self-efficacy. Future fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevention initiatives should attempt to reduce perceived costs, as well as include self-efficacy messages in order to increase women's confidence that they can carry out the recommended actions.

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  9. Educating educators about alcoholism and drug addiction: the role of employee assistance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, N

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of employee assistance programmes (EAPs) from occupational alcoholism programmes is outlined. Services for the three prevention levels of a 'broad brush' programme are described. The 'at-risk' characteristics of academia in potentiating alcoholism and addiction are noted, including several intrinsic characteristics of academics which could predispose to substance abuse. Ways in which EAPs enhance organizational goals are noted and several crucial steps in designing an academic EAP are suggested.

  10. A cross-validation trial of an Internet-based prevention program for alcohol and cannabis: Preliminary results from a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Replication is an important step in evaluating evidence-based preventive interventions and is crucial for establishing the generalizability and wider impact of a program. Despite this, few replications have occurred in the prevention science field. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting a cross-validation trial of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course, an Internet-based prevention program, among a new cohort of Australian students. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 1103 students (Mage: 13.25 years) from 13 schools in Australia in 2012. Six schools received the Climate Schools course and 7 schools were randomized to a control group (health education as usual). All students completed a self-report survey at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Mixed-effects regressions were conducted for all outcome variables. Outcomes assessed included alcohol and cannabis use, knowledge and intentions to use these substances. Compared to the control group, immediately post-intervention the intervention group reported significantly greater alcohol (d = 0.67) and cannabis knowledge (d = 0.72), were less likely to have consumed any alcohol (even a sip or taste) in the past 6 months (odds ratio = 0.69) and were less likely to intend on using alcohol in the future (odds ratio = 0.62). However, there were no effects for binge drinking, cannabis use or intentions to use cannabis. These preliminary results provide some support for the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course as a feasible way of delivering alcohol and cannabis prevention. Intervention effects for alcohol and cannabis knowledge were consistent with results from the original trial; however, analyses of longer-term follow-up data are needed to provide a clearer indication of the efficacy of the intervention, particularly in relation to behavioral changes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. 'Why don’t they just do what we tell them?’ Different alcohol prevention discourses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmeland, Karen; Kolind, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades great focus has been placed on the excessive consumption of alcohol by young Danes. In this connection, Danish parents have been called upon by the national health authorities to function as prevention workers with a view to reducing their children’s alcohol intake. Parallel...... the prevention field: a public alcohol prevention discourse and an everyday discourse, respectively. The analysis is based on alcohol legislation, public health programmes and national alcohol recommendations, as well as on a qualitative study of a special Danish phenomenon: parties for young people organized...... by parents. In the two discourses alcohol consumption is presented differently. However, traditionally liberal Danish alcohol policy plays an important role in both: the central feature of this policy relies on individual control rather than on public regulation....

  12. Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Methods A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC. Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii outside the arenas (≥200 attempts and (iii inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts, and (iv frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts. Discussion There

  13. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm. A complex systems paradigm, grounded in socio-ecological and complex systems theories and computational modeling and simulation, is introduced. Theoretical, conceptual, methodological and analytical underpinnings of this paradigm are described in the context of college drinking prevention research. The proposed complex systems paradigm can transcend limitations of traditional approaches, thereby fostering new directions in alcohol prevention research. By conceptualizing student alcohol misuse as a complex adaptive system, computational modeling and simulation methodologies and analytical techniques can be used. Moreover, use of participatory model-building approaches to generate simulation models can further increase stakeholder buy-in, understanding and policymaking. A complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can provide a holistic understanding of the underlying drinking environment and its long-term trajectory, which can elucidate high-leverage preventive interventions. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Prescription procedures in medication for relapse prevention after inpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Caroline; Moggi, Franz; Giovanoli, Anna; Strik, Werner

    2007-01-01

    In randomized controlled trials with high internal validity, pharmacotherapy using acamprosate, naltrexone, and, to a somewhat lesser extent, disulfiram has proved effective in preventing relapse in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD). There remains, however, a paucity of studies with sufficient external validity in which the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in clinical practice is investigated. This study aimed to make a contribution to close this gap in research. In this naturalistic, prospective study, a comparison on indices of substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and treatment service utilization was carried out using samples of 92 patients who received pharmacotherapy and 323 patients who did not receive pharmacotherapy following discharge from 12 residential AUD programmes (index stay). Patients that received pharmacotherapy were more likely to use alcohol during the index stay and at the 1-year follow-up. Moreover, this patient group more readily utilized treatment services during a 2-year period prior to and a 1-year period following index stay than patients who were not given pharmacotherapy. Nevertheless, when pharmacotherapy was prescribed before first post-treatment alcohol use, it was associated with delay of alcohol use, fewer relapses, and a reduced need for inpatient treatment. In many cases, however, medication was not prescribed until alcohol use and relapse had occurred. The length of time to first alcohol use was longer, and the cumulative abstinence rate higher, for disulfiram than for acamprosate, the latter being generally prescribed for more severely alcohol-dependent patients. There is a need for further studies to probe the reasons why medication for relapse prevention is not prescribed upon discharge from residential treatment and for less severely alcohol-dependent patients.

  15. Community based interventional study to assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himalaya Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.

  16. PEPFAR support of alcohol-HIV prevention activities in Namibia and Botswana: a framework for investigation, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenshaw, M; Deluca, N; Adams, R; Parry, C; Fritz, K; Du Preez, V; Voetsch, K; Lekone, P; Seth, P; Bachanas, P; Grillo, M; Kresina, T F; Pick, B; Ryan, C; Bock, N

    2016-01-01

    The association between harmful use of alcohol and HIV infection is well documented. To address this dual epidemic, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) developed and implemented a multi-pronged approach primarily in Namibia and Botswana. We present the approach and preliminary results of the public health investigative and programmatic activities designed, initiated and supported by PEPFAR to combat the harmful use of alcohol and its association as a driver of HIV morbidity and mortality from 2008 to 2013. PEPFAR supported comprehensive alcohol programming using a matrix model approach that combined the socio-ecological framework and the Alcohol Misuse Prevention and Intervention Continuum. This structure enabled seven component objectives: (1) to quantify harmful use of alcohol through rapid assessments; (2) to develop and evaluate alcohol-based interventions; (3) to promote screening programs and alcohol abuse resource services; (4) to support stakeholder networks; (5) to support policy interventions and (6) structural interventions; and (7) to institutionalize universal prevention messages. Targeted PEPFAR support for alcohol activities resulted in several projects to address harmful alcohol use and HIV. Components are graphically conceptualized within the matrix model, demonstrating the intersections between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities and individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors. Key initiative successes included leveraging alcohol harm prevention activities that enabled projects to be piloted in healthcare settings, schools, communities, and alcohol outlets. Primary challenges included the complexity of multi-sectorial programming, varying degrees of political will, and difficulties monitoring outcomes over the short duration of the program.

  17. The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father

  18. Gaps in clinical prevention and treatment for alcohol use disorders: costs, consequences, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking causes significant morbidity, premature mortality, and other social and economic burdens on society, prompting numerous prevention and treatment efforts to avoid or ameliorate the prevalence of heavy drinking and its consequences. However, the impact on public health of current selective (i.e., clinical) prevention and treatment strategies is unclear. Screening and brief counseling for at-risk drinkers in ambulatory primary care has the strongest evidence for efficacy, and some evidence indicates this approach is cost-effective and reduces excess morbidity and dysfunction. Widespread implementation of screening and brief counseling of nondependent heavy drinkers outside of the medical context has the potential to have a large public health impact. For people with functional dependence, no appropriate treatment and prevention approaches currently exist, although such strategies might be able to prevent or reduce the morbidity and other harmful consequences associated with the condition before its eventual natural resolution. For people with alcohol use disorders, particularly severe and recurrent dependence, treatment studies have shown improvement in the short term. However, there is no compelling evidence that treatment of alcohol use disorders has resulted in reductions in overall disease burden. More research is needed on ways to address functional alcohol dependence as well as severe and recurrent alcohol dependence.

  19. Universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.

  20. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  1. School-Based Programs to Prevent and Reduce Alcohol Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa H.; Neusel, Emily; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Schools are an important setting for interventions aimed at preventing alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. A range of school-based interventions have been developed to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol use, most of which are targeted to middle-school students. Most of these interventions seek to reduce risk factors for alcohol use at the individual level, whereas other interventions also address social and/or environmental risk factors. Not all interventions that have been developed and implemented have been found to be effective. In-depth analyses have indicated that to be most effective, interventions should be theory driven, address social norms around alcohol use, build personal and social skills helping students resist pressure to use alcohol, involve interactive teaching approaches, use peer leaders, integrate other segments of the population into the program, be delivered over several sessions and years, provide training and support to facilitators, and be culturally and developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to develop interventions for elementary-school and high-school students and for special populations. PMID:22330213

  2. [Mindfulness-based-relapse prevention (MBRP): Evaluation of the impact of a group of Mindfulness Therapy in alcohol relapse prevention for alcohol use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, D; Romo, L; Bouthillon-Heitzmann, P; Limosin, F

    2015-12-01

    For several years, the learning of mindfulness has developed in a psychological intervention perspective, particularly in the field of addiction. Presently, the management of addictions with substances is centered on two questions: the motivation in the change of behaviour and in a significant change in alcohol consumption. Concerning alcohol dependence, the evolution of behaviour is variable and characterized by forgiveness episodes and relapses. Over many years, a treatment for the abuse of substance associated with techniques based on full consciousness (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al., 2002) Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) was developed by Marlatt et al. (2011). The prevention of the relapse therapy, based on full consciousness, is a program of eight sessions integrating techniques of "mindfulness" into the techniques of prevention of the relapse. However, not much research has focused on the MBRP, the publication of the manual regarding this intervention is too recent (Bowen S et al., 2011). We are interested in the active mechanisms, which are at stake in the MBRP. Indeed, the meditation acts presents many mechanisms in the addicting disorders. Our non-controlled research was based on a protocol in order to evaluate the alcohol consummation, mindfulness, impulsiveness, automatic thoughts, anxiety and abilities to cope. The first results are interesting: reduction of alcohol consummation, increase of mindfulness, reduction of trigger relapse, increasing cognitive flexibility and high degree of satisfaction among participants. An intervention MBRP was proposed to 26 patients who were assigned to three groups. They were questioned about their alcohol consumption and assessed by a protocol of seven evaluations before and after the group MBRP: Five Facets Mindfulness (FFMQ), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-A, STAI-B), Questionnaire of the automatic thoughts (QPA), and

  3. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-01-01

    Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that

  4. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  5. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  6. The Effects of Education on the Attitudes of Counselors in Training toward Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Pamela Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of education on the attitudes of counselors in training toward alcoholism. Alcoholism is a treatable disease if recognized, properly diagnosed and the appropriate interventions are made available to the alcoholic and their families. There is estimated to be more than two billion people…

  7. Effectiveness of the Sexual Health/Reproductive Health Education Given to Turkey Adolescents Who Use Alcohol or Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Hacer; Kömürcü, Nuran

    The research was conducted experimentally to evaluate the effectiveness of the sexual health/reproductive health (SH/RH) education given to Turkish adolescents who use alcohol or illicit substances. The population was adolescents who use alcohol and substances and were inpatients at the Child and Adolescent Substance Addiction Research, Treatment and Education Center. The adolescents were grouped into the following three groups: Group 1 (control group), Group 2 (those who have received training once), and Group 3 (those who have received training twice). Data were collected between September 2011 and December 2012 using the forms Self-Introduction and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health and Information on Sexual Health-Reproductive Health Education Modules. Upon studying the total SH/RH test scores of the groups individually, a statistically significant difference was observed in the scores of Groups 2 and 3 (p education in a repetitive manner for prevention of risky sexual behavior.

  8. Effective prevention against risky underage drinking--the need for higher excise taxes on alcoholic beverages in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Effertz, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the place of taxation in preventing underage binge drinking in Germany. We reviewed evidence on the role of excise taxes on alcohol in preventing alcohol problems and underage drinking. We analyzed historical German data on tax on alcoholic beverages and compared this with European data, finally calculating tax scenarios and their impact on underage binge drinking. Germany applies lower taxes than many other European countries and alcohol beverage prices have decreased by 30% relative to overall price levels during the last 40 years. An optimal tax rate for reducing underage drinking would be set between the European average tax rates and Scandinavian tax rate levels.

  9. The Impact of an Educational Program in Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems on Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Brazilian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  11. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus be first priority for implementation.

  12. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  13. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  15. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  16. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  17. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marlene M.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A.; Hasken, Julie M.; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Snell, Cudore L.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D. H.; May, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  18. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  19. Young People and Alcohol--Where's the Risk? Changing the Focus of School-Based Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Research statistics highlighting the social costs of widespread excessive alcohol consumption have led to a proliferation of school-based prevention programmes that aim to give young people the skills and knowledge necessary to resist social pressure to drink alcohol and avoid potentially "risky" consumption. Such interventions offer,…

  20. State of the art and setting priorities for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder(s) prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, Sylvia; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo; Townend, David; Koek, Ger; Nijhuis, Jan; Curfs, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term for one of the leading preventable forms of mental retardation affecting individuals and societies worldwide. Alcohol and its interference with the development of the fetus and child are complex and highly variable. The aim of

  1. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  2. A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: moving toward environmental management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M

    2002-03-01

    This article outlines a typology of programs and policies for preventing and treating campus-based alcohol-related problems, reviews recent case studies showing the promise of campus-based environmental management strategies and reports findings from a national survey of U.S. colleges and universities about available resources for pursuing environmentally focused prevention. The typology is grounded in a social ecological framework, which recognizes that health-related behaviors are affected through multiple levels of influence: intrapersonal (individual) factors, interpersonal (group) processes, institutional factors, community factors and public policy. The survey on prevention resources and activities was mailed to senior administrators responsible for their school's institutional response to substance use problems. The study sample was an equal probability sample of 365 2- and 4-year U.S. campuses. The response rate was 76.9%. Recent case studies suggest the value of environmentally focused alcohol prevention approaches on campus, but more rigorous research is needed to establish their effectiveness. The administrators' survey showed that most U.S. colleges have not yet installed the basic infrastructure required for developing, implementing and evaluating environmental management strategies. The typology of campus-based prevention options can be used to categorize current efforts and to inform strategic planning of multilevel interventions. Additional colleges and universities should establish a permanent campus task force that reports directly to the president, participate actively in a campus-community coalition that seeks to change the availability of alcohol in the local community and join a state-level association that speaks out on state and federal policy issues.

  3. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  4. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  5. Impact of the CHOICES Intervention in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; Nelson, Morgan E; Jensen, Jamie L; Willman, Amy; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Ingersoll, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise a continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although studies have shown no differences in rates by race, FASD is of particular concern for American Indian communities. One tribally run prevention program is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, which is modeled after the evidence-based CHOICES program that was focused on preconceptional prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) by reducing risky drinking in women at risk for pregnancy and/or preventing unintended pregnancy. The OST CHOICES Program was made culturally appropriate for American Indian women and implemented with 3 communities, 2 on the reservation and 1 off. Data on drinking, sexual activity, and contraception use were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and a random intercept generalized estimating equation model. A total of 193 nonpregnant American Indian women enrolled in the OST CHOICES Program, and all were at risk for AEP because of binge drinking and being at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Fifty-one percent of participants completed both 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Models showed a significant decrease in AEP risk from baseline at both 3- and 6-month follow-ups, indicating the significant impact of the OST CHOICES intervention. Women in the OST CHOICES Program were more likely to reduce their risk for AEP by utilizing contraception, rather than decreasing binge drinking. Even with minor changes to make the CHOICES intervention culturally and linguistically appropriate and the potential threats to program validity those changes entail, we found a significant impact in reducing AEP risk. This highlights the capacity for the CHOICES intervention to be implemented in a wide variety of settings and populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Stakeholders' opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process

  7. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  8. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Russell Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors.

  10. Alcohol use and the wage returns to education and work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Hinde, Jesse M; Aldridge, Arnie P

    2018-02-01

    Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment have also failed to find a consistent, negative effect of alcohol use on years of education. Thus, the connections between alcohol use, human capital, and wages remain a topic of debate in the literature. In this study, we use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a theoretical model of wage determination that links alcohol use to wages via human capital. We find that nonbinge drinking is associated with lower wage returns to education whereas binge drinking is associated with increased wage returns to both education and work experience. We interpret these counterintuitive results as evidence that alcohol use affects wages through both the allocative and productive efficiency of human capital formation and that these effects operate in offsetting directions. We suggest that alcohol control policies should be more nuanced to target alcohol consumption in the contexts within which it causes harm. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Peer Education in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.

    2013-01-01

    Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  13. Binge Alcohol Exposure Transiently Changes the Endocannabinoid System: A Potential Target to Prevent Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Liput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.

  14. Representational comparisons of health education for alcoholics: a study of AnCo-networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Lívio Ribeiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the advancement of alcoholism on the population has already been characterized as a serious public health problem, requiring the development of actions and strategies to reduce the vulnerability of these individuals. Objective: To know the social representations from the inducer term "health education for alcoholics", and also to identify sociodemographic and defining characteristics about alcohol consumption. Method: this is a mixed approach of research, a type of transversal, census and exploratory, which included 121 students. We used the use of technique of free evocation of words to inducing term "Health education for alcoholics", and a questionnaire that identifies the aspects related to alcohol consumption and social issues involved. Results: 56.2% of people have consumed alcohol, and 37.2% live with people that consume alcohol daily, and when asked about the knowledge of the parents towards the consumption of alcohol 46.3% respond positively, and 62.8% dialogue before the consummation, they were identified as core words: help, support groups, lectures or family. Conclusion: Health education as practice should be represented by care networks in mental health of the Unified Health System - SUS, which are responsible for activities that provide reeducation to alcoholics, involving the family in the context.

  15. Modifying alcohol expectancies of Hispanic children: examining the effects of expectancy-targeted, developmentally congruous prevention videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Allison; Lisman, Stephen A; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-03-01

    Children's expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption are known to predict the amount of alcohol they consume as adults. Previous research has used videotaped interventions to modify children's alcohol expectancies and found that puppet actors had the expected effect of decreasing children's positive alcohol expectancies, whereas adult actors did not. The current study sought to enhance the methods and outcomes of previous research by developing brief prevention videos that focus on pre-selected negative and sedating alcohol expectancies and include youth actors and age-relevant scenarios. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design (actor's age [youth or adult] × scenario relevance [youth or adult]), we examined the alcohol expectancies of 183 Hispanic third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students (50% girls) in a public school setting. Expectancies were assessed before, immediately following the intervention, and 1 month later. The intervention consisted of four 8-minute videos based on beliefs associated with expectancies related to low alcohol consumption and a control group video about school bus safety. Positive alcohol expectancies were significantly lower directly after the intervention than at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, this effect decreased but was still significant. The current study adds to existing findings that expectancies can be modified in children, using interventions that are extremely brief, low-cost, and linked to research in children's cognitive and social development. In addition, it appears that children of different ages and genders respond differently to varying components of prevention media.

  16. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  17. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  18. Directory of Academic Institutions and Organizations Offering Drug, Alcohol, and Employee Assistance Program Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This directory lists academic institutions, State offices of alcohol and drug abuse, and national organizations which offer drug, alcohol, and employee assistance program (EAP) educational resources. A matrix format is used. Entries include name, address, telephone number, and contact person. A dot appears directly under column headings which are…

  19. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  20. Community based interventional study to assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himalaya Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult to understand or restrain their use. Apart from the health concerns, chronic alcoholism is one of the greatest causes for poverty in the country. Objective: To assess the impact of health education on alcohol use among adult males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based interventional study conducted in the Bareilly district among males aged >15 years during November 2015 to April 2017 taking a sample of 699 by 30 cluster sampling with PPS. Data was collected by home visit using WHO-AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. After data collection, health education was given to study population in form of speech, posters, short films and focus group discussion. One year after providing health education, AUDIT questionnaire was re-filled by current alcohol drinkers to know the impact of health education. Results: Prevalence of drinking alcohol is 30.47% i.e. 213 current drinkers. AUDIT Scores before and after Health education were positively correlated (r=.768, p=0.0001. There was a significant average difference between AUDIT Scores before and after Health education (t178=2.973, p=0.003. Conclusion: Health education has a positive impact on alcohol use therefore research focus should be on primary prevention by health education/behaviour change communication in primary and secondary care settings.

  1. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  2. Preventing Alcohol Abuse Through Social Networking Sites: A First Assessment of a Two-Year Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaudias, Valentin; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Boudesseul, Jordane; Begue, Laurent; Bouthier, Renaud; Lévrier, Christel; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Brousse, Georges

    2015-12-10

    Prevention strategies to reduce alcohol use/consumption among young people are crucial to reducing alcohol-related deaths and preventing disease. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS) alcohol prevention program targeted toward young people. We hypothesized that the program would diminish the relation made by participants between alcohol and festive moments, and would result in a reduction of their declared consumption of alcohol at festive moments during the program. We also explored the interaction with the prevention program that was the most efficient. The prevention program took the form of 3 lotteries over 2 years. The participants periodically received prevention messages, particularly on alcohol and festive moments (eg, videos on Facebook and short message service [SMS] text messages on their mobile phones). For the 3 periods, the participants had to answer questions exploring the level of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are highly associated. A control group that did not participate in the prevention program was asked the same questions over the same number of days for the first 2 periods. During the second period, the participants were asked to answer questions about their alcohol consumption during parties. During the third period, we explored the interaction with the prevention program on the reduction of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are associated. A total of 651 participants (age: mean 22.24, SD 4.10 years; women: n=430) during the first period, 301 participants (age: mean 21.27, SD 3.07 years; women n=199) during the second period, and 305 (age: mean 22.41, SD 4.65 years; women: n=190) during the third period correctly completed the survey. For the control group, 69 students completed the survey during the first period (age: mean 18.93, SD 1.14 years; women: n=59) and 50 during the second (age: mean 20.78, SD 1.94 years; women: n=45). We observed a significant

  3. Drama-based education to motivate participation in substance abuse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Amura

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing

  4. Educational differences in excessive alcohol consumption: the role of psychosocial and material stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droomers, M.; Schrijvers, C. T.; Stronks, K.; van de Mheen, D.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health are determined mainly by socioeconomic differences in unhealthy behavior. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms that account for socioeconomic differences in unhealthy behavior, such as excessive alcohol consumption. In this paper we examined educational

  5. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  6. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  7. Effectiveness of the home-based alcohol prevention program "In control: No alcohol!": study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, children start to drink at an early age; of the Dutch 12-year olds, 40% reports lifetime alcohol use, while 9.7% reports last-month drinking. Starting to drink at an early age puts youth at risk of developing several alcohol-related problems later in life. Recently, a

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  9. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and prevention of relapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maurizio A; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Avanzi, Giancarlo; Brambilla, Romeo; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2010-02-17

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption may lead to dependence, and to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in case of abrupt drinking cessation. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can prevent and suppress withdrawal symptoms, and improve the medium-term abstinence rate. A clear balance between effectiveness and harmfulness has not been yet established. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of GHB for treatment of AWS and prevention of relapse We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (October 2008), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (January 2005 - October 2008), EconLIT (1969 to February 2008), reference list of retrieved articles Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Controlled Prospective Studies (CPS) evaluating the efficacy and the safety of GHB vs placebo or other pharmacological treatments. Three authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of studies. Thirteen RCTs were included. Eleven studies were conducted in Italy.For withdrawal syndrome, comparing GHB 50mg with placebo, results from 1 study, 23 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: WMD -12.1 (95% CI, -15.9 to -8.29) and side effects were more frequent in the placebo group: RR 16.2 (95% CI, 1.04 to 254.9).In the comparison with Chlormetiazole, for GHB 50mg, results from 1 study, 21 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: MD -3.40 (95% CI -5.09 to -1.71), for GHB 100mg, results from 1 study, 98 participants favour anticonvulsants for side effects: RR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.85).At mid-term, comparing GHB with placebo, results favour GHB for abstinence rate (RR 5.35; 1.28-22.4), controlled drinking (RR 2.13; 1.07-5.54), relapses (RR 0.36; 0.21-0.63), and number of daily drinks (WMD -4.60; -6.18 to -3.02). GHB performed better than NTX and Disulfiram on abstinence (RR 2.59; 1.35-4.98, RR 1.66; 0.99-2.80 respectively). The association of GHB and NTX was better than NTX on abstinence (RR 12.2; 1.79-83.9), as well was the association of NTX, GHB and

  10. Prevention at school level. Chile: "Education for prevention and non-discrimination".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in Chile has adopted a policy that guarantees the right of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be educated. The document, "Educational policy and sexuality," recommends incorporating sex education and AIDS prevention into the school curriculum. In San Bernardo, where one child was not accepted at school, a project, "Education for prevention and non-discrimination," was announced by municipal authorities. Students in public and private schools in the country have been trained as monitors who, in the school environment, educate other children about AIDS. In Santiago, seminars that cover fear of AIDS have begun for teachers, many of whom are afraid. Working groups are being considered for development and communication of prevention strategies in schools.

  11. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  12. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  13. Violence prevention in special education schools - an integrated practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Grytnes, Regine; Andersen, Lars Peter S

    2018-06-01

    Research has shown that employees in special education settings are at high risk for work-related threats and violence. Previous research has not yet been able to identify the essential components of training programs that offer protection from work-related threats and violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how employees in special education schools deal with prevention of work-related threats and violence. Group interviews were conducted with 14 employees working at 5 special education schools. Results show that employees use a wide range of prevention strategies drawing on specific violence prevention techniques as well as professional pedagogical approaches. We propose that the prevention of threats and violence in special education schools can be understood as an integrated pedagogical practice operating on three interrelated levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  15. Measuring and preventing alcohol use and related harm among young people in Asian countries: a thematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  16. Extremism among young people and its prevention in educational organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Kirsanov,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of a survey of 50 experts – representatives of educational institutions of Moscow, district education authorities and the staff of the juvenile justice system. We note that the researchers often miss the opinion of the subjects of preventive work. Expert survey allowed to specify the conditions and behavioral manifestations of contemporary youth extremism, rank his psychological reasons, summarize the available methods and forms of prevention. We show the basic extremist ideas that are common among young people, and extremists speech features. The study revealed the understanding by the subjects of the preventive work of the “extremism” concept content, of goals and mechanisms of prevention, shows the typical difficulties in this work. The results can be used to search for new and more effective forms of prevention and improving the organization of preventive work in general.

  17. Alcohol prevention on college campuses: the moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2011-03-01

    Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.

  18. Youth, terrorism and education: Britain’s Prevent programme

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated ‘Prevent’, a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which Prevent has approached young Muslims and their educational institutions. The article argues that, rather than trust in broader and non-stigmatising processes of...

  19. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  20. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...

  1. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  2. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Coelho, A.M.M. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xerfan, M.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cogliati, B. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbeiro, D.F. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazo, D.F.C. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kubrusly, M.S.; D' Albuquerque, L.A.C. [Disciplina de Transplante de Órgãos do Aparelho Digestivo (LIM-37), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, H.P. [Disciplina de Emergências Clínicas (LIM-51), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P. [Disciplina de Gastroenterologia Clínica (LIM-07), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1} by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH.

  3. Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

  4. Optimal timing of wildfire prevention education

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. T. Butry; J. P. Prestemon; K. L. Abt

    2010-01-01

    Public outreach and wildfire education activities have been shown to limit the number of unintentional human-caused ignitions (i.e., 'accidental' wildfires). Such activities include the airing of public service announcements, visiting with homeowners in at-risk areas, distributing informative brochures and flyers, hosting of public forums (with presentations...

  5. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  6. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  8. Thiamine for prevention and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in people who abuse alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ed; Bentham, Peter W; Callaghan, Rhiannon; Kuruvilla, Tarun; George, Sanju

    2013-07-01

    Autopsy studies suggest that Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is not a rare disorder, particularly in individuals who abuse alcohol. Thiamine has been established as the treatment of choice for over 50 years, but uncertainty remains about appropriate dosage and duration. Current practice guidelines are based on case reports and clinical experience. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and last updated in 2008. • To assess the efficacy of thiamine in preventing and treating the manifestations of WKS due to excess alcohol consumption. • To determine the optimum form, dose and duration of thiamine treatment for this indication. ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched on 6 September 2012 using the term thiamine OR aneurine. ALOIS contains records from all major health care databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources. Any randomised trials comparing thiamine with alternative interventions or comparing different thiamine regimens (varying in formulation, dose or duration of administration). All abstracts were independently inspected by two reviewers (ED and PWB), and relevant articles were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality using criteria provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, but only one contained sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Ambrose (2001) randomly assigned participants (n = 107) to one of five doses of intramuscular thiamine and measured outcomes after 2 days of treatment. We compared the lowest dose (5 mg/day) with each of the other four doses. A significant difference favoured 200 mg/day compared with the 5-mg/day dose in determining the number of trials needed to meet inclusion criteria

  9. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  10. Effects on alcohol use of a Swedish school-based prevention program for early adolescents: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Beckman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention. Methods Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils and three control schools (159 pupils participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13. We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT Difference-in-Difference (DD model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9. Results The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication. Conclusions The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.

  11. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es

  12. Practice education in the chronicles conditions prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Ferreira dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2016v13n24p138 This article reports experiences of undergraduates and university teatchers with the community in an extension project developed from March to December of 2015. In this article, the practices of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Diseases and Obesity were discussed, with guidelines and demonstrations for the population at school, restaurant and university. The interventions were initiated by talking with the participants about means of prevention, reduction of diseases, healthy recipes and modifications in the habits of life. Practices to combat hypertension and diabetes have addressed ways to minimize diseases through eating and the ones to combat obesity and cardiovascular diseases were performed through dynamics. The practices revealed public interest in changing lifestyles and brought to extensionists practical knowledge, because they were able to put into practice content learned in class, which is one of the objectives of university extension.

  13. Análisis prospectivo de la enseñanza de prevención de consumo de alcohol y salud reproductiva en facultades/escuelas de educación de Lima-Perú. 2003-2004 Análise prospectiva do ensino de prevenção do uso de álcool e saúde reprodutiva nas faculdades/escolas de educação em Pima-Peru. 2003-2004 Prospective analysis of teaching on alcohol use prevention and reproductive health at educational institutions in Lima-Peru. 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Díaz

    2005-10-01

    ção de perspectivas e ações tradicionais.This study deals with the teaching of contents related to alcohol use prevention and reproductive health at 4 Education Schools/Colleges in Lima-Peru. 123 persons participated: teaching authorities, faculty, students and ex-students. The instrument for data collection and prospective analysis was elaborated and validated by the Pan-American Health Organization and adapted to this study. 40 indicators were selected for reproductive health and 32 for alcohol use prevention, which were distributed into 4 basic elements: context, structure, function and comprehensiveness, each of which were submitted to three scenarios, whose situations were defined in a continuum from stability to transformation. In view of these scenario, the results indicate moderate changes to different extents in the indicators (and consequently in the two subject areas, which were present across the 4 elements, in spite of a tendency towards stability that represents the maintenance of traditional perspectives and actions.

  14. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  15. HIV prevention and education in state prison systems: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.

  16. Plagiarism detection and prevention techniques in engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Halak, Basel; El-Hajjar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism seriously damages the education process in a number of ways; it prevents students from developing the skills of creative thinking and critical analysis; it undermines the trust between lectures and students, and if goes undetected, it can impact the reputation of the academic institution and devalue its degrees. In this paper, we present two techniques for plagiarism detection and prevention. The first method is based on the allocation of a unique assignment for each student, and t...

  17. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  18. EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS TO PREVENT DENGUE: EXPERIENCES AND STRATEGIES WITH ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.

  19. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans.

  20. Assessing the Usability of Web-Based Alcohol Education for Older Adults: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Arlene; Kwan, Lorna; Osterweil, Dan; Van Draanen, Jenna; Cooke, Alexis; Beck, John C

    2016-02-01

    Older adults can experience unfavorable health effects from drinking at relatively low consumption levels because of age-related physiological changes and alcohol's potentially adverse interactions with declining health, increased medication-use and diminishing functional status. At the same time, alcohol use in older adults may be protective against heart disease, stroke, and other disorders associated with aging. We developed "A Toast to Health in Later Life! Wise Drinking as We Age," a web-based educational intervention to teach older adults to balance drinking risks and benefits. To examine the intervention's feasibility in a sample of community-dwelling current drinkers ≥55 years of age and examine its effects on their quantity and frequency of alcohol use, adherence to standard drinking guidelines, and alcohol-related risks. Participants were recruited in person, by mail and by telephone between September and October 2014 from a community-based social services organization serving Los Angeles County. Once enrolled, participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a control group. The conceptual frameworks for the intervention were the Health Belief Model, models of adult learning, and the US Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for designing easy-to-use websites. The intervention's content focuses on the relationship between drinking and its effects on older adults' medical conditions, use of medications, and ability to perform daily activities. It also addresses quantity and frequency of alcohol use, drinking and driving and binge drinking. The control group did not receive any special intervention. Data on alcohol use and risks for both groups came from the online version of the Alcohol-Related Problems Survey and were collected at baseline and four weeks later. Data on usability were collected online from the intervention group immediately after it completed its review of the website. The 49 intervention and 47 control

  1. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  3. Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Leckenby, Nicola; Quigg, Zara; Hardcastle, Katherine; Sharples, Olivia; Llewellyn, David J

    2014-05-01

    By measuring alcohol retailers' propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problematic (PMP) bars. 83.6% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale of alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated actor. Alcohol sales increased with the number of PMP markers bars had, yet even in those with no markers, 66.7% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale. Bar servers often recognised signs of drunkenness in actors, but still served them. In 18% of alcohol sales, servers attempted to up-sell by suggesting actors purchase double rather than single vodkas. UK law preventing sales of alcohol to drunks is routinely broken in nightlife environments, yet prosecutions are rare. Nightlife drunkenness places enormous burdens on health and health services. Preventing alcohol sales to drunks should be a public health priority, while policy failures on issues, such as alcohol pricing, are revisited.

  4. Educational strategies for the prevention of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulo Machado

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Method: PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. Results: A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369, arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200, and obesity (OBES, n=970. The number of free full text articles available was 1,075 (DM = 276, ASH = 118 and OBES = 681. In most of these studies, demographic characteristics such as gender and age were randomized, and the population mainly composed by students, ethnic groups, family members, pregnant, health or education professionals, patients with chronic diseases (DM, ASH, OBES or other comorbidities. Group dynamics, physical activity practices, nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops were the main intervention strategies used. Conclusion: The most efficient interventions occurred at community level, whenever the intervention was permanent or maintained for long periods, and relied on the continuous education of community health workers that had a constant interference inside the population covered. Many studies focused their actions in children and adolescents, especially on students, because they were more influenced by educational activities of prevention, and the knowledge acquired by them would spread more easily to their family and to society.

  5. The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Marie A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant

  6. Comparison of Two Educational Strategies in Teaching Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; And Others

    This study assessed the impact of two educational strategies: text only versus text plus small group discussion, among two groups of third-year internal medicine clerkship students in a preventive cardiology course. The course was a required, 12-week Internal Medical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch. The first group reviewed…

  7. Educators' perceptions on bullying prevention strategies | de Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I rep ort on an inve stigatio n into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reaction s to incidences of b ullying, and the ir perceptions of the effectiveness of a number o f bul lying prevention s trategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions ...

  8. Influence of Health Education on Prevention of Drug Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse. 192 adolescents comprising of male and females, randomly selected from two secondary schools and a university were used as sample with ages ranging from 12-22years with a mean of 17years. The questionnaire ...

  9. Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Education for Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…

  10. Evaluation of US Veterans Nutrition Education for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Megan; Braun, Katie; List, Riesa; Utech, Anne; Moore, Carolyn; White, Donna L; Garcia, Jose M

    2016-09-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions for diabetes prevention. Retrospective cohort design. Tertiary-care US Veterans' Hospital, July 2007 to July 2012, using pre-existing database. Prediabetic, adult veterans (n = 372), mostly men (94.4%, n = 351). Visits with existing nutrition education classes were collected. diabetes status; predictors: visits/encounters, age, body mass index, weight change, and hemoglobin A1c. Cox proportional hazards method, χ(2) test, and logistic regression. In this sample, prediabetic veterans who received nutrition education were less likely to develop diabetes when compared with prediabetic veterans who did not receive nutrition education (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.92; P Nutrition education was significantly associated with preventing the progression from prediabetes to diabetes in US Veterans participating in a nutrition education intervention at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  11. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  12. Disability and Health Implications: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines the impact of alcohol and other drug use in creating an unhealthy lifestyle for individuals with disabilities and placing them at risk for health and medical problems. The negative effects of even moderate amounts of alcohol are noted, and the hindering of rehabilitation efforts when a person with a disability is using…

  13. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  14. Early detection and prevention of adolescent alcohol use: Parenting and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health concern over the past decade. This alcohol use is associated with various other problems, therefore it is important to detect at-risk adolescents as a starting point for interventions. The main aim of this thesis is to identify

  15. Alcohol-induced retrograde memory impairment in rats: prevention by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Michael J; Woodlee, Martin T; Feinberg, Leila M; Stroud, Chris; Schallert, Kellan; Cormack, Lawrence K; Schallert, Timothy

    2008-12-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, often used in the same setting. Animal models may help to understand the conditions under which incidental memories formed just before ethanol intoxication might be lost or become difficult to retrieve. Ethanol-induced retrograde amnesia was investigated using a new odor-recognition test. Rats thoroughly explored a wood bead taken from the cage of another rat, and habituated to this novel odor (N1) over three trials. Immediately following habituation, rats received saline, 25 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (a seizure-producing agent known to cause retrograde amnesia) to validate the test, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol. The next day, they were presented again with N1 and also a bead from a new rat's cage (N2). Rats receiving saline or the lower dose of ethanol showed overnight memory for N1, indicated by preferential exploration of N2 over N1. Rats receiving pentylenetetrazol or the higher dose of ethanol appeared not to remember N1, in that they showed equal exploration of N1 and N2. Caffeine (5 mg/kg), delivered either 1 h after the higher dose of ethanol or 20 min prior to habituation to N1, negated ethanol-induced impairment of memory for N1. A combination of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, mimicking two major mechanisms of action of caffeine, likewise prevented the memory impairment, though either drug alone had no such effect. Binge alcohol can induce retrograde, caffeine-reversible disruption of social odor memory storage or recall.

  16. Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink with Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…

  17. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…

  19. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, A.

    2011-01-01

    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  20. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, A. [COMSATS Inst. of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Meteorology; Tariq, S. [Department of Meteorology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  1. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  2. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific

  3. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voogt Carmen V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. Methods/design The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention or control condition (n = 375: no intervention. Primary outcomes measures will be: 1 the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2 reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3 frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. Discussion This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971

  4. The effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voogt, Carmen V; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex A C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-06-15

    The serious negative health consequences of heavy drinking among adolescents is cause for concern, especially among adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. In the Netherlands, there is a lack of alcohol prevention programs directed to the drinking patterns of this specific target group. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that aims to reduce alcohol use among heavy drinking adolescents aged 15 to 20 years with a low educational background. The effectiveness of the What Do You Drink (WDYD) web-based brief alcohol intervention will be tested among 750 low-educated, heavy drinking adolescents. It will use a two-arm parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial. Classes of adolescents from educational institutions will be randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 375: web-based brief alcohol intervention) or control condition (n = 375: no intervention). Primary outcomes measures will be: 1) the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking, 2) reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption, and 3) frequency of binge drinking. The secondary outcome measures include the alcohol-related cognitions, attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective norms, which will be measured at baseline and at one and six months after the intervention. This study protocol presents the study design of a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the WDYD web-based brief alcohol intervention. We hypothesized a reduction in mean weekly alcohol consumption and in the frequency of binge drinking in the experimental condition, resulting from the web-based brief alcohol intervention, compared to the control condition. Netherlands Trial Register NTR2971.

  5. The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality for HIV patients. In South Africa, with the largest ART programme globally, attention is needed not only on the further expansion of ART coverage, but also on factors which undermine its effectiveness, such as alcohol use.Objective: Given the decentralised approach of nurse-initiated and -sustained ART in the South African primary health sector, it is important to document key aspects of alcohol use to be conveyed to HIV-positive individuals and those at risk for HIV.Method: This study comprised a narrative review of relevant literature.Results: Alcohol acts through both behavioural and physiological pathways to impact on the acquisition, further transmission and then progression of HIV disease. Besides links to risky sex, alcohol undermines the immune system, raising susceptibility to contracting and then countering HIV and other infections. There are important drug interactions between alcohol and ART, or therapies for opportunistic infections and other co-morbidities. Moreover, alcohol undermines adherence to the medication which is essential for effective ART.Conclusion: Primary healthcare clinic attendees need evidence-based information on the detrimental effects of alcohol consumption on HIV infection, which ensue throughout the clinical course of HIV. This spans the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for HIV infection, HIV replication in infected individuals, a person’s response to HIV infection and HIV treatment. Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses and HIV counsellors, require training in order to screen for and provide appropriate interventions for HIV-positive patients, those on treatment and treatment-naïve patients, who will benefit from reduced alcohol consumption or the cessation thereof.

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  7. Patient education for alcohol cessation intervention at the time of acute fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Egholm, Julie Weber; Oppedal, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , preoperative alcohol cessation interventions can reduce postoperative complications, but no studies have investigated the effect of alcohol cessation intervention at the time of acute fracture surgery. This protocol describes a randomised clinical trial that aims to evaluate the effect of a new gold standard...... at university hospitals in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Included patients will be randomly allocated to either standard care or the gold standard programme aimed at complete alcohol abstinence before, during and 6 weeks after surgery. It includes a structured patient education programme and weekly interventions...... and follow-up visits. Follow-up assessments will be conducted 6 weeks and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery for all patients. The effect of the gold standard programme will be assessed comparing the outcome measures between the intervention and control group at each follow-up point. DISCUSSION: The study...

  8. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-03-01

    To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention, combined parent-student intervention, and control group. 152 classes of 19 high schools in The Netherlands (2006). Moderators at baseline (adolescent: gender, educational level and externalizing behavior; parent: educational level and heavy alcohol use) were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 22-month follow-up. The combined intervention effectively delayed the onset of weekly drinking in the general population of adolescents, and was particularly effective in delaying the onset of heavy weekly drinking in a higher-risk subsample of adolescents (i.e. those attending lower levels of education and reporting higher levels of externalizing behavior). Present and previous results have established the combined intervention to be universally effective in postponing weekly alcohol use among Dutch adolescents, with an added effect on postponing heavy weekly drinking in high risk subgroups. Therefore, implementation of this intervention in the general population of schools in The Netherlands is advised. NTR649. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Education of healthcare professionals for preventing pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Armstrong, Alison P; Moore, Zena Eh; Bradbury, Ian; McDonough, Suzanne

    2018-05-25

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores or pressure sores, are localised areas of tissue damage arising due to excess pressure and shearing forces. Education of healthcare staff has been recognised as an integral component of pressure ulcer prevention. These educational programmes are directed towards influencing behaviour change on the part of the healthcare professional, to encourage preventative practices with the aim of reducing the incidence of pressure ulcer development. To assess the effects of educational interventions for healthcare professionals on pressure ulcer prevention. In June 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, that evaluated the effect of any educational intervention delivered to healthcare staff in any setting to prevent pressure ulceration. Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of the studies identified by the search strategy for eligibility. We obtained full versions of potentially relevant studies and two authors independently screened these against the inclusion criteria. We identified five studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review: four RCTs and one cluster-RCT. The study characteristics differed in terms of healthcare settings, the nature of the interventions studied and outcome measures reported. The cluster-RCT, and two of the RCTs, explored the effectiveness of education delivered to healthcare staff within residential or nursing

  10. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT: brief interventions in routine care pathway – a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Rama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG and an Expert Reference Group (ERG. Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.

  11. A cluster randomized trial of alcohol prevention in small businesses: a cascade model of help seeking and risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G Shawn; Bennett, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    The current study adapted two workplace substance abuse prevention programs and tested a conceptual model of workplace training effects on help seeking and alcohol consumption. Questionnaires were collected 1 month before, 1 month after, and 6 months within a cluster randomized field experiment. Texas small businesses in construction, transportation, and service industries. A total of 1510 employees from 45 businesses were randomly assigned to receive no training or one of the interventions. The interventions were 4-hour on-the-job classroom trainings that encouraged healthy lifestyles and seeking professional help (e.g., from the Employee Assistance Program [EAP]). The Team Awareness Program focused on peer referral and team building. The Choices in Health Promotion Program delivered various health topics based on a needs assessment. Questionnaires measured help-seeking attitudes and behavior, frequency of drinking alcohol, and job-related incidents. Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses of covariance were computed. Relative to the control group, training was associated with significantly greater reductions in drinking frequency, willingness to seek help, and seeking help from the EAP. After including help-seeking attitudes as a covariate, the correlation between training and help seeking becomes nonsignificant. Help-seeking behavior was not correlated with drinking frequency. Training improved help-seeking attitudes and behaviors and decreased alcohol risks. The reductions in drinking alcohol were directly correlated with training and independent from help seeking.

  12. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program1234

    OpenAIRE

    Crandall, Jill P; Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes.

  13. THE PREVENTION OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER: THE NEED FOR A COORDINATED SERVICE BY ROLE PLAYERS IN THE WINE PRODUCING AREAS IN THE BREEDE RIVER VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries, Marlene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS is seen as the leading preventable birth defect in the western world (May, Miller, Goodhart, Maestas, Buckley, Trujillo & Gossage, 2007. FAS is the severe end of a spectrum of effects caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy and is characterised by unique facial features, growth retardation and developmental delays (May, Gossage, Marais, Adnams, Hoyme, Jones, Robinson, Khaole, Snell, Kalberg, Hendricks, Brooke, Stellavato & Viljoen, 2007; Urban, Chersich, Fourie, Chetty, Olivier & Viljoen, 2008. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has physical, behavioural and mental consequences for the developing fetus. These effects last throughout the lifespan of the individual with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD

  14. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents’ education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father’s education level, mother’s education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother’s education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father’s education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%–75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance. PMID:28316252

  15. DECS tries out instructional materials on AIDS prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level. full text

  16. How Social Reactions to Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected by Gender, Relationship, and Drinking Purposes: Implications for Education to Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M; Ding, Lanyan; Shell, Duane F; Lin, Lida

    2017-06-09

    Alcohol-related facial flushing is a sign of compromised alcohol metabolism and increased risk of certain cancers. This project examined how facial flushing might be used to reduce alcohol use to lower cancer risks. Interviews with Chinese university students identified gender, friendship, and drinking purpose as important variables related to whether someone would encourage a person who flushes when drinking alcohol to stop or reduce their drinking. A questionnaire was developed that incorporated these variables into 24 drinking scenarios in which someone flushed while drinking. Students responded whether they would (a) encourage the flusher to stop or drink less; (b) do nothing while wishing they could; or (c) do nothing because there was no need. Analysis of survey responses from 2912 university students showed a three-way interaction of the variables and implied that the probability students will intervene when a drinker flushes was highest when the flusher was a female, a close friend, and the drinking purpose was for fun and lowest if the flusher was a male, the friendship was general, and the drinking purpose was risky. The results provide important details about the social factors affecting how other people respond to a person who flushes when drinking alcohol. This information is useful for those considering ways to reduce and prevent aerodigestive cancers through education and information programs.

  17. Memory game as educative strategy for preventing enteroparasitosis: experience report

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuella Silva Joventino; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Raul Feitoza Rogério; Thaís Marques Lima; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Lorena Barbosa Ximenes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of nursing students in education interaction with preschoolers’ caregivers as far as prevention of enteroparasitosis in preschoolers is concerned.This is a descriptive study, like a reporting experience. This activity counted with the participation of 09 caregivers, in the months of June and October 2006. The group had active participation in the experiment and the knowledge shared from a Giant Memory Game with pictures dealing with the...

  18. Three-Frames Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Quasi-Experimental Educational Intervention among Civil Servants in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogban E. Omoronyia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have continued to be a leading cause of death among adults. Civil servants constitute vital workforce, and high CVD burden in this group has implications for national productivity. Unfortunately, guided cardiovascular health education interventions are uncommon. This study assessed the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and practice of CVD prevention among Nigerian civil servants. Quasi-experimental study design was employed among subjects in distant communities in Cross River State. Multistage technique was used to recruit 172 subjects into one control group (Ogoja and two intervention groups (Calabar and Ikom. The first intervention group received 4-h daily, 5-day cardiovascular health education, with emphasis on burden, risk factors, and preventive measures including nutrition, stress, alcohol, medicals, exercise, and smoking. The second intervention group received the same content of education, but with the use of Food, Rest for stress management, Alcohol, Medicals, Exercise, and Smoking (FRAMES as guide for delivery. Questionnaires were used to assess knowledge and practice at baseline and post-intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Knowledge scores and practice of CVD prevention were compared between study groups using inferential statistics. Mean age was 46.3 ± 7.4 years, and no significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics was observed by comparing the study groups (p > 0.05. Baseline knowledge and practice of preventive measures were generally poor, and no significant difference was observed by comparing the groups (p > 0.05. At 12 weeks post-intervention, knowledge of CVD was higher in the intervention groups compared with the control group (p 0.05. For effective delivery of cardiovascular health education, the use of “FRAMES” is as effective as its nonuse. Further studies in other settings are recommended.

  19. Gaps in Workplace Education For Prevention of Occupational Skin Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya; Arrandale, Victoria H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2018-02-13

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease. Evidence suggests that education and training are effective prevention strategies. In spite of these known prevention strategies, workers continue to develop OCD. Little is reported regarding the actual training experience of workers. To examine the training experience of workers with contact dermatitis to identify areas for improvement. Participants were workers being assessed for contact dermatitis in an occupational health clinic. The anonymous survey collected demographics, workplace characteristics, and education and prevention practices. Approximately 80% reported general occupational health and safety training; however, only 49% reported skin-specific training (SST). For workers reporting SST, most received information regarding exposure avoidance, hand washing, and glove use. This content was reported as helpful by at least 50%. Workers who did not receive SST indicated the most important content would be warning signs of skin problems, how to avoid exposure and skin care while using gloves. While the study was anonymous and used self-reported of training experience, the study suggests there are gaps in skin protection training. Addressing these gaps may lead to improved prevention and reduction in OCD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  20. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sol Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown.MethodsSeven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day, for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver.ResultsStatin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels.ConclusionStatins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.

  1. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  2. Use of health, education, and social services by individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D; de B Hanlon Dearman, Ana C; Macwilliam, Leonard R; Chudley, Albert E; Roos, Noralou P; Yallop, Lauren P; A Longstaffe, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of intellectual disability in western society, presenting a significant burden on health, education and social services. Quantifying the burden of FASD is important for service planning and policy and program development. To describe the health, education and social service use of individuals with FASD to provide an indication of the burden of service use of the disorder. Using a matched-cohort design health, education and social service data were linked with clinical records on individuals 6+ years diagnosed with FASD between 1999/2000-2009/10 (N=717). Matching was 2:1 with a general population (gPop) and asthma group by age, sex and area-level income. Adjusted rates and relative risks were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Hospitalizations were higher in the FASD compared to gPop (adjusted relative risk=3.44 (95% confidence interval=2.29, 5.17)) and asthma (2.87 (1.94, 4.25)) groups, whereas for physician visits and overall prescriptions, the FASD group differed from only the gPop group (1.58 (1.34, 1.84); 1.44 (1.22, 1.72), respectively). Antibiotics, pain killers and anti-psychotics were similar across groups whereas antidepressants and psychostimulants were higher in the FASD group (antidepressants: FASD vs. gPop 8.76 (2.82, 27.21); FASD vs. asthma 2.10 (1.15, 3.83); psychostimulants: FASD vs. gPop 5.78 (2.89, 11.57); FASD vs. asthma 2.47 (1.37, 4.47)). Attention-deficit\\hyperactivity disorder was higher in the FASD than the gPop and asthma groups (6.41 (3.29, 12.49); 3.12 (1.97, 4.93), respectively). Education and social service use was higher for the FASD than either of the other groups for all measures (FASD vs. gPop and FASD vs. asthma, respectively for: grade repetition 3.06 (1.58, 5.94); 3.48 (1.79, 6.78); receipt of any special education funding 9.22 (6.23, 13.64); 6.10 (4.14, 8.99); family receipt of income assistance 1.74 (1.33, 2.27); 1.89 (1.45, 2.47); child in care 13.19 (5

  3. Smoking, low formal level of education, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, U; Jacobsson, L T H; Nilsson, J Å; Wirfält, E; Turesson, C

    2013-01-01

    Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Between 1991 and 1996, 30,447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range 1-13) years]. In bivariate analyses, baseline smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.12] and a low level of formal education (i.e. ≤ 8 years; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.18-4.93 vs. University degree) predicted subsequent development of RA. Infrequent baseline alcohol consumption was a predictor of RA (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.91-6.30) compared to recent use (within the past month), and individuals with moderate baseline alcohol consumption (3.5-15.2 g/day vs. education. Smoking and a low level of formal education were found to be independent predictors of RA. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be associated with a reduced risk.

  4. Evaluation of a public education campaign to support parents to reduce adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn S; Stafford, Julia; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Shaw, Therese; Samsa, Hannah; Costello, Eleanor; Kirby, Gary

    2018-04-19

    Mass media education campaigns targeting parents may influence parent factors that reduce adolescent drinking; however few such campaigns have been evaluated. The Parents, Young People and Alcohol campaign included two phases of mass media advertising, Cogs and I See, to deliver consistent messages across multiple media channels. The campaign targeted Western Australian parents of 12-17 year olds with messages describing alcohol's effect on the developing brain and adolescent physical and mental health. The campaign reinforced the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Guideline that for under 18s, not drinking is the safest option. Parent knowledge, attitudes and behaviours were assessed via cross-sectional surveys administered before the campaign (Time 1) and at two post-tests (Time 2; Time 3). Post-test campaign awareness and perceptions were also assessed. Campaign awareness was high (48% Time 2; 80% Time 3) and over 86% of parents found the campaign believable and relevant at both post-tests. Increased knowledge of the NHMRC guideline and lower belief in alcohol myths were found at both post-tests compared to Time 1. Less positive attitudes to parental supply were found at Time 2, but were not sustained at Time 3. Parents were more likely to have discussed alcohol risks and limiting drinking with their child at Time 3, but parent-to-child alcohol supply did not change significantly. The campaign achieved high awareness and positively influenced parental outcomes. Longer term campaign implementation supported by policy and environmental measures may be required to change parental supply. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Prevention of alcohol and other drug use using motivational interviewing among young adults in the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Polshkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. World Health Organization data show alarming rates of alcohol consumption among those aged 15 and older in Ukraine. This study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce risky drinking among adults (age between 18-25 in Ukraine. Methods. Adults were screened for risky drinking with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C. Those with AUDIT-C score (>5 were enrolled in the study: 59 participants from the hospital setting (mean age = 22.6 (2.1, 55.9% male and 61 participants from the university setting (mean age = 20.1(2.3, 55.7% male. After self-administering a computerized baseline assessment, participants were randomized to receive an in-person brief intervention by telephone or to a control condition; participants underwent a computerized follow-up at 3 months. Results. Regression analyses for prediction of alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption and consequences were conducted separately for each setting; models were controlled for baseline alcohol levels and assigned condition (brief intervention or control. In both settings, the brief intervention group showed significantly less alcohol consumption and consequences at 3-months as compared to the control group (p<.001; however, the groups did not significantly differ on other drug use (DAST-10 score. Conclusion. Findings suggest that brief motivational interventions are promising for reducing risky drinking among emerging adults in the Ukraine in both inpatient hospital and university settings. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and extend these effects to reduce other drug use among young people in the Ukraine.

  6. Education for Disaster Prevention in Elementary School in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Masakuni

    2013-04-01

    Education for disaster prevention has become more and more important since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. More than 18 thousand people were killed or have not been found yet in the tragedy, however, in Kesn'numa, which is a city located in the seriously damaged area, there were few student victims of tsunami. This is because every school in Kesen'numa has excellent education systems for disaster prevention. They have several safety exercises and conducts emergency drills each year in unique ways which have been developed upon the tragic experiences of serious earthquakes and tsunami in the past. For disaster prevention education, we should learn two important points from the case in Kesen'numa; to learn from the ancient wisdom, and to ensure for students to have enough opportunities of safety exercises and emergency drills at school. In addition to these two points, another issue from the viewpoint of science education can be added, which is to learn about the mechanisms of earthquake. We have developed disaster prevention and reduction programs in educational context, taking these three points into consideration. First part of the program is to study local history, focusing on ancient wisdom. In Kesen'numa City, there were thirty-three monumental stones with cautionary lessons of the possible danger of tsunami before the great earthquake. The lessons were based on the disasters actually happened in the past and brought down to the current generation. Kesen'numa-Otani elementary school has conducted education for disaster prevention referring to this information with full of ancient wisdom. Second part of the program is to make sure that every student has enough and rich opportunities to simulate the worst situation of any disasters. For example, in the case of earthquake and tsunami, teachers take students to the safest place through the designated evacuation rout according to each school's original manual. Students can experience this

  7. 76 FR 12559 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Machining and N welding of ground support parts for planes. Manufacturing & N precision grinding and testing... governing drug and alcohol testing to clarify that each person who performs a safety-sensitive function for a regulated employer by contract, including bysubcontract at any tier, is subject to testing. DATES...

  8. 76 FR 40798 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Machining and N welding of ground support parts for planes. Manufacturing & N precision grinding and testing... directly for an employer, including contractors and subcontractors, is subject to drug and alcohol testing... testing regulations by amending the definition of employee (67 FR 9366, 9377, Feb. 28, 2002). The FAA...

  9. Wellness Factors as Predictors of Alcohol Use among Undergraduates: Implications for Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    A pilot study examining holistic wellness factors and drinking behaviors among undergraduate students revealed several significant relationships. Two second-order wellness factors of the Indivisible Self model of wellness--Coping Self and Essential Self--were negatively associated with both alcohol use intensity and drinking consequences.…

  10. A review of national television PSA campaigns for preventing alcohol-impaired driving, 1987-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, W; Atkin, C K

    1995-01-01

    We present a content analysis of 137 public service announcements (PSAs) focused on alcohol-impaired driving that aired nationally on U.S. television between 1987 and 1992. Our findings include the following: 1) Most PSAs were intended to reach an undifferentiated general audience, not necessarily those who are at greatest risk for driving after drinking. 2) Most PSAs were designed to create awareness of the problem of alcohol-impaired driving or to promote individual behavior change. 3) More PSAs were developed on the use of designated drivers than on any other subject. 4) About two-thirds of the PSAs included one or more celebrities who speak directly to the audience. Past media campaigns have tended to ignore the fact that people's behavior is profoundly shaped by their environment, which in turn is shaped by public policy. We recommend that future mass media campaigns against alcohol-impaired driving focus on building support for changes in institutional structures, public policy or law that will motivate, support, and sustain the efforts of individuals to alter their behavior. Television PSAs can play an important but somewhat limited role in support of this effort. Greater emphasis will need to be given instead to media advocacy strategies, including paid radio advertising. We further recommend that the principal organizations concerned about alcohol-impaired driving share their plans and develop a common communications strategy that will advance the public policy agenda proposed by the Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving.

  11. Using smart card technology to prevent sales of alcohol to underage persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This report documents the results of a demonstration and evaluation project to examine the effectiveness of smart card technology (i.e., magnetic stripe on the driver's license and a card reader system) as a means of providing alcohol retailers with ...

  12. The Physician's Role in Prevention. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph V.; Krol, Ronald A.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study offer guidelines to help physicians make responsible and informed decisions about their roles with adolescent patients. Materials are presented which…

  13. A Family Focused Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Moderating Roles of Positive Parenting and Adolescent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…

  14. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  15. [Sex education and prevention of sexual violence : Contributions to a differential-sensitive prevention of sexualised violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.

  16. Prevention of alcohol and other drug use using motivational interviewing among young adults in the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Polshkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization data shows alarming rates of alcohol consumption among those ages 15 and older in the Ukraine. This study examined the feasibility and initial efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce risky drinking among emerging adults (ages 18-25 in the Ukraine. Methods: Emerging adults presenting to two settings were screened for risky drinking (Railway Clinical Hospital and Bogomolets National Medical University, with those screening positive on the AUDIT-C (>5 enrolled in the study: 59 participants from the hospital setting (mean age = 22.6 (2.1, 55.9%% male and 61 participants from the university setting (mean age = 20.1(2.3, 55.7% male.  After self-administering a computerized baseline assessment, participants were randomized to receive an in-person brief intervention with telephone booster or to a control condition; participants self-administered a computerized follow-up at 3 months. Results: Regression analyses were conducted, separately for each setting, predicting alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption and consequences; models controlled for baseline alcohol levels and condition assignment (brief intervention or control. In both settings, the brief intervention group showed significantly less alcohol consumption and consequences at 3-months as compared to the control group (p<.001; however, the groups did not significantly differ  on other drug use (DAST-10 score. Conclusions: Findings suggest that brief motivational interventions are promising for reducing risky drinking among emerging adults in the Ukraine in both inpatient hospital and university settings. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and extend these effects to reduce other drug use among young people in the Ukraine.

  17. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  18. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  19. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  20. L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model with upregulation of mitochondrial pathway.

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    Hisashi Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis with an inherent risk for progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the progression from simple steatosis to NASH. L-carnitine (L-b-hydroxy-g-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, an essential nutrient that converts fat into energy in mitochondria, has been shown to ameliorate liver damage. The aim of the present study was to explore the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in NASH model mice. Eight-week-old male STAM mice, a NASH-cirrhosis-hepatocarcinogenic model, were divided into 3 experimental groups and fed as follows: 1 high-fat diet (HFD (control group; 2 HFD mixed with 0.28% L-carnitine (L-carnitine group; and 3 HFD mixed with 0.01% α-tocopherol (α-tocopherol group. After 4 or 8 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Blood samples and livers were collected, and hepatic tumors were counted and measured. Livers were subjected to histological study, immunohistochemical staining of 4-hydroxynonenal and ferritin, determination of 8-OHdG levels, mRNA and protein expressions for multiple genes, and metabolomic analysis. The intestinal microbiome was also analyzed. L-carnitine increased hepatic expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid transport, mitochondrial β-oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes following suppression of hepatic oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in NASH, and mice treated with L-carnitine developed fewer liver tumors. Although α-tocopherol resulted in NASH improvement in the same manner as L-carnitine, it increased periodontitis-related microbiotic changes and hepatic iron transport-related gene expression and led to less effective for anti-hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion: L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model by

  1. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  2. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  3. Their Children's First Educators: Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…

  4. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  5. Partner's and own education: Does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Lenthe, F.J. van; Graaf, N.D. de; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner's education, adjusted for own education, on self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  6. Employee Assistance Programs in Higher Education. Alcohol, Mental Health and Professional Development Programming for Faculty and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Richard W., Ed.; Hosokawa, Elizabeth P., Ed.

    The promotion of employee assistance programs (EAP) in higher education is considered in 24 chapters, with an emphasis on enhancing resources and the academic environment for faculty and staff. Seven topical areas are addressed: history of EAP; characteristics of higher education; alcoholism and other risks in the academic life-style; EAP models…

  7. Predictors of Retention in an Alcohol and Risky Sex Prevention Program for Homeless Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Haas, Ann C; Tucker, Joan S

    2018-05-01

    Homeless young adults are at risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and risky sexual behavior. Interventions are needed to help these young people reduce their risky behavior, but this population is often difficult to engage and retain in services. We offered a four-session AOD and risky sex reduction program to 100 participants and examined if retention in the program was predicted by a number of factors: demographics, homelessness severity, other service use, AOD behaviors, mental health symptoms, sexual risk behaviors, and readiness to change AOD and condom use. Nearly half (48%) of participants completed all sessions. In bivariate analyses, participants were significantly less likely to be retained in the program if they had slept outdoors in the past month, engaged in more alcohol and marijuana use, experienced more alcohol-related consequences, and received the program in an urban drop-in center (as opposed to a drop-in center near the beach). When controlling for all significant bivariate relationships, only sleeping outdoors and receipt of the program in the urban setting predicted fewer sessions completed. The most endorsed reasons for program non-completion were being too busy to attend and inconvenient day/time of the program. Findings can help outreach staff and researchers better prepare methods to engage higher risk homeless youth and retain them in services. Finding unique ways to help youth overcome barriers related to location of services appears especially necessary, perhaps by bringing services to youth where they temporarily reside or offering meaningful incentives for program attendance.

  8. [Acamprosate and psychosocial intervention. An integrative treatment approach for prevention of alcohol dependent patients in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, W J; Riebenfeld, D

    2002-04-24

    105 patients with severe alcohol dependence, who were treated in 13 centers in Switzerland, took part in this open study. The abstinence rate achieved under treatment with Acamprosat, which was used within the framework of established psychotherapeutic intervention programmes in which the doctors could choose between five different procedures, was determined over a period of 24 weeks. In addition, a sociodemographic profile was drawn up, a physical examination was carried out and data were collected on the safety aspect of Acamprosat. It was also of interest to ascertain whether, and if so how, the patients' quality of life changed under the treatment, and in what form they received psychosocial support. As supportive therapy almost two-thirds of the patients (63%) received individual psychotherapy, in 28% the doctor decided on cognitive behavioural therapy, in 4% a short intervention was carried out, in 4% group therapy and in 2% family therapy. In 85.7% of the patients the doctor continued with the initial form of psychotherapy, while in the remaining patients it was changed once. Due to the very uneven distribution a comparison of the outcome in regard to the concomitant therapy was rather problematical. Psychiatric problems (21%), polyneuritis (12%) and liver damage (10.6%)--all known complications of chronic alcohol abuse--were the most frequent concomitant diagnoses. Of the 91 patients who had remained abstinent for the first two weeks after the start of the study, 12.9% had a recurrence at the end of the study, 56% did not have a recurrence (they were abstinent, but did have a binge or a lapse) and 31.8% did not return for the control visits. When a recurrence did occur, however, significantly less alcohol was consumed than before the treatment. As a result of the combined intervention all the parameters relating to the quality of life that were documented in connection with the SF 36 showed improvement. With this study carried out in Switzerland, which is

  9. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  10. The impact of truant and alcohol-related behavior on educational aspirations: a study of US high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, J Don

    2011-08-01

    Truancy and alcohol use are quality indicators of academic achievement and success. However, there remains a paucity of substantive research articulating the impact these deviant behaviors have on an adolescent's educational aspirations. The purpose of this study is to assess whether recent alcohol use and truancy impact students' educational aspirations among a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors. This study conducted a secondary data analysis of the Monitoring the Future project data, 2006. Logistic regression was conducted to assess how alcohol use and truancy affected educational aspirations. Subsequent interaction effects were assessed in the final multivariable model. Demographic variables such as age, sex, race, and father and mother's educational level were included as covariates in the regression model. Results indicate that as students engage in increased alcohol use and/or truancy, educational aspirations decrease. Thus, students who indicated a desire to attend a 4-year college/university were less likely to engage in high-risk drinking behavior and/or truancy. Moreover, in testing the interaction between truancy and alcohol use, as it relates to educational aspirations, the logistic regression model found both of these independent variables to be statistically significant predictors of the likelihood students would attend a 4-year college/university. To ensure that adolescents further their education and maximize their potential life opportunities, school and public health officials should initiate efforts to reduce alcohol consumption and truancy among students. Furthermore, future research should examine the risk and protective factors that may influence one's educational aspirations. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  11. A Research Strategy Case Study of Alcohol and Drug Prevention by Non-Governmental Organizations in Sweden 2003-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Madelene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug prevention is high on the public health agenda in many countries. An increasing trend is the call for evidence-based practice. In Sweden in 2002 an innovative project portfolio including an integrated research and competence-building strategy for non-governmental organisations (NGOs was designed by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW. This research strategy case study is based on this initiative. Methods The embedded case study includes 135 projects in 69 organisations and 14 in-depth process or effect studies. The data in the case study has been compiled using multiple methods - administrative data; interviews and questionnaires to project leaders; focus group discussions and seminars; direct and participatory observations, interviews, and documentation of implementation; consultations with the NBHW and the NGOs; and a literature review. Annual reports have been submitted each year and three bi-national conferences Reflections on preventions have been held. Results A broad range of organisations have been included in the NBHW project portfolio. A minority of the project were run by Alcohol or drug organisations, while a majority has children or adolescents as target groups. In order to develop a trustful partnership between practitioners, national agencies and researchers a series of measures were developed and implemented: meeting with project leaders, project dialogues and consultations, competence strengthening, support to documentation, in-depth studies and national conferences. A common element was that the projects were program-driven and not research-driven interventions. The role of researchers-as-technical advisors was suitable for the fostering of a trustful partnership for research and development. The independence of the NGOs was regarded as important for the momentum in the project implementation. The research strategy also includes elements of participatory research. Conclusions This

  12. An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Lewis, Jennifer; Winter, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul; Aitken, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Following detection of an upward trend in the frequency of fatal heroin overdoses in Victoria between 2001 and 2003, Victoria's Department of Human Services planned a campaign aimed at increasing injecting drug users' (IDU) awareness of overdose risks and prevention strategies. Stickers, wallet cards and posters featuring five key messages were distributed via needle and syringe programs (NSP) and other drug and alcohol services between November 2005 and April 2006. An evaluation of the campaign was commissioned to be conducted in late 2006. The evaluation consisted of analysis of three independent data sets--quantitative data collected from IDU during the campaign period (n = 855 at baseline; and a range of 146-656 at follow up); qualitative interviews with IDU who were NSP clients during the campaign period (n = 16) and qualitative interviews with NSP staff and other key stakeholders (n = 9). While key experts felt that the campaign messages had engendered lasting impact for at least some IDU, these positive impressions were not borne out by the NSP client data, with less than one quarter of all campaign messages being mentioned by a significantly higher proportion of clients during the post-campaign period compared with baseline. Key experts perceived the greatest weakness of the campaign to be the delay between issue identification and the introduction of campaign materials. While IDU are generally responsive to health promotion campaigns, future initiatives in this domain should be designed and implemented rapidly and in ways that are sufficiently flexible to cope with shifts in drug markets which could influence the reception of key messages.

  13. Maintaining Treatment Fidelity of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention Intervention for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra E. Zgierska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment fidelity is essential to methodological rigor of clinical trials evaluating behavioral interventions such as Mindfulness Meditation (MM. However, procedures for monitoring and maintenance of treatment fidelity are inconsistently applied, limiting the strength of such research. Objective. To describe the implementation and findings related to fidelity monitoring of the Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Alcohol Dependence (MBRP-A intervention in a 26-week randomized controlled trial. Methods. 123 alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to MM (MBRP-A and home practice, adjunctive to usual care; N=64 or control (usual care alone; N=59. Treatment fidelity assessment strategies recommended by the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium for study/intervention design, therapist training, intervention delivery, and treatment receipt and enactment were applied. Results. Ten 8-session interventions were delivered. Therapist adherence and competence, assessed using the modified MBRP Adherence and Competence Scale, were high. Among the MM group participants, 46 attended ≥4 sessions; over 90% reported at-home MM practice at 8 weeks and 72% at 26 weeks. They also reported satisfaction with and usefulness of MM for maintaining sobriety. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. A systematic approach to assessment of treatment fidelity in behavioral clinical trials allows determination of the degree of consistency between intended and actual delivery and receipt of intervention.

  14. Mind-Body Approaches to Prevention and Intervention for Alcohol and Other Drug Use/Abuse in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drug (AOD misuse is highly prevalent among young adults and creates myriad long-term problematic social, economic, and health consequences. Current treatments aimed at preventing or alleviating AOD misuse have demonstrated fairly inconsistent and weak effectiveness and, thus, are far from a complete solution. In this review, we describe the current state of AOD interventions for young adults and present an alternative emotion regulation framework for understanding AOD use/misuse. We then describe implications of this framework for interventions to promote healthier emotion regulation to successfully reduce AOD use/misuse. In particular, we assert that mind–body approaches, such as meditation, distress tolerance, and yoga, may promote emotion regulation skills that allow young adults to manage their stressful experiences and distressing emotions without AOD use. We review the available literature on mind–body interventions targeting AOD use/misuse in young adults and offer suggestions for future intervention development and research.

  15. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating drinking in social networks to inform alcohol prevention and treatment efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S; Caudell, Thomas P; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tonigan, J Scott

    2017-11-01

    Adolescent drinking influences, and is influenced by, peer alcohol use. Several efficacious adolescent alcohol interventions include elements aimed at reducing susceptibility to peer influence. Modeling these interventions within dynamically changing social networks may improve our understanding of how such interventions work and for whom they work best. We used stochastic actor-based models to simulate longitudinal drinking and friendship formation within social networks using parameters obtained from a meta-analysis of real-world 10th grade adolescent social networks. Levels of social influence (i.e., friends affecting changes in one's drinking) and social selection (i.e., drinking affecting changes in one's friendships) were manipulated at several levels, which directly impacted the degree of clustering in friendships based on similarity in drinking behavior. Midway through each simulation, one randomly selected heavy-drinking actor from each network received an "intervention" that either (a) reduced their susceptibility to social influence, (b) reduced their susceptibility to social selection, (c) eliminated a friendship with a heavy drinker, or (d) initiated a friendship with a nondrinker. Only the intervention that eliminated targeted actors' susceptibility to social influence consistently reduced that actor's drinking. Moreover, this was only effective in networks with social influence and social selection that were at higher levels than what was found in the real-world reference study. Social influence and social selection are dynamic processes that can lead to complex systems that may moderate the effectiveness of network-based interventions. Interventions that reduce susceptibility to social influence may be most effective among adolescents with high susceptibility to social influence and heavier-drinking friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  18. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  19. Educational materials used for education in forest fires and preventive burning in Baccalaureate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work includes various aspects of teaching in Secondary Education and Baccalaureate rarely on the agenda: forest fires and prescribed burns. It includes a proposal of training materials for the study and awareness of students about the serious problem posed by wildfires and how we can avoid them. Within the latter, the importance of controlled burning for preventing these fires is highlighted, which, as it has been shown when trying, is an unknown aspect for them. This test was to see if after the educational intervention previous ideas were modified.

  20. Preventive HIV/AIDS education through physical education: reflections from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njelesani, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.

  1. Assessment of risk associated with exposure to tobacco and alcohol on health of the cadets of military institute and its prevention methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Sh. Belikova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the studies of the problem of smoking and alcohol use among cadets of military institute as well as to the risk of diseases’ developing when using nicotine and alcohol. We have proposed the methods for solving this problem in the educational institution. This article describes not only the problem among the cadets of military institute, but also the calculated risks. Particular attention is paid to the study of the methods of controlling the bad habits in the educational institution and reduction of the number of smokers and drinkers among the cadets.

  2. Program content of teaching physical education in order to prevent violence in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods

  3. Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Crijnen, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  4. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: The Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems. Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Maffli, E.; Kuntsche, S.; Delgrande Jordan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time

  5. Universal Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use reduces truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Andrews, Gavin; Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree

    2014-08-01

    A universal Internet-based preventive intervention has been shown to reduce alcohol and cannabis use. The aim of this study was to examine if this program could also reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Sydney, Australia in 2007-2008 to assess the effectiveness of the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, consists of two sets of six lessons delivered approximately six months apart. A total of 764 students (mean 13.1years) from 10 secondary schools were randomly allocated to receive the preventive intervention (n=397, five schools), or their usual health classes (n=367, five schools) over the year. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and six and twelve months following the intervention on their levels of truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant reductions in truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement up to twelve months following completion of the intervention. These intervention effects indicate that Internet-based preventive interventions designed to prevent alcohol and cannabis use can concurrently reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN: 012607000312448. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  7. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  8. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-10-01

    To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. 6-year (2004-2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Over the 6-year period, there were 242,796 ED injury attendances, including 21,683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18-34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence.

  9. The Potential of Non-Provitamin A Carotenoids for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Murillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition. Dietary carotenoids including astaxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin have been demonstrated to be potent antioxidants as well as to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies report the protective effect(s of these carotenoids against different conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, age-related macular degeneration, and liver diseases. In this review, we will focus on the effects of these carotenoids in the prevention or reduction of NAFLD as seen in epidemiological observations and clinical trials, as well as the suggested mechanism of action derived from animal and cell studies.

  10. A comparison of the effect of alcohol and povidone-iodine mixture with alcohol after povidon-iodine in prevention of vascular access inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The quality of hemodialysis can be promoted through reducing vascular access complications in these patients. One of the crucial roles of nurses in hemodialysis wards is reducing inflammation and infection of the vascular access. This study was conducted to compare the incidence of inflammation around the vascular access area in patients undergoing hemodialysis between two antiseptic methods of alcohol after povidone-iodine and the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, after gaining ethical committee approval in 2014. In the present study, 100 participants were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups of combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine (n = 37, alcohol after using povidone-iodine (n = 32, and control group (n = 31. In the intervention groups 1 and 2, vascular access was disinfected using a combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine and alcohol after povidone-iodine, respectively. In the control group, vascular access was disinfected using the method of the related ward. Patients were fully observed for phlebitis occurrence for 12 hemodialysis sessions (1 month. Vascular access was controlled using the Iranian Nurses Association's phlebitis criteria. Data were analyzed using chi-square, ANOVA test, and Fisher's exact test in SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence rate of inflammation in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine, alcohol after povidone-iodine, and control groups, respectively, were 46%, 87.9%, and 100%. The incidence rate of inflammation was significantly lower in the combination of alcohol and povidone-iodine compared to the alcohol after povidone-iodine group (P < 0.001. However, no significant differences existed between the alcohol after povidone-iodine and control group. Conclusion: The combination of alcohol and

  11. A Program of Education in Accident Prevention, with Methods and Results. Bulletin, 1922, No. 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, E. George

    1922-01-01

    No movement in education in recent years has taken hold of the imagination and emotions of the American business man more effectively than education in accident prevention. This appeal to the business man is perhaps due more than anything else to the fact that when the educator begins to talk of education in terms of saving human lives he is using…

  12. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents’ Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: A Bi-directional Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.; Glatz, T.

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents’ rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents’ alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents’ beliefs

  13. Infection prevention workforce: Potential benefits to educational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather M

    2017-06-01

    Nurses have historically occupied the infection preventionist (IP) role. As the knowledge and skills needed to advance the field expand, professionals from public health and the laboratory sciences have become IPs. Our study describes the characteristics of current IPs and assesses for relationships between background, certification, experience, and type of work performed. The data were drawn from an existing dataset collected in the conduct of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed. Associations were calculated using χ 2 or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Characteristics of IPs were stratified by work-related activities to allow for comparisons between groups. Of the 13,050 active APIC members, 4,079 participated in the survey (31% response rate). The primary job activity for nurses (97.9%; n = 2,434) was preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious agents or health care-associated infections, for laboratory scientists (97.5%; n = 307) it was the interpretation of surveillance data, and for public health professionals (96.1%; n = 136) it was management and communication: feedback. Infection control departments would benefit from hiring IPs with diverse education and training to address the expanding roles and responsibilities of IPs. This may facilitate the implementation of novel and innovative processes that will impact patient care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....

  15. Securitisation, Counterterrorism and the Silencing of Dissent: The Educational Implications of "Prevent"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the implications of counterterrorist legislation, including Prevent, for the pedagogical relationship and for educational institutions. The concept of "radicalisation", central to the Prevent Strategy, is one that is contested in the field of counterterrorism, yet educators are now expected to identify and…

  16. Directory of Pollution Prevention in Higher Education: Faculty and Programs 1992. Doc #93-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshani, Nandkumar; Allen, David

    This survey reports the current state of development of pollution prevention education in Universities in the United States based on a national survey conducted between December 1991 and February 1992. Over 140 individuals (from 80 institutions) believed to be active in pollution prevention education were contacted and of these 89 (from 59…

  17. From a target group towards interaction group: Alcohol prevention policy regarding young people in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Linden

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.

  18. A Systematic Literature Review of Alcohol Education Programmes in Middle and High School Settings (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Connor, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing benchmark criteria were used to understand the extent to which single-substance alcohol education programmes targeting adolescents in middle and high school settings sought to change behaviour, utilised theory, included audience research and applied the market segmentation process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.…

  19. The Importance of Building and Maintaining Trust in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Education Classrooms and Hurdles to Open Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    deKoven, Aram

    2007-01-01

    This research examines the importance of trust in the classroom, and answers the following questions: 1) is trust important to create and maintain in the classroom? 2) What is the significance of trust between a teacher and a student, and 3) do students trust their drug and alcohol educators? In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 middle…

  20. Canadian drivers' attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving while impaired by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Nadeau, Louise; McKiernan, Anna; Hing, Marisela M; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers' preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers' value ratio were also appraised. Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), pvalue ratios, R 2 (adj.)=0.014, pAccounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remote age verification to prevent underage alcohol sales. First results from Dutch liquor stores and the economic viability of national adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joris J; van Velthoven, Ben C J

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol consumption among minors is a popular topic in the public health debate, also in the Netherlands. Compliance with the legal age limits for selling alcohol proves to be rather low. Some Dutch liquor stores (outlets with an exclusive license to sell off-premise drinks with 15% alcohol or more) have recently adopted a remote age verification system. This paper discusses the first results of the use of the system. We use data from 67 liquor stores that adopted Ageviewers, a remote age verification system, in 2011. A remote validator judges the customer's age using camera footage and asks for an ID if there is any doubt. The system then sends a signal to the cash register, which approves or rejects the alcohol purchase. From the 367346 purchase attempts in the database, 8374 were rejected or aborted for age-related reasons. This figure amounts to an average ratio of 1.12 underage alcohol purchase attempts per sales day in each participating liquor store. Scaling up to a national level, the figures suggest at least 1 million underage alcohol purchase attempts per year in Dutch liquor stores. Underage alcohol purchases can be prevented by the nationwide adoption of remote age verification. However, given the lax enforcement of the age limits by the government, adopting such a system on a voluntary basis is generally not in the economic interest of the liquor stores. Obligatory installation of the system in off-premise alcohol outlets may pass a social cost-benefit test if certain conditions are fulfilled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  3. Attitudes and practices on HIV preventions among students of higher education institutions in Ethiopia: the case of Addis Ababa University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Nigatu; Kedir, Seman

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess higher education students' attitudes, their practice on preventive measures against HIV/AIDS; and examined factors affecting attitude and practice of the students related to HIV/AIDS prevention. The 606 study participants were drawn from Addis Ababa University, which is the oldest and biggest public university in Ethiopia, through multistage sampling. Data were collected using survey quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (FGDs), and subsequently, analysis of the data was made through the use of descriptive statistics (Frequency and logistic regression model). The findings of the study revealed that 207 (34.2%) of respondents were sexually active during the survey. Of these, 144 (23.8%) of them had sexual intercourse with their partner or someone in the last 6 months. The mean and median age at first sex debut was computed as 17.8 and 18.0 years respectively. About 489 (80.7%) did not perceive being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. But 65.5% of the respondent had favorable attitude on HIV prevention. 359 (59.2%) of the respondents had experienced at least one of the three HIV prevention practice. Of which, more than half (52.4%) adopted abstinence as top preventive measure. The result also showed that out of the total respondents 47.2% had been tested for HIV/AIDS and more than 80% have willingness to take VCT service for HIV/AIDS. As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat chewing were determinants of practices on HIV prevention. Finally, based on the findings, the study has forwarded some workable recommendations.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit American College of Nurse-Midwives – Alcohol and Pregnancy The Arc’s FASD Prevention Project NIH’s National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) NIH/NIAAA Fact Sheet: Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...

  5. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment, and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency.

  6. Randomized pilot trial of a cognitive-behavioral alcohol, self-harm, and HIV prevention program for teens in mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hadley, Wendy; Curby, Timothy W; Brown, Larry K

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C). Participants included 81 adolescents and a parent. Assessments were completed at pre-intervention as well as 1, 6, and 12-months post-enrollment, and included measures of family-based mechanisms and high-risk behaviors. ASH-P relative to AO-C was associated with greater improvements in most family process variables (perceptions of communication and parental disapproval of alcohol use and sexual behavior) as well as less DSH and greater refusal of sex to avoid a sexually transmitted infection. It also had a moderate (but non-significant) effect on odds of binge drinking. No differences were found in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, or sexual intercourse. ASH-P showed initial promise in preventing multiple high-risk behaviors. Further testing of prevention protocols that target multiple high-risk behaviors in clinical samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Na

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant properties. However, the role of HO-1 on hepatocyte apoptosis remains unclear. We aim to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on oxidative stress related hepatocellular apoptosis in nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet for four weeks to induce hepatic steatohepatitis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin, HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1 were administered to mice, respectively. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis related genes were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Results Hepatocyte signs of oxidative related apoptotic injury were presented in mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver histology, which was associated with decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation content, reduced number of apoptotic cells by TUNEL staining, down-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes including Fas/FasL, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, reduced expression of cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1, inhibited cytochrome c (Cyt-c release, and up-regulated expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. Whereas, inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP-IX caused oxidative stress related hepatic injury, which concomitant with increased number of TUNEL positive cells and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes. Conclusions The present study provided evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in preventing nutritional steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice.

  8. Effects of Educating Local Government Officers and Healthcare and Welfare Professionals in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirayasu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.

  9. Acute Alcohol Intoxication: Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; Van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007-2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an overrepresentation in "low" school levels. The…

  10. Acute Alcohol Intoxication : Differences in School Levels and Effects on Educational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoof, Joris J.; Klerk, Frouktje Ade; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on adolescents' school performance. In the 2007–2015 period, 3,317 adolescents (ages 12 to 17 years) were treated for acute alcohol intoxication, and 37 adolescents were admitted to the hospital twice. Alcohol intoxication has an

  11. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed health and other service needs

  12. Utilizing Peer Education Theater for the Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2014-01-01

    To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…

  13. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  14. The status of interprofessional education and interprofessional prevention education in academic health centers: a national baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria; Blue, Amy; Evans, Clyde H; Garr, David

    2014-05-01

    Given the emphasis on prevention in U.S. health care reform efforts, the importance of interprofessional education (IPE) that prepares health professions students to be part of effective health care teams is greater than ever. This study examined the prevalence and nature of IPE and interprofessional (IP) prevention education in U.S. academic health centers. The authors extracted a 10-item survey from the longer published IPE Assessment and Planning Instrument. In September 2010, they sent the survey to 346 health professions leaders in health sciences schools and colleges at 100 academic health centers. These institutions were identified via the online membership list of the Association of Academic Health Centers. The authors conducted descriptive statistical analysis and cross-tabulations. Surveys were completed by 127 contacts at 68 universities in 31 states and the District of Columbia. IPE was more prevalent than IP prevention education in all categories of measurement. Respondents affirmed existence of IPE in courses (85.0%) and in clinical rotations/internships (80.3%). The majority reported personnel with responsibility for IPE (68.5%) or prevention education (59.8%) at their institutional unit, and 59.8% reported an IPE office or center. This study provides evidence that IPE and IP prevention education exist in academic health centers, but additional attention should be paid to the development of IP prevention education. Sample syllabi, job descriptions, and policies may be available to support adoption of IPE and IP prevention education. Further effort is needed to increase the integration of IP and prevention education into practice.

  15. Research participants' skills development as HIV prevention peer educators in their communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Neetha Shagan; Naidoo, Sarita; Goolam, Ahmed; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the influence of a peer education programme on skills development among 22 women participating in HIV prevention trials. Interviews were used to collect data on peer educator experiences and their opinions of the trainings. The training enhanced their agency and confidence to engage their family and community on health promotion, including HIV prevention research procedures, thus improving their self-esteem and communication skills. Training and partnering with clinical trial participants as peer educators is an effective and sustainable community-based approach for HIV prevention.

  16. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  17. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  18. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  19. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  20. Understanding why veterans are reluctant to access help for alcohol problems: Considerations for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Matthew D; Moran, Sandra; Hill, Mick

    2016-12-01

    To effectively engage veterans with substance misuse services, nurses need to understand their unique needs and the potential barriers that prevent them from accessing care. Nurses need to have an understanding and awareness of the cultural sensitivities associated with having been a member of the armed forces. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived barriers to care amongst those planning, commissioning and delivering services for veterans with substance misuse problems, and to identify and explore subject areas which nurse educators should consider for inclusion in nursing and health education programmes. The findings reported in this paper come from one phase of a larger three phase research project and used an applied qualitative research approached based on methods developed for applied social policy research. The study was undertaken in the north-east of England. The study consisted of a purposive sample of planners, commissioners of services, and service providers in the North East of England. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Complexity of services and care, complexity of need and a lack of understanding of veterans were identified as factors that made accessing substance misuse care difficult. To help nurses better understand the unique needs of veterans three educational topics were identified for consideration in pre-registration nurse education: understanding military and veteran culture and the nature of modern warfare, the military 'veteran as institutionalised' hypothesis and stigma. Health and social services can struggle to truly understand the unique needs and experiences of the veteran community. We have identified three broad subject areas that should be considered as the theoretical basis for a veteran specific education programme within pre and post-registration nurse education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving surgical site infection prevention practices through a multifaceted educational intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, P

    2015-03-01

    As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.

  2. Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria

  3. Possibly Preventing Catastrophes: Hannah Arendt on Democracy, Education and Judging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monig, Julia Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I try to argue why it is worth turning to Hannah Arendt when reflecting on education. I am exploring her political theory in "The Human Condition" which, with the anthropologic category of natality, seems to offer an interesting approach for democratic education. Apparently everyone can participate in politics or even…

  4. Beyond the French paradox: the impact of moderate beverage alcohol and wine consumption in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Tedd M

    2003-08-01

    Alcohol beverages, particularly red wine, when consumed in moderation reduce the risk of acute CVD and death. Important questions and issues, however, still remain, including the role of beverage type, pattern of drinking, and the risk that moderate drinking can lead to problem drinking. The mechanism for alcohol beverage benefit is complex, and includes an independent benefit of ethyl alcohol. The multiplicity of effects identified for the non-alcohol components of red wine, play a role in improved endothelial physiology and enhance vascular homeostasis. CAD begins in early life, and it progresses over decades. As the complexity of vascular pathology changes with time, so may the healthful effects of alcohol and non-alcohol wine components also vary. Prospective studies of alcohol or wine consumption in the young, middle, and older aged persons would be interesting, but they are laden with obvious sociologic complexities. Meanwhile, it is prudent for physicians to discuss the harmful effects of alcohol with their patients, while at the same time, not discourage a potentially healthy practice of wine in moderation (e.g., with meals). The current literature is consistent in that heavy drinkers would be better off to reduce drinking or abstain, and abstainers or light drinkers, should be advised to avoid heavy drinking [13]. Whether moderate alcohol consumption can be characterized as a pharmacologic intervention or a dietary intercession may be a matter of opinion. I would rather like to believe that the growing scientific interest in wine and better health is a part of adopting a healthy lifestyle that connects our society with nature, to sustain and enhance human life.

  5. A Multifactorial Approach to Sport-Related Concussion Prevention and Education: Application of the Socioecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2017-03-01

    To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.

  6. A systematic review of education programmes to prevent concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.

  7. Gay Men's Understanding and Education of New HIV Prevention Technologies in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A

    2017-10-01

    Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.

  8. Collaborative Knowledge-Making in the Everyday Practice of Youth Suicide Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Morris, Jonathan; Hinbest, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The development and implementation of a new school-based suicide prevention education programme in one secondary school in Vancouver, British Columbia, recently provided us with an opportunity to conduct an in-depth, qualitative case study. The purpose of our study was to deepen our understanding of how school-based suicide prevention education…

  9. The effects of alcohol in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria dos Anjos Mesquita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present a review of the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers on their newborn. Definitions, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, follow-up, treatment and prevention were discussed. A search was performed in Medline, LILACS, and SciELO databases using the following terms: “fetus”, “newborn”, “pregnant woman”, “alcohol”, “alcoholism”, “fetal alcohol syndrome”, and “alcohol-related disorders”. Portuguese and English articles published from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. The effects of alcohol consumed by pregnant women on newborns are extremely serious and occur frequently; it is a major issue in Public Health worldwide. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cause harm to individuals, their families, and the entire society. Nevertheless, diagnostic difficulties and inexperience of healthcare professionals result in such damage, being remembered rarely or even remaining uncovered. Alcohol-related injury to the fetus is fully avoidable; all it takes is for women not to drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. Therefore, detecting women who consume alcohol during pregnancy is paramount, as are specific programs to educate people about the consequences of alcohol use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  10. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  11. Alcohol Abuse Curriculum Guide for Nurse Practitioner Faculty. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series. Nursing 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselblad, Judith

    The format for this curriculum guide, written for nurse practitioner faculty, consists of learning objectives, content outline, teaching methodology suggestions, references and recommended readings. Part 1 of the guide, Recognition of Early and Chronic Alcoholism, deals with features of alcoholism such as epidemiological data and theories,…

  12. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  13. Sexual Violence Prevention through Bystander Education: An Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.

    2007-01-01

    The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…

  14. Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    effect on perception (P < .001), knowledge (P < .001), malaria prevention practice ... Caregivers should also be integrated into malaria ... intention (p=0,031) et le type de traitement administré pour fièvre chez l'enfant (p=0,048). .... person consulting and cost of treatment. .... may play a greater role in the choice of treatment.

  15. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  16. On the importance of planned health education: Prevention of ski injury as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, G.; Bouter, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The planning of health education aimed at preventing sports injuries is often incomplete and not stated explicitly. In most instances, the evaluation is incomplete or nonexistent. We present a theoretical framework for planning and evaluating health education, illustrating the main points by using

  17. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  18. Experience of Violence and Cruelty Prevention among Performers of Educational Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya S. Shalaginova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of violence prevention in contemporary educational environment, describes the work with performers of educational process (teachers, schoolchildren, parents, administration, aimed at tolerance, empathy, habits of structural interaction and behavior in conflict situations, acceptance set forming

  19. The Potential of Human Rights Education for Conflict Prevention and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of human rights education (HRE) to conflict prevention and to the promotion of security. It outlines the difficulties in evaluating the long-term impact of HRE, but then proposes five benefits of a rights-based approach to education--rights as secular, man-made, requiring transparency, enabling freedom from…

  20. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  1. Impact of Poison Prevention Education on the Knowledge and Behaviors of Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Sheppard, Monique A.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Miller, Ted R.; Nelkin, Valerie S.; Nguyen, Denise D.; Tominack, Ivy; Dunlap, Hallie Chillag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unintentional poisoning is an important public health issue that exacts a heavy toll on our nation's seniors. However, relatively few empirical studies have examined the efficacy of poison prevention education programs on this cohort. Purpose: This study assessed the impact of a poison education program on the knowledge, perceptions,…

  2. How do Japanese escape from TSUNAMI? - Disaster Prevention Education through using Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by

  3. Failure of college students to complete an online alcohol education course as a predictor of high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gina Baral; Kolligian, John; Mills, Douglas Lane; DeJong, William

    2011-11-01

    AlcoholEdu® for College and other computer-based education programs have been developed to reduce alcohol use and related problems among students. This study investigated whether the failure of incoming first-year students to complete AlcoholEdu predicts future high-risk drinking that requires medical attention. A review of clinical records kept by a single university's health service identified 684 undergraduates (classes of 2007-2011) who had presented for an alcohol event (September 2003 through June 2008). We used survival analysis to determine whether students who partially completed the course or failed to take it were disproportionately represented among student patients who presented with elevated blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Students who failed to take the online course were 4.64 times more likely than those who completed it to experience an alcohol event (p students who had partially completed the course were 1.52 times more likely (p alcohol education and gender were not significantly related to students' measured BAC level. Students who had completed AlcoholEdu were less likely to present for an alcohol event than were students who partially completed or failed to take the course. Campus administrators should consider whether students who fail to complete an online alcohol course should be flagged for more focused interventions (e.g., brief motivational interview, mandatory education classes). This is the first study to show a relationship between first-year college students' non-completion of an online alcohol course and subsequent high-risk drinking that requires medical attention.

  4. Policy-relevant behaviours predict heavier drinking and mediate the relationship with age, gender and education status: Analysis from the International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Parry, Charles D H; Viet Cuong, Pham; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Piazza, Marina

    2018-02-21

    To investigate behaviours related to four alcohol policy variables (policy-relevant behaviours) and demographic variables in relation to typical quantities of alcohol consumed on-premise in six International Alcohol Control study countries. General population surveys with drinkers using a comparable survey instrument and data analysed using path analysis in an overall model and for each country. typical quantities per occasion consumed on-premise; gender, age; years of education, prices paid, time of purchase, time to access alcohol and liking for alcohol advertisements. In the overall model younger people, males and those with fewer years of education consumed larger typical quantities. Overall lower prices paid, later time of purchase and liking for alcohol ads predicted consuming larger typical quantities; this was found in the high-income countries, less consistently in the high-middle-income countries and not in the low middle-income country. Three policy-relevant behaviours (prices paid, time of purchase, liking for alcohol ads) mediated the relationships between age, gender, education and consumption in high-income countries. International Alcohol Control survey data showed a relationship between policy-relevant behaviours and typical quantities consumed and support the likely effect of policy change (trading hours, price and restrictions on marketing) on heavier drinking. The path analysis also revealed policy-relevant behaviours were significant mediating variables between the effect of age, gender and educational status on consumption. However, this relationship is clearest in high-income countries. Further research is required to understand better how circumstances in low-middle-income countries impact effects of policies. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  6. A document analysis of drowning prevention education resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchmarchi, Adam Bradley; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Kipfer, Hannah Joy

    2018-03-01

    There have been long-standing calls to better educate the public at large on risks of drowning; yet limited evaluation has taken place on current resources in circulation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to develop an understanding of the content in currently circulated drowning prevention resources in the United States. Data points (n = 451) consisting of specific content within 25 different drowning prevention educational resources were analyzed using document analysis methods; a grounded theory approach was employed to allow for categorical development and indexing of the data. Results revealed six emerging categories, including safety precautions (n = 152), supervision (n = 109), preventing access (n = 57), safety equipment (n = 46), emergency procedures (n = 46), and aquatic education (n = 41). Results provide an initial insight into the composition of drowning prevention resources in the United States and provide a foundation for future research.

  7. Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina; Højbjerre, Lise; Riegels, Mette

    2004-01-01

    in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors...... into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically...... strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences...

  8. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  9. The Simalelo Peer Education Programme for HIV prevention: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...

  10. Prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace and educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Beth A

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.

  11. Resource Directory of Hispanic Educational Materials on Child Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy; And Others

    This annotated resource directory lists brochures, booklets, audiovisual materials, charts, and other educational materials, most of which are available in both English and Spanish, that address the following issues: (1) child abuse; (2) child development; (3) parenting skills; (4) mental health; (5) self-esteem; (6) stress management; (7) family…

  12. Guides to Pollution Prevention: Research and Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Office of Research and Development.

    This guide provides an overview of waste generating processes and operations that occur in educational or research institutions and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A broad spectrum of waste chemicals in laboratories, art studios, print shops, maintenance, and other operations can be…

  13. Effects of Alcohol on Plasma Glucose and Prevention of Alcohol-induced Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes - A Systematic Review with GRADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetzschner, R; Nørgaard, K; Ranjan, A

    2018-01-01

    systematically reviewed the literature for ethanol effects on plasma glucose and for prevention strategies on ethanol-induced hypoglycemia. METHODS: Electronic searches on PubMed and Google were conducted in February 2017. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies were included. Studies involved...... patients with T1D with no history of ethanol abuse. The primary aims were changes in plasma glucose after ethanol intake and prevention strategies for ethanol-induced hypoglycemia. Quality of the studies was assessed by GRADE. Additionally, we searched for guidelines from diabetes associations...

  14. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  15. Education for AIDS Prevention: Bibliography--Supplement No. 1=Education pour la prevention du SIDA: Bibliographie--Supplement No. 1=Educacion para la Prevencion del SIDA: Bibliografia--Suplemento No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Documentation and Information Service.

    This supplement to the Education for AIDS Prevention Bibliography provides a list of titles received by ASERC (AIDS School Education Resource Centre) from August 1991 to December 1992, consisting mainly of educational material for schools. It also includes documents of a more general nature on AIDS and AIDS prevention. ASERC is a documentation…

  16. An Assessment of Alcohol and Drug Education/Prevention Programs in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    changes have resulted from marijuana use, that acute psychotic reictions are quite rare and occur in predi.;posed persons, that physical dependence has...relatively short, lucid, and speaks to the commander and tile policy maker. Parallel to some of the main text chapters are detailed ,, ppendices which...psychological dangers of marijuana use:$ 0 "No pathologic bodily changes have been conclusively demon- strated from acute use itu, marijuana] * " Acute

  17. HIV-Risk Behaviors and Social Support Among Men and Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.

  18. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  19. The Ways of Preventing Students’ Extremism and Intolerance in the Regional Educational Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Selivanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper reveals the inefficiency problem of preventive measures controlling students’ intolerant and extremist behavior in higher educational institutions. According to the author, such trends in students’ society, as well as the rising phenomenon of nationalistic religious identity inevitably leading to interpersonal tensions, are caused in the last decades by the degrading prestige of higher education, growing pragmatism and formality of its achievement and key value depreciation in higher educational institutions. To improve the existing situation, it is necessary to revive the main functions of higher educational establishments –the intellectual and professional elite formation, cherishing the humanity values, social responsibility and active civil position; on the other hand, it is vitally important to create the system of prevention and correction of such trends as intolerance and extremism. However, the above goals are aggravated by the number of other problems listed in the paper.The method of developing the system of complex prevention of the mentioned negative phenomena is proposed with the reference to higher educational institutions; the specific stages of the given method, the technologies and organizational forms being outlined; the practical application and outcome in Tyumen State University being discussed. The research findings can be interesting for people responsible for preventive measures in higher educational instinutionms. 

  20. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  1. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  2. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  3. Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad: empowerment participatory education for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M

    2001-10-01

    To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.

  4. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  5. Early diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in APOE2 knock-in mice and its prevention by fibrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Wouters, Kristiaan; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Noel, Benoit; Buffat, Laurent; Staels, Bart; Maeda, Nobuyo; van Bilsen, Marc; Hofker, Marten H.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms leading to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) are not fully understood. In mice, NASH can be inhibited by fenofibrate, a synthetic agonist for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, which regulates hepatic triglyceride metabolism. This study

  6. Violence prevention education program for psychiatric outpatient departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants

  7. College Students' Perceptions of the Importance of Sexual Assault Prevention Education: Suggestions for Targeting Recruitment for Peer-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…

  8. Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

  9. The opportunities for and obstacles against prevention: the example of Germany in the areas of tobacco and alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ulla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have seen a growing research and policy interest in prevention in many developed countries. However, the actual efforts and resources devoted to prevention appear to have lagged well behind the lip service paid to the topic. Discussion We review the evidence on the considerable existing scope for health gains from prevention as well as for greater prevention policy efforts in Germany. We also discuss the barriers to "more and better" prevention and provide modest suggestions about how some of the obstacles could be overcome. Summary In Germany, there are substantial health gains to be reaped from the implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective preventive interventions and policies. Barriers to more prevention include social, historical, political, legal and economic factors. While there is sufficient evidence to scale up prevention efforts in some public health domains in Germany, in general there is a comparative shortage of research on non-clinical preventive interventions. Some of the existing barriers in Germany are at least in principle amenable to change, provided sufficient political will exists. More research on prevention by itself is no panacea, but could help facilitate more policy action. In particular, there is an economic efficiency-based case for public funding and promotion of research on non-clinical preventive interventions, in Germany and beyond, to confront the peculiar challenges that set this research apart from its clinical counterpart.

  10. Husband’s Education Level and Alcohol Drinking Habit as Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Housewives in Pati District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aeni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in Pati District increase, particularly among housewives. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives in Pati District using case-control study design. The respondents were 90 housewives divided into case and control group. The case group consisted of 30 housewives living with HIV, while the control group comprised 60 housewives living in the similar area of the counterparts. The data collection was focused on demographic, sexual behaviour, and sociocultural variables possessed by housewives and their husbands. The study resulted that the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives based on bivariate analysis were housewife’s level of education, husband’s level of education, husband’s occupation, housewife’s sexual transmission disease (STD record, husband’s STD record, husband’s participation in religious activities, and husband’s alcohol drinking habit. The risk factors that fitted to logistic regression model were education level and alcoholic behaviour of husbands that contributed to 29.1% HIV infection among housewives. In conclusion, the husband’s variables are proved having stronger and very significant correlation with HIV infection among housewives than housewife’s variables.

  11. Partner’s and own education : does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  12. Smart Homes and Sensors for Surveillance and Preventive Education at Home: Example of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demongeot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The aim of this paper is to show that e-health tools like smart homes allow the personalization of the surveillance and preventive education of chronic patients, such as obese persons, in order to maintain a comfortable and preventive lifestyle at home. (2 Technologies and methods: Several types of sensors allow coaching the patient at home, e.g., the sensors recording the activity and monitoring the physiology of the person. All of this information serves to personalize serious games dedicated to preventive education, for example in nutrition and vision. (3 Results: We built a system of personalized preventive education at home based on serious games, derived from the feedback information they provide through a monitoring system. Therefore, it is possible to define (after clustering and personalized calibration from the at home surveillance of chronic patients different comfort zones where their behavior can be estimated as normal or abnormal and, then, to adapt both alarm levels for surveillance and education programs for prevention, the chosen example of application being obesity.

  13. Plagiarism education and prevention a subject-driven case-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, Cara

    2011-01-01

    Academic librarians and university instructors worldwide are grappling with an increasing incidence of student plagiarism. Recent publications urge educators to prevent plagiarism by teaching students about the issue, and some have advocated the value of a subject-specific approach to plagiarism prevention education. There is, however, a complete lack of resources and guidance for librarians and instructors who want to adopt this approach in their teaching. This book opens with a brief overview of plagiarism today, followed by arguments in favour of a subject-based approach. The rest of the bo

  14. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  15. Alcohol education and training in pre-registration nursing: a national survey to determine curriculum content in the United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Aisha S; Webster, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol-related harm impacts significantly on the health of the population. Nurses are often among the first health professionals that many patients with alcohol-related problems come into contact with and have been identified as playing a key role but may be ill-prepared to respond. Future nurses need to have the skills, knowledge and clinical confidence to respond to patients suffering from alcohol-related harm. A pre-registration curriculum that ensures a nursing workforce fit for practice in responding to alcohol-related harm is necessary. To determine the level of alcohol education and training content in the pre-registration curriculum for nursing in the United Kingdom (UK). To establish whether there are variations in the pre-registration curriculum content across the UK. A descriptive study. All 68 UK Higher Education Institutions offering a total of 111 pre-registration courses for nurses were invited to participate in the study. Twenty nine completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 26%. The largest number of identified responders were from England (n=15), with 3 from Scotland and 1 each from Wales and Northern Ireland. Nine Universities chose not to identify themselves. An online semi-structured questionnaire survey was used to collect the study data. Teaching of alcohol and alcohol related harm was mainly delivered during the second year of a pre-registration nursing programme provided mainly to adult and mental health students. Overall, the majority of alcohol related content that is provided within the responding pre-registration nursing courses relates to biophysiology, aetiology, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. This study highlights the need for a greater and more relevant focus of alcohol education to pre-registration nursing students of all fields of practice incorporating an integrated approach across all years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Putting tobacco cessation and prevention into undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training medical students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills is critical to have competent physicians who are prepared to address the grave levels of morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use. However, in India, enough attention has not been given to elicit the active participation of physicians in tobacco control. Keeping this in view, a program was undertaken to develop the skills and competence of medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and the delivery of advice accordingly for patients in their clinical year′s routine consultations. Methods: The targeted learners were 149 1 st -year medical and dental students of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India, who had appeared the second semester examination; 84 of the participants were male. Students were allowed to appear a test before the training session on knowledge of tobacco cessation and post test was done after 1.5 months of training. The knowledge score was evaluated to evaluate the learning outcome. Results: We observed that a curriculum on tobacco intervention could improve relevant knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence and be applied in students early clinical experiences. Conclusions: There is need of joint action by practicing clinicians, the medical faculty and the curriculum planners of the country to incorporate tobacco cessation into the curriculum.

  17. Essential competencies in nursing education for prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline; Cappiello, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    To identify the essential competencies for prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy to develop program outcomes for nursing curricula. Modified Delphi study. National. Eighty-five nurse experts, including academic faculty and advanced practice nurses providing sexual and reproductive health care in primary or specialty care settings. Expert panelists completed a three-round Delphi study using an electronic survey. Eighty-five panelists completed the first round survey, and 72 panelists completed all three rounds. Twenty-seven items achieved consensus of at least 75% of the experts by the third round to comprise the educational competencies. Through an iterative process, experts in prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy reached consensus on 27 core educational competencies for nursing education. The competencies provide a framework for curricular development in an important area of nursing education. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  19. Effects of a combined parent-student alcohol prevention program on intermediate factors and adolescents' drinking behavior: A sequential mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Maric, Marija; MacKinnon, David; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-08-01

    Previous work revealed that the combined parent-student alcohol prevention program (PAS) effectively postponed alcohol initiation through its hypothesized intermediate factors: increase in strict parental rule setting and adolescents' self-control (Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen, Engels, & Vollebergh, 2011). This study examines whether the parental strictness precedes an increase in adolescents' self-control by testing a sequential mediation model. A cluster randomized trial including 3,245 Dutch early adolescents (M age = 12.68, SD = 0.50) and their parents randomized over 4 conditions: (1) parent intervention, (2) student intervention, (3) combined intervention, and (4) control group. Outcome measure was amount of weekly drinking measured at age 12 to 15; baseline assessment (T0) and 3 follow-up assessments (T1-T3). Main effects of the combined and parent intervention on weekly drinking at T3 were found. The effect of the combined intervention on weekly drinking (T3) was mediated via an increase in strict rule setting (T1) and adolescents' subsequent self-control (T2). In addition, the indirect effect of the combined intervention via rule setting (T1) was significant. No reciprocal sequential mediation (self-control at T1 prior to rules at T2) was found. The current study is 1 of the few studies reporting sequential mediation effects of youth intervention outcomes. It underscores the need of involving parents in youth alcohol prevention programs, and the need to target both parents and adolescents, so that change in parents' behavior enables change in their offspring. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Parental aptitude to prevent child sexual abuse after a participatory education intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda-Almaraz, Martha Alicia; Higareda-Almaraz, Enrique; Higareda-Almaraz, Irma Reyna; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos; Gómez-Llamas, Meynardo Alonso; Benites-Godínez, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the aptitude of parents regarding the educational impact of equity education for children to prevent child sexual abuse using participatory strategies. Quasi-experimental design. Ninety-two parents with children in preschool were included in the study. The parents were given a course using participatory educational strategies for one hour daily over a period of 20 days. Prior to the course, a group of experts in child education and sexology prepared a questionnaire with 20 sentences. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare intergroup differences We found statistically significant differences in the parents' responses before and after the educational intervention, with a median (range) of 10(2-12)/18(6-20), pchild sexual abuse. Thus, it is imperative to continue evaluating different educational strategies.

  1. Implementation of the power to prevent diabetes prevention educational curriculum into rural African American communities: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cené, Crystal W; Haymore, Laura Beth; Ellis, Danny; Whitaker, Shaketa; Henderson, Stacey; Lin, Feng-Chang; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the feasibility of using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implement the Power to Prevent (P2P) diabetes prevention education curriculum in rural African American (AA) settings. Trained community health workers facilitated the 12-session P2P curriculum across 3 community settings. Quantitative (based on the pre- and post-curriculum questionnaires and changes in blood glucose, blood pressure [BP], and weight at baseline and 6 months) and qualitative data (based on semi-structured interviews with facilitators) were collected. Indicators of feasibility included: demand, acceptability, implementation fidelity, and limited efficacy testing. Across 3 counties, 104 AA participants were recruited; 43% completed ≥ 75% of the sessions. There was great demand for the program. Fifteen community health ambassadors (CHAs) were trained, and 4 served as curriculum facilitators. Content and structure of the intervention was acceptable to facilitators but there were challenges to implementing the program as designed. Improvements were seen in diabetes knowledge and the impact of healthy eating and physical activity on diabetes prevention, but there were no significant changes in blood glucose, BP, or weight. While it is feasible to use a CBPR approach to recruit participants and implement the P2P curriculum in AA community settings, there are significant challenges that must be overcome.

  2. "Diazepam loading": ¿Can a strategy for preventing alcohol withdrawal be used to treat benzodiazepine use disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Clara; Fortea, Adriana; Espinosa, Laura; Barrio, Pablo; Lligoña, Anna; Balcells-Olivero, Mercè

    2018-04-15

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are central nervous system (CNS) depressants which are widely used to treat insomnia and anxiety, despite having long-term adverse side effects. (Fortea González, Oriolo, Balcells Oliveró, Sánchez Del Valle & Castellvi, 2017). As with alcohol, continued use can lead to tolerance and dependence phenomena. Discontinuation in such cases can produce abstinence symptoms such as tremors, anxiety, seizures and, occasionally, death (Brett y Murnion, 2015).

  3. [Parents' actions for prevention of arterial hypertension educational technology for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Moreira, Francisco Getúlio Alves

    2011-11-01

    This participatory research aimed to evaluate behavioral changes in fifteen parents of pre-school children to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension, by applying education technology for health that is based on the Health Beliefs Model at a private school in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil. The field research was carried out through educational workshops and data collection through questionnaires and interviews. After organizing the data into categories, analysis was based on the premises of health education. Through the application of education technology for health, significant changes were observed in the parents' habits, besides the roles they assumed as agents of change and multipliers of educational actions in the family. Although difficulties arose in the process of change, the parents were motivated to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension in themselves and their children. Thus, education technology for health based on the Health Beliefs Model proved to be efficient, as significant behavioral changes occurred and the parents were motivated to prevent arterial hypertension by means of a healthy lifestyle.

  4. Alzheimer's Prevention Education: If We Build It, Will They Come? www.AlzU.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, R S; Haynes, N; Seifan, A; Larsen, D; Christiansen, S; Berger, J C; Safdieh, J E; Lunde, A M; Luo, A; Kramps, M; McInnis, M; Ochner, C N

    2014-01-01

    Internet-based educational interventions may be useful for impacting knowledge and behavioral change. However, in AD prevention, little data exists about which educational tools work best in terms of learning and interest in participating in clinical trials. Primary: Assess effectiveness of interactive webinars vs. written blog-posts on AD prevention learning. Secondary: Evaluate the effect of AD prevention education on interest in participating in clinical trials; Assess usability of, and user perceptions about, an online AD education research platform; Classify target populations (demographics, learning needs, interests). Observational. Online. Men/Women, aged 25+, recruited via facebook.com. Alzheimer's Universe (www.AlzU.org) education research platform. Pre/post-test performance, self-reported Likert-scale ratings, completion rates. Over two-weeks, 4268 visits were generated. 503 signed-up for a user account (11.8% join rate), 196 participated in the lessons (39.0%) and 100 completed all beta-testing steps (19.9%). Users randomized to webinar instruction about AD prevention and the stages of AD demonstrated significant increases (p=0.01) in pre vs. post-testing scores compared to blog-post intervention. Upon joining, 42% were interested in participating in a clinical trial in AD prevention. After completing all beta-test activities, interest increased to 86%. Users were primarily women and the largest category was children of AD patients. 66.3% joined to learn more about AD prevention, 65.3% to learn more about AD treatment. Webinar-based education led to significant improvements in learning about AD prevention and the stages of AD. AlzU.org participation more than doubled interest in AD prevention clinical trial participation. Subjects were quickly and cost-effectively recruited, and highly satisfied with the AD education research platform. Based on these data, we will further refine AlzU.org prior to public launch and aim to study the effectiveness of 25

  5. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.

  6. Substance use prevention program for adolescents with intellectual disabilities on special education schools: A cluster randomised control trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewik, M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Kemna, L.E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students without intellectual disability (ID) start experimenting with tobacco and alcohol between 12 and 15 years of age. However, data for 12- to 15-year old students with ID are unavailable. Prevention programs, like 'prepared on time' (based on the attitude–social influence–efficacy

  7. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  8. The educative prevention of the early stage of educationist’s formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alfonso Nazco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces a characterization of the educative prevention stage at the early professional formation process of educacionist in Sancti Spìritus province. The study is done by the indication analysis of assistant, learning, permanence and behavior at youths who course pedagogical carrers, and haven’t expressed a desire stage yet. The main shown results dealt with the assumption of the searching variables and its indicators, the construction of instruments and the definition of aspects concerning the educative prevention at the early stage of educationist’s formation in the selected choosing. Theoretical, empirical and statistical- math, methods were used which were helped by the constructed instruments and the triangulations among them thus arriving to generalizations for the caracterization. The results have better the work at the area project of the educative prevention in adolescents and youths in the territory, witch mainly concern the desing and implementation of actions withing the pedagogical process, foccuse in the integration of institutions, socializer and educative agents functioning to eductive prevention.

  9. Domestic Abuse Prevention Education: Listening to the Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire L.; Hale, Rebecca; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings derived as part of a two-year project funded by the European Union's Daphne III scheme, involving collaboration between seven partner organisations across six European countries. The project involved an evaluation, using questionnaires and focus groups, of domestic abuse prevention education programmes delivered in…

  10. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  11. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  12. Tobacco Prevention Education in Schools for the Deaf: The Faculty Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Barbara A.; Guthmann, Debra S.; Liu, Weiqing; Streja, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    We report results of a survey of tobacco education practices and perspectives among faculty at four Schools for the Deaf participating in the trial of a tailored tobacco prevention curriculum. Few faculty (20.4%) included tobacco use among the three most important health problems facing their students, although 88.8% considered tobacco education…

  13. Effects of a Theory-Based Education Program to Prevent Overweightness in Primary School Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Scholten, A.M.; Westhoff,E.; Kok, B.P.H.; Taal, E.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the “Extra Fit!” (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools (n = 1112) in the

  14. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  15. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  16. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  17. The Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education at Case Western Reserve University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J.; Singer, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Established in the year 2000, the Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education is a multidisciplinary center located at a school of social work that engages in collaborative, community-based research and evaluation that spans multiple systems and disciplines. The Center currently occupies 4,200 sq. ft. with multiple offices and…

  18. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  19. Influence of Professional Preparation and Class Structure on HIV, STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…

  20. Preventing HIV/AIDS through education: the role of primary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, opinion and practices of Nigerian primary and secondary school teachers on HIV/AIDS education. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, training on HIV transmission ...

  1. Distance Education and Plagiarism Prevention at the University of South Carolina Upstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Breanne A.; Bradley, Lola

    2012-01-01

    At the University of South Carolina Upstate, two librarians created a series of workshops to proactively prevent plagiarism. To reach distance education students, online workshops were developed in Blackboard including basic and advanced workshops for lower and upper-level courses. The workshops are intended to introduce students to the concepts…

  2. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  3. Impact of Nursing Educational Program on Reducing or Preventing Postoperative Complications for Patients after Intracranial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowla, Rasha Ali Ahmed Abd; El-Lateef, Zienab Abd; El-khayat, Roshdy

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial surgery means any surgery performed inside the skull to treat problems in the brain and surrounding structures. Aim: Evaluate the impact of nursing educational program on reducing or preventing postoperative complications for patients after intracranial surgery. Subjects and methods: Sixty adult patients had intracranial surgery (burr…

  4. Health promotion and prevention in higher music education: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Mark F; Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    Music-related symptoms can already be found among student musicians during their years of university training. The goals of the present study were to ascertain the state and developmental course of the student musicians' health and to test the effectiveness of a preventive curriculum given to student musicians during their first two semesters at university. Within a longitudinal, observational study, we assessed students' psychological and physical health during the first 2 years of university training. We compared data from the group of students who had followed the prevention program (intervention group, IG, n = 144) with data of a comparison group (CG, n = 103) of students who had not followed the program. Using standardized questionnaires, we measured physical and psychological symptoms as well as health behavior in a sequential plan (duration, 3.5 yrs). Student musicians (n = 247) showed elevated ratings in psychological and physical health in comparison with nonmusicians of the same age. These ratings decreased at the end of the students' second year. The prevention program had a preventive effect on the students' psychological health: while IG students remained stable in their performance and powers of concentration, CG students got worse in those same areas. However, the prevention program did not reduce physical symptoms. In comparison with their younger colleagues, upper-level students took more courses in body-oriented methods, relaxation, and mental techniques, which focus on preventive measures for musicians. At present, the study offers evidence supporting the use of the prevention curriculum for young musicians. In higher music education, preventive education has a positive impact on students' performance and their attitude toward health. The preventive curriculum does not have an effect on preexisting physical symptoms, and those symptoms related to the students musicians' activity should rather be treated in an additional therapeutic setting.

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. [Transcultural prevention of alcohol-related disorders : effects of a culture- and migration-sensitive approach in elderly migrants with respect to attitudes and behavior: a cluster randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Frank, F; Komarahadi, F; Albicker, J; Ries, Z; Kriston, L; Härter, M

    2015-07-01

    For migrants who are older than 50, alcohol frequently becomes a problem. Simultaneously alcohol-related prevention measures only reach this group insufficiently. Therefore, a transcultural concept for preventing alcohol-related disorders in elderly (≥ 45 years) migrants has been developed. The transcultural concept, which consisted of a prevention event as well as a cultural and language-sensitive information booklet, was evaluated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial (n = 310 immigrants). As a control condition there was a prevention event with materials from Deutsche Hauptstelle für Suchtfragen (German Centre for Addiction Issues). Data were obtained before and after the event, as well as after 6 months. All materials were available both in German and in Russian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. Directly after the event, as well as 6 months thereafter, the transcultural approach was rated significantly better than the general prevention event. 73.4 % of the participants read the cultural and migration-sensitive booklet, whereas only 21.2 % in the control condition (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, significantly more participants of the transcultural approach reported a reduced alcohol consumption (49.4 vs. 16.7 %; p = 0.004) after 6 months. The consideration of diversity with respect to cultural, migration-related, socio demographic und linguistic aspects improves the effectiveness of prevention measures.

  7. Comprehensive Sexuality Education as a Primary Prevention Strategy for Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Madeline; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy. Our discussion uses socioecological and feminist theories as a guide, examines the extent to which NSES-guided CSE could both meet the qualities of effective prevention programs and mitigate the risk factors that are most implicated in perpetration behavior, and considers the potential limitations of this approach. We suggest that sequential, K-12 program has potential to prevent the emergence of risk factors associated with SV perpetration by starting prevention early on in the life course. CSE has not yet been evaluated with SV perpetration behavior as an outcome, and this article synthesizes what is known about drivers of SV perpetration and the potential impacts of CSE to argue for the importance of future research in this area. The primary recommendation is for longitudinal research to examine the impact of CSE on SV perpetration as well as on other sexual and reproductive health outcomes.

  8. Educational software and improvement of first grade school students' knowledge about prevention of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Santos Vital Alves Coelho

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the effects of educational software to improve first grade school students' knowledge about prevention of overweight and obesity. Methods. This non-controlled trial with a before-and-after evaluation was carried out in an school located in the municipality of Divinópolis (Brazil among 71 students aged 6 to 10 years. The educational software about prevention of overweight and obesity was designed and then validated. The educational intervention comprised the use of the software. Before and after of the intervention we applied a questionnaire based on the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating for Children, proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results. Comparing the times before and after application of the educational software, we observed statistically significant differences in proportion of questions answered correctly by first grade school students, mainly concerning daily eating of healthy and unhealthy food, adequate preparation of food and importance of exercise. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of educational actions using software to build knowledge of first grade school students about prevention of overweight and obesity.

  9. Does educating nurses with ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines improve their compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloush, Sami M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the compliance with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-prevention guidelines between nurses who underwent an intensive educational program and those who did not, and to investigate other factors that influence nurses' compliance. A 2-group posttest design was used to examine the effect of the VAP-prevention guidelines education on nurses' compliance. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The overall nurses' compliance scores were moderate. There was no statistically significant difference in compliance between the nurses who received VAP education and those who did not (t[100] = -1.43; P = .15). The number of beds in the unit and the nurse-patient ratio were found to influence nurses' compliance. Education in VAP-prevention guidelines will not improve nurses' compliance unless other confounding factors, such as their workload, are controlled. It is imperative to reduce nurses' workload to improve their compliance and enhance the effectiveness of education. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  11. Teachers’ and Education Support Professionals’ Perspectives on Bullying and Prevention: Findings From a National Education Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Gulemetova, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Given growing concerns regarding the prevalence and seriousness of bullying, the National Education Association recently drew upon its membership to launch a national study of teachers’ and education support professionals’ perceptions of bullying, and need for additional training on bullying prevention efforts and school-wide policies. The data were collected from a representative sample of 5,064 National Education Association members (2,163 teachers and 2,901 education support professionals). Analyses indicated that compared to education support professionals, teachers were more likely to witness students being bullied, more likely to view bullying as a significant problem at their school, and were more likely to have students report bullying to them. Teachers were more likely to be involved in bullying policies at their school, yet both groups reported wanting more training related to cyberbullying and bullying related to students’ sexual orientation, gender issues, and racial issues. Implications for school psychologists and the development of school-wide bullying prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:25414539

  12. Occupational Skin Disease Prevention: An Educational Intervention for Hairdresser Cosmetology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.

  13. Effectiveness of Peer Education Interventions for HIV Prevention, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention and Sexual Health Promotion for Young People: A Systematic Review of European Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolli, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…

  14. Effectiveness of the Strengthening Families Programme 10–14 in Poland for the prevention of alcohol and drug misuse: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz-Kozaryn Katarzyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and other drug use and misuse is a significant problem amongst Polish youth. The SFP10-14 is a family-based prevention intervention that has positive results in US trials, but questions remain about the generalizability of these results to other countries and settings. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in community settings across Poland. Communities will be randomized to a SFP10-14 trial arm or to a control arm. Recruitment and consent of families, and delivery of the SFP10-14, will be undertaken by community workers. The primary outcomes are alcohol and other drug use and misuse. Secondary (or intermediate outcomes include parenting practices, parent–child relations, and child problem behaviour. Interview-based questionnaires will be administered at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Discussion The trial will provide information about the effectiveness of the SFP10-14 in Poland. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN89673828

  15. Protective Role of Dietary Curcumin in the Prevention of the Oxidative Stress Induced by Chronic Alcohol with respect to Hepatic Injury and Antiatherogenic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Varatharajalu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an antioxidant compound found in Asian spices, was evaluated for its protective effects against ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis, liver injury, antiatherogenic markers, and antioxidant status in rats fed with Lieber-deCarli low menhaden (2.7% of total calories from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and Lieber-deCarli high menhaden (13.8% of total calories from ω-3 PUFA alcohol-liquid (5% diets supplemented with or without curcumin (150 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Treatment with curcumin protected against high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis and increase in liver injury markers, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Curcumin upregulated paraoxonase 1 (PON1 mRNA and caused significant increase in serum PON1 and homocysteine thiolactonase activities as compared to high ω-3 PUFA and ethanol group. Moreover, treatment with curcumin protected against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant glutathione and decreasing the lipid peroxidation adduct 4-hydroxynonenal. These results strongly suggest that chronic ethanol in combination with high ω-3 PUFA exacerbated hepatosteatosis and liver injury and adversely decreases antiatherogenic markers due to increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione. Curcumin supplementation significantly prevented these deleterious actions of chronic ethanol and high ω-3 PUFA. Therefore, we conclude that curcumin may have therapeutic potential to protect against chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and atherosclerosis.

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-05-30

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.

  17. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  18. [Application of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-gang; Qu, Yan; Wang, Wen-guang; Tang, Song-yuan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control in the border and minority areas. A health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control was carried out, and baseline and follow up surveys were conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods to document the changes of local villagers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAP) of malaria prevention and control in 2 counties of Yunnan Province, and the results before and after the interventions were analyzed and compared. After the intervention, the cognition rates about malaria symptoms and signs, transmission mode, preventive measures and health-seeking behaviors were 99.3%, 98.9%, 79.9% and 99.3% respectively in the local residents, and those were 39.2%, 8.2%, 47.0% and 49.9% respectively before the intervention, and all the differences were statistically significant (P all house-to-house visit is an effective community-based health education approach.

  19. [Effectiveness of educational interventions for the prevention of pregnancy in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martos, Sebastián; López-Medina, Isabel M; Álvarez-García, Cristina; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen

    2018-06-11

    To assess the effectiveness of the interventions to prevent a pregnancy in adolescence. Systematic review. The following databases were consulted: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cuiden Plus, LILACS, and IME, in order to identify interventions aimed at preventing a pregnancy in adolescence. A total of 24 primary investigations, in which an educational program to prevent a pregnancy in the adolescence was evaluated, were selected. The quality of the selected studies was assessed according to the CASPe scale. Educational programs for the modification of the teenage pregnancy rate show inconclusive results, as there are 2 studies that find a reduction, and 2 that find that there are no significant changes. For secondary outcomes, it was found that educational programs are effective for increasing the knowledge level about sexuality and contraceptive methods and changing attitudes about the risk of a teenage pregnancy or the use of contraceptive methods. There are no statistically significant differences between the studies with a positive and negative outcome (P>.05) for any of the results analysed in this review. There is no a single intervention modality that is the most effective for prevention of a teenage pregnancy. More research is needed with a longitudinal approach that assess not only intermediate results, but also a modification in the pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, T H; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, M E; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, S C; Enders, F T; Huskins, W C; Pierret, C

    2016-06-01

    School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students' unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge among students than traditional

  1. Development of country-wide strategies to reduce the alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikfarjam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.

  2. Evaluating nurses' knowledge, attitude and competency after an education programme on suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sally Wai-chi; Chien, Wai-tong; Tso, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an education programme on suicide prevention for nurses working in general hospitals. A mixed method design that included a single group pretest-posttest analysis and focus group interviews was used. A convenient sample of 54 registered nurses was recruited from the medical and surgical units of two regional general hospitals. An 18-hour education programme on suicide prevention based on reflective learning principles was provided to the participants. The outcome measures used included participants' attitudes towards, knowledge of, competence in and stress levels arising from suicide prevention and management. Eighteen participants joined the focus group interviews. There were statistically significant positive changes in the pre- and post-test measures of participants' attitudes and competence levels. Qualitative data showed that participants had applied the new knowledge they acquired in clinical practice. They perceived themselves as being more aware of the problem of suicide and more competent in managing suicide risk. Participants highlighted certain barriers that exist to providing optimal care, including inadequate manpower, lack of support from senior staff and a lack of guidelines. Ongoing education may be necessary to expedite changes. The education programme provided can be delivered to other health care professional groups and the results further evaluated.

  3. 76 FR 76023 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... an unacceptable loss of life from traffic accidents that involve drugs, alcohol, and distracted... Prevention Month, we recommit to preventing tragedy before it strikes by ensuring our family members and... parents, educators, and community leaders who work with young people every day are our Nation's best...

  4. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental student perception and assessment of their clinical knowledge in educating patients about preventive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A

    2015-05-01

    In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An Effective Family Skills-based Intervention for the Prevention of Health Problems in Children of Alcohol and Drug-Abusing Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol l. Kumpfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  8. Patient Preferences for Receiving Education on Venous Thromboembolism Prevention - A Survey of Stakeholder Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Victor O; Lau, Brandyn D; Shihab, Hasan M; Farrow, Norma E; Shaffer, Dauryne L; Hobson, Deborah B; Kulik, Susan V; Zaruba, Paul D; Shermock, Kenneth M; Kraus, Peggy S; Pronovost, Peter J; Streiff, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and is largely preventable. Strategies to decrease the burden of VTE have focused on improving clinicians' prescribing of prophylaxis with relatively less emphasis on patient education. To develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. The objective of this study was to develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. We implemented a three-phase, web-based survey (SurveyMonkey) between March 2014 and September 2014 and analyzed survey data using descriptive statistics. Four hundred twenty one members of several national stakeholder organizations and a single local patient and family advisory board were invited to participate via email. We assessed participants' preferences for VTE education topics and methods of delivery. Participants wanted to learn about VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and complications in a context that emphasized harm. Although participants were willing to learn using a variety of methods, most preferred to receive education in the context of a doctor-patient encounter. The next most common preferences were for video and paper educational materials. Patients want to learn about the harm associated with VTE through a variety of methods. Efforts to improve VTE prophylaxis and decrease preventable harm from VTE should target the entire continuum of care and a variety of stakeholders including patients and their families.

  9. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of education in the prevention and control of infection: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Deborah J

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a literature review which was undertaken prior to a research study about student nurses' and midwives' experiences of learning infection control in clinical practice. Its aim is to identify the role of education in the prevention and control of infection, with a specific focus on compliance with infection control precautions and reduction in infection rates. It also identifies the methods used for teaching infection control. The review concludes that there is no rigorous and convincing evidence that education improves compliance with infection control precautions or reduces rates of infection, particularly in the long-term. Areas for future research are identified. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol dependence and health care utilization in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Vanessa J; Kalu, Nnenna; Kwagyan, John; Scott, Denise M; Cain, Gloria E; Hill, Karen; Hesselbrock, Victor; Ferguson, Clifford L; Taylor, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic and cultural differences in patterns of alcohol use disorders must be understood in order to address improvement in prevention of such disorders and accessibility to health care services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that influence the utilization of medical and mental health services among alcohol-dependent and non-alcohol-dependent African Americans. A cohort of 454 African Americans was evaluated. Alcohol-dependent participants were recruited from various inpatient treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area and through advertisement and word of mouth. Non-alcohol-dependent participants were recruited by advertisements. Each participant was administered the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to assess alcohol dependency and the Family History Assessment module to access family history of alcoholism. Xl Test and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Alcohol dependence was more prevalent among men, those with lower income, those with less education, and they utilized mental health counseling as opposed to medical-based therapy. Increased reports of medical conditions such as migraine (p<.001), loss of consciousness (p=.001), and sexually transmitted diseases: (p<.001) were also associated with alcohol dependency. Other factors, including visits to inpatient treatment programs, were directly related to incidence of alcohol dependency regardless of gender status (p<.001). This study suggests an association exists among alcohol dependence, medical conditions, health care, and mental care utilization among African Americans. Future research may benefit from investigating if an association exists between alcohol use disorders and health care utilization for other ethnic groups.

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  13. Towards peer education prevention of school dropout: An exploratory analysis of an action-research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colucci Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.

  14. The Effect of Educational Intervention Regarding the Knowledge of Mothers on Prevention of Accidents in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elayne Cristina Soares; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fátima; Sá, Márcia Caroline Nascimento; Mota de Souza, Layane; Gordon, Ariadne Siqueira de Araújo; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Silva de Araújo, Thábyta; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Maia, Carlos Colares; Machado, Ana Larissa Gomes; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Alexandrino da Silva, Leonardo; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Early guidance emphasizes the provision of information to families about growth and normal development in childhood such as specific information about security at home. This research aimed to analyze mothers' knowledge about the prevention of accidents in childhood before and after an educational intervention. It was conducted as a quasi-experimental study with 155 mothers in a Basic Health Unit in northeastern of Brazil in April and May of 2015. The data were collected in two stages through a self-report questionnaire performed before and after the educational intervention by the subjects. The results revealed a significant increase in knowledge about prevention of accidents in childhood in all the self-applied questions (paccidents in childhood. PMID:27583061

  15. Effects of an Education and Prevention Course for University Music Students on Their Body Awareness and Attitude Toward Health and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Kári; Briem, Kristín; Árnason, Árni

    2018-06-01

    Studies show a high cumulative prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. Increased emphasis is needed on studying the effectiveness of education and prevention courses in music schools. To investigate the effects on music students of an education and prevention course on body awareness and their attitude toward health and prevention. 23 music students participated in this prospective descriptive comparative study, with 13 students taking the course and serving as a prevention education group (PG) and 10 students serving as a comparison group (CG). The course met once weekly for 2 semesters and included lectures and practical sessions. Before and after the course, participants answered a questionnaire about their level of physical activity, warm-up exercises prior to musical performance, health-promoting activities, and subjective body awareness during musical performance and during activities of daily living (ADL). Over the 9-month study period, the PG group increased, and the CG lessened, the amount of warm-up prior to music performance, showing a significant group difference after the course (p=0.036). Significant interactions were seen for subjective body awareness scores (between groups over time) during practice (p=0.026) and during ADLs (p=0.004), as the PG group had greater positive change over time. No group differences were found in students' subjective rating of body awareness during live performance. Participation in a prevention and education course may be beneficial for music students due to improved subjective body awareness and attitude toward prevention strategies.

  16. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  17. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037...

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  19. Spitting in the Ocean: Realistic Expectations of the Impact of Driver Alcohol Education and Rehabilitation Programs on the Problem of Drunk Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Alcohol education and rehabilitation programs are widely accepted as an integral part of the enforcement of drunk driving laws; however, careful evaluations of these programs generally fail to show subsequent beneficial effects on traffic crashes. This fact is due in part to the many barriers to conducting sound program evaluations and in part to…

  20. Peering into "Spaces for Change": Empowerment, Subversion and Resistance in a Gendered Violence Prevention Education Programme in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett-Ondiek, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Changing and challenging social norms is essential to preventing gendered violence, and education is widely regarded as a key means through which this can happen. Whilst good-quality research exploring the outcomes of such educational interventions exists, very little is known about what actually happens inside educational spaces aiming to…

  1. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  2. Partner’s and own education: does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual perspective. Recently, applying social–ecological models that include socio-economic factors on various social levels is becoming popular. We argue that partners are an important influence on individual h...

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  4. Student pharmacists provide tobacco use prevention education to elementary school children: A pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 5: Interventions)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FIVE: INTERVENTIONS Natural Recovery from Alcohol Problems Harald Klingemann School-Based Programmes to Prevent Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use Gilbert Botvin and Kenneth Griffin Community Prevention of Alcohol Problems Harold Holder Can Screening and Brief Intervention Lead to Population-Level Reductions in Alcohol-Related Harm? Nick Heather Sharpening the Focus of Alcohol Policy from Aggregate Consumption to Harm and Risk Reduction Tim Stockwell et al A Review of the Efficacy and...

  7. Feasibility of a community intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol abuse with Yup'ik Alaska Native youth: the Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2014-09-01

    The Elluam Tungiinun and Yupiucimta Asvairtuumallerkaa studies evaluated the feasibility of a community intervention to prevent suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth in two remote communities. The intervention originated in an Indigenous model of protection, and its development used a community based participatory research process. Feasibility assessment aimed to assess the extent to which (1) the intervention could be implemented in rural Alaska Native communities, and (2) the intervention was capable of producing measurable effects. Scales maximally sensitive to change were derived from earlier measurement work, and the study contrasted implementation process and outcomes across the two communities. In one community, medium dose response effects (d = .30-.50), with dose defined as number of intervention activities attended, were observed in the growth of intermediate protective factors and ultimate variables. In the other community, medium dose effects were observed for one intermediate protective factor variable, and small dose effects were observed in ultimate variables. Differences across communities in resources supporting intervention explain these contrasting outcomes. Results suggest implementation in these rural Alaska settings is feasible when sufficient resources are available to sustain high levels of local commitment. In such cases, measureable effects are sufficient to warrant a prevention trial.

  8. MODERN THREATS OF SOCIAL SAFETY OF THE EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павел Александрович Кисляков

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify modern threats of safety of the school and substantiate the direction of their prevention.Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the issues of safety of students.Results: on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis identified the following threats of social safety of the education environment: criminal threats, threats of extremism and terrorism, physical and mental abuse, interpersonal conflicts, addictive behavior of students. Substantiates the necessity the design of social safety protection, including space of health, space of tolerance, psychologically comfortable space without violence also providing appropriate training of educators.Practical implications: the system of education.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-2

  9. South Asian immigrant women's suggestions for culturally-tailored HIV education and prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Roula N; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen H; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona

    2017-09-18

    Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge. This study validated the legitimacy of listening to the voices of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV, who communicated 20 recommendations for researchers, educators, community organizations, and service providers to culturally-tailor HIV education programs.

  10. A descriptive study of baccalaureate nursing students' responses to suicide prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  12. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  13. Efficacy of injury prevention related coach education within netball and soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A; Tunstall, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, Netball New Zealand and New Zealand Football adapted a generic 10-point action plan for sports injury prevention, SportSmart, to create NetballSmart and SoccerSmart, as part of their coach education programmes. A small-size descriptive study was conducted in both sports, to assess the efficacy of integrating sports injury prevention into coach education. NetballSmart was evaluated at the end of 2005, via a telephone survey of 217 coaches (53% response rate) who had attended a NetballSmart course earlier in the year. SoccerSmart was evaluated at the start of 2007, via an Internet questionnaire completed by 71 coaches (20% response rate) who had attended a SoccerSmart course in 2006. The evaluations focused on the quality and use of the course resource material, as well as assessing the extent to which coaches had incorporated injury prevention behaviours into player practices. After attending a NetballSmart course, 89% of coaches changed the way they coached, with 95% reported using knowledge from the course and passing it on to players. Ninety-six percent of football/soccer coaches also changed the way they coached, with most change relating to warm-up/cool-down and stretch (65%), technique (63%), fitness (60%) and nutrition/hydration (58%) practices. Although this was a descriptive study in nature, with a small sample size, we conclude that integration of injury prevention content within coach education courses and resources may be a viable and effective strategy to help community coaches--and therefore community players--help reduce their risk of injury. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  15. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  16. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  18. Assessment of Health Behaviors, Health Education Interests, and Injuries among Employees at the General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital, October 2014 - December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Quitting tobacco Self-care Infant care Unplanned pregnancy Unsafe sex Alcohol / drug abuse Depression Family...11%). Injury risk factors included Active Duty military status, lower education level, tobacco use, overuse of alcohol /drugs, and stress...interests, as well as identified modifiable injury risk factors ( alcohol and drugs use, tobacco use, poor sleep, stress). Injury prevention

  19. Assessment of Navy Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education and Training Curricula, Revision Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    CAAC Budgets Creditability Eating Disorders This portion of the instruction is directed toward the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa, bulimia ...command. 1 hour. 2. PARENT AWARENESS SEMINAR A seminar designed to give specific methods for preventing drug abuse among teens and pre- teens . The

  20. Application of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Moreno-Manso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effectiveness of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context. The proposal for action is based on the use of stories as an instrument of primary prevention. The programme aims to improve a child's capacity to face potentially threatening situations and was applied in 10 primary schools of Extremadura (Spain to 317 pupils aged 9 and 10 years old. There were 12 sessions whose aim was for the children to gain an awareness of abuse, identify situations of abuse and learn strategies to face them. This was done through the use of tutorials and by linking the programme to the aims of the pupils' educational stage. The evaluation of the programme shows that the pupils in the experimental group resolved the situations with increasing skill, confidence and determination; and that they could see more clearly where to look for help in terms of protection measures. The tutors evaluated the programme positively, considering the contents useful for prevention.

  1. The use of educational video to promote maternal self-efficacy in preventing early childhood diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joventino, Emanuella Silva; Ximenes, Lorena Barbosa; da Penha, Jardeliny Corrêa; Andrade, Lucilande Cordeiro de Oliveira; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2017-06-01

    Diarrhoea is responsible for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. It is multifactorial, manifested by socioeconomic, hygienic, and maternal factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational video on maternal self-efficacy for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were 2 groups (comparison and intervention), composed of mothers of children under 5 years of age. Group membership was allocated by cluster randomization. Outcomes were maternal self-efficacy measured using the Maternal Self-efficacy Scale for Prevention of Early Childhood Diarrhoea; outcome data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Ninety participants were randomized to each group; 83 intervention group and 80 comparison group members were contained in the final analysis. Maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhoea increased in both groups, but average scores of the intervention group were higher at all time than those of the comparison group. The educational video had a significant effect on maternal self-efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  3. Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory on Preventing Cervical Cancer among

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Shabnam; Barati, Majid; Khani Jeihooni, Ali; Bashirian, Saeed; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-03-27

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to prevent cervical cancer among marginalized Iranianwomen based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a theoretical framework. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 143 women of Kermanshah City in western Iran during 2017. Participants were recruited through cluster and simple random sampling and randomly divided into experimental (n=72) and control groups (n=71). All completed a self-administered questionnaire including PMT constructs and demographic variables. An intervention over six sessions was then applied to the experimental group. Reassessment was conducted three months after the intervention, with data was analyzed with SPSS-16 using chi-square, McNemar, paired T- and independent T-tests. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of PMT, and cervical cancer screening behavior showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention (P>0.05). The educational manipulation had significant effects on the experimental groups’ average response for perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived reward, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost and protection motivation (all p health centers were significantly increased after 3 months in the experimental (P=0.048), but notthe control group (P>0.05). Conclusions: The results show that applying an educational intervention based on PMT might help prevent cervical cancer and improve regular Pap smear testing. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  5. REFLECTIONS ON BEHAVIORAL CRISES PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland PAULAUSKAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.

  6. It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Lynne H

    2016-08-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.1 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "It Could Never Happen Here: Promoting Violence Prevention Education for Emergency Department Nurses," found on pages 356-360, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until July 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Suggest strategies targeted for emergency department nurses to prevent or mitigate their exposure

  7. Randomized controlled trial comparing tailoring methods of multimedia-based fall prevention education for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Stacey L; Panzer, Victoria; Goldberg, Allon

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to determine whether multimedia fall prevention education using different instructional strategies increases older adults' knowledge of fall threats and their fall prevention behaviors. Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were randomized to iwo educational groups or a control group. Multimedia-based educational interventions to increase fall threats knowledge and encourage fall prevention behaviors had two tailoring strategies: (1) improve content realism for individual learners (authenticity group) and (2) highlight program goals and benefits while using participants' content selections (motivation group). Knowledge was measured at baseline and 1-mo follow-up. Participants recorded prevention behaviors for 1 mo. Intervention group participants showed greater knowledge gains and posttest knowledge than did control group participants. The motivation group engaged in more prevention behaviors over 1 mo than did the other groups. Tailoring fall prevention education by addressing authenticity and motivation successfully improved fall threats knowledge. Combining motivational strategies with multimedia education increased the effectiveness of the intervention in encouraging fall prevention behaviors.

  8. Hearing on Drug Abuse Prevention and Education. Hearing before the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…

  9. Preservice Teacher Education about Drug or Alcohol-Impaired Dysfunctional Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of family systems theory, with a particular focus on the roles adapted by children in dysfunctional families. In addition, analyses of narratives about dysfunctional families, written by 125 preservice teachers, provide implications for new directions in teacher education. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  10. Simulating Real Life: Enhancing Social Work Education on Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Victoria A.; Benner, Kalea; Sprague, Debra J.; Cleveland, Ivy N.

    2016-01-01

    Social work students typically use role play with student colleagues to practice clinical intervention skills. Practice with simulated clients (SCs) rather than classmates changes the dynamics of the role play and may improve learning. This is the first known study to employ the SC model in substance use assessment in social work education. Social…

  11. Lumbar supports and education for the prevention of low back pain in industry: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, M N; Koes, B W; van der Ploeg, T; Smid, T; Bouter, L M

    1998-01-01

    CONTEXT Low back pain is a frequent and costly health problem. Prevention of low back pain is important both for the individual patient and from an economic perspective. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of lumbar supports and education in the prevention of low back pain in industry. DESIGN A

  12. Preventing infection in general surgery: improvements through education of surgeons by surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-08-01

    Surgical patients are at particular risk of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) due to the presence of a surgical site leading to surgical site infection (SSI), and because of the need for intravascular access resulting in catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). A two-year initiative commenced with an initial audit of surgical practice; this was used to inform the development of a targeted educational initiative by surgeons specifically for surgical trainees. Parameters assessed during the initial audit and a further audit after the educational initiative were related to intra- and postoperative aspects of the prevention of SSIs, as well as care of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) in surgical patients. The proportion of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to incision across 360 operations increased from 30.0% to 59.1% (P<0.001). Surgical site dressings were observed in 234 patients, and a significant decrease was found in the percentage of dressings that were tampered with during the initial 48h after surgery (16.5% vs 6.2%, P=0.030). In total, 574 PVCs were assessed over the two-year period. Improvements were found in the proportion of unnecessary PVCs in situ (37.9% vs 24.4%, P<0.001), PVCs in situ for >72h (10.6% vs 3.1%, P<0.001) and PVCs covered with clean and intact dressings (87.3% vs 97.6%, P<0.001). Significant improvements in surgical practice were established for the prevention of SSI and CRBSI through a focused educational programme developed by and for surgeons. Potentially, other specific measures may also be warranted to achieve further improvements in infection prevention in surgical practice.

  13. Comparative Fingerprint of Aromatic Herbs and Yeast Alcoholic Extracts used as Ingredients for Promen, a Prostate Preventive Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Csernatoni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and identify different bioactive compounds in plant sources and yeast powders  to obtain an original nutraceutical (Promen which has beneficial effects in prostate disease prevention. Seven plant and fruit sources, namely nettle (Urtica dioica, green tea (Camellia sinensis, fluff with small flowers (Epilobium parviplorum, tomato (Solanum licopersicum,  sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, sunflower (Helianthus annus and lyophilized beer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Methanolic extracts were prepared using 15% plant concentration and the purified fractions were analyzed using high throughput techniques like UV-VIS spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD and mass spectrometry LC-QTOF -MS. The majority of the investigated plants were rich in phenolic derivatives, polyphenols (flavonoid glucosides, while yeast was rich in aminoacids, peptides and vitamins B. The major compounds identified were: Juglone, Resveratrol, Quercetin, Epigallocatechin, Gallocatechin, Biochanin A, Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Quercetin 3-O-galactoside 7-O-rhamnoside, Kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucoside and p-Coumaroylquinic acid. The specific biomarkers were identified for both plant extracts used as ingredients to obtain an nutraceutical  Promen. Combined UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC-PDA chromatography and LC-MS spectrometry are recommended as accurate, sensible and reliable tools to investigate the plants and nutraceutical fingerprints and to predict the relation between ingredients composition and their health effects.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of Malaysia's drug prevention education and rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1988-01-01

    The multifaceted drug prevention education and rehabilitation system of Malaysia appears to have contributed to the steady decrease of the number of identified drug abusers in the country. In this article, those components of the Malaysian system that would be most applicable to the American effort were examined. In the same manner, because the fastest growing minority group in the United States are Asian Americans, in which a significant proportion involve persons from Southeast Asia, those components in the Malaysian system that are applicable to Southeast Asian Americans were examined.

  15. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  16. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  18. Education of tobacco use prevention and cessation for dental professionals--a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joan M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Mattheos, Nikos; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Compton, Sharon; Al-Hazmi, Nadia; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Suvan, Jean; Antohé, Magda E; Forna, Doriana; Radley, Nicki

    2010-02-01

    The use of tobacco continues to be a substantial risk factor in the development and progression of oral cancer, periodontitis, implant failure and poor wound healing. Dental and dental hygiene education providers have made great advances towards the incorporation of tobacco education into their curricula in recent years. Unfortunately, however, both medical and dental education research has consistently reported schools providing only basic knowledge-based curricula that rarely incorporate more effective, behaviourally-based components affecting long-term change. The limited training of oral healthcare students, at least in part, is reflected in practising dental professionals continuing to report offering incomplete tobacco interventions. In order to prepare the next generation of oral healthcare providers, this paper proposes a paradigm shift in how tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) may be incorporated into existing curricula. It is suggested that schools should carefully consider: to what level of competency should TUPAC be trained in dental and dental hygiene schools; the importance of establishing rapport through good communication skills; the core knowledge level for TUPAC; suggested instructional and assessment strategies; the importance of continuing professional education for the enhancement of TUPAC.

  19. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  20. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…