Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M
Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.
Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E
"Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning.
Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale
Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention.
Lombardo, Anthony P; Léger, Yves A
The Canadian "Think Again" social marketing HIV/AIDS prevention campaign, adapted from an American effort, encourages gay men to rethink their assumptions about their partners' HIV statuses and the risks of unsafe sex with them. To improve future efforts, existing HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives require critical reflection. While a formal evaluation of this campaign has been carried out elsewhere, here we use the campaign as a social marketing case study to illustrate its strengths and weaknesses, as a learning tool for other campaigns. After describing the campaign and its key results, we assess how it utilized central tenets of the social marketing process, such as formative research and the marketing mix. We then speak to the importance of theoretical influence in campaign design and the need to account for social-contextual factors in safer sex decision making. We conclude with a summary of the lessons learned from the assessment of this campaign.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Messerlian, Carmen; Derevensky, Jeffrey
Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern. To date, social marketing as a strategy to address problem gambling among youth has not been widely used. A qualitative study through the use of focus groups was conducted to explore adolescents' exposure to existing prevention campaigns and their message content and communication strategy preferences for a youth gambling social marketing campaign. Participants prefer that youth gambling ads depict real-life stories, use an emotional appeal and portray the negative consequences associated with gambling problems. They further recommend illustrating the basic facts of gambling using simple messages that raise awareness without making a judgement. Participants caution against the "don't do it" approach, suggesting it does not reflect the current youth gambling culture. This study should serve as a starting point for the development of a gambling prevention social marketing campaign. Targeting variables and campaign strategies highlighted should be considered in the early stages of development and tested along the way.
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet
Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.
Menzel, Nancy N; Shrestha, Pramen P
Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina
This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...
Glassman, Tavis J; Castor, Tom; Karmakar, Monita; Blavos, Alexis; Dagenhard, Paige; Domigan, Julianne; Sweeney, Erin; Diehr, Aaron; Kucharewski, Ruthie
Water-related injuries and fatalities pose serious public health issues, especially to African American youth, a demographic group that drowns at disproportionately high rates. The purpose of this study was to determine if a social marketing intervention targeting the parents and guardians of inner-city youth (U.S. Midwest) could positively influence their perceptions concerning water safety. Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design using matched pairs to evaluate the intervention. Participants consisted of parents who enrolled their children in a six-session survival-swimming course. Guided by the Health Belief Model, the researchers disseminated six prevention messages using six different channels (brochure, e-mail, SMS text message, postcard, Facebook, and window cling). The findings from a two-way analysis of covariance revealed that treatment group participants' knowledge and perceptions of water-related threat all changed favorably. Additionally, all participants planned to reenroll their children in swim lessons. A social marketing campaign using the Health Belief Model improved inner-city parents' knowledge regarding water safety and enhanced their self-efficacy. This study provides practitioners with feasible strategies (prevention messages) to supplement swim lessons, with the ultimate goal of preventing drowning among at-risk youth.
Macario, Everly; Hannon, Sandra Wills; Baker, Robin; Branche, Christine M; Trahan, Christina
Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction. The Safety Pays, Falls Cost campaign aims to prevent falls in residential construction. A critical component of our social marketing approach was to involve 70 partners in reaching target audiences. We assessed partner engagement April 2012-August 2013 through: (1) baseline partnership quality interviews (eight partners); (2) pre-/post-partner "market" readiness in-depth interviews (three partners); (3) a pre-/post- (29/31 partners) online partner engagement survey; and (4) standardized metrics to measure partner activity. We found a high level of interest and engagement that increased with the addition of prompting to action through regular communication and new resources from organizers and formation of local partnerships that were able to tailor their activities to their own communities or regions. It is feasible to leverage government-labor-management partnerships that enjoy trust among target audiences to widely disseminate campaign materials and messages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kippen, Rebecca; James, Erica; Ward, Bernadette; Buykx, Penny; Shamsullah, Ardel; Watson, Wendy; Chapman, Kathy
Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, while those initiating social marketing campaigns must decide whether to target the general population or to tailor messages for different audiences. This paper investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, identification of selected cancer risk factors, and associated protective behaviours, to inform audience segmentation for cancer prevention social marketing. Data for this cross-sectional study (n = 3301) are derived from Cancer Council New South Wales' 2013 Cancer Prevention Survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between respondent demographic characteristics and identification of each of seven cancer risk factors; demographic characteristics and practice of the seven 'protective' behaviours associated with the seven cancer risk factors; and identification of cancer risk factors and practising the associated protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. More than 90% of respondents across demographic groups identified sun exposure and smoking cigarettes as moderate or large cancer risk factors. Around 80% identified passive smoking as a moderate/large risk factor, and 40-60% identified being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not eating enough vegetables and not eating enough fruit. Women and older respondents were more likely to identify most cancer risk factors as moderate/large, and to practise associated protective behaviours. Education was correlated with identification of smoking as a moderate/large cancer risk factor, and with four of the seven protective behaviours. Location (metropolitan/regional) and country of birth (Australia/other) were weak predictors of identification and of protective behaviours. Identification of a cancer risk factor as moderate/large was a significant predictor for five out
DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Thoreson, Sallie R; Clark, Lauren; Goss, Cynthia W; Marosits, Mark J; Currie, Dustin W; Lezotte, Dennis C
Determine whether a church-based social marketing program increases older adults' participation in balance classes for fall prevention. In 2009-10, 51 churches (7101 total members aged ≥ 60) in Colorado, U.S.A. were randomized to receive no intervention or a social marketing program. The program highlighted benefits of class participation (staying independent, building relationships), reduced potential barriers (providing convenient, subsidized classes), and communicated marketing messages through church leaders, trained "messengers," printed materials and church-based communication channels. Between-group differences in balance class enrollment and marketing message recall among congregants were compared using Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test and regression models. Compared to 25 control churches, 26 churches receiving the social marketing program had a higher median proportion (9.8% vs. 0.3%; pclasses. Intervention church members were also more likely to recall information about preventing falls with balance classes (AOR=6.2; 95% CI: 2.6, 14.8) and availability of classes locally (AOR=7.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 22.9). Church-based social marketing effectively disseminated messages about preventing falls through balance classes and, by emphasizing benefits and reducing barriers and costs of participation, successfully motivated older adults to enroll in the classes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The diploma thesis deals with the social guerrilla marketing and its aim is to analyze the social guerrilla campaigns and to evaluate the suitability of the guerilla marketing for the social issues. The theoretical part describes marketing communications, new trends in communication, including guerrilla marketing, and also social marketing and social guerrilla marketing. The practical part includes the market research of guerrilla campaigns. The chosen campaigns are introduced and afterwards ...
Janssen, M.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van Bon-Martens, M.J.H.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Garretsen, H.F.L.
Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing
Hess, L L
In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.
Harris, A O; Jubwe, S; Kennedy, S B; Taylor, C H; Martin, R B; Bee, E M; Perry, O S; Massaquoi, M T; Woods, D V; Barbu, E M
Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. This study describes a condom promotion strategy to prevent HIV/STIs among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict, resource-constrained environment via the provision of both male and female condoms to nontraditional venues like music and photo shops, ice cream parlors, money exchange centers and beauty salons. Community members in the designated catchment areas volunteered their services and the use of their small businesses to support this endeavor. In this paper, we describe the condom promotion strategy and its implications within the context of a community-based participatory social marketing program to prevent risky sexual behaviors among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict country. We postulate that this approach may likely increase condom use among urban youth in Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia.
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean
To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.
Social marketing is critical to reducing health inequalities by educating and changing the behaviour of the public, but is not a panacea. It is gaining momentum as preventive services and world class commissioning rise in PCT priorities. There is still some confusion about what social marketing means.
The definition of schizophrenia is currently being extended to include a "prepsychotic" phase. Prepsychosis detection and intervention programs have already been established in Australia. These are intended to identify people "at-risk" for schizophrenia and treat them to prevent their transition into psychosis. However, analysis of leading research in this field shows high levels of arbitrariness in the selection of diagnostic indicators and a lack of convincing evidence about the efficacy of treatments. The favored prophylactic treatment is atypical neuroleptic medication, and sponsorship of research is providing manufacturers of these drugs with a ubiquitous presence in the field. Many risks are associated with atypical neuroleptics and adverse reactions include psychosis. Taken together these factors suggest that prepsychotic intervention may be more concerned with expanding the market for atypical neuroleptics than with preventing schizophrenia.
This table presents data on social marketing program sales for projects that provide more than 5000 couple-years of protection. Cited are social marketing programs in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, and Sri Lanka. Included in the table are data on program funding, product sales (generally condoms, pills, and foaming tablets), and couple-years of protection provided. Among the social marketing programs reporting particularly high couple-years of protection levels are the Bangladesh Family Planning Social Marketing Program (1,165,100), the Egyptian Family Planning Association's Family for the Future Program (732,200), India's Nirodh Marketing Program (2,225,000), and Pakistan's Social Marketing Contraceptive Program (280,000).
Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen
The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address: (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might...... benefit from a social epistemological approach....
Social marketing is an important tool in the delivery of healthcare services. For any healthcare programme or project to be successful, community/consumer participation is required. The four principles of social marketing can guide policymakers and healthcare providers to successfully plan and implement health programmes. To review the existing literature in order to project the benefits of social marketing in healthcare. A search of periodical literature by the author involving social marketing and marketing concepts in health was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR and Cinahl, using the identifiers "social marketing" and "marketing in health". An extensive search was also carried out on educational database ERIC. A literature review of various studies on social marketing indicated that the selection of the right product (according to the community need) at the right place, with the right strategy for promotion and at the right price yields good results. However, along with technical sustainability (product, price, promotion and place), financial sustainability, institutional sustainability and market sustainability are conducive factors for the success of social marketing. The purpose of this literature review was to ascertain the likely effectiveness of social marketing principles and approaches and behaviour change communication towards health promotion. It is important for all healthcare workers to understand and respond to the public's desires and needs and routinely use consumer research to determine how best to help the public to solve problems and realise aspirations. Social marketing can optimise public health by facilitating relationship-building with consumers and making their lives healthier.
Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen
The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address: (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might...
Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G
Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as
Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic
Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the
Htat, Han Win; Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic
Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar's (PSI/M's) behavioural surveys; data for key populations' socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M's quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009-11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119-399 kyats ($0.15-$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434,000 USD in 2009 to $577,000 USD in 2011. The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors. Published
Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B
Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups.
Hollensen, Svend; Raman, Anthony
Social media marketing can be understood as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the foundations of Web 2.0 and that then allows the creation and exchange of ‘User Generated Content’. In the ‘Bowling’ marketing world, marketers target certain customer groups and send out...... this is a very direct one-way communication approach. In a social media marketing world, the bowling metaphor does not fit anymore. On this arena marketing can be better described as playing “Pinball”: Companies serve up a “marketing ball” (brands and brand-building messages) into a dynamic and chaotic market...... environment. The “marketing ball” is then diverted and often accelerated by social media “bumpers”, which change the ball’s course in chaotic ways. Occasionally, the marketing ball will come back to the company. At this point, the firm (brand) has to use the flippers to interact and throw it back...
Full Text Available A challenging approach for social enterprise is considered the marketing approach. The profile of social enterprise raises the question whether or not this type of organization can comply with social marketing peculiarity. The reason for making this question is that a proper definition of marketing for social enterprises is needed for both managerial and marketing functions of the (social organizations. Thus, starting from a previous research of defining social enterprise, the aim of the paper is to adopt a theoretical position for connecting social enterprise to the social marketing peculiarity. The research is based on literature analysis and comparing the social marketing definitions, fitting to social enterprise’s profile.
Hollensen, Svend; Kotler, Philip; Opresnik, Marc Oliver
in the past. This book on ‘Social Media Marketing’ guides through the maze of communities, platforms, and social media tools so that markers can decide which ones to use, and how to use them most effectively. With an objective approach and clear, straightforward language, it shows how to plan and implement...... will take you beyond the jargon to social media marketing mastery. But that is not all. This book is like a guide through your social media marketing strategy process. All the insights will naturally be explained, but you will also learn how to arrive at them. So here you will read, for example, not only......Marketing communication is undergoing a digital revolution. The increasing popularity of blogging, podcasting, and social networks enables world customers to broadcast their views about a product or service to a potential audience of billions. Traditional advertising does not work as well as it has...
Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry
The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.
Blair, J E
1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.
Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…
Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary
Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.
Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy
Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…
Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) which use commercial marketing techniques and distribution networks to sell contraceptives at subsidized prices, have become an important source of contraceptives in many developing countries. However, research is needed to determine the extent to which CSM programs are recruiting new users or simply serving as an alternate source for those who already use contraceptives. 1st begun in India in 1967, today CSM programs are selling contraceptives in more than 20 countries, mostly selling condoms because they do not require medical supervision or usually have to be registered with governments as a pharmaceutical product. Most also sell oral contraceptives. Advertising is used to promote the program, both brand and generic, about family planning and the advantages of small families. In some countries only generic promotion is permitted. A CSM program begins with research on the marketplace and needs of potential customers, including baseline studies, group discussions, and personal interviews. Monitoring is done by market research on usage, acceptability and adequacy of distribution. Focus groups and surveys are also used. Evaluation methodologies are similar to those used in program planning and monitoring, including consumer intercept surveys and tracking studies. Program impact is an area often neglected, probably because of the unusual relationship between the private and public sectors that occurs in CSM. Couple-years of protection is the common measurement of impact, estimated from sales data (13 cycles of pills or 100 condoms or doses of spermicide/year is assumed to prevent conception). This method can be used to assess the contributions of different methods and distribution systems and to compare their cost-effectiveness by calculating the cost per couple-year of protection provided. Limitations on this measurement method are inability to discriminate sporadic use from careful compliance; sales may be substitutes
Naumov, Pavel; Tao, Jia
The paper proposes a way to add marketing into the standard threshold model of social networks. Within this framework, the paper studies logical properties of the influence relation between sets of agents in social networks. Two different forms of this relation are considered: one for promotional marketing and the other for preventive marketing. In each case a sound and complete logical system describing properties of the influence relation is proposed. Both systems could be viewed as extensi...
Fox, K F; Kotler, P
Social marketing, the application of marketing thinking and tools to the promotion of social causes, has proved successful in effectively promoting beneficial social change, and is expected to grow in scope, scale, and effectiveness. It has evolved through social advertising and social communication, and is increasingly employed by a growing number or organizations and government agencies. Increasingly, social communication and marketing are being added to social advertising. Family planning, heart disease prevention, and other health cases are cited as examples of the range and impact of social marketing applications. As advances in conceptualizing social marketing problems and evaluating the impacts of social marketing programs make them more effective, social marketing specialists should be expected to work on a wider range of social causes with increasing sophistication. The evaluation of social marketing is discussed. Situations calling for social marketing are also explored, program accomplishments outlined, and criticisms and obstacles examined.
Scribner, Richard A.; Theall, Katherine P.; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Objective: Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Method: Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N = 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. Results: There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets. PMID:21388596
Scribner, Richard A; Theall, Katherine P; Mason, Karen; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William
Evaluations of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking have produced conflicting results. This study examines whether the effectiveness of such campaigns may be moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density in the surrounding community. Multilevel analyses were conducted of student survey responses (N= 19,838) from 32 U.S. colleges that took part in one of two 4-year randomized, controlled trials completed for the Social Norms Marketing Research Project (SNMRP). In the models, students by year were nested within treatment (n = 16) and control group (n = 16) campuses, which were characterized by the on-premise outlet density in their surrounding community. The moderating effect of outlet density was introduced into the models as an interaction between the treatment effect (i.e., the effect of the social norms marketing campaigns over time) and outlet density. The models were also stratified by campus alcohol outlet density (high vs. low) to examine the effect of the intervention in each type of setting. There was a significant interaction between the treatment effect and on-premise alcohol outlet density for one of the drinking outcomes targeted by the SNMRP intervention, the number of drinks when partying, and marginal evidence of interaction effects for two other outcomes, maximum recent consumption and a composite drinking scale. In stratified analyses, an intervention effect was observed for three of the four outcomes among students from campuses with lower on-premise alcohol outlet density, whereas no intervention effect was observed among students from campuses with higher on-premise alcohol outlet density. The findings suggest that the campus alcohol environment moderates the effect of social norms marketing interventions. Social norms marketing intervention may be less effective on campuses with higher densities of on-sale alcohol outlets.
accomplish. In particular, social marketing is limited to cases where only perceived and not real barriers prevent people from using alternative travel modes. A review is given of research on and practical experiences of social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating its usefulness.......Social marketing is an increasingly popular means of Travel Demand Management (TDM) for promoting non-car modes of travel that has proven to be effective, in particular if combined with structural improvements. Successful social marketing is based on a thorough understanding of targeted people......’s needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It uses a combination of means to create an attractive offering tailored to these needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It applies established marketing techniques for catching attention to the offerings. However, there are limits to what social marketing can...
HODA NATASHA; HODA HYSEN; FORCIM KOLA
Electronic marketing and especially the rise of social media marketing, has made Microfinance Institutions (MFIs)to have the opportunity to talk to thousands of customers, send out messages, get fast feedback, and experiment with offers at relatively low costs. Social media is perceived by consumers as a more trustworthy source of information regarding products and services than business-sponsored communications transmitted via the traditional elements of the promotion mix. Social media chann...
Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sañudo, Fernando; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Ji, Ming
This study examined the reach and impact of a social marketing intervention to reduce HIV risk among heterosexually identified (HI) Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Repeated cross-sectional intercept surveys were conducted in selected community venues during and after the campaign with 1,137 HI Latino men. Of them, 6% were classified as HI Latino MSMW. On average, 85.9% of the heterosexual respondents and 86.8% of the HI MSMW subsample reported exposure to the campaign. Responses to the campaign included having made an appointment for a male health exam that included HIV testing and using condoms. Campaign exposure was significantly associated with HIV testing behavior and intentions and with knowledge of where to get tested. The campaign reached its underserved target audience and stimulated preventive behaviors. Social marketing represents a promising approach for HIV prevention among HI Latinos, in general, and HI Latino MSMW, in particular.
Darrow, William W; Biersteker, Susan
We carried out an independent short-term impact evaluation of a social marketing campaign designed to reduce syphilis infections among men who have sex with men in south Florida in 2004. Venue-based surveys were conducted shortly after the campaign began and 6 months later to assess changes in exposure to campaign materials, awareness, knowledge about syphilis, perceptions of risk, sexual behavior, clinic visits, and testing and treatment for syphilis among participants. Exposure to social marketing campaign materials increased from 18.0% at baseline to 36.5% at follow-up (Pcampaign objectives were fully met. The interventions were insufficient to produce a significant impact among men who have sex with men in south Florida.
Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A
Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.
Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush
In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...... sources. These results point out the roles non-market arrangements, such as social networks, can play in mitigating market inefficiencies in poor rural markets....
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available Drug use is one of the major challenges that todays society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue of drug use in Romania, by making predictions based on the evolution of this phenomenon during the next five years. The obtained results have revealed the necessity to increase the number of programs preventing drug use, aswell as the need to continue social programs that have proved effective in previous years.
Novelli, W D
Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of
Conner, Ross F; Takahashi, Lois; Ortiz, Eloy; Archuleta, Eduardo; Muniz, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio
Community-researcher partnerships can be powerful mechanisms to understand and effectively address health and social problems such as HIV/AIDS prevention. When the partnership is a positive, productive one, the combined expertise and energy of both parties result in a more effective program and a better evaluation of its effects. This article describes one such partnership and how a program challenge provided the opportunity for both partners to develop new capacities and strengthen others. The program is Proyecto SOLAAR, a community-based and culturally-sensitive HIV prevention program for gay and bisexual Latino men. The program is an experiential, daylong retreat focused on personal aspects of the men (e.g., self-concept), ideas about and aspects of their relationship behavior (e.g., cultural misunderstandings, dating behavior), and HIV prevention; there is a follow-up reunion a month later to share experiences with other participants about new dating and HIV prevention behaviors. The article focuses in particular on how the partners built new capacity in the area of social marketing to address the challenge of participant recruitment and describes the components of the new campaign. These components included distinctive images in ads in publications read by the target population, a toll-free telephone number and Web site for easy initial contact with the program, phone cards and postcards featuring the specially created program image to reinforce a connection to the program, and other aspects. The article describes the partnership between the HIV service providers and the researchers and how the collaborative effort was key to understanding and addressing the recruitment problem, identifying potential solutions, and implementing the new social marketing strategy. This process resulted in four kinds of capacities that were built or strengthened, including program recruitment, program content and implementation, program evaluation, and the partnership itself. The
Full Text Available Terms such as social policy and labor market policies seem not be very current. Instead, we speak more and more about risk management. Social Risk Management is a concept developed by the Word Bank. It is a tool to transfer management techniques from the operating or finance in the social and labor market policy, to support individuals, households and communities to better manage their risk. Due to poor incentive structures, inadequate insurance policies or control often remain under preventive, palliative and solidarity balancing risk management measures. This paper sets out to define the term of social risk management, describing the basic features from different perspectives and the main measures and strategies used in social risk management area. The essay considers the most discussed word of risk management as a moral opportunity to redefine the balance of responsibility and solidarity in the labor market.
Jalees, Tariq; Tariq, Huma; Zaman, Syed Imran; Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain
Social media usage in the world and especially in Pakistan has a high growth due to which it (social media) has a potential of becoming an eﬀective marketing tool. Despite its comparatively low cost and significance, marketers are not eﬀectively utilizing social media. Thus the aim of this study is to measure the influence (eﬀect) of four social variables: social capital, trust, homophily and interpersonal influence on electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communication. The sample size for the stu...
Hanlon, Eileen; Lane, Amy; Romano, Rose Mary
This book is about understanding people's behavior and changing that behavior using a discipline called "social marketing." It is based on the idea that all marketing is an exchange: if you want people to change their behavior, you have to offer them something, be it security, information, an image, or a feeling of belonging. The book…
Luis Barreiro Pousa
Full Text Available La adopción del marketing, como enfoque para la gestión de los negocios hoy día resulta incuestionable para el logro de competitividad, eficacia y eficiencia, toda vez que en su adopción se encuentra la realización de intercambios de valor equivalentes y voluntarios que aseguran satisfacción a los participantes del proceso. Por supuesto, este proceso no es espontáneo ni automáticamente positivo en cuanto a la verdadera satisfacción de los consumidores y la sociedad en su conjunto, lo que conlleva la necesidad de abordar aspectos éticos en su aplicación, de lo cual no escapa siquiera el marketing social. El macro marketing se relaciona con los efectos (intencionales y no intencionales del marketing social. De manera que, con una perspectiva de macro marketing, los programas de marketing social deben ser diseñados de forma tal que sean compatibles con el bienestar individual y social. Esto es particularmente crítico en programas de marketing social cuyas consecuencias generen inequidades o injusticias en relación con otros públicos meta.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, and the Council on Linkages Between Academia and Public Health Practice have emphasized the increasing need to train the public health workforce in social marketing. With only 21 U.S. academic institutions offering course work in social marketing and only four institutions offering degrees in social marketing there is a gap between what academic institutions are offering and these recommendations (Kelly, 2013 ). The successful application of social marketing in public health practice relies on academic institutions creating and promoting social marketing-related programs.
Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine
of CSM. In relation to the benchmark criteria, the second section focuses on 3 key ethical challenges in CSM. a) We describe the problem of paternalism and suggest that CSM can deal with it by anchoring social campaigns in the target groups’ world-view. b) We address the problem of power imbalances......The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...... and argue why it is more severe in non-profit social marketing. c) We argue that CSM could create a new and unethical kind of social competition due to its inherent motivation to gain ownership of the social cause it addresses....
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of socially marketed faucet fitted to earthen vessel / sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at rural household level as a social intervention for diarrhea prevention under ‘Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival (CLICS program. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was carried out in 10 villages of Primary Health Centre, Anji, located in rural central India. During the study period, 144 households used either faucet fitted earthen vessel to store drinking water or used sodium hypochlorite solution (SH for keeping drinking water safe. These served as case households for the present study. 213 neighborhood control households from same locality who used neither of the methods were also selected. Results: Odds ratio for households who used faucets fitted to earthen vessel was 0.49 (95% CI= 0.25 – 0.95. Odds ratio for households who used sodium hypochlorite solution was 0.55 (95% CI= 0.31 – 0.98. Use of these methods by the community, would prevent about 27 percent and 22 percent cases of the diarrhea (Population attributable risk proportion = 0.25 by faucets fitted to earthen vessels and 0.22 by use of sodium hypochlorite solution respectively. Conclusion: To ensure safe drinking water at household level, the effective and cheap methods like fitting faucet to traditionally used earthen vessel and/or use of sodium hypochlorite solution must be promoted through community participation at household level for cost and culture sensitive rural people in India.
Social media and social media marketing are real challenges to holistic marketing management approach focusing on real customer value. A distinct problem for social media is making a profit when the standard practice is to not charge the user any money. Social media marketing relies on its similarity to word of mouth marketing which has always been praised for its effectiveness. Social media marketing can be faster and cheaper that other forms of marketing, and should be integrated with the r...
Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush
We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...... source. These results suggest that non-market institutions can play crucial roles in facilitating market transactions....
Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy
To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care access. Participants were selected by ethnic encoding from consumer databases. California's northern, southern, and Central Valley regions. Nine hundred and five adult Hispanic, Chinese, Vietnamese, Hmong, and Korean Californians from households Media usage, food stamp participation, health insurance, health problems, access and availability of fruits and vegetables (FVs) and physical activity, beliefs about overweight, and related regulation and policy change. Descriptive statistics and percentages for all questions. Latinos reported receiving most information from television; Hmong from radio. Hispanics, Koreans, and Vietnamese thought diabetes was the greatest health issue in California. Among Hmong, 83% thought FVs were too expensive, and 49% of Vietnamese thought good quality, affordable fresh FVs were too hard to find. Identifying characteristics and opinions that distinguish these ethnic immigrant populations better enables the Network for a Healthy California to develop culturally relevant social marketing campaigns and materials. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evans, W Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and
Manoff, R K
This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.
Rosenau, Fred S.
This introductory guide to nonprofit social marketing provides marketing techniques and guidelines in seven chapters. Topics covered include a general discussion of social marketing, with several definitions; market research, including factors to be considered in planning a marketing strategy, forces for and against educational changes, cluster…
The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status of the Social Media, underlying their role as customer empowerment agents. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate Marketing strategy and identifies different ways o...
Keller, Heidi; Thackeray, Rosemary
Developing the promotional strategy is often the most exciting and enjoyable part of the social marketing plan. Health communication and social marketing campaigns that combine mass media with the distribution of health-related products, such as child safety restraints and sun protection products, have shown strong evidence of effectiveness for producing intended behavior changes (Guide to Community Preventive Services, 2010). This article discusses the promotional aspect of social marketing plans--the fourth P in the marketing mix that includes product, place, and price--and how public health practitioners can work with creative professionals to be sure that the creative development and execution of promotional messages and materials stay "on strategy" and support their objectives.
Drug use is one of the major challenges that today's society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue o...
Researchers and practitioners working with travel demand management (TDM) seem to be increasingly interested in social marketing as a means for promoting non-car modes of transportation. However, as is true for social marketing in general, there is little clarity of the social marketing approach...... associated with TDM. Hence, it is not surprising that the effectiveness of this means is subject to considerable uncertainty. This chapter outlines the field and definition of social marketing and reviews practical experience and research on social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating the usefulness...... of social marketing in this area....
Casais, Beatriz; Proença, João F
This article discusses motivations and inhibitions among celebrities to participate in health-related social marketing. The research identifies the implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. Results from in-depth interviews with 27 Portuguese celebrities show that they expect a fee for endorsements of commercial and government social marketing, despite the positive image they may gain from endorsing public health. The results demonstrate an absence of celebrity prejudice against HIV because of its serious nature and the social stigma attached to AIDS. This research suggests there is a positive bias and presents helpful information for negotiations between institutions and celebrities.
Full Text Available Financial literacy is an important issue today, but it is directed/limited to improve the practical skills of people taking financial markets and their present working for granted. However, financial markets are social institutions and social processes involving network relations as well as rules and norms. Globalization has resulted in a dominating role of financial markets over the economy with importance for the transformation of capitalistic society. The sociological perspectives on financial markets have relevance also for the present crisis for which several explanations have been suggested. Most explanations overlook, however, the process of disembedding of the financial markets from the societal context, which is represented by the reliance on a specific kind of knowledge. To illustrate the need for reintegrating financial markets in the economy and making them more responsive to societal concerns, financial knowledge requires to be embedded into social knowledge about the function of financial markets for society, the importance of norms and the social character of markets.Finanzerziehung ist ein wichtiges Anliegen in der Gegenwart, aber die „finanzielle Alphabetisierung“ beschränkt sich auf die Vermittlung praktischen Wissens, ohne die Finanzmärkte und ihr Funktionieren zu hinterfragen. Aber Finanzmärkte sind soziale Institutionen und soziale Prozesse, die Netzwerkbeziehungen sowie Regeln und Normen umfassen. Die Globalisierung resultierte in einer dominierenden Rolle des Finanzsystems im Verhältnis zur Wirtschaft und mit Implikationen für die Transformation der kapitalistischen Gesellschaft. Die soziologischen Perspektiven auf Finanzmärkte sind auch für die gegenwärtige Krise relevant, die verschieden zu erklären versucht wird. Diese Erklärungen übersehen jedoch vielfach den Prozess der Entbettung der Finanzmärkte aus den gesellschaftlichen Kontexten, der sich auch durch die Betonung einer spezifischen Art von Wissen
Full Text Available The future science of Economics must be human-centered, value-based, inclusive, global in scope and evolutionary in perspective. It needs to be fundamentally interdisciplinary to reflect the increasingly complex sectoral interconnections that characterize modern society. It must also be founded on transdisciplinary principles of social existence and human development that constitute the theoretical foundation for all the human sciences. This paper examines three fundamental aspects of modern economy to illustrate the types of issues and perspectives relevant to a reformulation of Economics framed within a broader political, social, cultural, psychological and ecological context. It examines the social forces responsible for the present functioning of economies, which can be effectively addressed and controlled only when they are made conscious and explicit. Whatever the powers that have shaped its development in the past, the rightful aim of economic science is a system of knowledge that promotes the welfare and well-being of all humanity. Markets and money are instruments for the conversion of social potential into social power. They harness the power of organization to transform human energies into the capacity for social accomplishment. The distribution of rights and privileges in society determines how these social institutions function and who benefits. Freedom means access to social power and is only possible in the measure all forms of that power—political, economic and social—are equitably distributed. The current system is inherently biased in favor of privileged elites reinforcing domination by the more powerful. The emergence of the individual is the vanguard of social evolution and the widest manifestation of creative individuality is its pinnacle. This emergence can only be fully achieved in conditions of freedom and equality. Economic theory needs to make explicit the underlying forces determining the distribution of power and
The author considers social marketing to be a communication approach which fundamentally strengthens and empowers recipient communities, creating communicators from once passive receptors of information. Social marketing is, however, an American creation marketed by American development communicators, conflicting in many ways with the practices, objectives, and ideologies of communication counterparts in Latin America. Development communicators in the 3rd world are fundamentally concerned with audience education, not product marketing to an audience. The 2 approaches are, therefore, often considered to be as incompatible as oil mixed with water. Method objectives and processes are compared and contrasted in the text. the author sees merit in the American approach, yet also stresses the need to not disregard the positive experiences and achievements of development communication in Latin America. They, too, are valid and valuable, and may be used to positive ends in other settings once efforts are made to overcome language and ideological barriers. U.S. and Latin American development communicators are urged to exchange experiences and learn more about each other's practice and theory.
Many educators attended the World Conference on Education for All in March 1990 in Thailand. To meet the goal of education for all, they need to attain enough resources to provide basic education to everyone who wants it. They also must guarantee that the education is efficient and effective. The toughest task is gaining the support of parents of those children needing primary education. Social marketing techniques may be able to generate the needed enthusiasm for education among parents. It must lead parents to toss aside the common belief that education is primarily a way to secure employment and a steady income. A national campaign to better parent participation and the quality of education should emphasize 6 areas. It should stress that eating a balanced breakfast and overall good nutrition increase a child's ability to concentrate and do well in school. The campaign must also emphasize attendance of both students and teachers thereby providing continuity and allowing students to build on past knowledge. Research indicates that homework strengthens achievement, therefore parents need to provide guidance and encouragement for their children while at home. Social marketing can further increase primary school attendance by promoting parent participation in school activities. It can also inform parents about the performance responsibilities of teachers and administrators so they can remind educators what they are expected to accomplish. In some countries, resources from the government are insufficient, so social marketing can encourage community incentive programs bound to satisfying specific educational standards. Educators and social marketers need to work together to empower parents to make education for all come true.
This article gives an overview on the current state of Online Marketing. It provides a draft of current trends and changes in the field caused by the emergence of Search Engine and particularly Social Media Marketing.
Tiwari, S C
Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifying behaviours such as civil administration, public establishments etc. In health sector social marketing has not found appropriate application whereas it could be utilized in an effective way for creating awareness, formulating health related policies, their implementation and for preventing a variety of illnesses/abnormal behaviours etc.With this background knowledge about social marketing, the author hypothesized that abnormal behaviours could be modified, health education packages could be developed to make more acceptable and effective and desired behaviours could be induced if perceptions and expectations of the community (consumers) are known a prioriori and their expectations are incorporated in programmes and policies. Thus, the author utilizing the concepts of social marketing for understanding community's perceptions and expectations regarding issues of health, and for incorporating the same in health related programmes and policies, introduced this research concept in medical field in this country.The important findings of three research projects based on the concepts of social marketing research and their implications have been discussed.
Suhadolnik, Nicolas; Galimberti, Jaqueson; Da Silva, Sergio
If stock markets are complex, monetary policy and even financial regulation may be useless to prevent bubbles and crashes. Here, we suggest the use of robot traders as an anti-bubble decoy. To make our case, we put forward a new stochastic cellular automata model that generates an emergent stock price dynamics as a result of the interaction between traders. After introducing socially integrated robot traders, the stock price dynamics can be controlled, so as to make the market more Gaussian.
Gadiraju, Gaurav Kumar
JEL: M1 - Business Administration; M31 – Marketing; M37 - Advertising The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of social media in the field of sports marketing. This is carried out through an in-depth analysis on sports marketing and the rising popularity of social media marketing for sports brands in the world. One such brand is Nike, Inc. This company has shifted its focus to digital marketing. As social media marketing started to explode, the traditional marketing methods ...
India, in a major policy shift toward reversible birth controls methods, will form a new organization to promote private sector contraceptive sales. The government, through a recently signed agreement with the Agency for International Development (AID), plans to establish a private nonprofit Contraceptive Marketing Organization (CMO) in fiscal year 1984. This momentous move marks a full circle return to a 1969 proposal by AID and Ford Foundation consultants. Funded at about $500 million over a 7 year period, the CMO will function as a semi-autonomous entity run by a board of governors representing government and such public and public sectors as health, communications, management, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and market research. According to the agreement called the India Family Planning Communications and Marketing Plan, the CMO's activities will cover procurement and distribution of condoms, oral contraceptives (OCs), and other yet to be determined contraceptive methods. Of the $500 million in funds, the government of India has pledged 2/3, AID roughly $50 million in grants and loans, with the balance expected from such sources as the UN Fund for Population Activities. The CMO's goal is a marked increase in contraceptive use by married couples of reproductive age from the current 6% rate to 20% by 1990. As of 1982, India has 122 million such couples, with 1% purchasing commercial products, 2% buying Nirodh Marketing Program condoms and 3% relying on free government contraceptives. Besides creating the CMO, the India/AID pact outlines intensified public sector family planning promotions and activities. Some Indian health experts believe the government's decision to expand social marketing's role rests with a significant decade long decline in the popularity of such permanent birth control measures as vasectomy and tubal ligation.
Karadeniz, Mustafa; Eroğlu Pektaş, Güzide Öncü; Gözüyukarı, Mustafa
Marketing is the process of developing, pricing, promoting, and placing products, services, and ideas. The aim of social marketing is to inform the society and affect behavioural differences in individuals by using the mentioned marketing processes. In social marketing, the marketing concepts of profit and value mean the acceptance of a desired behaviour by the society. Social marketing can be used in many different areas such as promoting sportive activities, promoting life belt use, prevent...
Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A
This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the brand and its marketing solutions onsocial networks. This analysis led to the creation of improvedbrand marketing model on social networks, which will contributeto the rapid and cheap organization brand recognition, increasecompetitive advantage and enhance consumer loyalty. Therefore,the brand and a variety of social networks are becoming a hotresearch area for brand marketing model on social networks.The world‘s most successful brand marketing models exploratoryanalysis of a single case study revealed a brand marketingsocial networking tools that affect consumers the most. Basedon information analysis and methodological studies, develop abrand marketing model on social networks.
Zakirhusain A Shaikh
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Epidemiological transition in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs now becoming the main cause of mortality and morbidity is very much evident even in developing countries like India. Alcohol is an important risk factor for NCD. The use of alcohol is increasing especially in young people and women. This increased use can be attributed to aggressive and innovative marketing by alcohol, in spite of and due to restrictions on its marketing. Social media, in recent times, has been misused by alcohol companies for marketing their products legally, due to legal loophole. The present study examined the reach of alcohol companies on social media and the marketing strategies used by them. Design, Settings, Participants: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were explored for accounts and content by alcohol companies for marketing their product. Policies of social media sites pertaining to alcohol marketing were also studied. Measurements: Alcohol marketing was measured in terms of content posted by alcohol companies, use of direct or surrogate advertisement and engagement with users. Findings: Alcohol companies have been conveniently using social media to target young urban population with direct and surrogate advertisements of their products. Current social media policies and laws are ineffective in controlling it. Conclusions: Amendment of laws pertaining to alcohol marketing to include social media also in its ambit is necessary. Social media sites should revise their policies to prevent alcohol marketing and promotion especially to underaged users.
Da Cunha, G
Social marketing became respectable only in the late 1970s in places like Indonesia, Brazil, Egypt, Honduras, and Gambia. In practice social change and marketing are both about modifying group behavior. Social change provides opportunities for marketing, which is the process that identifies the unmet consumer need and satisfies it at a profit. Social research and production technologies are involved in market segmentation, target group selection, pricing, distribution, selling, and promotion. The crucial, people-centered and community-based characteristic of marketing is its social relevance. Marketing is a neutral methodology and social marketing is its adaptation to social imperatives. Among a set of underlying ideas related to marketing is the primacy of the consumer in all marketing decisions. Marketing clusters are a way of analyzing a situation, making a product, and pricing and distributing it. Demand is the driving force behind marketing with the components of price, performance, and decision. The benefit obtained from the product must justify the price. Advertising is commercial mass persuasion, the centerpiece of promotion; it is also needed for marketing communications. Promotional tools include special price offers, merchandizing, and dealer incentive schemes. Straightforward information rarely causes lasting behavioral changes. In a Bangladeshi community, 90% of women could have correct knowledge about oral rehydration salts, yet only 8% of them might actually use them correctly. Information that is resisted does not work, yet huge amounts of money go into producing manuals, leaflets, radio programs, and posters. The issues of distribution and competition are often neglected in social marketing programs. Other deficiencies are failure to monitor, evaluate, and innovate. To be successful, social marketing must aim at a 100% conversion of the market actors. Some successes of the social marketing approach include: a nutrition education and behavior change
Andrade, E L; Evans, W D; Barrett, N D; Cleary, S D; Edberg, M C; Alvayero, R D; Kierstead, E C; Beltran, A
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence. Building on prior research, we conducted a four-phase formative research process, and planned the Adelante social marketing campaign based on findings from one group interview and ongoing consultation with Adelante staff (n=8) and four focus groups with youth (n=35). Participants identified four overarching campaign themes, and suggested portrayal of resilient, proud youth who achieved goals despite adversity. Youth guided selection of campaign features and engagement strategies, including message/visual content, stylistic elements, and a mixed language approach. We developed a 12-month campaign to be delivered via print ads, multi-platform social media promotion, contests, youth-generated videos, blog posts, and text messaging. We describe the process and outcome of campaign development and make recommendations for future campaigns.
Full Text Available A expansão e a convergência tecnológica de serviços vêm ampliando e modificando a utilização de produtos e serviços no setor telecomunicações, criando um novo mercado e ampliando seu público alvo pelas diversas características de utilização. O artigo desenvolvido apresenta uma pesquisa qualitativa, pelo estudo netnográfico (uma nova estrutura de avaliação qualitativa, onde discussões temáticas são retiradas de websites de confiança para serem organizados dado às palavras chaves utilizadas, passando posteriormente por um processo de codificação e interpretação sobre os fatores pesquisados baseado no consumo e comportamento do uso do iPhone, aparelho móvel celular com diversas integrações de produtos e convergências de serviços. Nesta pesquisa, foram avaliados os fatores utilitários e sociais / hedônicos, apresentando que o mercado do setor possui uma nova gama de serviços, atraindo novos grupos de usuários ao seu contexto, deixando assim cada vez mais diversificado o tipo de marketing utilizado no setor. O fator social (imagem pessoal é apontado como fator primário na decisão de escolha e uso do dispositivo, onde a apresentação no mercado e marketing para estes produtos estimulam cada vez mais a utilidade como um valor social. Identificando o dispositivo celular como um produto utilitário dado o tipo de serviço e utilização a que este se propõe, acredita-se que este mercado utilitário muda seu sentido quando certa quantidade de integrações são hedônicas amplificando a diversificação de uso, os valores sociais e hedônicos. Os autores definem este uso de um produto tecnológico com diversas integrações hedônicas como um comportamento utilitário social, onde a utilidade do produto passa a ser social (apresentação pessoal ou diversão individual.
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.
Loss, J; Nagel, E
SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan
Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957
Eagle, L.; National Social Marketing Centre
This report has been developed by Professor Lynn Eagle from the Bristol Social Marketing Centre, Bristol Business School University of West of England with contributions from\\ud staff at the National Social Marketing Centre.
Thapa, S; Prasad, C V; Rao, P H; Severy, L J; Rao, S R
Contraceptive social marketing is a way of supplying contraceptives to consumers who cannot afford to buy them at full market price, yet are not reached by the free public distribution program. The process involves supplying a subsidized product through existing commercial distribution networks, using the mass media and other retail marketing techniques to commercially advertise the products. India was the first country to introduce this concept to its family planning program. India's social marketing program is also the largest in the world. Over the past 25 years, total condom sales in India have expanded under the program from less than 10 million per year to more than one billion. The authors present an overview of India's social marketing initiative, describe the firms participating in the program, and summarize the lessons learned from the social marketing experience. Problems and prospects, and experiences and implications are discussed.
Background The majority of social marketing programs are intended to reach the poor. It is therefore essential that social marketing organizations monitor the health equity of their programs and improve targeting when the poor are not being reached. Current measurement approaches are often insufficient for decision making because they fail to show a program's ability to reach the poor and demonstrate progress over time. Further, effective program equity metrics should be benchmarked against a national reference population and consider exposure, not just health outcomes, to measure direct results of implementation. This study compares two measures of health equity, concentration indices and wealth quintiles, using a defined reference population, and considers benefits of both measures together to inform programmatic decision making. Methods Three datasets from recent cross-sectional behavioral surveys on malaria, HIV, and family planning from Nepal and Burkina Faso were used to calculate concentration indices and wealth quintiles. Each sample was standardized to national wealth distributions based on recent Demographic and Health Surveys. Wealth quintiles were generated and concentration indices calculated for health outcomes and program exposure in each sample. Chi-square and t-tests were used to assess statistical significance of results. Results Reporting wealth quintiles showed that recipients of Population Services International (PSI) interventions were wealthier than national populations. Both measures indicated that desirable health outcomes were usually concentrated among wealthier populations. Positive and significant concentration indices in all three surveys indicated that wealth and program exposure were correlated; however this relationship was not necessarily linear. In analyzing the equity of modern contraceptive use stratified by exposure to family planning messages in Nepal, the outcome was equitable (concentration index = 0.006, p = 0.68) among the
Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D
This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed.
Martin, Ashley; Grundin, Erica; Harrison, Dash; Espinoza, Jessica
Social media use has moved beyond just being a way for family and friends to keep in touch. Now it is imperative that all businesses implement a social media strategy into their overall marketing plan. Medical practices are no exception. Using social media within your medical practice will allow you take your marketing to a new level of success. It also allows you to connect with patients on a more personal, less corporate level.
Kotler, P; Zaltman, G
This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.
Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi
Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.
Fournier, S; Dobscha, S; Mick, D G
Relationship marketing is in vogue. And why not? The new, increasingly efficient ways that companies have of understanding and responding to customers' needs and preferences seemingly allow them to build more meaningful connections with consumers than ever before. These connections promise to benefit the bottom line by reducing costs and increasing revenue. Unfortunately, a close look suggests that the relationships between companies and customers are troubled ones, at best. Companies may delight in learning more about their customers and in being able to provide features and services to please every possible palate. But customers delight in neither. In fact, customer satisfaction rates in the United States are at an all-time low, while complaints, boycotts, and other expressions of consumer discontent are on the rise. This mounting wave of unhappiness has yet to reach the bottom line. Sooner or later, however, corporate performance will suffer unless relationship marketing becomes what it is supposed to be--the epitome of customer orientation. Ironically, the very things that marketers are doing to build relationships with customers are often the things that are destroying those relationships. Relationship marketing is powerful in theory but troubled in practice. To prevent its premature death, marketers need to take the time to figure out how and why they are undermining their own best efforts, as well as how they can get things back on track.
Chakraborty, Nirali M; Firestone, Rebecca; Bellows, Nicole
The majority of social marketing programs are intended to reach the poor. It is therefore essential that social marketing organizations monitor the health equity of their programs and improve targeting when the poor are not being reached. Current measurement approaches are often insufficient for decision making because they fail to show a program's ability to reach the poor and demonstrate progress over time. Further, effective program equity metrics should be benchmarked against a national reference population and consider exposure, not just health outcomes, to measure direct results of implementation. This study compares two measures of health equity, concentration indices and wealth quintiles, using a defined reference population, and considers benefits of both measures together to inform programmatic decision making. Three datasets from recent cross-sectional behavioral surveys on malaria, HIV, and family planning from Nepal and Burkina Faso were used to calculate concentration indices and wealth quintiles. Each sample was standardized to national wealth distributions based on recent Demographic and Health Surveys. Wealth quintiles were generated and concentration indices calculated for health outcomes and program exposure in each sample. Chi-square and t-tests were used to assess statistical significance of results. Reporting wealth quintiles showed that recipients of Population Services International (PSI) interventions were wealthier than national populations. Both measures indicated that desirable health outcomes were usually concentrated among wealthier populations. Positive and significant concentration indices in all three surveys indicated that wealth and program exposure were correlated; however this relationship was not necessarily linear. In analyzing the equity of modern contraceptive use stratified by exposure to family planning messages in Nepal, the outcome was equitable (concentration index = 0.006, p = 0.68) among the exposed, while the wealthy
The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…
This thesis examines the economics of corporate social responsibility, with an emphasis on the role of financial markets and institutions. Questions that are raised are: What does corporate social responsibility mean in an economic context? What is the impact of corporate social responsibility on
Beyond Social Protection: Labour Markets, Entrepreneurship, and Gender Equality. Traditionally, in most countries in Latin America, only workers legally registered by their employees and paying into social security were eligible for social protection programs, even though most countries in the region have high levels of ...
Social media has become a huge part of the people to people communication, which also reaches out to the business world. Social media can be a very effective marketing channel, especially in hospitality business, where the image marketing is one of the core objects. Nowadays people don’t follow the traditional way of marketing the same way as for example 10 years ago. With right actions in social media channels, the company can gain a lot of visibility, therefor it’s important to plan the ...
Conway, Tony; Langley, Sue
Although hand hygiene is seen as the most important method to prevent the transmission of hospital associated infection in the UK, hand hygiene compliance rates appear to remain poor. This research aims to assess the degree to which social marketing methodology can be adopted by a particular organisation to promote hand hygiene compliance. The research design is based on a conceptual framework developed from analysis of social marketing literature. Data collection involved taped interviews given by nursing staff working within a specific Hospital Directorate in Manchester, England. Supplementary data were obtained from archival records of the hand hygiene compliance rates. Findings highlighted gaps in the Directorate's approach to the promotion of hand hygiene compared to what could be using social marketing methodology. Respondents highlighted how the Directorate failed to fully optimise resources required to endorse hand hygiene practice and this resulted in poorer compliance. From the experiences and events documented, the study suggests how the emergent phenomena could be utilised by the Directorate to apply a social marketing approach which could positively influence hand hygiene compliance. The paper seeks to explore the use of social marketing in nursing to promote hand hygiene compliance and offer a conceptual framework that provides a way of measuring the strength of the impact that social marketing methodology could have.
Tapp, A.; Bird, S.
Commercial marketers have long understood the value of cool in designing and selling their products, and invest heavily in keeping in touch with the latest trends amongst their consumers. In this article, we contend that social marketers could use ‘cool’ to achieve goals of behavioural change, especially with teenagers. We trace the history of cool through to its current role in consumption, before exploring how commercial marketers keep track of cool trends. With a focus upon teenagers, typi...
Faulds, David J.; Mangold, W. Glynn
This paper describes the process used and experiences gained in developing a social media and marketing course. As the first known paper on this topic appearing in the marketing education literature, the paper provides educators with a framework for developing similar courses. The course was developed using a sound instructional design model, the…
The principles of marketing have always been about connecting with consumers at the right place at the right time. Nowadays that means meeting them where they are spending a lot of their time already: online. Engaging with brands has become a part of the buyer decision process. Social media effects consumers’ decisions to purchase more than ever before. This thesis aimed to create a social media marketing plan for a Finnish tourism company called Lakeside Cafe. The plan was based on the SOSTA...
Luca, Nadina Raluca; Suggs, L Suzanne
The existing literature suggests that theories and models can serve as valuable frameworks for the design and evaluation of health interventions. However, evidence on the use of theories and models in social marketing interventions is sparse. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify to what extent papers about social marketing health interventions report using theory, which theories are most commonly used, and how theory was used. A systematic search was conducted for articles that reported social marketing interventions for the prevention or management of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, HIV, STDs, and tobacco use, and behaviors related to reproductive health, physical activity, nutrition, and smoking cessation. Articles were published in English, after 1990, reported an evaluation, and met the 6 social marketing benchmarks criteria (behavior change, consumer research, segmentation and targeting, exchange, competition and marketing mix). Twenty-four articles, describing 17 interventions, met the inclusion criteria. Of these 17 interventions, 8 reported using theory and 7 stated how it was used. The transtheoretical model/stages of change was used more often than other theories. Findings highlight an ongoing lack of use or underreporting of the use of theory in social marketing campaigns and reinforce the call to action for applying and reporting theory to guide and evaluate interventions.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.
at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...
Aims: Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Method: Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. Results: The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Conclusions: Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally. PMID:23618478
Through the review of relevant literature this study illuminates the concepts of social marketing and breastfeeding. It specifically discusses the positioning of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding within different fields of study and develops a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between those disciplines. Various electronic databases were used and through systematic selection 11 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. The review indicates that the relationship between social marketing and breastfeeding is complex. There are indications that this relationship is being investigated within three distinct fields of research: psychology/education, public health and marketing. Depending on the research field the emphasis is put on either breastfeeding or social marketing as well as on the other concepts that were discovered to be of importance within this relationship. Namely, group and individual demography as well as behaviour were revealed to be important elements of the link between social marketing and breastfeeding. Based on the results this study concludes that a more multidimensional view on the relationship between the concepts under study is needed since the focus of previous studies is very one-sided and limited to just one element when all elements should be integrated equally.
Saunders, S; Smith, W A
Social marketing can refer to the promotion of either a product or an idea. The 1st approach includes the sale of a socially beneficial product such as condoms or oral rehydration salts. Although the product is generally subsidized to keep costs within the reach of consumers, the actual sale is considered critical because of its role in ensuring consumer motivation, increasing internal efficiency, and facilitating longterm self-sufficiency of the program. The 2nd approach stresses the promotion of socially beneficial ideas and practices rather than products, e.g. breastfeeding. Social products differ from commercial products in several important ways: they are more complex, often more controversial, less immediately satisfying to the consumer, require more spectacular results, and are aimed at an audience with fewer resources than most consumers of commercial products. In addition, there are many factors that make social marketing more difficult difficult than marketing in the commercial sector. Social programs have less control over the delivery system and consumer research is more complicated. Despite these differences, both social and commerical marketing are organized aroung the same 4 qualities: product, price, place, and promotion. The product must be configured to maximized consumer acceptance and use. Hidden costs must be considered. There must be an adequate distribution and supply system to ensure easy availability of the product. Finally, the product must be promoted through different communication channels by a wide array of techniques. Attention to these 4 factors can significantly enhance social service delivery of both products and ideas.
Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.
Full Text Available Technological innovation has grown at an unprecedented rate over the past couple of decades, creating multiple opportunities for marketing in online settings. The proliferation of social media helps customers become more empowered and engaged in their brand interactions, while also providing them with new tools in their search, evaluation, choice and purchases of marketing offerings. Consequently, these developments are influencing marketing practices, both strategically, and tactically. Nowadays, social media has developed in an essential part of marketing strategy for its ability to generate co-created value, to interactively connect brands to consumers, to monitor brand-related discussions and sentiments, to guide consumers in the decision-making process, to instigate customer-to-customer interactions, and transform consumers into brand advocates. The purpose of this paper is to examine the strategic opportunities of social media marketing for organizations. By providing a comprehensive conceptualization and definition of social media marketing, this research outlines its role in advertising, Customer Relationship Management, and e-Word-of-Mouth.
Social media is an emerging phenomenon in business marketing and public relations (PR). Even though the speed of adaptability of social media as a marketing and PR tool by businesses is relatively low the trend is constantly growing. Tech savvy marketers are incorporating social media in their marketing strategies to connect with their customers and prospects. Social media can be utilized to perform different tasks of marketing and communication such as marketing intelligence, sentiment resea...
El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J
The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.
Artha Sejati Ananda
Full Text Available Despite the increasing and ubiquitous use of social media for business activities, scholar research on social media marketing strategy is scant and companies deploy their social media marketing strategies guided by intuition or trial and error. This study proposes a comprehensive framework that identifies and classifies social media marketing strategic actions. The conceptual framework covers actions that support both transactional and relationship marketing. This research also positions social media marketing strategy and strategic actions in the context of the marketing organization theory, and discusses the impact of the incorporation of social media on the concept of marketing organization. The study offers valuable theoretical insight on social media marketing actions and the deployment of social media marketing strategies in companies. The investigation also provides hints about how to maximize the benefits from social media marketing for customer-oriented, market-driven organizations.
Morgan-Siebe, J P
Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) do not know that they are infected. It is important for infected persons to get tested for HIV in order to be diagnosed and medically treated. HIV has no known cure, but it can be controlled and sometimes prevented with proper medical care. The social work profession has ideal positioning to be extraordinarily helpful in work that promotes HIV testing, leading to reducing then eliminating new HIV diagnoses. Social marketing interventions, along with audience segmenting are explained. Specific attention is given to two separate subjects-minority health disparities and impulsive and/or sensation seeking sex practices-to showcase the versatility of social marketing in the promotion of HIV testing. Further ideas about how social workers can participate in these interprofessional social marketing campaigns are provided.
Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina
in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without......We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records...... such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially...
Kholmogorova, G T; Gladysheva, N V
At present health education programmes abroad make wide use of social marketing strategy. Unlike commercial marketing whose purpose is competition and struggle for the expansion of commodity markets, social marketing is aimed at disseminating certain ideas or introducing certain practices, using largely the technological base and strategy of commercial marketing. The authors give 8 fundamental principles of social marketing (consumer orientation, the theory of barter, the analysis of audience and segmentation, special surveys to detect the orientation of population, the choice of channels for information transmission application of "marketing mixture", control of ongoing programme and marketing management). Application fields of social marketing in public health are discussed.
María Matilde Schwalb Helguero; Iñaki García Arrizabalaga
La creciente desconfianza ciudadana y las demandas del movimiento de defensa del consumidor presionan al marketing para que amplíe su función más allá del diseño de un buen marketing mix y para que las empresas se comprometan con la responsabilidad social (RS). Sin embargo, no se sabe cuáles son las dimensiones que comprende esta función ampliada del marketing. Por eso, este artículo tiene por objetivo identificar y validar las dimensiones que conforman el nuevo constructo Responsabilidad Soc...
The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status
Schellstede, W P; Ciszewski, R L
Since 1975 there has been a family planning program operating in Bangladesh which advertises and commercially distributes contraceptive products in both rural and urban areas throughout the country. The program, known as the Social Marketing Project (SMP) and managed by Population Services International (PSI), now serves almost 1 million acceptors per month at an annual cost per couple of less than US$6.50, including the cost of donated contraceptives. This paper looks at the evolution of the project and its growth through the years, and addresses some primary concerns of planners of social marketing programs.
Alexandra E. RUSĂNEANU
Full Text Available One of the most difficult challenges for small businesses is to decide which strategy to use for marketing or advertising to generate as much profit using the limited resources available. This study aims to identify ways to promote online using social platforms. With the advent of social media, marketing has undergone radical changes in the way to promote and attract customers. With this technology small and medium companies can identify categories of customers they want to reach much easier. They can also control the content provided and can focus each type of content to the targeted customer category.
Suarez-Almazor, M E
Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.
Smith, Tosha Woods; Calancie, Larissa; Ammerman, Alice
In recent years, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a new field to address social and public health challenges. Social entrepreneurship, which harnesses traditional business practices and market forces to address social challenges, may produce solutions that are more cost-effective and sustainable than those produced by governmental and nonprofit sectors. In this paper, we discuss whether and how social entrepreneurship can be harnessed for obesity prevention by defining and briefly reviewing the rise of social entrepreneurship in the USA, outlining the threat that obesity poses to US society and offering some examples of how social ventures are addressing the problem of obesity. Additional untapped opportunities are also discussed and recommendations given for how social entrepreneurship might impact obesity prevention in the future.
Marketing through social media nowadays represents one of the most effective ways to introduce the company and its products on the market. Various businesses are achieving amazing results being advertised via e-mail marketing. Online marketing is fast, simple, represents a different way to socialize the business and it is most direct marketing medium that is currently available. Through social media platform businesses are exposed to a global market and different kind of customers. Well-conce...
Scott, Jennifer E
Background: Since 1971, social marketing (SM) has been adopted as a behaviour change approach to address various social issues, including those of public health and the environment. In a context of proliferating health promotion and intervention approaches, as well as a changing communication environment, SM as a field has had to respond to various challenges. The purpose of this research was to explore the current context of SM, understand the challenges to the practice of SM, and explore it...
Pradipta, Nada; Purwanegara, Mustika Sufiati
Nowadays, social media is grabbing more and more prominence as one of marketing tools for marketers around the world. Unfortunately, social media marketing initiative at Padma Resort Bali is still at early phase and that Padma's management still has no idea what social media marketing strategy will be appropriate for them to improve their business further.To analyze Padma's social media marketing initiative, internal and external analysis are conducted. The internal analysis is conducted thro...
However, speculations about potential labour disincentives and a "culture of dependency" abound. ... Martinez-Restrepo, a young Colombian researcher finishing her PhD studies, was invited to join and coordinate a regional project titled: Beyond Social Protection: Labour Markets, Entrepreneurship, and Gender Equality.
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana
Rantapelkonen Ahlberg, Jaana. 2010. Social Media Marketing. Case: Comparison of Social Media Marketing Approaches of B2C Companies for Company X. Master’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 42 (74). The objective of this thesis is to provide insights on how Company X can use Social Media as a marketing and branding tool in consumer marketing in the Swedish market. More specifically, this study attempts to define what kinds of social media are u...
Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P; Bayes, B; Clark, S; May, J J
Tractor rollovers are the most frequent cause of death in the farm community. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) can prevent the injuries and fatalities associated with these events; however, almost half of U.S. farms lack these essential devices. One promising strategy for increasing ROPS use is social marketing. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs associated with the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign in relation to the cost of fatalities and injuries averted as a result of the campaign to determine whether cost savings could be demonstrated in the initial years of program implementation. A total of 524 farmers who had retrofitted a tractor through the program were mailed a survey to assess the number of rollovers or close calls that occurred since ROPS installation. Responses were obtained from 382 farmers, two of whom indicated that they had a potential fatality/injury scenario since retrofitting their tractor through the program. The cost savings associated with the intervention was estimated using a decision-tree analysis adapted from Myers and Pana-Cryan with appropriate consumer price index adjustments. The data were compared to the cost of the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign to arrive at an associated cost-savings estimate relative to the intervention. This study indicates that a net savings will likely be demonstrated within the third year of the New York ROPS Social Marketing initiative. These data may provide evidence for researchers hoping to generate support from state and private agencies for similar initiatives.
Gustavo Cusot; Gabriela Falconi
This investigation gets closer to the management of Social Corporate Responsibility, Social Marketing and Marketing related to a cause, with a deep look to the stakeholders, making emphasis inside these consumers. In the study you will be able to observe the characteristics of each of the business strategies before mentioned and examples will be raised and studies of cases on its execution. Some of the conclusions point to the fact that consumer companies give each time more priority to its c...
Artha Sejati Ananda; Ángel Hernández-García; Lucio Lamberti
Despite the increasing and ubiquitous use of social media for business activities, scholar research on social media marketing strategy is scant and companies deploy their social media marketing strategies guided by intuition or trial and error. This study proposes a comprehensive framework that identifies and classifies social media marketing strategic actions. The conceptual framework covers actions that support both transactional and relationship marketing. The study also positions social m...
Ishii, Akira; Kawahata, Yasuko; Goto, Ujo
Proposal of market theory to put the effect of social media into account is presented in this paper. The standard market share model in economics is employed as a market theory and the effect of social media is considered quantitatively using the mathematical model for hit phenomena. Using this model, we can estimate the effect of social media in market share as a simple market model simulation using our proposed method.
Lucaire, L E
Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources
This thesis looks into social media marketing, what relationship public relations has with social media marketing and brand equity. The challenge with utilizing social media marketing is identifying the right tools to use in measuring the success or effectiveness of it. In this thesis I investigate a set of tools a Finnish PR agency could utilize in measuring the effects of their social media marketing efforts on their client’s brand equity. This thesis topics include new media in specifi...
Potter, Sharyn J.; Stapleton, Jane G.
One population that shares both similar and different characteristics with traditional college-age students is the U.S. Military. Similarities include a high concentration of 18- to 26-year-olds dealing with new found independence, peer pressure, and the presence of social norms that support violence and hypermasculinity. Sexual violence is a…
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness- preliminary study.
Petrescu, C M; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, G D
In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. The panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non-alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. After applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health behavior.
Christopoulos, Alex; Reynolds, Lucy
In April 2009, the National Social Marketing Centre launched its new case study resource, ShowCase: a collection of 40 best practice social marketing programmes, predominantly from the UK. The process of collecting and researching these case studies has provided a unique opportunity to look at the current state of 'evaluation' within the field of social marketing. This paper shares some of the observations made during the review, exploring common challenges faced when evaluating social marketing. It also provides recommendations for improving this process to guide future social marketing delivery.
Zheludev, Ilya; Smith, Robert; Aste, Tomaso
Social media analytics is showing promise for the prediction of financial markets. However, the true value of such data for trading is unclear due to a lack of consensus on which instruments can be predicted and how. Current approaches are based on the evaluation of message volumes and are typically assessed via retrospective (ex-post facto) evaluation of trading strategy returns. In this paper, we present instead a sentiment analysis methodology to quantify and statistically validate which assets could qualify for trading from social media analytics in an ex-ante configuration. We use sentiment analysis techniques and Information Theory measures to demonstrate that social media message sentiment can contain statistically-significant ex-ante information on the future prices of the S&P500 index and a limited set of stocks, in excess of what is achievable using solely message volumes.
The study aims to enhance understanding of social media’s impact on and role within marketing strategy for new release films. Current literature on social media and film marketing has a predominantly consumer-oriented focus. This study examines perceptions of social media from the perspective of marketing practitioners, including knowledgeable filmmakers and other professionals with film marketing expertise. This study utilized semi-structured interviews to explore professional perspectives o...
Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne
Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He
We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.
Full Text Available This investigation gets closer to the management of Social Corporate Responsibility, Social Marketing and Marketing related to a cause, with a deep look to the stakeholders, making emphasis inside these consumers. In the study you will be able to observe the characteristics of each of the business strategies before mentioned and examples will be raised and studies of cases on its execution. Some of the conclusions point to the fact that consumer companies give each time more priority to its consumers which have an impact in the improvement of its products and services and its coexistence witht he community.
Damien Christophe Jacques
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, transaction costs are believed to be the most significant barrier that prevents smallholders and farmers from gaining access to markets and productive assets. In this study, we explore the impact of social capital on millet prices for three contrasted years in Senegal. Social capital is approximated using a unique data set on mobile phone communications between 9 million people allowing to simulate the business network between economic agents. Our approach is a spatial equilibrium model that integrates a diversified set of data. Local supply and demand were respectively derived from remotely sensed imagery and population density maps. The road network was used to establish market catchment areas, and transportation costs were derived from distances between markets. Results demonstrate that accounting for the social capital in the transaction costs explained 1–9% of the price variance depending on the year. The year-specific effect remains challenging to assess but could be related to a strengthening of risk aversion following a poor harvest.
Social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to change behaviors that benefit individuals or society in general. Unlike conventional marketing, which seeks to sell products or services, social marketing aims to promote voluntary behavior change. Some examples of behaviors that have changed due to social marketing are: using seat belts, wearing bike helmets, child immunizations, and smoking cessation. Although good social marketing campaigns use the same techniques as that of commercial marketers, by letting the customer be the guide for all major decisions, it is not primarily advertising and is not about top-down planning and decisions. Instead, it is about having a consumer orientation, which means understanding the target audience very well. An effective social marketer must be committed to ongoing communication with the audience in order to create programs, products, or practice that enable them to make the changes desired.
Full Text Available Social networks are becoming more and more widespread and they are literally conquering the World Wide Web. Facebook has managed to arrive even in poor and remote territories which apparently have nothing to do with our always on the move modern world. However, only on the African continent there are more than 100 million active Facebook users who represent 50% of the African population having access to Internet. Thus, it would be huge marketing mistake for businesses not to take into consideration this opportunity to get in touch with prospective customers (Neti, 2011. Social media is hot and has turned into a “must” for businesses looking for brand awareness. Therefore, the techniques used to attract customers by means of social networks have gained quite a high degree of sophistry (Neti, 2011. In an age in which the average internet user accesses his/her social network account at least fourteen times a day, companies cannot afford to be absent from this medium. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept and characteristics of social media and how it can be used in order to increase brand awareness.
Paulo Gabriel Martins de Moura
Full Text Available This essay, a political analysis, criticizes the Family Grant Program, implemented by the Lula government of 2003-2005. It is based on the ongoing analysis methodology originated in U.S. political science. It seeks to establish a parallel of these analyses with criticisms of the Family Grant program presented in the media and made by specialists. They focus on the absence of a conceptual reference for the program (or its practical non-application, supported by accumulated knowledge in the field, that would guide the social policies of the Lula government. Based on secondary sources about official data and on statements from specialists, the analysis identifies an apparent 'schizophrenia' in the 'philosophical' references that orient the government's social policies, suggesting that the solution chosen was a situational response to a demand for government marketing and not oriented to a deliberate public policy pre-conceived as such, which, if it exists, is not evident in the government actions.
De La Macorra, L
The success in social marketing of the PROFAM brand of subsidized contraceptives, by a nonprofit private institution that supports the Mexican government program, is related here. PROFAM began in 1978, when half of contraceptives were purchased commercially from drugstores: they were neither economical, consistently distributed, nor advertised. Comprehensive market research revealed that a great demand existed. It generated information for choice of items to market, package design, and instructions. In 1979, pills, condoms, foam, cream and vaginal suppositories, all locally produced were distributed. A serious problem initially was the impropriety of using the word "contraceptive" in the media. The first phase of advertising targeted newspapers. After 3 months, 40% of Mexico's drugstores carried PROFAM. The second phase of advertising, in radio, magazines and newspapers, approached consumers with information tailored to the specific socioeconomic group involved. The third phase, geared to rural areas and general stores, concentrates on advantages of each method. Other aggressive aspects of the campaign include house to house sampling and a mail-in question and answer service. Evidence of success in broadcasting the PROFAM message is the frequent reference to PROFAM in jokes in the media and even in graffiti. The government's goal is to reduce the growth rate form 2.9 percent annually to 1 percent by 2000.
The escalating obesity crisis has resulted in a wide range of efforts to develop more effective prevention approaches. This review article explores the potential for the concept of food pleasure to take centre stage in social marketing programs that aim to encourage healthy eating. Literature relating to food motivations is reviewed and the various strategic phases involved in developing social marketing programs are outlined in the context of incorporating a food pleasure focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muñoz, Caroline Lego; Wood, Natalie T.
The purpose of this research is to examine how the topic of social media has been integrated and executed within academic institutions and marketing courses. An exploratory survey of marketing educators that taught social media in their course(s) was undertaken. The survey addressed how social media was embedded within an institute's curriculum,…
Mehmet KARGÜN; Mehmet DALKILIÇ; Aytekin ALPULLU; Adem PALA
In today's world of rapidly evolving technology and innovation organizations brought about by increased production and marketing possibilities. Increase in the production and marketing opportunities for organizations, intense competitive environment brought about. Both organizations have to think about the benefit of society as well as their products are required to bring to the fore. The concept of social marketing come to the fore in such an environment. Social marketing is a new marke...
Stoner, M R
The author reviews the growth and development of social marketing practice as a social work strategy and describes how the different categories of marketing correspond to administrative, planning, and community organization practice. She illustrates the similarity between the social planning process and the market planning process in an effort to demonstrate that social marketing is a useful addition to decision making and planning in social service agencies. Social marketing theory, diffusion theory, and exchange theory provide the theoretical frameworks for the argument developed. Drawing upon these theories, the paper draws attention to the fact that marketing is rapidly gaining acceptance as a viable strategy in macro practice designed to attract and retain consumers of services, develop resources, and inform service providers and practitioners of practice issues and innovations.
Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K
Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.
Phillips, Megan; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Sullins, Martha
Social networking services are becoming an increasingly popular medium for marketing and advertising. The growth in usage of these sites, together with an increasingly active local food system in Northern Colorado, motivated this study examines the effectiveness of social marketing for consumer-oriented agribusinesses. Initial research on social marketing suggests it is an innovation being informally used by consumers to quickly spread word of mouth on events and products. For consumer-orient...
Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development of the soci......Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development...... of the society he lived in. The fact that his original analyses were rooted in a given historical context and were founded on a well thought-through conceptual system should not be ignored. The galvanising effect of the dribs and drabs of Adam Smith ideas that have been bandied about are a long way from...... the powerful insights imbued in the original ideas. Putting those back into context, looking into how Smith proceeded then, trying to update his observations, might help us to be more attentive to the market changes and social challenges of our times....
Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social Entrepreneurship in India. A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and ...
1 ABSTRACT The diploma theses deals with marketing in practice of social services. Marketing brings positive effects in the field of client, personal and material-technical capacities to some organisations. This can bring financial as well as nonfinancial profit together with bigger independence from donors who provide means of running of social services. Theses will help to solve problems of some social services managers who don't care about marketing in the organisation sufficiently. The ob...
Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.
Orlando Salinas Gómez
Full Text Available RESUMEN Una de las consecuencias directas del proceso de globalización es el surgimiento de patrones mundiales de consumo y estilos de vida uniformes que posibilitan a las empresas concebir su desarrollo a escala mundial y formular para ello estrategias globales de producción, comercialización y gestión. Sin embargo, pese a la intención válida de las organizaciones de propender por una transnacionalización de sus productos, el fin no justifica los medios. En efecto, la conquista del mercado no pasa por encima de la responsabilidad social de las organizaciones para crear empleo, ayudar a construir confianza en las instituciones, mantener relaciones laborales basadas en el respeto, cumplir con las obligaciones fiscales, entre otras. En consecuencia. este artículo relaciona el enfoque del marketing estratégico con la responsabilidad social de las organizaciones y sus resultados en términos del desarrollo empresarial en mercados cada vez más globalizados..
Shkurkin, Anatoly; Lutsenko, Ekaterina; Bazhenova, Natalia; Bazhenov, Ruslan; Bogachenko, Natalia
The main goal of this work is to reveal social filters in the system of assessing the higher education services market. On the basis of the institutional interpretation of market relations, mechanisms and features of asymmetries formation in the educational services market are investigated. The role of the institutional environment ensuring…
Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt
, it is then found, that deciding on a social choice in a market exchange involves a less positive emotional reaction to others, compared to non-market situations. Moreover, subjects in market contexts are found to be less responsive to other subjects’ contribution behavior, relative to the non-market contexts....... that emotional responses are important explanations of this finding. It is first argued that the emotional response to a pro-social decision combined with private good purchase is different from the response to a similar decision in a non-market situation. Through evidence from a laboratory experiment...
Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M
Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.
Smith, W A
This paper reviews the applicability of commercial and social marketing to teen driving safety. It draws on a wide range of information, including evaluation studies of specific programs as well as standards of practice within these two professions. Social marketing has been widely applied for more than three decades in the fields of public health, environmental protection, and political marketing with significant success. The paper attempts to distinguish between the practice of commercial marketing, whose goal is profit, and the practice of social marketing, whose goal is societal benefit. Issues of sustainability, segmentation, differences in behavioral characteristics, and cultural competence are discussed with specific examples drawn from the transportation safety literature. The paper suggests that social marketing represents a viable companion to control and education approaches to behavior change to promote teen driving safety. PMID:16788110
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Eulert, Federico Jose Armando Perez C.; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara
The social marketing approach – that is to say applying marketing concepts and methods for social purposes – is not yet customary in promoting a balanced diet. Key success factors for communicating health-related information were identified in a case study exploring successful commercial food...
Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth
Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…
M.M. Novikova; S.O. Gaiduchenko
The aim of this article. The paper presents the ways of transforming of a purely economic category – marketing – in the information environment of a big modern city in its social and communication category. To do this, we considered the existing theoretical and methodological approaches to modern marketing communications and marketing opportunities as a social process that promotes productive dialogue between society and business. We proved the existence of inexhaustible possibilities of soci...
Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong
This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study evaluated the role of social capital in marketing of mango fruits in order to improve the marketing services and efficiency of the marketers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were collected using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and least square regression were used to analyze ...
Kambeiz Talebi; Mahnaz Behrad; Amir Ekhlassi
This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale based on a model originally developed by Morris et al. (2002) [Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. W. (2002). Entrepreneurial marketing: a construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4), 1-19.]. The study considers the effects of ...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L
Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.
Eddy Soeryanto Soegoto
Full Text Available AbstractBanking industries have not been effective yet in implementing marketing communication and company social responsibility programs. The establishment of image has not been done effectively yet; accordingly marketing performance cannot be implemented as it is expected. This research was done in the banking industries at Bandung City with sample as much as 42 banking industries drawn using a random sampling method. Thaanalysis procedure used Structural Equation Modeling based on Partial Least Square. This study generates anew model different with the previous researches where marketing communication and company social respon-sibility programs do not affect directly on the banking industries’ marketing performance. Nevertheless the image affect the marketing performance moderately. In conclusion, banking industries’ marketing perfor-mance can be maximal when the marketing communication is implemented effectively and the company social responsibility is implemented conducively in order to shape positive image.
The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared
Potter, Sharyn J.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Bystander-focused in person sexual violence prevention programs provide an opportunity for skill development among bystanders and for widening the safety net for survivors. A social marketing campaign was designed modeling prosocial bystander behavior and using content familiar to target audience members by staging and casting scenes to look…
Full Text Available Current research on the impact of social interaction on the stock market participation only involves the traditional way of social interaction, and this paper further investigates the modern social interaction effects on the stock market participation and its activeness. The sample containing 150 Chinese counties is selected, and we apply grouping analysis and linear regression to conclude that social interaction has positive influence on the stock market participation and its activeness. Both traditional and modern social interaction ways affect the stock market participation and its activeness to the similar extent, so modern social interaction is of the same importance. Controlling for the respondents’ age, wealth, and education level, the above conclusion still holds.
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Szablewska, Natalia
Social marketing is a discipline focused on the application of marketing principles to induce socially desirable behaviour change. As social marketing remains one of the main behaviour change approaches pursued by governments and international organisations, it is important to consider its use in relation to vulnerable groups that are particularly exposed to discriminatory practices, marginalisation, exclusion and destitution. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the extent to which Andreasen's (2002) six social marketing benchmark criteria were reported in social marketing interventions targeting Indigenous peoples. A total of 20 articles covering 13 social marketing interventions were identified for review. Although none of the interventions gave evidence that they addressed all six of the benchmark criteria, they appear to have been effective in challenging some of the issues faced by Indigenous peoples. However, the criteria of segmentation, exchange and competition remain underused in the identified interventions. Social marketing interventions targeting Indigenous peoples tend to rely on television and radio advertising, showing potential for more use of product, place and price to influence, facilitate and maintain socially desirable behaviour change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...
Marketing Verde: responsabilidade social e ambiental integradas na envolvente de marketingGreen Marketing: integrated social and environmental responsibility in the marketing environmentMarketing Verde: responsabilidad social y ambiental integrada en la envolvente de marketing
Full Text Available RESUMOO presente estudo tem como objetivo principal analisar e descrever como a responsabilidade social e ambiental está integrada na envolvente de marketing de uma unidade franqueada da Companhia Coca-Cola. Ao encontro das percepções de Karna, Hansen e Juslin (2001, a envolvente de marketing é descrita, baseada em três níveis hierárquicos: marketing estratégico, estrutural e funcional. Neste sentido, realizou-se uma abordagem qualitativa com estudo de caso, no qual os dados foram coletados, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com pessoas envolvidas no processo de gestão ambiental e social da empresa franqueada. No tratamento dos dados foi utilizada análise de conteúdo. Na percepção dos entrevistados, a empresa encontra-se em um avançado processo de integração em toda a organização de uma cultura de marketing verde, principalmente, pela relação de franqueado, mantida com a Companhia Coca-Cola. Observou-se que a empresa franqueada, bem como a companhia, de modo geral, encontram-se numa situação pró-ativa em termos de marketing verde, mesmo que o ambiente institucional não cumpra com o seu papel na plenitude.ABSTRACTThis study aims to describe and analyze as social and environmental responsibility is integrated in the marketing strategy of a Coca-Cola Company franchisee. By the perceptions of Karna, Hansen and Juslin (2001, environment marketing is described based on three hierarchical levels: strategic, structural and functional marketing. There has been developed a qualitative approach through case study, in which the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with people involved in the process of environmental and social management of the franchisee company. Data treatment was used in the analysis of content. In the interviewer’s perception, the company is in advanced process of integration across the organization of a green marketing culture, primarily by the relationship of the franchisee maintained
Atwong, Catherine T.
To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…
Full Text Available Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.
Abeliuk, Andrés; Berbeglia, Gerardo; Cebrian, Manuel; Van Hentenryck, Pascal
Social influence has been shown to create significant unpredictability in cultural markets, providing one potential explanation why experts routinely fail at predicting commercial success of cultural products. As a result, social influence is often presented in a negative light. Here, we show the benefits of social influence for cultural markets. We present a policy that uses product quality, appeal, position bias and social influence to maximize expected profits in the market. Our computational experiments show that our profit-maximizing policy leverages social influence to produce significant performance benefits for the market, while our theoretical analysis proves that our policy outperforms in expectation any policy not displaying social signals. Our results contrast with earlier work which focused on showing the unpredictability and inequalities created by social influence. Not only do we show for the first time that, under our policy, dynamically showing consumers positive social signals increases the expected profit of the seller in cultural markets. We also show that, in reasonable settings, our profit-maximizing policy does not introduce significant unpredictability and identifies "blockbusters". Overall, these results shed new light on the nature of social influence and how it can be leveraged for the benefits of the market.
A stimulus-response model of location-based social network marketing is conceptualized based on an exploratory investigation. Location-based social network applications are capable of generating marketing stimuli from merchant, competition-based, and connection-based rewards resulted from relevan...... implies changes in patterns of mobility, making this marketing approach particularly relevant for tourism and hospitality businesses. Managerial implications and recommendations for further studies are provided.......A stimulus-response model of location-based social network marketing is conceptualized based on an exploratory investigation. Location-based social network applications are capable of generating marketing stimuli from merchant, competition-based, and connection-based rewards resulted from relevance...
Many medical practices are facing the lack of practice growth that their social media efforts are generating. This article provides concrete ideas that can be put in place by any medical practice to realize sustainable practice growth through social media marketing. In the article, the author demonstrates that social media marketing of the medical practice has become absolutely essential in today's evolving, competitive, and fast-paced environment. This demonstration is made through an exploration of the evolution of what "good" marketing has looked like for medical practices over time. In addition, attention is paid to the shift in the definition of good marketing that is required for the practice that is preparing a social media-marketing plan. Specifically, the article investigates the proven requirements for a balanced blend of unique and engaging promotional and nonpromotional community outreach, which is required on a daily basis to achieve the significant, lasting, and sustainable growth that the practice wishes to achieve.
Morris, Zoë Slote; Clarkson, Peter John
We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social marketing applied to healthcare. We then applied the social marketing framework to analyse the literature and to consider implications for future guideline policy to assess its feasibility and accessibility. There is sizeable extant literature on healthcare practitioners' non-compliance with clinical guidelines. This is an international problem common to a number of settings. The reasons for poor levels of take up appear to be well understood, but not addressed adequately in practice. Applying a social marketing framework brings new insights to the problem." We show that a social marketing framework provides a useful solution-focused framework for systematically understanding barriers to individual behaviour change and designing interventions accordingly. Whether the social marketing framework provides an effective means of bringing about behaviour change remains an empirical question which has still to be tested in practice. The analysis presented here provides strong motivation to begin such testing.
This essay explores how the concept of social marketing can be employed to change attitudes towards leprosy. Firstly, the concept of social marketing is discussed, then the attitudes that people have about leprosy, the stigma that people with leprosy and their families may face, and the detrimental effects that this can have on their lives. The effect of knowledge and education on attitudes towards leprosy is discussed, as this can be a key component of social marketing campaigns. Various methods of social marketing used to change attitudes and reduce stigma are examined, such as mass media campaigns, school based education, methods which involve community leaders, and the integration and improvement of leprosy services. Principles of social marketing which can lead to the success of campaigns such as incorporating local beliefs are emphasized. The success of the social marketing campaign in Sri Lanka is described, which aimed to remove the fear of leprosy, and to encourage patients to seek and comply with treatment. Finally, it is argued that social marketing, used correctly, can be highly effective at changing community attitudes towards leprosy, reducing stigma and improving the lives of patients, who become able to seek treatment sooner as they lose their fear of stigmatization.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Keller, Heidi
Social media is a group of Internet-based applications that allows individuals to create, collaborate, and share content with one another. Practitioners can realize social media's untapped potential by incorporating it as part of the larger social marketing strategy, beyond promotion. Social media, if used correctly, may help organizations increase their capacity for putting the consumer at the center of the social marketing process. The purpose of this article is to provide a template for strategic thinking to successfully include social media as part of the social marketing strategy by using a four-step process.
Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian
Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction.
Evans, W. Douglas
Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the…
Social marketing involves the application of commercial marketing principles to advance the public good. Social marketing calls for much more than health communications campaigns. It involves four interrelated tasks: audience benefit, target behavior, essence (brand, relevance, positioning), and developing the "4Ps" (product, price, place, promotion) marketing mix. The ongoing U.S. Department of Agriculture "Loving Support Makes Breastfeeding Work" campaign was launched in 1997 based on social marketing principles to increase breastfeeding initiation rates and breastfeeding duration among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Since then there have been improvements in breastfeeding duration in the country, and the majority of WIC women now initiate breastfeeding. Breastfeeding in public places is still not well accepted by society at large, and any and exclusive breastfeeding durations remain exceedingly low. Lessons learned from "Loving Support" and other campaigns indicate that it is important to design social marketing campaigns to target the influential societal forces (e.g., family and friends, healthcare providers, employers, formula industry, legislators) that affect women's decision and ability to breastfeed for the recommended amount of time. This will require formative research that applies the social-ecological model to different population segments, taking and identifying the right incentives to nudge more women to breastfeed for longer. Any new breastfeeding campaign needs to understand and take into account the information acquisition preferences of the target audiences. The vast majority of WIC women have mobile devices and are accessing social media. The Brazilian experience indicates that making breastfeeding the social norm can be done with a solid social marketing strategy. This is consistent with the recently released "Six Steps to Achieve Breastfeeding Goals for WIC Clinics," which identifies
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale based on a model originally developed by Morris et al. (2002 [Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. W. (2002. Entrepreneurial marketing: a construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4, 1-19.]. The study considers the effects of three components of virtual social network (VSN; namely structural VSN, interaction VSN and functional VSN on entrepreneurial marketing. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined positive and meaningful effects of all three VSN components on entrepreneurial marketing.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a social marketing project proposal for a community in a social housing neighborhood in Faro, in southern Portugal. The aim of the research is to discuss the possibility of the implementation of a neighborhood network, using a social marketing approach with the goal of strengthening the ties of cooperation, solidarity and friendship between the inhabitants of the neighborhood with a view to fostering social cohesion in the city. The paper offers a theoretical and empirical discussion about the characteristics of particular areas designated as social housing neighborhoods. Data collection was performed in loco by giving a questionnaire to the inhabitants of the neighborhood and by direct observation. The results facilitated a balance between the needs of the residents and their ability to help their neighbors. The results are followed by a discussion and a proposal for a social marketing project targeted to the neighborhood under study.
Full Text Available Social media is a phenomenon that has transformed the interaction and communication of individuals throughout the world. Especially, social networking websites are very popular and have become daily practice in a lot of people’s lives. These sites have made significant impact on the individual’s life. However, social media is not only a communication tool for amusement, but it is also an important part of marketing strategies in business life. There is a constant rise in social networking and therefore impact of social networks is becoming stronger every day, into each kind of business. Social media are often used as a source of information and spread of knowledge changing people’s views and opinions. They belong among very important business marketing tactics and help to create new business opportunities, develop a stronger market position or modify consumer’s behaviour. Therefore, in developed countries, social media are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many companies, including start-ups, small, medium-sized, and large organizations. But it seems that in emerging economies such as Kosovo, Albania and other neighbour countries, marketing over social media is not taken that seriously, especially by SMEs. There are some companies who have shown interest and have created their presence, yet there is no serious focus in this innovative marketing tool. The study deals with the issue of social media and its influence on SMEs. It classifies social media and explores the possibilities and challenges of social networks in business. The authors describe features and the evolution of social media, including major social networking sites that came into existence during the 21st century. The purpose of the paper is to review the academic literature on the opportunities and challenges of using social media from SMEs, as well as identifying factors that drive social media marketing adoption and usage in SMEs. This
Today, marketers and media companies face a changed environment, affected mostly by the rise of the Internet era. The emergence of various technology applications, combined with the global change of customers is affecting the communication between marketers and consumers. Consumers and marketers are changing their roles; consumers are now media producers, programmers, and distributors, through the use of the social networking applications. The aim of the thesis is to analyze this trend, to pr...
SALDRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town, will analyze rich longitudinal ... The project will produce a series of papers, policy briefs, fact sheets and short media pieces to inform discussion on social grants and the labour market.
The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.
Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley
Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…
Full Text Available This work is a result of the author's great experience in the market researches field. Mixing both theoretical and practical aspects, it analyses market research as a useful tool to take decisions when uncertainty is dominant, in the light of the social changes occurred over the last 15 years.
This document presents an interview in which AIDSCAP private-sector officer Duncan Earle discusses how condom social marketing contributes to AIDS prevention efforts. Condom social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques to promote condom use by making them more accessible and affordable. Thus, condoms are sold where people can purchase them without embarrassment (often by street hawkers) or where they may be needed in impulsive situations (in bars, hotels, and nightclubs). Social marketing relies on such marketing techniques as identifying wholesalers, assisting wholesalers with sales, creating point-of-purchase advertising, and developing attractive packaging. Prices are based on rough formulas derived from per capita gross national product and the prices people are willing to pay for such products as matches, cigarettes, candy, and aspirin. Quality is assured if the condoms are obtained through the US Agency for International Development's procurement system. Samples of condoms obtained from other sources are submitted for quality testing. The success of social marketing programs can be determined by examining sales and resupply. Cost effectiveness is determined by the cost of delivering 100 condoms (1 couple-year of protection). While social marketing would be more cost effective without expenditures on advertising, it would be less effective overall. Some barriers that must be overcome to market condoms include laws outlawing the sale or advertising of condoms, duties and customs' surcharges on imported condoms (which, in some cases, increase the cost 33%), and religious objections to contraception. As well as selling condoms, social marketing programs educate people about AIDS using any kind of media available.
Blogs, networking sites, and other examples of the social web provide businesses with a largely untapped marketing channel for products and services. But how do you take advantage of them? With The New Community Rules, you''ll understand how social web technologies work, and learn the most practical and effective ways to reach people who frequent these sites. Written by an expert in social media and viral marketing, this book cuts through the hype and jargon to give you intelligent advice and strategies for positioning your business on the social web, with case studies that show how other c
Barišić, Anton Florijan; Vujnović, Krunoslav
Rapid development of technologies has led to emergence of new opportunities for businesses such as social media. Online social networks and media are well recognized and increasingly used by businesses as valuable source of information regarding the design, acceptance and use of their products and services, and also as important marketing tool to reach diverse groups of customers that had not been covered earlier by their marketing campaigns. The purpose of this paper was to research the low ...
Social media are gaining an unprecedented momentum as well as impact on many areas of our life. In this thesis we investigate and analyse the relationship between foreign exchange market (also called Forex) and social media. Specifically, we analyse topics concerning EUR/USD exchange rate because of the large trading volume of the currency pair. We analysed Twitter in the span of three years. We gathered the data on market movements, events, and Twitter posts. We annotated the tweets with...
To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.
Zauner, Alexander; Fink, Matthias; Maresch, Daniela
Social media networks (e.g., Facebook) have become a major factor influencing various aspects of consumer behaviour and have thus also become the targets of marketers. Social networks that gather special interest groups, such as celebrity fan groups, provide a particularly attractive point...... of leverage for community marketing. However, there remain open questions regarding the success of community marketing activities in social media. The present study attempts to close this gap by investigating whether 1 the image of the brand, and 2 the celebrity endorser credibility of a top sports team...... influence the perceived customer value of the sponsoring firm. Based on a survey of members of a Facebook fan group of an Austrian celebrity sports team (n = 322), we identify a direct positive impact of celebrity-centred community marketing in social media on customer value. Our findings emphasise...
Black, T R; Farley, J U
Because of the restricted nature of clinic systems, commercial channels and social marketing techniques are now being mobilized for family planning purposes. Market research is fundamental to the success of such programs. In addition to normal survey procedures and the limitations of analysis merely in terms of pairwise relationships, systems models are applied to the survey findings of a Kenya contraceptive social marketing experiment in order to gain insights into the enogenous and exogenous variables relating to consumer behavior using bivariate techniques. The results of such analysis on the survey findings are presented. The conclusion is drawn that model building methodologies as described for evaluating contraceptive social marketing programs do not present any significant difficulties and that it is a practical and useful technique that provides useful insights into the dynamics of adoption of socially desirable products such as contraceptives.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to understand consumer behavioural models with respect to their reactions to social network marketing. Theoretical background is focused on online and social network usage, motivations and behaviour. The research goal is to explore consumer reactions to the exposure of social network marketing based on the following criteria: level of brand engagement, word-of-mouth (WOM referral behaviour, and purchase intentions. Consumers are investigated based on their attitudes toward social network marketing and basic socio-demographic covariates using data from a sample size of 700 Bulgarian respondents (age group 21–54 years, Internet users, urban inhabitants. Factor and cluster analyses are applied. It is found that consumers are willing to receive information about brands and companies through social networks. They like to talk in social networks about these brands and companies and to share information as well (factor 2, brand engagement. Internet users are willing to share information received through social network advertising (factor 1, wom referral behaviour but they would not buy a certain brand as a result of brand communication activities in social networks (factor 3, purchase intention. Several practical implications regarding marketing activities through social networks are drawn.
Henry Mynhardt; Inna Makarenko; Alex Plastun
Corporate social responsibility, disclosed in sustainability reporting, influences the financial performance of companies. As a result, traditional stock market indices (TI) are expanded with the social responsible stock market indices (SRI). The aim of this study was to establish whether there are any differences in the behavior of the TI and SRI. To do this, the authors analyzed their efficiency. They used R/S analysis to calculate the Hurst exponent as a measure of persistence (long-term m...
Quintana-Vidaurri, Adriana Guadalupe; Santana-Chávez, Luis Alejandro; González-Villalobos, Cynthia Guadalupe
to prove the impact of social marketing strategies in breast cancer detection, taking as a parameter the number of mammographies performed. quasi-experimental research, before and after. Sixty-nine physicians in charge of medical consultation and fourteen nurses were studied for a period of seven months, applying social marketing strategies. The total of mammographies were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test (p marketing proved to be an adequate strategy, which has an impact on the clinical practice of both physicians and nurses.
Charmaine du Plessis
Full Text Available Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content marketing’s valuable and unobtrusive role in social media content communities has largely been overlooked. Objective: The purpose of this article was to investigate content marketing’s role in social media content communities to engage with the target audience in an innate manner. Method: This study made use of a directed, inductive content analysis of 51 practitioner documents relating to business-to-consumer content marketing practices to add another perspective to existing research on communities in social media. The content analysis was facilitated by using QDA Miner, a widely adopted and reliable qualitative data analysis software programme. Results: Three categories emerged from the data namely building content communities, platform-specific content and understanding channels. These categories provide sufficient evidence of how brands make use of social media content communities to connect with the target audience in an unobtrusive manner, in addition to being present in virtual brand communities. Conclusion: The findings make several contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, it provides a clearer distinction between brand and social media content communities. Secondly, it extends conceptions about social media communities to include content communities and, thirdly, it provides sufficient evidence of how content marketing could benefit a brand by naturally becoming part of social media conversations.
Kononovicius, Aleksejus; Gontis, Vygintas
A characteristic feature of complex systems in general is a tight coupling between their constituent parts. In complex socio-economic systems this kind of behavior leads to self-organization, which may be both desirable (e.g. social cooperation) and undesirable (e.g. mass panic, financial "bubbles" or "crashes"). Abundance of the empirical data as well as general insights into the trading behavior enables the creation of simple agent-based models reproducing sophisticated statistical features of the financial markets. In this contribution we consider a possibility to prevent self-organized extreme events in financial market modeling its behavior using agent-based herding model, which reproduces main stylized facts of the financial markets. We show that introduction of agents with predefined fundamentalist trading behavior helps to significantly reduce the probability of the extreme price fluctuations events. We also investigate random trading, which was previously found to be promising extreme event prevention strategy, and find that its impact on the market has to be considered among other opportunities to stabilize the markets.
This podcast features Emily Liu, a freshman at the University of Pennsylvania and one of the winners of PCDâs 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Emily answers questions about her winning research and what impact her study has on obesity prevention and public health. Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/9/2017.
Husain, Sara; Shaikh, Babar T
Over the last two decades HIV/AIDS has evolved from a series of interesting case-reports to a growing epidemic that threatens the entire world. It is feared to cause devastation among large pockets of populations and may roll back more than thirty years of public health achievements. This killer disease has been more amenable to behavioral change than by provision of curative services and attempts are being made to educate the public about this threat. Various techniques of promotion have been tried through out the world including television dramas/soaps, mass media and school curricula. Social marketing is an evolving strategy used to influence human behavior and choices. By using the principles of marketing and promoting behavior as a product, social marketers attempt to understand the dynamics of human behaviour and devise messages and products to change, modify, accept or reject unsafe behaviors or practices. Thus, social marketers provide an effective force to combat the spread of HIV and may serve to be invaluable allies in health promotion efforts. In a complex and diversified cultural milieu of Pakistan, social marketing can have a significant impact on health determinants and the conditions that will facilitate the adoption of health-oriented behaviors and practices. This paper gives an account of the elements needed for the success of a health promotion strategy adopted in a developing country and makes a case for social marketing to be adopted as the lead strategy for stalling HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.
Krahmalov, J.; Young, Louise; Khan, A
Understanding the consumer’s evaluation and choice for beer characteristics is critical for marketers, nutritionist and health educators. We used multi-profile best-worst scaling to understand how consumers evaluate beer attributes in Vietnam context. We found that beer brand, price and packaging...... in sensory attributes and marketing mix impact on the brand values estimated via choice models. We found that consumers who concerned more on flavor, alcohol percent and sale promotion are more likely to favor Heineken brand and less likely to favor Tiger. Consumers who rated more importance to the packaging...
Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung
Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…
Discusses how human services agencies can use strategies and information technologies similar to those used in political campaigns to identify needs and attitudes for social services campaigns. Marketing for social services programs is described, and the use of computers for a political campaign and for a teenage pregnancy program is compared.…
Johnson, Susan L.; Bellows, Laura; Beckstrom, Leslie; Anderson, Jennifer
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a pilot social marketing program to increase preschoolers' willingness to try new foods. Methods: Four Head Start centers participated (2 experimental, 2 control) in a study using a quasi-experimental design. Experimental sites received a 12-week intervention developed using social marketing…
Sonia Francisca Monken
Full Text Available Hoje, as empresas se preocupam em demonstrar afinidade com consumidores interessados em causas sociais. Alguns estudos afirmam que houve aumento na responsabilidade social das empresas e que a atitude empresarial afeta a vontade de compra dos consumidores. Este artigo buscou analisar em que medida campanhas de marketing social influenciam na imagem corporativa, incluindo identificar os principais fatores que influenciam na imagem corporativa das empresas que investem em marketing social e verificar a correlação entre os diferentes fatores que influenciam na imagem corporativa. Trata-se de estudo exploratório, quantitativo, pelo método levantamento de campo, com a aplicação de questionário auto administrado e amostra de 220 universitários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de testes estatísticos de correlação de Spearman, Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon W. Os resultados inferem correlação linear significativa entre campanhas de marketing social e fatores que influenciam na imagem corporativa, mas não apontam correlação linear significativa entre os fatores que influenciam na imagem corporativa, investimento em marketing social e a frequência de uso dos produtos. O estudo apontou que campanhas de marketing social é um fator de influência com baixa relevância na imagem corporativa, e que os fatores de influência mais importantes são qualidade e preço.
Full Text Available The success of a social marketing campaign does not depend mainly on its budget but rather on the message that is sent. This article emphasize the importance of the message for successful social marketing campaigns and makes an analysis of the messages’ type/structure of leading social marketing campaigns in Romania, as a defining element contributing to the success of social marketing campaigns. Being aware of the importance of the message for a successful social marketing campaign, we propose, in this article, some ideas for improving the message structure transmitted in social marketing campaigns. Although, social marketing campaigns are run with significant funds, small importance is being given to evaluating campaign’s effectiveness and the extent to which the social behaviour of the targeted segments is truly changed. Research was conducted in order to identify the ways in which the use of other types of messages would increase the impact of social marketing campaigns.
Wharf Higgins, Joan
When prominent health issues are chronic, rooted in complex behaviors, and influenced by cognitive, behavioral, social, cultural, economical, and environmental variables, layered and coordinated interventions are needed. Finding solutions that are valid, reliable, and transferable represents a daunting task for researchers. We know that converting science into action is critical for advancing health, but we have failed to appropriately disseminate evidenced-informed research to practitioners. The purpose of this article is to suggest that a social marketing framework can be the compass down this road less traveled in academic research. An experience developing an evaluation toolkit is described as an example of applying social marketing strategies to knowledge translation.
Full Text Available We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.
Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L
Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music...... of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde...... in a social medial mix and (2) dilemmas of crowdsourcing as an institutionalized practice....
Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Pentland, Sandy
We revisit experimental data from an online cultural market in which 14,000 users interact to download songs, and develop a simple model that can explain seemingly complex outcomes. Our results suggest that individual behavior is characterized by a two-step process--the decision to sample and the decision to download a song. Contrary to conventional wisdom, social influence is material to the first step only. The model also identifies the role of placement in mediating social signals, and suggests that in this market with anonymous feedback cues, social influence serves an informational rather than normative role.
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Curren, Mary T.; Harich, Katrin R.
This study examines the implications of the increased popularity of social enterprise programs and social venture competitions for the marketing curriculum. Social enterprise programs and competitions are often offered outside the school of business and target students from a variety of academic backgrounds. Although social enterprises use…
Author Usman, Koroma Group POBBA 08 Title of report The effectiveness of social media in event marketing Number of pages and appendices 28 + 2 Teacher(s) Johanna Salakka Thesis Objectives The main objective of this study is to reveal and understand reasons behind the demand in the usage of social media in communicating, Furthermore the goal of this research is to study the impact of social medias can influence potentials customers in attending conferences via soc...
Despite the popularity and noted utility of Wandersman and colleagues' (2008) Interactive Systems Framework, the literature currently provides a primary focus on delivery organizations' and supportive stakeholders' capacities and strategies to implement innovations, presenting a critical gap in understanding. Unfortunately, reflective of a larger void in community dissemination and implementation efforts, there is a more limited focus on the dissemination of innovations. This paper presents the social marketing literature as a supplement to the Prevention Synthesis and Translation System (PSTS), the system responsible for dissemination. The study and practice of innovation synthesis and translation is examined in the literature; and based on the conclusions drawn, social marketing theory is used to provide a systematic approach to improving dissemination within the Interactive Systems Framework. Specifically, three gaps related to the PSTS are identified in the literature that align with and can be filled using social marketing. Social marketing is defined and presented as a supplement by providing theory and practices, within a systems context, for effectively communicating and influencing change. By blending social marketing with the Interactive Systems Framework, the aim is to improve the understanding of strategic communication and its role in the effective dissemination, and subsequent implementation, of innovations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Holdershaw, Judith
The turn of the century has seen an increase in reported cases of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus, particularly in groups of men who have sex with men. Both internationally and in New Zealand the implementation of social marketing human immunodeficiency virus prevention programmes are identified as appropriate mechanisms to promote condom use in men who have sex with men. This paper presents a review of the literature on research-based social marketing initiatives designed to decrease sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus, through an increase in condom use by men who have sex with men. Eleven quality assured articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included in the review. The review presented here strongly supports the utilisation of behaviourally based social marketing campaigns to increase condom use in men who have sex with men. Nurses are frequently first point of contact for consumers of health services. As such they need to have a sound understanding of not only Get it On!, a New Zealand social marketing campaign designed to promote condom use, but also about existing international campaigns. Nurses should also know about social marketing principles if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of sexually transmitted infections, including the human immunodeficiency virus.
The effective us of marketing strategies by nonprofit organizations necessitates involvement in political activities, i.e., mobilizing power to influence others. Most nonprofit groups and marketing experts who work for nonprofit groups are not sufficiently aware of the value of using the tactics of politics to win support for their causes. The experiences of a voluntary group which used politics and power to develop a program aimed at assisting unemployed black youth were presented. The group wanted to establish a workshop to provide training for hard core unemployed youth. The group needed to raise funds to set up the workshop. The 1st step was to identify a target group of potential donors, and then to develop a strategy for selling their product, i.e., the worthiness of the workshop project. The group decided to direct its fund raising activities toward organizations in the community rather than individuals. The market was segmented, and the product was presented differently to differ groups. Initially, the voluntary group was powerless. Political tactics were subsequently used to legitimate the group and its product. A network of influencial sympathizers, primarily clergymen and politicians, was established. This network helped the group garner the support of the targeted donor organizations. The threat of sanctions was used to gain support for the project, but sanctions were applied with considerable care. For example, the support of local politicians was obtained partially by implicitly threatening them with the possibility of bad publicity if they failed to promote the project. Voluntary organizations are not immune to internal conflict and competition. In introducing a marketing perspective into a voluntary organization, internal politics must be taken into account. In the case presented here, the marketer had to decide who in the organization to align himself with and then develop strategies to increase his influence and the influence of his allies. In
Janssen, Marco A; Jager, Wander
Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. In a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model. The main results indicated that the behavioral rules dominating the artificial consumer's decision making determine the resulting market dynamics, such as fashions, lock-in, and unstable renewal. Results also show the importance of psychological variables like social networks, preferences, and the need for identity to explain the dynamics of markets. In this article we extend this work in two directions. First, we will focus on a more systematic investigation of the effects of different network structures. The previous article was based on Watts and Strogatz's approach, which describes the small-world and clustering characteristics in networks. More recent research demonstrated that many large networks display a scale-free power-law distribution for node connectivity. In terms of market dynamics this may imply that a small proportion of consumers may have an exceptional influence on the consumptive behavior of others (hubs, or early adapters). We show that market dynamics is a self-organized property depending on the interaction between the agents' decision-making process (heuristics), the product characteristics (degree of satisfaction of unit of consumption, visibility), and the structure of interactions between agents (size of network and hubs in a social network).
Tisdell, Clement A.; Svizzero, Serge
Income inequality has increased sharply in higher income countries. Theories attributing this to bifurcation of labor markets are examined. Some theorists attribute this bifurcation primarily to technical change with influence from globalization. Others take an opposite viewpoint. A contrasting view presented here is that globalization is strongly linked with technological change more significantly even if globalization increases economic efficiency and growth in high-income countries, it can...
Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter
All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.
Belowska, Martyna; Løyche, Tanja Blomgaard; Szewczykowska, Karolina; Shore, Jonna Ellinor; Krejci, Kamila
This research project is a case study of LUSH Cosmetics which aims to understand theinfluence in social media on consumers through the social media marketing strategy ofLUSH. This is done by first, explaining the social media marketing strategy of LUSH throughThe Theory of Influence by Robert Cialdini (1984) which has formed the theoreticalframework in this project. Second, an online individual survey has been conducted to deeperunderstand how potential consumers perceive the influence from L...
Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino
To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.
Ag. Sunarno Handoyo
Full Text Available This study deals with marketing innovation, market orientation, and social capital in affecting the competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs of embroidery in Central Java Province. In this respect, this study tried to test and analyze the effect of marketing innovation, market orienta-tion, and social capital on competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs of embroidery in Central Java Province. The samples are 150 respondents as the owners of the embroidery business in Central Java Province. The technical analysis used is Structure Equations Modeling with AMOS Software version 22. The results show that: (1 marketing innovation has significant effect on competitive advantage; (2 market orientation has significant effect on competi-tive advantage; (3 social capital has significant effect on competitive advantage; (4 competitive advantage has significant effect on marketing performance; (5 marketing innovation has significant effect on marketing performance; (6 market orientation has significant effect on marketing performance; (7 social capital has no significant effect on marketing performance. The implication of this study is that the MSMEs of embroidery could improve marketing performance by increasing marketing innovation, market orientation, social capital and competitive advantage. This study also shows that competitive advantage is an intervening variable on marketing performance.
Full Text Available Film is a message disseminating media and also mass communication tool. This statement sometimes appears when we are in film study. Film, and media in general, could be an effective propaganda. As a media, film could be used as a media to promote community awareness towards goodness issues. The question is how far we could consider film as one media to social marketing? The article discusses whether we could consider film as social marketing media. If it could be considered, what kind of films and how. Researcher took case study of Yasmin Ahmad’s films, Malaysian’s director, to analyze social marketing inside. All Yasmin’s films that could be analyzed in this research consist of multiculturalism issue, covered by love story or family issues. Hopefully this article is becoming a beginning study so other researchers could analyze films and film-makers in Indonesia.
Madsen, Per Kongshøj
assistance for non-members. The first tier is basically state-run system, while the second tier is administered by the municipalities. As for the performance of the Danish labour market, participation rates are quite high and although unemployment rates are relatively high and differentiated across groups......It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...... of national law, while the rules for blue-collar workers are defined as part of the negotiations between the social partners. The Danish system of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is a two-tier system: unemployment insurance for members of unemployment insurance funds and social...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L
The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.
Snyman, L; Visser, J H
The purpose of the study was to identify and understand social media usage behaviour of dentists in South Africa, in general and in particular as part of their marketing strategy and to consider the potential determinants associated with these behaviours. Dentists who are members of the South African Dental Association were requested to anonymously complete an online questionnaire. Apart from demographic information, respondents were asked to report on their use of social media and their adoption of social media marketing. One-on-one interviews were also conducted with three dentists, to gain a deeper understanding of their adoption of this marketing option. South African dentists have started to embrace social media and 50.2% interact through these channels at least once a day. The most popular social media platforms are GooglePlus and Facebook. Respondents use social media mainly for personal purposes, including staying connected to family and friends.. Only 13.2% of those responding currently use social media as a marketing tool, but the majority (83.5%) predict that such usage will increase in future. Social media marketing is a growing trend and will become more significant in future. Although respondents used social media regularly for personal purposes, most are only now starting to use it as a marketing tool.
Broadman, H.G.; Darmstadter, J.; Montgomery, W.D.
To the extent that there are market imperfections and other constraints limiting consumption of gas to levels significantly below those dictated by underlying economic factors of cost and producibility, society bears the cost resulting from misallocation of resources and avoidable environmental deterioration. Given the regulatory and institutional setting within which the natural gas industry has been forced to operate, there is a strong presumption that such inhibitions on gas use may in fact exist. Some rigidities stem undoubtedly from characteristics unique to gas as a natural-resource commodity. This report presents a framework for reviewing potential sources of constraints, rigidities, and distortions in the functioning of natural gas markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) and other legislation. The organizing principle and primary focus of the paper are the sequence of transactions between wellhead and point of consumption, with major attention to industrial and power plant use. The transactions in question are between: producers and pipelines; pipelines and distributors; distributors and end users; and pipelines and industrial end users (mainline sales). In addition to these vertical transactions, there are horizontal transactions between pipelines (off-system sales) and between distributors. 22 references, 1 figure, 1 table.
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.
The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show
Using state-of-the-art evaluation methodologies, combined with qualitative studies, the project will examine and quantify the response of individuals within the household, uncovering gender dynamics. Interaction among social protection programs will be analyzed using innovative approaches in Peru and Colombia.
The target group in the Atlas project consists of people who have no access to higher education or training, because of limitations in their mental capacities (people with intellectual disabilities). These people have considerable problems to find and retain a job because of their lack of social
Ana María Miranda Zavala; Isaac Cruz Estrada
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar las estrategias de marketing internacional en redes sociales que realizan los hoteles de cuatro y cinco estrellas de la ciudad de Tijuana, Baja California, México. Así mismo, la revisión de las características y contenidos de las redes sociales de este sector, reconociendo la importancia en el marketing internacional como medio de comunicación con los huéspedes. De este modo, se propone caracterizar los atributos que consideran esenciales l...
Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert
Reciprocal customers may disproportionately improve the performance of markets for experience goods. Reciprocal customers reward (punish) firms for providing good (bad) quality by upholding (terminating) the customer relation. This may induce firms to provide good quality which, in turn, may induce...... a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Women entrepreneurship plays a key role in the economic growth. This study investigates the mediatory role of innovation concerning the effect of social capital on entrepreneurship. The sample population included 130 female entrepreneurs in Ilam province, Iran. Using questionnaire as the main means of data collection, the correlation among variables of entrepreneurship, innovation, social capital and market knowledge was evaluated. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling in LISREL software. The findings showed that social capital and innovation had a positive and significant effect on entrepreneurship. However, the impact of social capital on innovation was not confirmed.
Full Text Available The article explains the Russian model of social orphanhood eradicating based on the analysis of the dynamics of the adoption and foster care and social orphanhood prevention, the legislation development and a compari- son with the international experience. The effectiveness of the state policy is depends on focus of the top federal and regional officials, the dynamic legis- lative development, federal financial support and creative accomplishing the tasks of social orphanhood eradicating throughout the country. Author proposes methodology for evaluating the regions performance based on math- ematical models of the continuity equation. The article identifies a number of factors determine the features of the state policy implementation throughout Russia, including ethnic and religious factors, geographical proximity to the international experience, migration flows, climatic conditions, and the health level. It is pointed out that the implementation of the National Strategy for Action on Children plays a key role in forming the Russian model. The main modern challengers are defining the strategy and tactics of the family and foster care of children difficult to place in family, services on interdepartmental basis, and economic crisis, which may lead to an increasing return of children from foster families.
Christine M. Johnson
Full Text Available Dynamic models of “Biological Markets” can provide a systematic and ecologically-valid approach to studying communication and social cognition in dolphins. These market models view interacting animals as traders engaged in a negotiation for social commodities, whose values vary with the state of their current market. Across the phyla, factors like the supply and demand of social resources can impact on investment and partner choice. Such models map well to the polyadic nature of typical social interactions, generating predictions based on configurations of participants, and enabling us to use behavioral observations to address issues of cognitive organization. Plus, by positing communicative signals as social currency, these models provide tools to discern which aspects of dolphins’ vocal and gestural repertoires impact on their social relationships. Adapting these models for dolphins highlights the premise that “partnerhood is good,” wherein both players gain when they partner. When considered over time, the gains and losses of valued partners may accumulate into “wealth” or “debt” for a particular player, altering its threshold for responding to its market’s odds. For example, “Partner Debt” could motivate a player to more readily take action to destabilize its current market. In dolphins, one type of social currency that bears further investigation is the use of vocal and/or gestural mimicry. Such mimesis may promote prosociality, cooperation, and even the coordination of third party information.
Ana María Miranda Zavala
Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar las estrategias de marketing internacional en redes sociales que realizan los hoteles de cuatro y cinco estrellas de la ciudad de Tijuana, Baja California, México. Así mismo, la revisión de las características y contenidos de las redes sociales de este sector, reconociendo la importancia en el marketing internacional como medio de comunicación con los huéspedes. De este modo, se propone caracterizar los atributos que consideran esenciales los huéspedes de los hoteles y que hacen que el visitante incremente su confianza en la utilización de dichos medios. La investigación ha contemplado un análisis cualitativo de las redes sociales de 16 hoteles registrados en la Secretaría de Turismo (SECTUR y la Asociación de Hoteles del Noroeste (ASHONO para identificar la manera en que llevan a cabo su estrategia de marketing a través de esos medios. Asimismo, se aplicaron encuestas a 267 huéspedes de los hoteles con la finalidad de identificar los atributos que consideran importantes que aparezcan en la red social del hotel, que habrían de incrementar la eficiencia de los resultados de la estrategia de marketing con redes sociales.
Viana Natália Andrade
Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.
Full Text Available This article presents reflections on new market actors, and economic social movements in particular - that is, those in which actors build a new culture of political action that seeks to reappropriate the economy through their own values. Some examples of this are the movements organized around “solidarity economics”, fair trade, geographic indications, “slow food” and consumer organization. This interface of social movements and the market may be the most marked, differentiated and polemic trait of contemporary political mobilizations. Nonetheless, beyond economic social movements, this article simultaneously emphasizes and problematizes political action within the sphere of individual consumption, that is, that which has been referred to as “political consumption”. Keywords: economic social movements, consumer movements, political consumption.
Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA
Advocates of social marketing in the 1970s rarely went beyond discussion of the marketing 4Ps (product, place, promotion, and price) and their application to case studies. After two decades of research on social marketing, some misunderstanding of the approach persists, and a substantial theoretical base for social marketing has not been…
Nowadays, organizations about “sport for all” and leisure sectors use marketing strategies and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntary participate in leisure activities. They should apply new marketing technologies and methods to endure in the developing and changing environment. One marketing strategy emphasizing the social welfare and health is social marketing. Social marketing is an application of marketing approaches from the business world to planning and management of so...
production. As an implication, destination marketing using locative media should build upon the three distinct components characterizing mobile social computing: mobility, social contagion, and social gaming. Mobile social computing enables tourism and hospitality businesses to capitalize on the coupling......Mobile social computing has become an important platform for daily experiences and has caused a tremendous impact on people’s interaction with and interpretation of objects, materials, and images of tourist places. This study explores how locative media shapes tourist behavior and how destination...... marketers should respond to this behavior with appropriate marketing strategies. This study identifies that locative media provide tourists with the playfulness of pursuing rewards and competing (as well as staying connected) with their social network while traveling. Locative media function as a platform...
Waade, Anne Marit
tendency within film and TV industry, in which behind the scene clips and comments are used in advantage to promote the product, as well as using social media as the main marketing channel (Caldwell, 2008; Gray, 2010; Johnson, 2012). Social media marketing is in itself representing a new field within...... and electronic media, and it demonstrates that the film company are fashion-conscious when it comes to new media and marketing tools. The history of ‘participatory culture’ might be seen in the light of digital online media, in which the boarders – following Habermas concepts - between lifeworld, public sphere...... is challenging the very concept of ‘participatory cultural citizenship’ in itself. References: Caldwell, John Thornton (2008): Production culture - Critical Practice in Film and Television, Duke University Press: London, Durham. Couldry, N., Livingstone, S. & Markham, T. (2007): Media consumption and public...
Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Kuipers, A.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
This paper provides a method to assess the customer value and marketing possibilities of increasing transparency about the corporate social responsibility (CSR) of supply chains. The willingness of small firms, in this study farmers in food supply chains, to make information available about certain
Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.
Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…
Raynolds, Laura T.
This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…
Bydanova, Elizaveta; Mushketova, Natalia; Rouet, Gilles
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of demographic, social, economic and international aspects on the market of university services in Russia. It also reminds readers briefly of the evolution of the Russian higher education system during the last 20 years and considers some consequences of the current public policy and…
Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo
, cultural capital accumulation entails such things as building visible buildings, winning design competitions, or obtaining important tenders, whereas social capital is accumulated through the recognition by other construction industry actors that one is a member of their circles. The cases presented......This article analyses the marketing activities of three Danish architectural firms in Germany during the 1990s from a perspective that is new to project marketing, in that the Bourdivan concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the offerings and activities of firms. In architecture...... provide support for our claim that the accumulation of social and cultural capital is crucial to acquiring architectural projects, while also indicating that cultural and social capital are internationally transferable to a limited extent only. This in turn suggests that national construction industries...
Karelas, Gregory D
This paper proposes social marketing as a tool to build individual self-esteem and thus prevent the uptake of activities that pose risk to health. Evidence supporting this approach can be drawn from pioneer social marketing campaigns of the last 30 years that successfully addressed the prevention, treatment and stigmatization of skin cancer and leprosy with a fraction of the communication and media tools available today. Focusing primarily on the practices of skin tanning and lightening, this paper builds on studies that validate the ties between self-esteem and behavior, and addresses popular conceptions of skin color as drivers for individual behavior. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.
Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen
Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.
Abstract Objective: This thesis seeks to provide insight into the integration of social media marketing communications and brand strategy from the perspective of the destination marketing organization. Method: Qualitative case study methodology generated understanding of the approach to DMOs’ marketing. Interview allows exploration of how online marketing strategies with the practice of social media used in destination branding processes and content analysis to analyze audience engagement to ...
Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis
Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be
Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis
The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be identified for social marketing
Full Text Available Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%; At Risk (22%; Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%; Getting Best Results (13%; and Doing OK (12%. Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8% compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%. Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct
Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.
Laura A. Warner
Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.
Griffiths, Richard; Casswell, Sally
To examine how young people in New Zealand engage with alcohol and reproduce alcohol marketing messages and alcohol-related branding in 'Bebo', a popular social networking site (SNS) on the Internet. Data are drawn from information posted on approximately 150 Bebo Web pages and analysed by way of textual analysis and cyberspace ethnography. Social networking sites, such as Bebo, provide young people with a digital space in which to share a range of alcohol marketing messages via peer-to-peer transmission. Bebo also enables youth to communicate to one another how they consume alcohol and their views of alcohol marketing messages. The information being shared by young people who use Bebo is openly provided in the form of personal information, forum comments, digital photographs and answering quizzes about their engagement with alcohol. Through this sharing of information in the digital Internet environment, young people are creating 'intoxigenic social identities' as well as 'intoxigenic digital spaces' that further contribute towards the normalisation of youth consumption of alcohol. A better understanding of how youth are using the Internet to share their experiences with alcohol and engagement with alcohol-related messages is crucial to public health research as alcohol marketing practices rapidly evolve.
Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Coster, Daniel C; Chrysler, Lisa M
To identify variables for a corporate social marketing (SM) health message based on the 4 Ps of SM in order to recruit future participants to an existing national, commercial, self-administered weight-loss program. A systematically evaluated, author-developed, 310-response survey was administered to a random sample of 270 respondents. A previously established research plan was used to empirically identify the audience segments and the "marketing mix" appropriate for the total sample and each segment. Tangible product, pertaining to the unique program features, should be emphasized rather than positive core product and outcome expectation related to use of the program.
K. Prakash Vel
Full Text Available Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implications to marketing strategy development. In light of this, this study examines fourteen (14 fundamental ‘game changing’ trends that are poised to impact the traditional practices and perceptions associated with marketing at the operational and strategic levels. The study presents the trends under three categories, the invasive role of technology, data, and social media, alongside looking at their impact on contemporary marketing. Each trend has been identified and analyzed based on in-depth interviews with industry experts as the primary source of data. Relevant data has also been given to present a holistic perspective on each trend.
Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Drennan, Judy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Leo, Cheryl; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P
This study seeks to establish whether meaningful subgroups exist within a 14-16 year old adolescent population and if these segments respond differently to the Game On: Know Alcohol (GOKA) intervention, a school-based alcohol social marketing program. This study is part of a larger cluster randomized controlled evaluation of the GOKA program implemented in 14 schools in 2013/2014. TwoStep cluster analysis was conducted to segment 2,114 high school adolescents (14-16 years old) on the basis of 22 demographic, behavioral, and psychographic variables. Program effects on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy of identified segments were subsequently examined. Three segments were identified: (1) Abstainers, (2) Bingers, and (3) Moderate Drinkers. Program effects varied significantly across segments. The strongest positive change effects post-participation were observed for Bingers, while mixed effects were evident for Moderate Drinkers and Abstainers. These findings provide preliminary empirical evidence supporting the application of social marketing segmentation in alcohol education programs. Development of targeted programs that meet the unique needs of each of the three identified segments will extend the social marketing footprint in alcohol education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skizim, Meg; Sothern, Melinda; Blaha, Ondrej; Tseng, Tung Sung; Griffiths, Lauren; Joseph, Jonathan; Nuss, Henry
The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents' awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers' markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (La, USA). The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers' markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers' market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.
Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to assess local residents’ awareness of utilizing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP benefits to purchase fresh produce at local farmers’ markets, and to determine internet use and media preferences of study participants prior to implementation of a social marketing campaign. A needs assessment was conducted to collect baseline data in an underserved neighbourhood in New Orleans (LA, USA. The study was carried out August 2014-May 2015. The assessment revealed that 73% of the respondents were unaware that the SNAP benefits could be used to purchase food in farmers’ markets; 63% of low-income participants never attended a farmers’ market compared to 27% of mid/high-income. Over 50% of the low-income respondents have access to the internet at least once per day. The results show the potential of raising awareness among a wide range of members in the community. This needs assessment will serve as the foundation for a social marketing intervention, which will be disseminated city-wide.
O.F. Gryshсhenko; A.D. Niesheva
The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing...
Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Ellery, Jane; Thomas, Kamilah B; Marshall, Robert
The term social marketing has been used to describe a multitude of interventions that incorporate the use of traditional marketing techniques to promote a behavior that will improve the health or well-being of a target audience or of society as a whole. However, there is wide variation in the way social marketing is defined and used. This systematic review article examines how social marketing has been defined and applied to social problems within the public health literature from 2001-2006, by adapting a grading-system borrowed from evidence-based medicine and utilizing Kotler and Zaltman's definition of social marketing. Additionally, definitions of social marketing were identified in the reviewed articles. Identifying a common language in the description and design of social marketing interventions will benefit researchers and practitioners interested in social marketing as a behavior change approach.
Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem
According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F
The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels.
The aim of this thesis was to discover whether social media is an effective marketing communication tactic for Gina Tricot or not. The objective was to find out how customers experience Gina Tricot’s marketing and social media activities and whether social media accounts are able to serve customers as aimed. The case company Gina Tricot is presented in the introduction chapter. The theoretical study focuses on social media marketing and on the transition from traditional outbound marketing to...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Brown, Kelli R McCormack
A successful marketing strategy includes the design of a marketing mix with the right combination of products, offered at the right price, in the right place, and then promoted in such a way that makes it easy and rewarding for the individual to change his or her behavior. A price is incurred in exchange for receiving a bundle of benefits. The social marketer can use various pricing tactics to make the desired behavior appear to have fewer costs and more benefits while making the undesired behavior to have less benefit and greater cost. Place is where and when the target population will perform the desired behavior, purchase or obtain a tangible product, and/or receive associated services. Involving partners in the placement strategy can make products more accessible and increase opportunities for people to perform a behavior. Strategies for making the product available at a desirable price and in places that are convenient are integral to the overall social marketing plan to facilitate behavior change.
Natural cosmetics have grown in popularity over the last years. In the same way that vegan food started out as “a hippie product” but has now become a trend, natural cosmetics have become every day products for many and the demand for them is growing. Therefore, the marketing of these products has also evolved immensely. Social networks have also grown in the past decade and now, it is strange for people or companies not to be involved in the most popular social media platforms, such as F...
This project aims to enrich and inform the current policy debate within South Africa by providing empirical evidence on the impact of social grants on labour market outcomes among youth. ... Un numéro spécial de la revue met en lumière les conclusions d'une étude financée par le CRDI sur le travail rémunéré des femmes.
Amaury Cesar Moraes
In this article we discuss the tensions between the education provided by the social sciences course, substantiated in the curriculum, and the demands of professional practice, considering the reality of the labor market. Although the courses are geared mostly to educating researchers, most graduates work as high school teachers. Thus, an unsolved problem remains: deficiencies in teacher education and frustration to the expectation of becoming a researcher. We thus suggest a thorough review o...
Masanet, Erika; Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia (CIES), Lisboa, Portugal; Baeninger, Rosana; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)
The Brazilian migration to Spain has increased in recent years, contributing to the diversification of migration flows to the country. Since 2008 Spain has undergone a profound economic crisis. This paper aims to give an overview of the employment situation of recent Brazilian immigrant population in Spain and the changes associated with economic crisis. The analysis focuses on the insertion of Brazilians in the Spanish labor market and in the Spanish social protection system, as well as the ...
Full Text Available Enterprises could create multi-service values of customer satisfaction, enterprise profit, and social benefit through Social Marketing. Constructing a positive Social Service Value Chain to achieve mind management in marketing would reinforce the core competitive advantages of an enterprise, enhance high-quality services, and lead the enterprise to sustainable management. With the Delphi Method, a questionnaire is applied to assess the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing. The superiors and the employees in Formosa Plastics Group were selected as the research participants for 200 questionnaires. A total of 133 valid copies are retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. According to the overall weights of the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing, the following summary is concluded. 1. The evaluation criteria in Organizational Characteristics are ordered in the following way: Intrinsic Structure, Internal Environment, Cost Effectiveness, Organizational Advantage, Organizational Weakness, and Inspiration. 2. The evaluation criteria in the External Environment are ordered this way: Information Resources, Environmental Opportunities, and Environmental Threats. 3. The order of the evaluation criteria in Marketing Strategy is Appropriate Media, Targeted Objects, Market Selection, Market Response, and Behavioral Change. 4. The evaluation criteria in Process Orientation are ordered in the following way: Tracking Adjustment, Feedback Systems, Operation Performance, and Operation Processes.A través del márquetin social, las empresas podrían crear valores de multiservicio para la satisfacción del cliente, para incrementar los beneficios de la empresa y para beneficiar a la sociedad. La construcción de una Cadena de Valor de Servicio Social positiva para conseguir una gestión mental en el márquetin reforzaría las principales ventajas competitivas de una empresa, realzaría servicios de alta calidad y
PASSAWUNG, ALIQUE LA
2014 Pengaruh Social Media Marketing Terhadap Tingkat Kunjungan Coffee Toffee Di Makassar The Effect of Social Media Marketing on Rate of The Visit Coffee Toffee at Makassar Alique La Passawung Abd.Rahman Kadir Mukhtar Penelitian ini membahas pengaruh social media marketing terhadap tingkat kunjungan Coffee Toffee di Makassar. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah data primer yang diperoleh dari kuesioner. ...
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.
Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…
Bate, Sheri Lewis; Cannon, Michael J
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in the United States, causing permanent disabilities in more than 5,500 children born each year. In the absence of a vaccine, a promising means of prevention is through a behavioral intervention that educates women about CMV and promotes adherence to hygiene guidelines during pregnancy. Although effective behavioral interventions have been identified for other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, current research has not yet identified an effective intervention for CMV. One way to gather evidence and identify key elements of a successful CMV intervention is through a social marketing approach. This article describes a five-step process for applying social marketing principles to the research and development, implementation, and evaluation of a CMV behavioral intervention.
Paravani, Ardian; Orgocka, Aida
To present the history of social marketing of modern contraceptives in Albania. We review documentation and activity of NESMARK, an Albanian non-governmental social marketing organisation, and national data on adoption of modern contraception. During 15 years of awareness raising, sales of affordable products, and provider training, NESMARK has impacted the introduction and adoption of modern contraception in Albania. NESMARK is the country's main distributor of emergency contraception (EC) and complements the public sector in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives. NESMARK has made major efforts to overcome prevalent taboos and misinformation held by medical and nursing personnel, pharmacists and the general public, regarding the effectiveness and safety of condoms, oral contraceptives, and EC. NESMARK has contributed to increasing the choices for modern contraception methods in Albania by providing affordable contraceptives, training providers, and educating the general population. However, widespread use of withdrawal coupled with the belief that it is as or more effective than modern contraception, continues to limit uptake of new methods and is a significant challenge to comprehensive and sustained social marketing programmes.
Full Text Available In this paper we address the wholesale markets of fresh food marketing as social spaces that link scenarios related to production and consumption scenarios. We study the interactions and behaviors of reciprocity that interweave among wholesalers who own stalls in the Regional Market of La Plata (MRLP and the relationships established with growers of oranges and peaches of the jurisdiction of San Pedro, Province of Buenos Aires that remit part of their production. Methodologically, we rely on qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews conducted in related literature and statistical material. The density of the personal links constitutes a key aspect that affects the decision making processof the actors. It is common that between them there take place situations of uncertainty, of bids of interests but also of negotiation and understanding
Powell, Gregory E; Seifert, Harry A; Reblin, Tjark; Burstein, Phil J; Blowers, James; Menius, J Alan; Painter, Jeffery L; Thomas, Michele; Pierce, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Harold W; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Bell, Heidi G; Dasgupta, Nabarun
Post-marketing safety surveillance primarily relies on data from spontaneous adverse event reports, medical literature, and observational databases. Limitations of these data sources include potential under-reporting, lack of geographic diversity, and time lag between event occurrence and discovery. There is growing interest in exploring the use of social media ('social listening') to supplement established approaches for pharmacovigilance. Although social listening is commonly used for commercial purposes, there are only anecdotal reports of its use in pharmacovigilance. Health information posted online by patients is often publicly available, representing an untapped source of post-marketing safety data that could supplement data from existing sources. The objective of this paper is to describe one methodology that could help unlock the potential of social media for safety surveillance. A third-party vendor acquired 24 months of publicly available Facebook and Twitter data, then processed the data by standardizing drug names and vernacular symptoms, removing duplicates and noise, masking personally identifiable information, and adding supplemental data to facilitate the review process. The resulting dataset was analyzed for safety and benefit information. In Twitter, a total of 6,441,679 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) Preferred Terms (PTs) representing 702 individual PTs were discussed in the same post as a drug compared with 15,650,108 total PTs representing 946 individual PTs in Facebook. Further analysis revealed that 26 % of posts also contained benefit information. Social media listening is an important tool to augment post-marketing safety surveillance. Much work remains to determine best practices for using this rapidly evolving data source.
Carins, Julia E; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R
The present study sought to identify both the ingredients for success and the potential impediments to social marketing effectiveness for healthy eating behaviour, focusing on studies conducted over the last 10 years. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining seventeen databases to identify studies reporting the use of social marketing to address healthy eating. Thirty-four empirical studies were analysed to examine the effectiveness of social marketing interventions to improve healthy eating behaviour using Andreasen's (2002) social marketing benchmark criteria. Statistical analysis was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate whether effectiveness varied between study categories (subsets). Healthy eating empirical studies published from 2000 onwards. Empirical studies that self-identified as social marketing. Sixteen social marketing studies (subset 1) were identified in the review. These were systematic studies which sought to change behaviour through tailored solutions (e.g. use of marketing tools beyond communication was clearly evident) that delivered value to the target audience. For these sixteen studies, the mean number of criteria identified was five. Six studies met all six criteria. Positive change to healthy eating behaviour was found in fourteen of sixteen studies. The sixteen studies that met the definition of social marketing used significantly more of Andreasen's (2002) criteria and were more effective in achieving behavioural change than the eighteen studies in subset 2. Social marketing is an involved process and it is important that studies identifying as social marketing adopt social marketing benchmark criteria. Social marketing when employed to its full extent offers the potential to change healthy eating.
Social engineering is the usage of social manipulation and psychological tricks to make the targets assist oﬀenders in their attack. This practice manifests itself in e.g. phishing emails or cold call telephone scams. The aim of the thesis was to investigate the understanding of social engineering
Full Text Available HIV prevention efforts to date have not explored the potential for persons living with HIV to act as change agents for prevention behaviour in their social networks. Using egocentric social network analysis, this study examined the prevalence and social network correlates of prevention advocacy behaviours (discussing HIV in general; encouraging abstinence or condom use, HIV testing, and seeking HIV care enacted by 39 HIV clients in Uganda. Participants engaged in each prevention advocacy behaviour with roughly 50–70% of the members in their network. The strongest determinant of engaging in prevention advocacy with more of one’s network members was having a greater proportion of network members who knew one’s HIV seropositive status, as this was associated with three of the four advocacy behaviours. These findings highlight the potential for PLHA to be key change agents for HIV prevention within their networks and the importance of HIV disclosure in facilitating prevention advocacy.
Mart, Sarah; Giesbrecht, Norman
To document alcohol products and promotions that use the pink ribbon symbol and related marketing materials that associate alcohol brands with breast cancer charities, awareness and survivors. We conducted a basic Boolean public internet search for alcohol products with pink ribbon/breast cancer awareness marketing campaigns. There is strong and growing evidence of alcohol as a contributing cause of several types of cancer, including breast cancer. There is no U-shaped curve for cancer, and threshold of elevated relative risk is as low as one drink a day for certain cancers. We found 17 examples of alcohol product campaigns with websites, press releases and social media posts, along with news articles and blog posts from industry and non-profit organizations regarding alcohol products associated with breast cancer causes and charities. Various cancer charities have entered into alliances with sectors of the alcohol industry that raise funds for breast cancer research, treatment or prevention by promoting the purchase of certain alcoholic beverages. Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related images, messages and user-generated media to market a product that contributes to cancer disease and death. Therefore, cancer charities should adopt policies to separate them from alliances with the alcohol industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane
Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Porter, David C.; Tanggaard, Carsten; G. Weaver, Daniel
With augmented demands on power grids resulting in longer and larger blackouts combined with heightened concerns of terrorist attacks, trading institutions and policy makers have widened their search for systems that avoid market failure during these disturbing events. We provide insight...... into this issue by examining trading behavior at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during a major blackout. We find that although market quality declined, markets remained functional and some price discovery occurred during the blackout period suggesting that the NOREX structure of interlinked trading systems...... combined with widely dispersed trading locations may be a viable means of protection against market failure during massive power disruptions or terrorist attacks....
Irene García Medina
Full Text Available Hoje, as mídias sociais são a nova forma de ativismo em comunicação de marketing digital. As empresas não são mais os donos exclusivos da relação dos consumidores com seus produtos / serviços; em vez disso, a sobrevivência das organizações depende da utilização efetiva dos meios de comunicação social. Os consumidores confiam nas outras pessoas para fornecer recomendações sobre produtos e serviços de uma forma muito ativa, e é importante saber como e porque as mídias sociais influenciam as organizações. Este estudo analisa através de uma revisão da literatura a importância do ativismo através da mídia social para comunicação de marketing digital e propõe um modelo de negócio para as estratégias de marketing de sucesso.
The International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project (ICSMP) began operations in October 1980 to act as a central technical assistance and funding resource for contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. CSM is an interrelationship of the public and private sectors working to improve contraceptive availability by applying commercial advertising sales and management techniques. At present Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have active programs. ICSMP provides the following services: 1) skilled CSM consultants to assist with studies, planning, product line expansion, management training, and marketing problems; and 2) grants and contracts to initiate or expand programs. ICSMP also sponsors regional and international conferences to provide practitioners a chance to share experiences. Its newsletter, "Update" is written to keep CSM directors in touch with developments. To communicate with "Update," write to Update, c/o CEFPA, Suite 202, 1717 Massachusetts avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20036, USA. For more information about ICSMP write: Betty Butler Howell, Project Director, ICSMP, The Futures Group, 1029 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20005, USA.
Lubis, Evawani Elysa; Rizal, Veby Zilfania
The existence of the internet and information communication technologiesits makes the use of new media in marketing communications. The emergence ofsocial media marketing can be used as well as for the interaction to consumers,called social media marketing. One of social media marketing is now popularamong businesses including restaurants, namely Twitter. Through 140 characters,tweets of any business can market their business at the same place / make upbrand, to be known and remembered in...
Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.
Atanassova, Iva; Clark, Lillian
This paper describes the importance of understanding the social media practices of small and medium-sized enterprises in the context of their marketing activities development. By bringing together literature on SME marketing, social media and dynamic capabilities, the authors argue that SMEs develop, change and evolve their marketing activities by acquiring market intelligence through social media use. This article examines literature, and proposes a conceptual model to guide research in expl...
Taking into consideration the dramatic changes ushered in by the exponential growth of social networking, marketers are left without a dependable framework on how to implement social networking strategically and in alignment with other modern as well as traditional marketing disciplines. In light of this, the study aims to explore the strategic implementation of social networking within the context of a dependable marketing theoretical model, known as the marketing communications mix. D...
Soraghan, Clidna.; Thomson, Elaine.; Ensor, John.
Objectives Voluntary, front of pack (FoP) food labels were used to examine the practice of nudging in a social marketing context.Background With the explosion of social marketing, the goal of marketing has shifted from simply selling products, to 'selling' behaviours. Nudging is an approach used by social marketers to passively edge individuals into making certain choices.Method Thaler and Sunstein's (2008) guiding characteristics of a nudge are used in conjunction with FoP labels to critique...
Social marketing is a highly systematic approach to health improvement that sets out unambiguous success criteria focused on behaviour change. This paper reviews the key concepts and principles of social marketing and its recent rapid development across government in England in the public health field. This paper outlines the role of the National Social Marketing Centre and concludes with a discussion of the probable future impact of social marketing on public health practice. The paper argues that there is a close ideological match between social marketing and liberal democratic imperatives. Social marketing's focus on outcome, return on investment and its emphasis on developing interventions that can respond to diverse needs, means it is probable that social marketing will increasingly be required by governments as a standard part of public health programmes.
Porter, David C.; Tanggaard, Carsten; Weaver, Daniel G.
into this issue by examining trading behaviour at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during a major blackout. We find that although market quality declined, markets remained functional and some price discovery occurred during the blackout period suggesting that the NOREX structure of interlinked trading systems...
This article explores the relationship between crime and social disintegration in South Africa. The article also reviews some of the international evidence that links violent crime to social cohesion, social capital and inequality, and argues that we cannot effectively combat crime and violence in South Africa without addressing ...
Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.
Indoor radon monitoring and mitigation has apparently been conducted by only a small percentage of private homeowners despite extensive media coverage of the radon issue and public information programs at the federal, state, and local levels. Whether public education programs should be informative or persuasive is an ethical decision. Arguments on each side of the issue are presented. A framework for the development of a persuasive campaign is then presented, suing the concepts of social marketing and the limited empirical evidence available on radon-related behavior. In this paper a four-step process is proposed: identify problem dimensions using focus groups and other methods, confirm dimension for market segmentation using probability samples and factor analysis, implement program and evaluate and revise
Baig, Sabeeh A; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T
Tobacco companies use advertising to target vulnerable populations, including youth, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual minorities. We sought to examine how personal identity affects support for population-specific anti-smoking advertisements that could serve as countermeasures to industry marketing practices. In 2014-2015, we surveyed probability phone samples of adults and adolescents (n = 6,139) and an online convenience sample of adults (n = 4,137) in the United States. We experimentally varied the description of tobacco industry marketing practices (no description, general, or specific to a target group). The four prevention target groups were teens; African Americans; Latinos; and gays, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs). Participants were either members or non-members of their prevention target group. Support was highest for anti-smoking advertisements targeting teens, moderate for Latinos and African Americans, and lowest for GLBs. In-group members expressed higher support than out-group members when anti-smoking advertisements targeted African Americans, Latinos, and GLBs (all p marketing practices did not have an effect. Results were similar across the phone and online studies. Our findings suggest that the public strongly supports advertisements to prevent smoking among teens, but support for similar efforts among other vulnerable populations is comparatively low. Anti-smoking campaigns for vulnerable populations may benefit from a greater understanding of the role of social identity in shaping public support for such campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There are many facts that attest to the pervasiveness of social media applications in the current world of business. This communication medium is replacing the well-known emails and complimenting the likes of short message service (SMS and instant messaging and chatting. As part of technology, which is revolutionising the way we do business and live, organizations worldwide are gearing up efforts to take advantage of this phenomenon. In South Africa, the story is the same. However, the Banks in South Africa seems to have problems selling this form of communication to their clientele to augment their service delivery. In view of this, the current study aimed to research into social media concept in South Africa, to highlight its trajectory pros and cons, and investigate why it is not being adopted by these clients, in addition to measuring the continuance intention of those who have accepted banking through social media. It was discovered that, social norm (β=0.579, perceived trust (β=0.510 and user satisfaction (β=0.332, in that order, stood out as the most influencing factors impacting on user acceptance and continuance intention (β=0.384 of social media usage for banking. Perceived behavioural control made no significant impact on users to adopt social media for financial services. As the banking industry keeps investing in the marketing potentials of social media tools for banking, in order to gain competitive advantage in customer service delivery, this social media usage could make a lot of difference when well researched into and managed. In some countries, banking customers are able to do their banking through social media sites, but little is known in South Africa (according to research, regarding the usage of this tool for banking purposes
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
Background and aim In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. Methods The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. Results After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. Conclusion This study provides a unique insight into consumers’ values and motivations that affect consumers’ decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity. PMID:29038710
Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid Ahmadi; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhar; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Shams, Mohsen
In social marketing, at the center of the program is consumer perception. The objective of this study was to explore the viewpoints of Iranian women for tailoring interventions so as to increase physical activity. The social marketing model served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via six semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs), in 2014 in Iran. Participants were 51 women, 20 to 60 years old, selected by purposive sampling, with a maximum diversity. Qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted by researchers. After data analysis and extracting initial codes, they were all categorized in four predefined categories of social marketing model (product, price, place and promotion) and related sub-categories. Most of the participants were inactive. Price was addressed by women as the dominant category of this study. The majority of participants emphasized the benefits of prevention of chronic diseases, fitness, staying young, and improving family relations. Most women preferred to do physical activity in a secure and enclosed female environment. And the majority of participants considered radio, television, face to face training, texting, and advertising billboards as promotional strategies. This study provides a unique insight into consumers' values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt physical activity, in Iran. It could also help researchers to design and implement intervention programs to increase physical activity.
Este trabajo busca definir los conceptos tradicionales del Marketing, Ética, Empresa y Responsabilidad Social, y presentar los justificativos que permitan ampliar su concepción en un mundo que no soporta más el individualismo, el irrespeto a la comunidad, el medio ambiente y los mecanismos de hacer negocios desviados del objetivo principal que debe promover cualquier empresa u organización que busque el beneficio común en una relación de intercambio comercial, la ÉTICA. “La ...
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.
This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) nowadays becomes indicator of corporate achievement. CSR activities, which commonly defined as corporate efforts to increase community and stakeholder life quality, open up relations between corporate and community. In turn, CSR would maintain good image and give posing the positive publicity toward corporate image. This article explores CSR activities as implied on PR marketing in some corporates.
Langford, Rebecca; Panter-Brick, Catherine
Health interventions increasingly rely on formative qualitative research and social marketing techniques to effect behavioural change. Few studies, however, incorporate qualitative research into the process of program evaluation to understand both impact and reach: namely, to what extent behaviour change interventions work, for whom, in what contexts, and why. We reflect on the success of a community-based hygiene intervention conducted in the slums of Kathmandu, Nepal, evaluating both maternal behaviour and infant health. We recruited all available mother-infant pairs (n = 88), and allocated them to control and intervention groups. Formative qualitative research on hand-washing practices included structured observations of 75 mothers, 3 focus groups, and 26 in-depth interviews. Our intervention was led by Community Motivators, intensively promoting hand-washing-with-soap at key junctures of food and faeces contamination. The 6-month evaluation period included hand-washing and morbidity rates, participant observation, systematic records of fortnightly community meetings, and follow-up interviews with 12 mothers. While quantitative measures demonstrated improvement in hand-washing rates and a 40% reduction in child diarrhoea, the qualitative data highlighted important equity issues in reaching the ultra-poor. We argue that a social marketing approach is inherently limited: focussing on individual agency, rather than structural conditions constraining behaviour, can unwittingly exacerbate health inequity. This contributes to a prevention paradox whereby those with the greatest need of a health intervention are least likely to benefit, finding hand-washing in the slums to be irrelevant or futile. Thus social marketing is best deployed within a range of interventions that address the structural as well as the behavioural and cognitive drivers of behaviour change. We conclude that critiques of social marketing have not paid sufficient attention to issues of health
Full Text Available The Internet evolved from Web1.0 to Web2.0, bringing on frontline the Social Media, with the help of which a double communication advantage can be underscored: between companies and their customers and between customers. Hence, Social Media can be considered a new, hybrid component of the promotion-mix. This complex phenomenon includes also weblogs or more commun expressed: blogs. The blogosphere grows as the number of weblogs multiplicate in an exponential manner and starts to gain ground in marketing. As consumers search for recommandations on the Internet about trends and products to buy and thus also on blogs, this can only lead to influencing consumer’s behavior. Two different types of weblogs are analysed: fashion blogs and travel blogs.
This is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention from 1984 to the present day. It demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation which is produced via changes in social practices and norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in behaviours of individuals. My colleagues and I developed a 'social health' model of social transformation that involves enabling communities to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.
Gradys Caridad SEGUÍ LEÓN
Full Text Available Con la creación de La Casas de Orientación a la Mujer y a la Familia (COMF en la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas (FMC en el año 1990, se inició una nueva etapa de atención a la mujer y la familia cubana, ofreciendo asesoría y ayuda sobre diversos temas como drogadicción, violencia doméstica, alcoholismo, etc. No obstante, en la COMF aún no se realizan estrategias de atención a la violencia psicológica ejercida en mujeres por sus parejas, fenómeno que se acrecienta, sobre todo en las comunidades rurales. El presente trabajo pretende atender la violencia psicológica ejercida contra la mujer en la comunidad rural Vivero, tributando así al desarrollo social de la misma desde una estrategia de marketing social. En la estrategia se dan a conocer acciones que funcionan en unidades de desarrollo, a través de las tres direcciones específicas, en aras de ejercer el sistema de influencias requerida, en función de lograr la adopción del producto social que se propone. El marketing social se plantea como objetivo apropiar a las mujeres de los conocimientos esenciales sobre la violencia psicológica, de una manera informativa con el uso de los medios de comunicación así como dinámica y participativa dentro de la misma comunidad.
Velasco Garc??a, Sara
En los ??ltimos a??os se ha promovido una nueva cultura de gesti??n empresarial enfocada a la responsabilidad y el bien com??n, denominada Responsabilidad Social Corporativa (en adelante RSC). Ha sufrido un elevado inter??s tanto en el ??mbito empresarial como acad??mico, en lo pol??tico y tambi??n entre la ciudadan??a. Por tanto, este trabajo tiene como objetivo, en primer lugar, contextualizar el t??rmino de la RSC. Adem??s mediante una entrevista en profundidad, se analiza la perspectiva q...
Miles, Morgan P; Munilla, Linda S; Covin, Jeffrey G
This paper discusses how adoption of the social dimensions of the marketing concept may unintentionally restrict innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, ultimately reducing social welfare. The impact of social marketing on innovation and entrepreneurship is discussed using the case of multinational pharmaceutical firms that are under pressure when marketing HIV treatments in poor countries. The argument this paper supports is that social welfare may eventually be diminished if forced social responsibility is imposed. The case of providing subsidized AIDS medication to less developed nations is used to illustrate how social blackmail may result in less innovation, entrepreneurship, and product development efforts by the pharmaceutical industry, ultimately reducing social welfare.
More than 10% of Zimbabwe's population is thought to be infected with HIV. Protector condoms, marketed by Johnson and Johnson (Zimbabwe), have been available in Zimbabwe for several years, but supplies often ran out due to contractual difficulties with the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Population Services International (PSI), with the financial support of Britain's Overseas Development Administration (ODA) and USAID, has relaunched the condom social marketing program in Zimbabwe and will also introduce female condoms for the first time in May. Selling for about Z$1 (US$0.09) each, the subsidized male condoms will be marketed in places where the public sector cannot go, such as gas stations, supermarkets, convenience grocery stores in high-density suburbs, beer halls, and night clubs. Approximately 5 million condoms are expected to be sold in 1997, although most condoms will still be supplied free of charge through the public sector. The female condoms will be priced at Z$3 each. PSI hopes to sell 40,000 per year, while another 400,000 will be given away in hospitals, family planning clinics, and other public health services.
Robinson, Jo; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Herrman, Helen
Social media platforms are commonly used for the expression of suicidal thoughts and feelings, particularly by young people. Despite this, little is known about the ways in which social media can be used for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify current evidence pertaining to the ways in which social media are currently used as a tool for suicide prevention. Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, CINHAL and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1991 and April 2014. English language articles with a focus on suicide-related behaviour and social media were included. No exclusion was placed on study design. Thirty studies were included; 4 described the development of social media sites designed for suicide prevention, 6 examined the potential of social media in terms of its ability to reach or identify people at risk of suicide, 15 examined the ways in which people used social media for suicide prevention-related purposes, and 5 examined the experiences of people who had used social media sites for suicide prevention purposes. No intervention studies were identified. Social media platforms can reach large numbers of otherwise hard-to-engage individuals, may allow others to intervene following an expression of suicidal ideation online, and provide an anonymous, accessible and non-judgmental forum for sharing experiences. Challenges include difficulties controlling user behaviour and accurately assessing risk, issues relating to privacy and confidentiality and the possibility of contagion. Social media appears to hold significant potential for suicide prevention; however, additional research into its safety and efficacy is required. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
During 1983 contraceptive social marketing programs selling products in 7 countries -- Bangladesh, Egypt, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, Nepal, and Sri Lanka -- provided complete monthly sales reports to the International Contraceptive Social Marketing Project. Together, these countries provided a total of 1,694,177 couple years of protection (CYP) among an estimated 54.98 million women of reproductive age. Tables compare 1982 and 1983 CYP for each contry. Also provided are sales data and CYP for individual products in each country. In Bangladesh the CYP was 816,072 in 1982 and 1,066,434 in 1983. For Egypt the CYP was 288,103 in 1982 and 377,632 in 1983. In El Salvador the CYP was 21,557 in 1982 and 16,630 in 1983. Jamaica's CYP was 34,016 in 1982 and 44,145 in 1983. In Mexico the CYP was 77,286 in 1982 and 63,832 in 1983. Nepal's CYP was 27,229 in 1982 and 35,942 in 1983. The CYP in Sri Lanka was 95,264 in 1982 and 89,562 in 1983.
Edwards, Keith E.
The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…
... employment market designs. Using a quasi-price measure for comparison and examining social welfare as a basis for assessing market-design alternatives, we provide novel insight into the balance required between technologically...
Constantinides, Efthymios; Zinck Stagno, Marc C.
The importance of social media as platforms of social interaction, communication and marketing is growing. Increasing numbers of businesses in various industries have already integrated or plan to integrate social media applications into their marketing programs. Higher education institutions show increased interest in the potential of social…
Vliet, Olaf Peter van
Social convergence has been an objective since the Treaty of Rome in 1957, but it was only in 1997 and 2000 that social and labour market policies were formulated at the European Union level. To what extent have national social and labour market policies in EU member states converged over time? What
Loomis, L M; Bufano, J T
The concept of marketing is new to the long-term care industry. Limited financial resources dictate that administrators investigate ways to supplement marketing staff. St. John's Home in Rochester, New York, has focused attention on the way in which social work can enhance the effectiveness of the marketing program. Presented here is the role of social work in the marketing mix: product, place, price, promotion, and public relations.
150521065 Digital era has influenced varians business and marketing types. Social media has given big impact on marketer to promote their brands, covering worldwide marketing, increasing the sales and building the community compared to conventional media. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence social media marketing which consist of consumption, curation, creation dan collaboration on customer equity of young entrepreneurs in Medan City. This research us...
Chau, Josephine Y; McGill, Bronwyn; Thomas, Margaret M; Carroll, Tom E; Bellew, William; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C
Social marketing (SM) campaigns can be a powerful disease prevention and health promotion strategy but health-related campaigns may simply focus on the "promotions" communication activities and exclude other key characteristics of the SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist for identifying which lifestyle-related chronic disease prevention campaigns reported as SM actually represent key SM principles and practice. A checklist of SM criteria was developed, reviewed and refined by SM and mass media campaign experts. Papers identified in searches for "social marketing" and "mass media" for obesity, diet and physical activity campaigns in the health literature were classified using the checklist. Using the checklist, 66.6% of papers identified in the "SM" search and 39% of papers identified from the "mass media" search were classified as SM campaigns. Inter-rater agreement for classification using the abstract only was 92.1%. Health-related campaigns that self-identify as "social marketing" or "mass media" may not include the key characteristics of a SM approach. Published literature can provide useful guidance for developing and evaluating health-related SM campaigns, but health promotion professionals need to be able to identify what actually comprises SM in practice. SO WHAT?: SM could be a valuable strategy in comprehensive health promotion interventions, but it is often difficult for non-experts to identify published campaigns that represent a true SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist to assist policy makers and practitioners in appraising evidence from campaigns reflecting actual SM in practice. The checklist could also guide reporting on SM campaigns. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Lee, Liming
The present pilot project aimed to assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and Fe status in an Fe-deficient population. In an uncontrolled, before-after, community-based study, social mobilization and social marketing strategies were applied. The main outcomes included KAP and Hb level and were measured at baseline, 1 year later and 2 years later. One urban county and two rural counties in Shijiazhuang Municipality, Hebei Province, China. Adult women older than 20 years of age and young children aged from 3 to 7 years were selected from three counties to attend the evaluation protocol. After 1 year, most knowledge and attitudes had changed positively towards the prevention and control of anaemia. The percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing activities had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women, and resulted in marked improvements in Hb levels in both adult women and young children. This should be recommended as a national preventive strategy to prevent and control Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia.
Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S
Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Wu, Zunyou; Luo, Wei; Sullivan, Sheena G; Rou, Keming; Lin, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ming, Zhongqiang
To evaluate the effectiveness of a needle social marketing strategy to reduce needle sharing and hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/HIV transmission among injecting drug users (IDU) in China. Two-armed, prospective, community-randomized prevention trial. Four counties/townships in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces; one randomized to intervention the other to control in each province. Injecting drug users: 823 (443 intervention, 382 control) at baseline and 852 (415 intervention, 407 control) at the second cross-sectional survey 12 months later. A needle social marketing programme, including promotion of safe injection norms and increased access to clean needles over a 12 month period. Cross sectional surveys at baseline and follow-up compared changes in drug using behaviours and HIV and HCV rates in the intervention and control communities. Needle sharing behaviours were similar in the two groups at baseline (68.4 vs. 67.8%), and dropped significantly to 35.3% in the intervention community and remained relatively stable in the control community (62.3%; P marketing can reduce risky injecting behaviour and HIV/HCV transmission among injecting drug users in China and should be expanded.
Bloom, Gerald; Standing, Hilary; Lloyd, Robert
This paper explores the implications of the increasing role of informal as well as formal markets in the health systems of many low and middle-income countries. It focuses on institutional arrangements for making the benefits of expert medical knowledge widely available in the face of the information asymmetries that characterise health care. It argues that social arrangements can be understood as a social contract between actors, underpinned by shared behavioural norms, and embedded in a broader political economy. This contract is expressed through a variety of actors and institutions, not just through the formal personnel and arrangements of a health sector. Such an understanding implies that new institutional arrangements, such as the spread of reputation-based trust mechanisms can emerge or be adapted from other parts of the society and economy. The paper examines three relational aspects of health systems: the encounter between patient and provider; mechanisms for generating trust in goods and services in the context of highly marketised systems; and the establishment of socially legitimated regulatory regimes. This analysis is used to review experiences of health system innovation and change from a number of low income and transition countries.
Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J
The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.
Meekers, Dominique; Rahaim, Stephen
Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. Methods This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. Results The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context.
Meekers, Dominique; Rahaim, Stephen
Background Over the past two decades, social marketing programs have become an important element of the national family planning and HIV prevention strategy in several developing countries. As yet, there has not been any comprehensive empirical assessment to determine which of several social marketing models is most effective for a given socio-economic context. Such an assessment is urgently needed to inform the design of future social marketing programs, and to avoid that programs are designed using an ineffective model. Methods This study addresses this issue using a database of annual statistics about reproductive health oriented social marketing programs in over 70 countries. In total, the database covers 555 years of program experience with social marketing programs that distribute and promote the use of oral contraceptives and condoms. Specifically, our analysis assesses to what extent the model used by different reproductive health social marketing programs has varied across different socio-economic contexts. We then use random effects regression to test in which socio-economic context each of the models is most successful at increasing use of socially marketed oral contraceptives and condoms. Results The results show that there has been a tendency to design reproductive health social marketing program with a management structure that matches the local context. However, the evidence also shows that this has not always been the case. While socio-economic context clearly influences the effectiveness of some of the social marketing models, program maturity and the size of the target population appear equally important. Conclusions To maximize the effectiveness of future social marketing programs, it is essential that more effort is devoted to ensuring that such programs are designed using the model or approach that is most suitable for the local context. PMID:15676068
Thomas, Samantha L; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate
To investigate how gamblers interact with, and respond to, downstream social marketing campaigns that focus on the risks and harms of problem gambling and/or encourage help seeking. Qualitative study of 100 gamblers with a range of gambling behaviours (from non-problem to problem gambling). We used a Social Constructivist approach. Our constant comparative method of data interpretation focused on how participants' experiences and interactions with gambling influenced their opinions towards, and interactions with social marketing campaigns. Three key themes emerged from the narratives. (i) Participants felt that campaigns were heavily skewed towards encouraging individuals to take personal responsibility for their gambling behaviours or were targeted towards those with severe gambling problems. (ii) Participants described the difficulty for campaigns to achieve 'cut through' because of the overwhelming volume of positive messages about the benefits of gambling that were given by the gambling industry. (iii) Some participants described that dominant discourses about personal responsibility prevented them from seeking help and reinforced perceptions of stigma. Social marketing campaigns have an important role to play in the prevention of gambling risk behaviours and the promotion of help seeking. Social marketers should explore how to more effectively target campaigns to different audience segments, understand the role of environmental factors in undermining the uptake of social marketing strategies and anticipate the potential unforeseen consequences of social marketing strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sociale marketing van de verkeersveiligheid : een beschouwing over toepassingsmogelijkheden van principes uit de sociale marketing voor de verkeersveiligheid, ter gelegenheid van het Nationaal VerkeersVeiligheids Congres NVVC, 4 april 1996 in Amsterdam, georganisserd door de ANWB en de SWOV.
Wittink, R.D. & Goldenbeld, C.
`Marketing' is a strategy for changing behaviour. `Social marketing' focuses on social objectives, such as health, quality of life and safety. This report argues that `social marketing' is a welcome additional method toward promoting safety. Marketing distinguishes itself from other approaches in
Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen
The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...
Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu
Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Larsen, Trine Pernille
is no exception, and Danish governments in particular have to a varying degree launched campaigns on corporate social responsibility since the early 1990s (Lindsay and Mailand, 2006: 11-4). However, these government driven initiatives have mainly focused on employment related issues such as targeting...... work and care-giving with limited if no support from their workplace. In the following, the main features of the Danish labour market and the collective bargaining system is first briefly presented. We then discuss recent Danish initiatives on corporate social responsibility and different carer...
This article outlines the contraceptive marketing process used by the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project. The 1st stage of the process involves analysis of the market, the consumer, and the social marketing organization's capabilities. In the 2nd stage, planning, data collected in the analysis stage are used to define objectives, segment target markets, and devise strategies for each element in the marketing mix. In the 3rd stage, all the elements in the marketing mix are developed and tested (e.g. product concepts, pricing, packaging, communication messages) and refined on the basis of test results. In stage 4, the action plan is implemented and marketing progress and institutional performance are monitored. Stage 5 includes an assessment of in-market effectiveness in terms of responses from consumers, retailers, and health professionals. The last stage feeds back to the 1st. All the reviewed data are recycled into analysis to begin again the continuous process of refinement and improvement.
Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003 hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Venezuela y como se viene desarrollando durante las últimas décadas. Finalmente, al comparar las tendencias mundiales sobre Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y la situación venezolana se destaca la propensión del empresariado venezolano a la puesta en práctica de la acción social de una manera eficiente y con orientación al Marketing.Palabras Clave: Responsabilidad social empresarial; marketing, estrategia; acción social; ciudadano corporativo.Corporate senior management, marketing and corporate social responsibility: Venezuela Case AbstractThe work presented below is an overview that draws the development of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and global marketing from the perspective of authors like Lindbaek (2003 to modern trends of this perspective, through regulations that control and encourage social action of the companies in the concert of nations. After an analysis of these trends, it goes deeper into the situation of the Social Responsibility and Marketing in Venezuela and how it has been developing itself over recent decades. Finally, and to compare global trend about Corporate Social Responsibility and the Venezuelan situation, it is highlighted the propensity of the Venezuelan entrepreneurial to the implementation of social action in an efficient way and marketing focused.Keywords: corporate social responsibility; marketing; strategy; social action; corporate citizen.
Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.
Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.
Lefébure, Anne; Engvall, Emma
The field of marketing does not only consist of traditional marketing and the focus on promoting products and services to increase sales. In recent years a new branch within the marketing field has been established with the focus of promoting behaviours that will benefit the individual and the society as a whole; social marketing. Our purpose with this paper is not only to introduce the reader to social marketing but to describe and explain how social marketing campaigns are created and how t...
Janssen, M.A; Jager, W.
Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. in a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation
We study the use of viral marketing strategies on social networks that seek to maximize revenue from the sale of a single product. We propose a model in which the decision of a buyer to buy the product is influenced by friends that own the product and the price at which the product is offered. The influence model we analyze is quite general, naturally extending both the Linear Threshold model and the Independent Cascade model, while also incorporating price information. We consider sales proceeding in a cascading manner through the network, i.e. a buyer is offered the product via recommendations from its neighbors who own the product. In this setting, the seller influences events by offering a cashback to recommenders and by setting prices (via coupons or discounts) for each buyer in the social network. This choice of prices for the buyers is termed as the seller\\'s strategy. Finding a seller strategy which maximizes the expected revenue in this setting turns out to be NP-hard. However, we propose a seller strategy that generates revenue guaranteed to be within a constant factor of the optimal strategy in a wide variety of models. The strategy is based on an influence-and-exploit idea, and it consists of finding the right trade-off at each time step between: generating revenue from the current user versus offering the product for free and using the influence generated from this sale later in the process. © 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Jacob C. Day
Full Text Available To understand the labor market context of social capital, the extent to which an occupational internal labor market makes social capital particularly important to coaches’ career outcomes is examined. Using archival data on 118 coaches from a major conference at the NCAA Division IA level, I describe the network structure, network composition, and differences in career experience between black and white coaches at different status levels within the profession.
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...
This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...
Spiller, Lisa; Tuten, Tracy
Modern digital and social media formats have revolutionized marketing measurement, producing an abundance of data, meaningful metrics, new tools, and methodologies. This increased emphasis on metrics in the marketing industry signifies the need for increased quantitative and critical thinking content in our marketing coursework if we are to…
O. A. Tsarakhov
Full Text Available Stomatological market has actively developed recent years. Domestic experts received an access to contemporary technologies of dental diseases treatment in the world. This conditioned the appearance of new drugs and parapharmaceutical products applied in dental practice on the pharmaceutical market. In this connection, study of these drugs market, their price policy, demand and supply. Assortment of parapharmaceutical products applied in dental practice for oral cavity hygiene is represented mainly by liquid forms, such as mouth rinse, balms, elixirs, and a special place is occupied by toothpastes. Their assortment amounts to more than 700 types. Drugs, applied in dental practice are represented by the following groups: anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiallergenic, anesthetics, drugs which stimulate tissues regeneration, fluoric drugs. The purpose of this study was the analysis of regional pharmaceutical market assortment, which offers parapharmaceutical goods and drugs for prevention and treatment of oral cavity diseases to the stomatological establishments. Pharmaceutical market of the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania is represented by a wide range of drugs for dental diseases treatment. This group is represented in the assortment of practically all distributors. The drugs for dental diseases treatment is not only supplied by domestic producers but also go from pharmaceutical companies of 29 foreign countries, which influences positively on the state of drug therapy of paradontum in the region.
George, Kimberly S; Roberts, Calpurnyia B; Beasley, Stephen; Fox, Margaretta; Rashied-Henry, Kweli
Design, implement, and evaluate a 6-week social marketing campaign (SMC) to raise awareness of obesity and increase involvement in type 2 diabetes prevention, nutrition, and fitness programs offered by the Brooklyn Partnership to Drive Down Diabetes (BP3D) in two low-income, urban communities. This was a nonexperimental, formative research, mixed-methods study. The study took place in Central Brooklyn and East New York, two of the most impoverished, high-need communities in New York City. Participants were black and Hispanic adults, who were 18+ years of age and residing in the priority communities. Advertisements in English and Spanish encouraging healthier eating habits and advocating for better food options were displayed on New York City bus shelters, buses, and subway cars operating in the priority communities. Social media, Web sites, and print material were used to promote the campaign message. Social media metrics and a street intercept postsurvey informed the campaign's success. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. One hundred advertisements in English and Spanish were posted. After an 18-month followup, there were over 11,000 visits to the Facebook page. Results from the postsurvey (n = 171) suggest the SMC motivated participants who recognized the advertisements to improve their health behaviors. A multifaceted SMC that coincides with prevention programs can effectively raise attention to health issues and activities in a high-risk population at a relatively low cost. © The Author(s) 2016.
Background: Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. Objectives: This study ...
Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A
Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.
Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian
Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee
Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.
Broekhuizen, T.L.J.; Delre, S.A.; Torres, A.
This paper uses a mixed method approach to show how cross-cultural differences in social influences can explain differences in distributions of market shares in different markets. First, we develop a realistic agent-based model that mimics the behavior of movie visitors and incorporates the social
Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.; Stofer, Kathryn A.
Social marketing is an underused strategy that agricultural educators can employ to bring about behavior change. We designed an online certificate program for Extension professionals and other educators based on an identified need for social marketing professional development. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) served as the conceptual…
Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger
Social marketing--the use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social change--is a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland...
Day, Brian A.; DeWan, Amielle; Cadiz, Fel Ceasar; Jakosalem-Balane, Joy; Dueñas, Vincent; Trinidad, Pedro M., Jr.
Rare's approach to promoting sustainable fishing through social marketing in the Philippines is exemplified in the Cortes Pride campaign. The Cortes Pride campaign is a social marketing behavior change program that was part of a cohort of 12 similar sustainable fishing campaigns in the Philippines, all of which used a unique blend of social…
Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel
A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…
Kubacki, Krzysztof; Ronti, Rimante; Lahtinen, Ville; Pang, Bo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Purpose: A significant proportion of the world's adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing's effectiveness in changing…
Tuten, Tracy; Marks, Melanie
Social media usage has grown rapidly in recent years, as individuals have incorporated social networks such as Facebook into their daily activities and businesses have begun to use social tools to interact with consumers. Many social media tools, likewise, have applications relevant for marketing education. This study assesses the adoption of…
Frederic S. Mishkin
This paper outlines a set of financial policies that can help make financial crises less likely in emerging market countries. To justify these policies, the paper first explains what a financial crisis is, the factors that promote a financial crisis and the dynamics of a financial crisis. It then examines twelve basic areas of financial policies to prevent financial crises: 1) prudential supervision, 2) accounting and disclosure requirements, 3) legal and judicial systems, 4) market-based dis...
Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic, Djordje Cuzovic,
Under contemporary business conditions, market globalisation has become inevitable. Such relationships on the market make trade companies use different means to acquire and maintain long-term competitive advantage. One of them is the concept of corporate social responsibility, which is, under conditions of globalisation, seen as a redesign of the classic marketing concept. The aim of this paper is to highlight the development of corporate social responsibility in trade, in the context of mark...
Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.
Full Text Available Background. The noncommunicable disease (NCDs are very common among population around the world. They are the main cause of preventable mortality, cause temporary and permanent disability. NCDs are the major reason for attending for medical care and lead to economic losses. The implementations of preventive strategy, increasing the role of preventive measures are general tasks for all health care system. The analysis of trends of preventive measure for NCD nowadays is the aim of this research. Materials and methods. The study included the result of analysis of science publication and WHO database about NCD and preventive measure used as well as the results of the analysis of data of the Center for Statistics in Medicine of MoH of Ukraine. Results. Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases are the major NCDs. The base factors which lead to NCD are behavioral risk factors, namely tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and alcohol abuse. The WHO prepared a lot of documents, among which the most significant are the strategies on noncommunicable diseases prevention, convention against smoking, strategy on diet and physical activity, global strategy on reducing alcohol abusing and so on. Nowadays the world population follows Global Action Plan for Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases for 2013–2020. The documents emphasize the importance of state support, the use of scientific potential and intersectoral interaction to effectively combat noncommunicable diseases. The major of scientific direction are NCD monitoring, detection of the determinant of NCD development and making strategy for usage it in conditions of limited resources. The role of Digital marketing today increases that leads to the acquisition and consolidation of the habits and behavior of modern youth. Internet marketing is very effective to form unhealthy food behavior in children and adolescents that requires adequate and urgent actions. The
Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren
Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.
Ruffolo, Mary C.; Evans, Mary E.; Lukens, Ellen P.
This paper presents the prevalence and incidence of children in need of social services due to child maltreatment, child poverty, parental incarceration, parental substance abuse problems, and homelessness. Examines early childhood family education and family support approaches in primary prevention designed to meet the needs of these children.…
Levitt, Aaron J.; Lorenzo, Julie; Yu, Van; Wean, Caren; Miller-Solarino, Sophie
Social workers and paraprofessionals serve psychiatric populations at high risk for suicide, but may receive little training related to suicidality. This study evaluated a suicide awareness and prevention training workshop for providers working with mentally ill homeless and previously homeless adults. Trainees attended a half day of training, and…
Evaluations of the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of HIV prevention interventions rely on self-reported sexual behaviour data. The accuracy of such data has sometimes been questioned. The absence of a so-called objective measure of sexual behaviour complicates this. Social desirability bias (SDB) is a key factor ...
Etornam Kosi Anku
Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional
Nguyen, Bang; Xiaoyu, Yu; Melewar, T. C.; Chen, Junsong
The study examines the relationships between knowledge acquisition from social media, two forms of market orientation (proactive and reactive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy in the context of China’s online technology industry. Analysis of 357 online technology ventures, created during the past 6 years, suggests that brand innovation is affected by both knowledge acquisition from social media and market orientation. Social media strategic capability positive...
Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace
Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amaury Cesar Moraes
Full Text Available In this article we discuss the tensions between the education provided by the social sciences course, substantiated in the curriculum, and the demands of professional practice, considering the reality of the labor market. Although the courses are geared mostly to educating researchers, most graduates work as high school teachers. Thus, an unsolved problem remains: deficiencies in teacher education and frustration to the expectation of becoming a researcher. We thus suggest a thorough review of the course and the skills it now seeks to develop. Regarding teacher education, one of the possible professions for which the course prepares students, we present a preliminary analysis of teacher education at the undergraduate and graduate level based on a discussion of the relationship between a bachelor’s degree (for researchers and teacher accreditation in high school sociology, using as an example the case of the University of São Paulo (USP. Another reference is the education provided in the graduate course, in which the divorce between research and teaching is wider, deepening the problems of teacher education: disintegration, hierarchization, imbalance between the courses, which resul in poor teacher education.
Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.
The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…
The advent of social media has witnessed a transformation in how audiences interact with marketers online. While previous research has shown that media consumers generally hold a negative view of advertising, today’s media consumers are engaging with brands more than ever. This study examines what it means to be an active fan of marketers in social media to the modern media consumer through an investigation of how audiences relate to brands in the social media space. Centered around audiences...
Full Text Available Huge amounts of data, in the form of messages on social networks, represent a challange for digital marketing and marketing analytics when meeting the requirements, needs and customer satisfaction with services or products. Marketing strives to be a part of the overall culture based on the data and to define marketing strategies that respond to consumers and thus to provide economic benefits for the company. Therefore, the focus of marketing analysis is on the data recorded at the social networks. This paper shows one possible integration of information technology and data mining tools, with the goal of visualizing the attitudes and opinions on the social networks in the form of a word cloud, which can then further be used to create marketing strategies and improve customer relations and customer service.
Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C
Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.
Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.
Mackintosh, Maureen; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Mujinja, Phares Gm
Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.
Nowak, Glen J; Gellin, Bruce G; MacDonald, Noni E; Butler, Robb
Many countries and communities are dealing with groups and growing numbers of individuals who are delaying or refusing recommended vaccinations for themselves or their children. This has created a need for immunization programs to find approaches and strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. An important source of useful approaches and strategies is found in the frameworks, practices, and principles used by commercial and social marketers, many of which have been used by immunization programs. This review examines how social and commercial marketing principles and practices can be used to help address vaccine hesitancy. It provides an introduction to key marketing and social marketing concepts, identifies some of the major challenges to applying commercial and social marketing approaches to immunization programs, illustrates how immunization advocates and programs can use marketing and social marketing approaches to address vaccine hesitancy, and identifies some of the lessons that commercial and non-immunization sectors have learned that may have relevance for immunization. While the use of commercial and social marketing practices and principles does not guarantee success, the evidence, lessons learned, and applications to date indicate that they have considerable value in fostering vaccine acceptance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The European Union is often considered as a prime example of a liberal regulatory state. We argue, however, that being limited to the regulatory policy does not prevent the European Commission from pursuing political aims going beyond market efficiency. We draw up two ideal-type perspectives of market regulation – being either efficiency or equality enhancing – that differ systematically in terms of rationale, degree of intervention, patterns of stakeholder access and conflict within the regulator. We trace these aspects in three financial services initiatives on the registration and supervision of reinsurers, equal treatment in financial services and the regulation of consumer credit. Our analyses suggest that there is scope for equality-enhancing re-regulation when proactive agents proceed decidedly on the basis of social-treaty concerns and frame regulatory beneficiaries as market participants as well as when they seek the redistribution of rights instead of resources.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF. Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p p p Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive
Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann
A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…
Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason
Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…
Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen
Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.
Skoumpopoulou, D; Vlachos, I; San José, J
This research project investigates the impact of social media, in particular the uses of the social media in Spain, the impact of the engagement concept for the companies, the influence of the word of mouth for the businesses and the effectiveness of social media marketing in Spanish companies. Qualitative data has been gathered from five Spanish companies that use social media providing rich and detailed information. The most common use of social media in Spain is branding and promotions but...
Gregoir, Stéphane; Maury, Tristan-Pierre
Disability may impact on employment through entitlement to social housing. Estimates of an original dynamic panel data model of disability, labour market and housing tenure transitions in England indicate that up to one-quarter of the lower employment probability of the disabled can be attributed to the effect of qualifying for social housing. Short-lived disabilities can result in long spells in social housing that reduce incentives to participate in the labour market. This suggests that authorities should reform the welfare system and the allocation of social housing to limit the persistent and unfavourable consequences of allocating social housing to the disabled. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Race and ethnicity, typically defined as how individuals self-identify, are complex social constructs. Self-identified racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to receive preventive care and more likely to report healthcare discrimination than self-identified non-Hispanic whites. However, beyond self-identification, these outcomes may vary depending on whether racial/ethnic minorities are perceived by others as being minority or white; this perception is referred to as socially-assigned race.To examine the associations between socially-assigned race and healthcare discrimination and receipt of selected preventive services.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System "Reactions to Race" module. Respondents from seven states and the District of Columbia were categorized into 3 groups, defined by a composite of self-identified race/socially-assigned race: Minority/Minority (M/M, n = 6,837, Minority/White (M/W, n = 929, and White/White (W/W, n = 25,913. Respondents were 18 years or older, with 61.7% under age 60; 51.8% of respondents were female. Measures included reported healthcare discrimination and receipt of vaccinations and cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as minority (M/M were more likely to report healthcare discrimination compared with those who reported being socially-assigned as white (M/W (8.9% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.002. Those reporting being socially-assigned as white (M/W and W/W had similar rates for past-year influenza (73.1% vs. 74.3% and pneumococcal (69.3% vs. 58.6% vaccinations; however, rates were significantly lower among M/M respondents (56.2% and 47.6%, respectively, p-values<0.05. There were no significant differences between the M/M and M/W groups in the receipt of cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as white are more likely to receive preventive vaccinations and less likely to report
Marketing Ortodoxo, Societal e Social: as diferentes relações de troca com a sociedadeOrthodox, Social and Societal Marketing: the exchange of different relations with the societyMarketing Ortodoxo, Societal y Social: las diferentes relaciones de intercambio con la sociedad
MINCIOTTI, Silvio Augusto
Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo tem por objetivo chamar a atenção para os conceitos do marketing ortodoxo , societal e social, como forma de esclarecer possíveis deturpações geradas a partir de seus usos indiscriminados. Para tanto, apresentamos uma abordagem histórica do conceito e da prática do marketing nas organizações e sua a evolução, abrangendo assim, não só o contexto ortodoxo, como também o societal e o social. Embora a prática de marketing, seja qual for sua aplicação, utilize os mesmos instrumentos e compartilhe o objetivo vinculado à gestão de trocas, os resultados a serem atingidos são diferentes; conseqüentemente, as atividades de marketing são desenvolvidas de forma diferenciada. Cabe aqui ressaltar, que o artigo não tem a pretensão de esgotar o assunto, mas sim incitar a discussão ao seu respeito, a fim de evitar a proliferação do uso inadequado de termos referentes a conceitos específicos, o que tem contribuído negativamente para o ensino, a aprendizagem e a prática do marketing.ABSTRACTThe present article has the objective of emphasizing differences among the concepts of orthodox marketing, societal marketing and social marketing in order to clarify possible misunderstandings and indiscriminate use of them. We present here a historical approach to these different concepts, their practice and evolution within organizations. Although the practice of marketing refers to the use of defined tools and objective that is the management of exchange, the marketing concept adopted influences outcomes. As a consequence, activities related to marketing should be developed considering these differentiations. This article does not have the pretension to discuss all about this subject but to provoke a debate about it. It intends to prevent proliferation of inadequate use of these referring terms according to their specific concepts that has contributed negatively to the process of teaching, learning, and practicing
Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.
Alia, Kassandra A; Freedman, Darcy A; Brandt, Heather M; Browne, Teri
Identifying potential mechanisms connecting farmers' market interventions with health, economic, and community outcomes could inform strategies for addressing health disparities. The present study used social network theory to guide the in-depth examination of naturally occurring social interactions at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center located in a rural, low-income community. Trained observers recorded 61 observation logs at the market over 18 weeks. Thematic analysis revealed a range of actors and nonhuman facilitators instrumental to the farmers' market context. These actors connected with one another for communication and relationship development, economic and financial exchange, education, resource sharing, community ownership of the farmers' market, and conflict resolution. These interactions provided opportunities for social networks to develop among attendees, which may have facilitated the acquisition of social supports related to improved health, economic and community outcomes. Results provide insight into the role social networks may play in mediating the relationship between a farmers' market intervention and individual benefits. Findings also contribute to defining the typology of social networks, which may further disentangle the complex relationships between social networks and health outcomes. Future research should identify strategies for purposefully targeting social networks as a way to reduce diet-related health disparities.
Mahdi Shadkam; James O’Hara
Nowadays, many firms are exploiting the social media tools in order to attract consumers by participating and/or engaging in a collaborative online social environment. Social commerce has evolved to include a plethora of social media tools and strategies that can be used in the context of e-commerce. The purpose of this paper is to explore the content of related works about social media and business in order to propose a classification framework based on social commerce dimensions. Furthermor...
Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.
Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role
Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann
Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…
Taking cognizance of some of their merits, the paper maintains that the set-backs facing capitalism and Marxian socialism warrant the evolution of cooperativism and social democracy as a nucleus of “social – market “ economy. The third approach adopted by the paper involves the exploration of the value of cooperative ...
Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.
Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714
Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E
No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.
Ramos e Silva, João Augusto; Periáñez Cañadillas, Iñaki
Extracto del trabajo de investigación presentado en el programa de doctorado, que además está incluido en el formato de artículo en los anales (proceedings) de las II Jornadas Internacionales de Marketing Público y No Lucrativo (Zaragoza, abril de 2003). [ES] La ponencia es resultado de una investigación hecha para analizar si las características del Marketing con Causa o Marketing Social Corporativo, que propone la literatura, se reproducen en los estudios de casos de empresas que desa...
Full Text Available In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs in their communication with their “clients”, i.e. those persons and com-munities in need of development. Marketing strategies con-sequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the par-ticipatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on com-munication.
Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Daube, Mike
Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting. There is a need for better information about how marketing strategies may be shaping betting attitudes and behaviours and the range of policy and regulatory responses that may help to prevent the risky or harmful consumption of these products. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 50 Australian men (aged 20-37 years) who gambled on sports. We explored their attitudes and opinions regarding sports betting marketing, the embedding of marketing within sports and other non-gambling community environments, and the implications this had for the normalisation of betting. Our findings indicate that most of the environments in which participants reported seeing or hearing betting advertisements were not in environments specifically designed for betting. Participants described that the saturation of marketing for betting products, including through sports-based commentary and sports programming, normalised betting. Participants described that the inducements offered by the industry were effective marketing strategies in getting themselves and other young men to bet on sports. Inducements were also linked with feelings of greater control over betting outcomes and stimulated some individuals to sign up with more than one betting provider. This research suggests that marketing plays a strong role in the normalisation of gambling in sports. This has the potential to increase the risks and subsequent harms associated with these products
Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related...
This is the fifth of a series of studies in which prototypical conceptions of language are turned inside out. It has to be read together with the first four, The Metaphysics Market: 1 Merchandizing Language as Matter C= SPIL 20, 1989), The Metaphysics Market: 2 Billing Language as Behavioural (= SPIL 21, 1990), The ...
Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.
OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647
Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J
Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.
A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and services for nearly 400 million marginal farming communities. This project will examine ...
Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K
A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy.
Social media is playing an important role human's life; people are using the social network as a place to exchange ideas and sharing information. It can be seen as a virtual community which attracts a lot of attentions of people. Furthermore, Internet users are spending a lot of time on social media network as a place to connect with the world. Especially, the impact of social network sites on young people is significant. They are more interacting with brands through social network websites. ...
Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко; Осама Абузаїд Мохамед Нур Ахмед
Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis result...
Dickinson-Delaporte, Sonia; Beverland, Michael B.; Lindgreen, Adam
Purpose – Managing the corporate reputation of hybrid firms (organizations that act commercially to pursue social agendas) involves particular challenges because of competing stakeholder interests. With reference to the Trappist beer market, the paper seeks to identify the value of message ambiguity in reducing stakeholder tension, while simultaneously achieving a clear market positioning.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – In total, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with brand marketer...
Leger, Francois; Morel, Kévin
Increasingly strong social movements built upon concrete experiences as organic market gardening microfarms to promote alternative food systems. These microfarms share some main characteristics: cultivated acreage smaller than official recommendations for market gardening set up; marketing in short distribution chains; high diversity of cultivated plants; low level of motorization and investment, agroecological practices. The study of 12 French microfarms, based on semi-structured interviews ...
Full Text Available The explosion of Internet usage has drawn the attention of researchers towards online Social Networks Marketing (SNM. Research has shown that a number of the Internet users are distrustful and indecisive, when it comes to the use of social networks marketing system. Therefore, there is a need for researchers to identify some of the factors that determine users’ acceptance of social networks marketing using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model theoretical framework to predict consumer acceptance of social networks marketing within Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research model was tested using data collected from 470 questionnaires and analysed using linear regression. The results showed that user intentions to use SNM are strongly and positively correlated with user acceptance of using SNM systems. Empirical results confirmed that perceived credibility and perceived usefulness are the strongest determinant in predicting user intentions to use SNM system.
This paper examines the relationship between Australian women's participation in paid work in the public market and the child-rearing component of their unpaid, non-market work, and the role of public policy in regulating the relationship. The study presents a historical overview of the period between 1939 and 1950. Critical concepts and the ideas…
K. Prakash Vel; Collins Agyapong Brobbey; Abdalrhman Salih; Hafsa Jaheer
Marketers have paid a huge price for their inability to decipher which trend has come to stay and which one is a fad. Such a challenge has jeopardized the survival of blue-chip brands, as marketers anticipated in vain the end of existing red ocean strategies. Essentially, the traditional marketing strategies associated with the success of well-known brands in the past are losing their relevance in the current context. There is the need to identify and understand modern trends and their implic...
Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming
To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.
Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.
The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…
Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.
Constantinides, Efthymios; Karantinou, Kalipso; Alexiou, Maria; Vlachaki, Athanasia
The role and efficacy of online marketing in healthcare remains underexplored. The present study, focusing on one medical specialty, investigates the perceived role of the Internet and social media as marketing tools from the perspectives of both healthcare providers and patients. It assesses their
Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
This document examines some of the key issues raised during the second Washington Roundtable on Social Marketing, convened by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) in 1998. AED invited participants to examine whether the interactive technologies that are revolutionizing commercial marketing--personal computers, the Internet (especially the…
Spackman, Jonathan S.; Larsen, Ross
This article validated one possible method, found in the luxury fashion industry, for evaluating the effectiveness of Facebook marketing activities on increasing enrollments in continuing higher education online courses. A survey assessing the qualities of social media marketing, value equity, relationship equity, brand equity, and purchase…
Cvijović, Jelena; Milica Kostić-Stanković; Krstić, Goran; Stojanović, Ljupce
Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October- December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. There is a difference among respondents' awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%), the majority of them had never performed mammography or ultrasonography (67%). The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71%) and mass media--television on the first place (74%), then specialized magazines about health (48%), radio (48%), web sites about health (42%), and daily newspapers (34%). The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about cancer prevention, while the self-initiative was
Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.
The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books ...
The increasing prominence of social media marketing in advancing the global reach and visibility of products and services is ideal for the South African tourism industry, which depends on local and international visitors for leveraging its business activities and competitiveness. However, what remains under-explored in tourism literature is the depth of integration of social media marketing into the competitive strategies of emerging tourism small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs). To add...
MsC. Fernando Martínez -Gascón
Full Text Available En la sociedad cubana actual, el estudio de las indisciplinas sociales se ha hecho desde la psicología y la sociología, entre otros campos; sin embargo, no se han realizado investigaciones desde la perspectiva del marketing social, el cual persigue el cambio de conductas en sus públicos diana; al presentarlo, admite integrar un conjunto de factores con el objetivo de contrarrestar actitudes y conductas negativas que alteran la convivencia social.
Roumieh, Ahmad; Garg, Lalit
The concept of e-marketing is one which has gained increasing interest within Islamic businesses in recent years. Amin  asserts that one of the most critical issues to consider is the legal and moral aspects of e- marketing and the extent to which they fit comfortably within principle notions of Islam and Sharia law. He states that "e-business is a permissible means of doing business provided it is performed in the boundary of Shariah Islamiyyah”. By this he mean...
Lewis, Megan A; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia
To understand couples' notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. APPROACH/DESIGN: We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P's. Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples' experience with PCH and the four social marketing P's. Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P's for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships.
Full Text Available Social Media is a prominent marketing tool profoundly used by E-Businesses to draw the attention of the online target audience that could be converted to direct traffic. However, the non-exclusivity of social media has created a unique issue for virtual enterprises that are entirely depending on digital media. The main emphasis of this study is to appreciate the significance of Social Media Marketing in promoting the Brand Equity of E-Commerce enterprises. The empirical study is based on Kapruka.Com; Sri Lanka’s largest online gift shop with the aim of identifying the casual relationship between social media marketing and brand equity. An online questionnaire has been employed to collect the data during the survey. Evident by findings, there is a significant relationship between social media marketing and brand equity of online companies. The study contributes to the marketing practitioners in terms of enhancing the brand value by identifying and exploiting the main attributes of social media marketing.
Yan, S.; Ferraro, Fabrizio; Gehman, J.; Lounsbury, M.; Greenwood, R.
Socially responsible investing (SRI) funds depart from mainstream finance by incorporating environmental, social, and governance considerations, but their success varies across regions. By using a historical comparative case design, we identify an empirically puzzling phenomenon in China: despite an
James, Ricky; Naughton, Declan P; Petróczi, Andrea
Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p marketing campaigns for drug free sport should follow appropriate market segmentation and use targeted messages via promoting the natural form as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient.
Hull, Pamela C; Williams, Elizabeth A; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen
To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the "Undecided" market segment). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11-18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter's vaccination status and mother's intent to vaccinate. Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to "Undecided" mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the "Undecided" segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The "Undecided/Ready If Offered" segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The "Undecided/Skeptical" segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9-12) versus teens (ages 13-18) and their parents. Findings pointed to the need to "normalize" the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Kristin L; Shroff, Bhavna; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J
To (1) assess orthodontic patient and practitioner use of and preferences for social media and (2) investigate the potential benefit of social media in marketing and communication strategies in orthodontic practices. A survey was developed and randomly distributed to orthodontists via the American Association of Orthodontists and to patients/parents via private practices throughout the United States. Participants were asked to answer questions related to their use of social media and their perceptions of the use of social media in the orthodontic practice. Of the participants, 76% of orthodontists and 89% of patients/parents use social media. Furthermore, Facebook was the social media platform that was most preferred. Social media use was more common in female and younger adult participants. Orthodontists posted information more often in the morning (40%) and afternoon (56%), and patients/parents used social media mainly in the evening (76%). The most commonly used marketing strategies in the orthodontic practices were social media (76%) and a practice website (59%). Social media and practice websites were positively related with new patient starts (P = .0376, P = .0035, respectively). Most orthodontists and patients/parents used social media. Social media may be an effective marketing and communication tool in an orthodontic practice.
Du Plessis, Christilene
markdownabstractSocial influence is the corner stone of consumer psychology. In fact, in the last decade of the 19th century the study of consumer psychology emerged from an interest in advertising and its influence on people. Traditionally research on social influence has focused on understanding how people respond to influence attempts and how social influence emerges. This dissertation challenges common methodological conventions used to study social influence in consumer behavior and, mor...
Evaluation of social and communication networks as a mean of career controlling in modern conditions in Russia. Traits of virtual social relations, importance of social and communication resources for career development and job searching. Analysis of these networks effectiveness in professional life.
Bacile, Todd J.
This paper discusses a newly developed class project to aid students in their social media knowledge and experience. "The Klout Challenge" uses a social media influence metric from Klout.com to assess students' level of engagement with others through social media sites. This project produces multiple benefits for students. Students…
Mirela Cristina VOICU
Full Text Available In order to carry out an efficient marketing activity, it is well known that entrepreneurs have to find out, first of all, where and how consumers spend their time, what are the communication channels and forms they prefer and then try to interact with the customers on their territory and on their own terms. The forms of communication that are gaining momentum currently, are taking place online, especially in the social media. A growing number of consumers have become open towards and familiar with social media, sharing their opinions daily through these means. Since the emergence of the social media phenomenon, its use has grown and has become widespread in a short period of time. In response to this phenomenon, social media marketing has developed at a similar pace and in a similar direction, and this is also reflected in the existing opportunities for using social media in qualitative marketing research.
Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.
... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA...) Efforts will be made to accommodate all who apply to participate in the market. However, market management...
Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.
Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.
To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.
Smith, A J; Henry, L
To offer the opportunity to discuss the positive contribution of co-production approaches in the field of social marketing. Recognizing the ever-evolving theoretical base for social marketing, this article offers a brief commentary on the positive contribution of co-production approaches in this field. The authors outline their own move towards conceptualizing a community-led social marketing approach and describe some key features. This developing framework has been influenced by, and tested through, the Early Presentation of Cancer Symptoms Programme, a community-led social marketing approach to tackle health inequalities across priority neighbourhoods in North East Lincolnshire, UK. A blend of social marketing, community involvement and rapid improvement science methodologies are drawn upon. The approach involves not just a strong focus on involving communities in insight and consultation, but also adopts methods where they are in charge of the process of generating solutions. A series of monthly and pre/post measures have demonstrated improvements in awareness of symptoms, reported willingness to act and increases in presentation measured through service referrals. Key features of the approach involve shared ownership and a shift away from service-instigated change by enabling communities 'to do' through developing skills and confidence and the conditions to 'try out'. The approach highlights the contribution that co-production approaches have to offer social marketing activity. In order to maximize potential, it is important to consider ways of engaging communities effectively. Successful approaches include translating social marketing methodology into easy-to-use frameworks, involving communities in gathering and interpreting local data, and supporting communities to act as change agents by planning and carrying out activity. The range of impacts across organisational, health and social capital measures demonstrates that multiple and longer
Killen, Joel D.
Discusses the need for smoking prevention programs that help adolescents resist social pressure and that use the results of current smoking prevention research. Theoretical foundations of current smoking prevention programs are also provided. (AS)
Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T
Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yu, Pattie; Waller, Karen
For years now, social change leaders have applied marketing principles to move and motivate their target audiences to change attitudes and ultimately and ideally behavior. By making the consumer the focus of the program, understanding the benefits and barriers for participating, and engaging in the marketing mix of product, price, promotion, and place, social marketers have been successful in applying this framework to clinical trial recruitment. A comprehensive recruitment plan will address the goal, objective,target, strategy, tactics, and evaluation that center around tested messages, disseminated through a host of communications channels including media and the "new" news media. The heart of social marketing, whether a public engagement campaign or a clinical trial recruitment effort, is always about them, not about you. Keeping focused on the target audience, their desires and concerns and channeling compelling messages through creative, motivating ways to engage them will help ensure a successful effort.
Full Text Available Complementary health insurance is divided between the internal market (market principles and social dimension, wherein the state has an extremely difficult task, as it must create the conditions necessary for the fair and efficient functioning of the health care financing system. Slovenia has failed to successfully accomplish this task, which consists of both ensuring the social dimension and also facilitating the operation of market principles. The aim of this article is not on the functioning of market principles, which are covered by the field of economics, but is instead on analyzing the dichotomy between the internal market (the rules that govern the functioning of the internal market and the social dimension (the rules that enable the exercise of the social function, and, in this light, analyzes the legal regulation of the Slovenian complementary health insurance. Analysis of the legal regulation highlights the shortcomings in ensuring the social dimension, shortcomings which are, with the help of the measures proposed in the concluding section of the article, remedied by the author.
Campbell, M A; Finlay, S; Lucas, K; Neal, N; Williams, R
Tackling smoking is an integral component of efforts to improve health outcomes in Aboriginal communities. Social marketing is an effective strategy for promoting healthy attitudes and influencing behaviours; however, there is little evidence for its success in reducing smoking rates in Aboriginal communities. This paper outlines the development, implementation and evaluation of Kick the Habit Phase 2, an innovative tobacco control social marketing campaign in Aboriginal communities in New South Wales (NSW). The Aboriginal Health & Medical Research Council worked with three Aboriginal communities and a creative agency to develop locally tailored, culturally relevant social marketing campaigns. Each community determined the target audience and main messages, and identified appropriate local champions and marketing tools. Mixed methods were used to evaluate the campaign, including surveys and interviews with community members and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service staff. Community survey participants demonstrated high recall of smoking cessation messages, particularly for messages and images specific to the Kick the Habit campaign. Staff participating in interviews reported an increased level of interest from community members in smoking cessation programs, as well as increased confidence and skills in developing further social marketing campaigns. Aboriginal community-driven social marketing campaigns in tobacco control can build capacity, are culturally relevant and lead to high rates of recall in Aboriginal communities.
Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.
Gilligan, Christopher A.; Belloc, Catherine; Filipe, João A. N.; Vergu, Elisabeta
Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g. via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic–epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade. PMID:26984191
Moslonka-Lefebvre, Mathieu; Gilligan, Christopher A; Monod, Hervé; Belloc, Catherine; Ezanno, Pauline; Filipe, João A N; Vergu, Elisabeta
Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g., via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic-epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade. © 2016 The Authors.
Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Hernández, Juan M
Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.
Hernández, Juan M.
Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region. PMID:29016637
The rise of social media has provided useful marketing tools for companies to promote their events. The purpose of this thesis was to research social media marketing and how it can be used in event promotion. The theory part also includes research of the event marketing process, as it can help to plan the social media marketing strategy. The purpose of the case study in this thesis was to study the ways the commissioning company can use social media marketing in their event promotion. Hence, ...
Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…
Dirk Bezemer; Uwe Dulleck; Paul Frijters
This paper links two concepts of social capital to economic development. Social Capital (SC) appears in the litrature, on the individual level, as the number contacts of an agent has and his ability to raise contacts and, on the community level, as norms that help a society to function. In our economy, sold output increases with the creation of business contacts (Relational Capital as one aspect of SC). The cost of creating contacts is determined by community level social capital (CSC) and Ma...
The article analyses the corporations social responsibility problem that requires an integrated approach, with taking into account legal, administrative, economic and political components.The subject of the article is a public (corporative) reporting institute, regarded: a) as a result of the struggle among various social interests, b) as an inner contradictory phenomenon combining within itself the answers to the social demand and technologies of the corporation positioning.The outcomes of t...
McCorkle, Denny E.; McCorkle, Yuhua Li
With the rapid growth of social networking and media comes their consideration for use in the marketing classroom. Social networking skills are becoming essential for personal branding (e.g., networking, self-marketing) and corporate/product branding (e.g., marketing communication). This paper addresses the use of LinkedIn (i.e., an online…
Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action. PMID:21356076
Full Text Available Abstract Background Citizens of high income countries rely on highly regulated medicines markets. However low income countries' impoverished populations generally struggle for access to essential medicines through out-of-pocket purchase on poorly regulated markets; results include ill health, drug resistance and further impoverishment. While the role of health facilities owned by non-governmental organisations (NGOs in low income countries is well documented, national and international wholesaling of essential medicines by NGOs is largely unstudied. This article describes and assesses the activity of NGOs and social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling. Methods The article is based on a set of interviews conducted in 2006-8 with trading NGOs and social enterprises operating in Europe, India and Tanzania. The analysis applies socio-legal and economic perspectives on social enterprise and market regulation. Results Trading NGOs can resist the perverse incentives inherent in medicines wholesaling and improve access to essential medicines; they can also, in definable circumstances, exercise a broader regulatory influence over their markets by influencing the behaviour of competitors. We explore reasons for success and failure of social enterprise in essential medicines wholesaling, including commercial manufacturers' market response; social enterprise traders' own market strategies; and patterns of market advantage, market segmentation and subsidy generated by donors. Conclusions We conclude that, in the absence of effective governmental activity and regulation, social enterprise wholesaling can improve access to good quality essential medicines. This role should be valued and where appropriate supported in international health policy design. NGO regulatory impact can complement but should not replace state action.
Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
The inclusion of sustainability concerns in consumer decision-making poses new challenges to marketing. The existing literature contains a variety of concepts and definitions that pertain to social issues in consumption but lacks an overarching conceptualisation of buyer social responsibility (BSR)
Clark, Melissa; Fine, Monica B.; Scheuer, Cara-Lynn
The landscape in consumer marketing is changing due to the rise in popularity of social media. This shift has also affected how higher education institutions build relationships with their stakeholders. This study explores how social media engagement impacts relationship quality between the university and one of its key stakeholder groups,…
Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz
To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Swader, Christopher Scott
This thesis investigates the mechanisms driving changes in social values, or those values emphasizing relationships, intimate bonds, and families, in the new market economies of Russia, China, and Eastern Germany. It is hypothesized that tensions between social values and individualism, materialism, and calculative rationality have arisen as a…
A. Boer, de
This research explored a potential working framework for using social media as a marketing channel. Based on an extensive literature review and a multiple case study, important factors for using social media have been identified. Companies should provide relevant information, show signs of real
Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.
Patrícia Grenfell Oliveira
Full Text Available Nos últimos anos as organizações têm demonstrado grande preocupação com as questões sociais e os conflitos ambientais que cercam nossa sociedade. Neste contexto surge o conceito de responsabilidade social e o marketing social, como um campo de atuação inspirado na ideia de sustentabilidade, capaz de alavancar a imagem e a marca da organização, além de ser uma diferencial perante seus concorrentes. Desta forma, a presente pesquisa teve como principal objetivo verificar a percepção dos clientes da Empresa Expresso Guanabara sobre o marketing social como diferencial competitivo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem quali-quantitativa, de cunho exploratório e descritivo, fazendo uso do método estudo de caso. O marketing social pode ser visto como um diferencial competitivo que visa favorecer a organização e sua imagem perante seus stakeholders. Os resultados evidenciam que os clientes da empresa ainda não utilizam seus serviços pelo fato desta ser socialmente responsável e desenvolver estratégias de marketing social. Desta forma, concluir-se que na empresa estudada o marketing social ainda não é compreendido como um diferencial competitivo perante seus clientes e gestores.
Patrícia Grenfell Oliveira
Full Text Available Nos últimos anos as organizações têm demonstrado grande preocupação com as questões sociais e os conflitos ambientais que cercam nossa sociedade. Neste contexto surge o conceito de responsabilidade social e o marketing social, como um campo de atuação inspirado na ideia de sustentabilidade, capaz de alavancar a imagem e a marca da organização, além de ser uma diferencial perante seus concorrentes. Desta forma, a presente pesquisa teve como principal objetivo verificar a percepção dos clientes da Empresa Expresso Guanabara sobre o marketing social como diferencial competitivo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem quali-quantitativa, de cunho exploratório e descritivo, fazendo uso do método estudo de caso. O marketing social pode ser visto como um diferencial competitivo que visa favorecer a organização e sua imagem perante seus stakeholders. Os resultados evidenciam que os clientes da empresa ainda não utilizam seus serviços pelo fato desta ser socialmente responsável e desenvolver estratégias de marketing social. Desta forma, concluir-se que na empresa estudada o marketing social ainda não é compreendido como um diferencial competitivo perante seus clientes e gestores.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of research concerning the influence of psychological and social factors on market behaviour of young consumers in Poland and in the world. The research confirms that children and the youth constitute a separate market group and the age determines their market independence. Making decisions regarding purchase of goods young consumers tend to ask for help those whom they rely on, which is connected with their small market experience. The need to do market shopping is mainly influenced by the feeling of lack of young people and then parents’ suggestions and peers’ advice. Young consumers buy goods also on impulse. It regards mainly comestibles. Fashion is the most important for children and the youth in case of clothing articles and shoes. The factor of market novelty is not a determinant of a big importance in the choice of goods purchased by children and the youth.
Zvjezdana Penava Brekalo
Full Text Available The starting point of personal marketing is an individual, i.e. a person. Personal marketing, in the sense of the narrowest level of marketing, has a markedly interdisciplinary character, because it relies on the knowledge of psychology - the science of psychological characteristics of a person. Psychological factors of personal marketing, like personality, behaviour, emotions, temperament, character and intelligence are numerous, but in this paper some of the psychological categories relevant for the implementation of personal marketing are singled out and described. These are primarily the self, personal image, needs, desires, motives, motivation, attitudes and behaviour seen from the viewpoint of social cognitive theory of personality in the context of personal marketing.
This is a commissioned work for a medium sized business about to endeavor in the world of social media marketing. The company intends to increase their prevalence on the web and particularly to launch their portfolio on the social medias such as Facebook. Social media has become such a big player in the daily lives of people, that companies of all sizes should pay attention towards whether to use it as a marketing channel. The culprit on this occasion is the case company, and their endeavo...
Corrigan, Patrick W
This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.
El trabajo que se presenta a continuación es una visión que analiza y examina el desarrollo del concepto de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y el Marketing,a nivel global, bajo la óptica de autores como Lindbaek (2003) hasta las tendencias modernas de la misma, a través de las normativas que controlan e incentivan la acción social de las empresas en el concierto de las naciones. Luego de un análisis de esas tendencias se adentra en la situación de la Responsabilidad Social y Marketing en Ve...
Satheeka Kavisekera; Nalin Abeysekera
Social Media is a prominent marketing tool profoundly used by E-Businesses to draw the attention of the online target audience that could be converted to direct traffic. However, the non-exclusivity of social media has created a unique issue for virtual enterprises that are entirely depending on digital media. The main emphasis of this study is to appreciate the significance of Social Media Marketing in promoting the Brand Equity of E-Commerce enterprises. The empirical study is based on Ka...
Dutch mothers display diverse labour market behaviour, though typically they work part-time, making modest use of childcare. It is generally assumed that Dutch women are free to make their own choices regarding employment. This narrative of 'choice' finds fertile ground in an era of general
Golden, L L; Johnson, K
Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.
Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert
Reciprocal customers may disproportionately improve the performance of markets for experience goods. Reciprocal customers reward (punish) firms for providing good (bad) quality by upholding (terminating) the customer relation. This may induce firms to provide good quality which, in turn, may induce...
Delre, Sebastiano Alessio
The main goal of this thesis is to incorporate part of the flourishing literature on network structures in a marketing context. Most of the results we have obtained and presented generate several implications. First of all we hope that the reader, after going through these chapters is convinced that
This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two
C. Du Plessis (Christilene)
markdownabstractSocial influence is the corner stone of consumer psychology. In fact, in the last decade of the 19th century the study of consumer psychology emerged from an interest in advertising and its influence on people. Traditionally research on social influence has focused on understanding
Pridmore, J.H.; Hämäläinen, L.E.
textabstract(In)Aktive Marktsegmentierung: Marketing und noch zu installierende Rolle von Big- und Social-Media-Data«. Marketing has always been dependent on the input of new forms of consumer data throughout its history, relying on translations of this data into more and more effective means for targeting and engaging consumers. The focus on the digital segmentation of consumers has been subject to differing marketing orientations, beginning with relationship marketing and moving towards exp...
Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.
Roberson, Angela A; McKinney, Cliff; Walker, Courtney; Coleman, Ashley
To investigate how alcohol marketing and peers may promote college students' alcohol use through social media. College students (N = 682) aged 18 to 22 years from a large Southern university completed paper surveys in April 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate relationships among variables as well as moderation by gender and race. Drinking behavior was directly related to perceived norms and attitudes toward alcohol that develop, in part, from direct and indirect interactions with their online and offline peers, as well as engagement with alcohol-related content on social media. Gender and ethnicity moderated some effects. College student drinking is influenced by friends' alcohol-related content posted on social networking sites and by greater engagement with traditional and online alcohol marketing. College campus alcohol misuse interventions should include components to counter peer influences and alcohol marketing on social media.
O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John
Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist
Novikov Dmytro F.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at a theoretical synthesis and developing scientific-methodical and practical recommendations for the social responsibility of machine-building enterprises and their marketing. The main theoretical provisions on the social responsibility of enterprise and its marketing in the promotion of machine-building products have been considered. The situation of the social irresponsibility the Volkswagen and Daimler AG companies was analyzed. The reasons for machinations in Volkswagen company and their impact on financial indicators are displayed. It has been determined that elimination of social irresponsibility in marketing is possible by improving the effective State regulation in this area.
NARCI, Muhammed Talha
Social media sites are the most time spent areas in recent years with the services what they provide and the number of users is rapidly increasing. Thanks to a large number of social media users, companies turn to this field, and through this, firms can reach more people by carrying out promotion and marketing activities. On the other hand, social media sites enable consumers to gather information about their needs and they can directly communicate with companies about the products and servic...
Liu, Yizao; Lopez, Rigoberto A.
This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...
Full Text Available Popularity of social media among Internet users resulted in popularity of this medium among companies looking for contact with the participants of the community. Social media became as well a marketing research area of interest. Challenges social media researchers are facing, such as a combination of quantitative and qualitative aspects, and the problem of complexity and the selection of indicators, demonstrate the need to systematize the knowledge in this area.
Nora Ganim Barnes
Full Text Available As a great challenge in communications, social media are widely accepted among the general population. Being very flexible and adaptable, they offer an opportunity of active participation to users, thus representing a public forum. This study presents the resultsof social media acceptance in the business world on a sample of the Inc. 500 companies in the US. The research found that familiarity, the value placed on social media and the use of different forms of social media are all related. These companies know that engaging social media requires education and a change of the management effort. They use them to gather critical strategic information by listening to what is being said about themselves and their competitors in the social media world. The Inc. 500 companies accept social media as a medium. They recognize that the marketplace is movingtheir conversations online and the business world needs to join in. These fast-growing, innovative companies offer us a glimpse of the business future because where they lead, others will certainly follow.
Bask, Miia; Bask, Mikael
We show that the Matthew effect, or Matthew mechanism, was present in the artificial cultural market Music Lab in one-fourth of the “worlds” when social influence between individuals was allowed, whereas this effect was not present in the “world” that disallowed social influence between individuals. We also sketch on a class of social network models, derived from social influence theory, that may generate the Matthew effect. Thus, we propose a theoretical framework that may explain why the most popular songs could be much more popular, and the least popular songs could be much less popular, than when disallowing social influence between individuals.
Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández
Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391