WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention safety helmets

  1. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  2. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong

    2016-10-29

    Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24-0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34-2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  3. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...

  4. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  5. 76 FR 28131 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets; Final... 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0050] RIN 2127-AK15 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle... requirements for motorcycle helmets to reduce traumatic brain injury and other types of head injury. Some of...

  6. Motorcycle safety and the repeal of universal helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, David J; Richardson, Lilliard E

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the implications for motorcyclist safety of recent repeals of universal helmet laws in 6 US states. We examined cross-sectional time-series data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia for the period 1975 through 2004. On average, when compared to state experience with no helmet mandate, universal helmet laws were associated with an 11.1% reduction in motorcyclist fatality rates, whereas rates in states with partial coverage statutes were not statistically different from those with no helmet law. Furthermore, in the states in which recent repeals of universal coverage have been instituted, the motorcyclist fatality rate increased by an average of 12.2% over what would have been expected had universal coverage been maintained. Since 1997, an additional 615 motorcyclist fatalities have occurred in these states as a result of these changes in motorcycle helmet laws. Motorcyclist safety has been compromised in the states that have repealed universal coverage and is likely to be compromised in other states that abandon these statutes.

  7. Modeling and Optimization of Airbag Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries in Bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mehmet; Laksari, Kaveh; Kuo, Calvin; Grant, Gerald A; Camarillo, David B

    2017-04-01

    Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head. By allowing softer liner medium and larger helmet sizes, this novel approach in helmet design provides the opportunity to achieve much lower acceleration levels during collision and may reduce the risk of brain injury. In this study, we first develop theoretical frameworks to investigate impact dynamics of current EPS helmets and airbag helmets-as a form of expandable helmet design. We compared our theoretical models with anthropomorphic test dummy drop test experiments. Peak accelerations obtained from these experiments with airbag helmets achieve up to an 8-fold reduction in the risk of concussion compared to standard EPS helmets. Furthermore, we construct an optimization framework for airbag helmets to minimize concussion and severe head injury risks at different impact velocities, while avoiding excessive deformation and bottoming-out. An optimized airbag helmet with 0.12 m thickness at 72 ± 8 kPa reduces the head injury criterion (HIC) value to 190 ± 25 at 6.2 m/s head impact velocity compared to a HIC of 1300 with a standard EPS helmet. Based on a correlation with previously reported HIC values in the literature, this airbag helmet design substantially reduces the risks of severe head injury up to 9 m/s.

  8. Pediatric bicycle injury prevention and the effect of helmet use: the West Virginia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenstal, John; Davis, Stephen M; Sikora, Rosanna; Paulson, Debra; Whiteman, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was evaluation of the injury pattern of children 14 years old or less involved in bicycle accidents and comparison of the differences between those wearing a helmet and not wearing a helmet. This was a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients involved in bicycle crashes from 2008 through 2010 who were treated within the West Virginia Trauma System. A case was selected for further analysis if "bicycle" and "blunt cause of injury" were present in the Mechanism of Injury field and if age was 14 years old or less. Descriptive statistics were calculated on all variables. Differences between the helmeted and un-helmeted cohorts were tested using the Wilcoxon test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all cases an alpha of 0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance. The helmeted group had a concussion rate of 19.4% while concussions were noted in 37.4% of the un-helmeted group (p = 0.0509). Additionally, there was a significant difference in the rate of skull fractures seen. Skull fractures occurred in 3.2% of the helmeted and 17.4% of the un-helmeted (p = 0.0408) riders. The rate of intra-cranial hemorrhage was 0% in helmeted riders and 17.4% in un-helmeted riders (p = 0.0079). Finally, perhaps the largest indicator of the effectiveness of helmets in the pediatric bicycle population is the mortality rate. While not statistically different, 100% (n = 2) of the deaths occurred in the un-helmeted group. This study of the West Virginia pediatric population demonstrates findings similar to prior studies looking at the effectiveness of helmets in preventing injuries during a bicycle crash. Bicycle helmets were shown to significantly reduce the rates of both skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage. Based on this, the expanded use of helmets within the pediatric population should continue to be encouraged both from an educational and legislative standpoint.

  9. The Influence of Friction Between Football Helmet and Jersey Materials on Force: A Consideration for Sport Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.

  10. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P Helmets reduced the risk of injury to the head by at least two thirds (P Helmeted patients were less likely to require mechanical ventilation or intensive care or to have infections. They were discharged an average of 3 days earlier (P helmeted patient. Helmets protect patients from head and neck injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  11. The effects of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law on helmet use and injury patterns among motorcyclist fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrose, James

    2008-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has found that motorcycle helmets are 37% effective in preventing death and 65% effective in preventing brain injuries in a crash. Unfortunately, in 1995 Congress lifted federal sanctions against states without helmet laws and since then there have been a number of primary motorcycle helmet laws repealed or weakened. More lives could be saved and serious injuries avoided if there was increased helmet use throughout the United States. This study analyzed helmet use and injury patterns among motorcycle riders in the United States involved in fatal crashes from 1995 through 2003 and compared the results between states with and without a primary helmet law. Age, sex, injury severity and helmet use are some of the variables obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). In the 20 states and the District of Columbia, which currently have a primary helmet law, 84.0% of fatally injured riders were wearing a helmet. In the 27 states with a secondary helmet law, 36.2% of fatalities used a helmet, and in the remaining three states with no law at all, helmet use dropped to 17.6%. In the two states (Arkansas and Texas) that changed from a primary helmet law to a secondary helmet law in 1997, helmet use decreased from 78.2% in 1996 to 31.7% in 2000. If all states were to enact a primary motorcycle helmet law, helmet use would dramatically increase while decreasing the number of motorcyclist head injuries and fatalities. The results of this study will hopefully persuade law makers to enact primary helmet laws in all states throughout the nation. Helmet manufacturers can use this data to design more comfortable helmets while also improving upon the protective qualities of these safety devices.

  12. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their

  13. Motorcycle helmet use in Southern China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong-Li; Li, Li-Ping; Cai, Qi-En

    2008-06-01

    In China, despite national motorcycle helmet legislation and the known safety benefits of helmets, helmet use remains low. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of motorcycle helmet use and attitudes towards helmet use among drivers and passengers in two cities in Southern China to provide baseline data and scientific evidence for the formulation of an intervention aimed at strengthening road safety law enforcement. Observational sites were randomly selected from three road types (national roads, main streets, and subordinate streets). Observations were conducted during six specified time periods and uniform checklists were used to record helmet use. Motorcycle riders were randomly selected from service stations, elementary schools, and supermarket car parks to participate in a face-to-face interview to ascertain attitudes. Overall, the rate of correct helmet use among drivers was higher in Chaozhou (34.6%) than in Shantou (30.2%; P helmet use was higher among drivers in main streets, during daytime hours, and during weekdays (P helmet knowledge of motorcycle drivers was high with most reporting that helmets prevent or reduce head injury (Shantou: 78.2%; Chaozhou 70.6%). Although level of awareness of the benefits of helmets was high, observed helmet usage was low. These results suggest that there is a need to implement new interventions to increase helmet use.

  14. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)

    2014-01-01

    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  15. Factors associated with the enactment of safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Teik Hua; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    It has been shown that road safety laws, such as motorcycle helmet and safety belt laws, have a significant effect in reducing road fatalities. Although an expanding body of literature has documented the effects of these laws on road safety, it remains unclear which factors influence the likelihood that these laws are enacted. This study attempts to identify the factors that influence the decision to enact safety belt and motorcycle helmet laws. Using panel data from 31 countries between 1963 and 2002, our results reveal that increased democracy, education level, per capita income, political stability, and more equitable income distribution within a country are associated with the enactment of road safety laws. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  17. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration encourages each : State to have and enforce a law : requiring all motorcycle operators : and passengers to wear a helmet : meeting FMVSS 218. Motorcycle : helmets provide the best protection : from...

  18. Motorcycle helmet use laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...

  19. Motorcycle helmet use in Calicut, India: User behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanagounder, Krishnamurthy; Vijayan, Arjun V

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study include assessing the motorcycle helmet use pattern in Calicut, India, and analyzing the factors influencing helmet use including motorcyclists' perceptions. Field observational studies at 15 locations were conducted to determine the helmet use rate among motorcyclists and pillion passengers. A structured questionnaire interview survey was conducted with 709 motorcyclists to evaluate the users' perceptions and opinions regarding the use of motorcycle helmets. There was a considerable difference in the level of motorcycle helmet use observed between the locations within and outside the city limits, where different levels of helmet law enforcement were exercised. The helmet use was observed at a maximum of 89% within the city and a minimum of 23% in some locations outside the city. The decreasing percentage of helmet use while moving toward the locations outside the city was confirmed statistically through t tests (t = 1.771, df = 13, P helmets are comfortable and 42% expressed that helmets affect hearing ability. It is important to note that 57% of users are of the opinion that there is no need to use a helmet if you drive slowly and carefully. The price of the helmet was not a deterrent for helmet use. In addition, it was observed that only 45% of helmets used by the motorist were standard helmets with an Indian Standards Institute (ISI) mark. The widely varying helmet use pattern observed in the study area may be attributed due to the users' behaviors; that is, using a helmet only when the helmet law is strictly enforced rather than using a helmet as a protective device. Further, some of the problems and beliefs associated with helmet use prevent motorcyclists from using a helmet. Hence, the road safety of motorcyclists can be improved only through addressing the identified measures comprehensively.

  20. Motorcycle and moped helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Wearing a crash helmet is an important contribution to road safety. If a helmet is worn, the risk of being killed in a motorcycle crash decreases by about 42%. In the Netherlands, compulsory crash helmet wearing for motorcyclists was introduced in 1972, and the obligation for moped riders followed

  1. Effects of falling weight impact on industrial safety helmets used in conjunction with eye and face protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszczyński, Krzysztof

    2018-06-01

    Industrial workplaces pose concurrent hazards to the upper part of the head and the eyes. Under the circumstances, workers may use protective helmets in conjunction with protective goggles or spectacles. In order to assess the compatibility of this equipment, a method and a test stand for evaluating the behavior of safety helmets and protective goggles/spectacles upon the impact of a falling weight were designed. The results of tests concerning the displacement and deformation of helmets and spectacles/goggles, the forces acting on the helmets, as well as the forces exerted by the spectacles/goggles on the headform upon falling weight impact are presented. The results revealed the ways in which the tested equipment interacted with each other. The influence of equipment construction on the test results was analyzed and inferences concerning the safety of the studied protective devices were made. Some general construction guidelines were formulated for the compatibility of the equipment.

  2. Safety Helmet 2.0 : A brainstorm based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der B. (Bert); Aa, van der B. (Bert); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Dijkink, N.M. (Nienke); Dijkink, N.M. (Nienke)

    2012-01-01

    The Saxion University of Applied Sciences has recently started the project “Safety at Work”. The objective of the project is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artifacts from the three disciplines: 1) Ambient Intelligence 2) Industrial &

  3. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  4. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...

  5. High School Football Players Use Their Helmets to Tackle Other Players Despite Knowing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2017-03-01

    There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.

  6. Impact of safe community program on motorcyclists' safety with focus on helmet usage in 14 cities of IR Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghisi, Alireza; Mohammadi, Reza; Svanström, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of safe community interventions on motorcyclists' safety. Two cross sectional observations were conducted in 14 cities (five safe community practicing and nine safe community non-practicing cities) independently on 2005 and 2007. Ten percent of registered motorcycles were observed and interviewed (n=1114 in each observation). 87.9% used motorcycle for commercial purposes. All motorcyclists were male and mostly aged 18-29 years old. Death rate significantly rose from 122 to 254 per 100000 motorcyclists in Fars province since the first observation (p Helmet usage rate was constant (13%). Recorded crashes increased from 16.4% to 23.1% in safe community setting (p helmet. Law enforcement, public education, accessibility to helmets on discount rate, new legislation and, finally, access to new designed helmet were the most suggestions made by motorcyclists to promote helmet usage. No significant effect was noticed between two settings except in injury registration system in safe community. Community involvement in the safety programs could ensure sustainability of initiatives and continuity of interventions in safe communities.

  7. Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Laws on Fatalities’ Prevention: An Impact Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Magdalena; Cabrera, José María; Cid, Alejandro; Carozzi, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity bias complicates the estimation of the causal effect of motorcycle helmet usage on fatalities. We overcome this obstacle by exploiting an exogenous variation in the enforcement of the motorcycle helmet usage law between two municipalities in Uruguay. We show evidence of a dramatic increase in helmet usage in one municipality after the law was enforced. In just one month, usage increased from less than 10% to more than 90%. Our difference in difference estimates sho...

  8. Safety belt and motorcycle helmet use in Virginia : results of the 1992 survey to qualify for incentive funds under ISTEA, section 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Section 153 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established an incentive grant program to support states in adopting and implementing laws requiring the use of safety belts and motorcycle helmets. Having such laws ...

  9. Safety belt and motorcycle helmet use in Virginia : results of the 1993 survey to qualify for incentive funds under ISTEA, Section 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Section 153 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established an incentive grant program to support states in adopting and implementing laws requiring the use of safety belts and motorcycle helmets. Having such laws ...

  10. Capabilities of Helmets for Preventing Head Injuries Induced by Ballistic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Balandin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.

  11. Motorcycle helmet use and legislation: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew; Gerberich, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been a marked improvement in the safety profiles of cars and in car crash outcomes, there has been a marked worsening in outcomes of motorcycle collisions. Motorcycles account for only 2% of vehicle registrations in the United States, but motorcycle collisions account for 10% of traffic deaths. Further, motorcycle riders are 34 times more likely to die in a traffic collision than automobile drivers. Motorcycle helmet use has been suggested to be an effective way to reduce death and disability after traffic collisions, and enactment of universal helmet laws has been suggested as a means to enforce helmet use. This article presents findings from an analysis of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data and studies in the medical literature on the impact of motorcycle helmet use and helmet legislation on the risk of death or injury in motorcycle accidents. The authors found voluminous support for motorcycle helmet use as a way to prevent severe traumatic brain injury and traffic fatalities.

  12. Offsetting or Enhancing Behavior: An Empirical Analysis of Motorcycle Helmet Safety Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Helmets and Mouth Guards: The Role of Personal Equipment in Preventing Sport-Related Concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards...

  14. Evaluating an in-school injury prevention programme's effect on children's helmet wearing habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Gary; Velikonja, Diana; Pepper, Veronica; Jilderda, Irene; Georgiou, Georgia

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Bikes, Blades and Boards (BB&B) programme. It was hypothesized that children who participated in the BB&B programme would demonstrate greater knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely than a control group who did not participate in the programme and retain their skills when assessed 1 year later. Single blind cluster randomized design. Twelve classes of grade 2 students (n = 162) participated; six classes were assigned to an experimental or control group. A blinded research assistant, taking 3-5 minutes per child, completed the Helmet Checklist with each group on two occasions and scores of the experimental group (post-BB&B programme) were compared to the control group. The experimental group was reassessed using the Helmet Checklist, 1 year later. The BB&B programme consisted of a presentation, bicycle helmet checklist, demonstration and individual practice and feedback. Children in the experimental group showed a better knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely compared to the control group (F = 51.84, CI = 9.11-9.71) and retained this knowledge 1 year after participating in the BB&B programme. The BB&B programme is effective in teaching grade 2 children how to wear their helmets correctly, which is knowledge they retain for at least 1 year.

  15. Helmet wearing in Kenya: prevalence, knowledge, attitude, practice and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but

  16. Costs of non-helmeted motorcycle riding in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Grauer, Jonathan N; Browner, Bruce D; Born, Christopher T

    2014-02-01

    Motorcycle-related head injuries and fatalities are a serious public health concern that can be reduced with helmet use. Caring for crash victims places additional economic stress on the healthcare system. The current Connecticut motorcycle helmet law does not require all motorcyclists to wear helmets. Universal motorcycle helmet laws increase helmet use. Efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review, given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented.

  17. Motorcycle helmet use in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Hayda, Roman A; Adams, Charles A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Born, Christopher T

    2013-12-03

    Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern and place economic stresses on the health care system. Helmets have been shown to reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Universal motorcycle helmet laws in other states have shown to be effective at increasing helmet use. The current Rhode Island motorcycle helmet law does not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review.

  18. Sports helmets now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Greenwald, Richard; Kleiven, Svein; Turner, Michael; Varese, Massimo; McCrory, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The paper reports on a symposium on sports helmets and presents a synthesis of information and opinion from a range of presenters and disciplines. A review of the literature shows that helmets play an important role in head injury prevention and control. Helmets have been shown to be very efficacious and effective in a range of sports and in preventing specific head injury risks, especially moderate to severe head injury. The symposium emphasised the importance of helmet standards and the need for further development. There are calls for helmets that address the needs of competitive (elite) athletes separate to helmets for recreational athletes. Deficiencies in the evidence base for head injury risks and helmet efficacy and effectiveness were identified in some sports. Issues in designing helmets that are suitable to prevent severe head injuries and concussion were discussed and explained from biomechanical and engineering perspectives. The need to evaluate helmet performance in oblique impacts and incorporate this into standards was covered in a number of presentations. There are emerging opportunities with in-helmet technology to improve impact performance or to measure impact exposure. In-helmet technology as it matures may provide critical information on the severity of the impact, the location of the injured athlete, for example, snowboarder, and assist in the retrieval and immediate, as well as the long-term medical management of the athlete. It was identified that athletes, families and sports organisations can benefit from access to information on helmet performance. The importance of selecting the appropriate-sized helmet and ensuring that the helmet and visor were adjusted and restrained optimally was emphasised. The translation pathway from the science to new and better helmets is the development of appropriate helmet standards and the requirement for only helmets to be used that are certified to those standards.

  19. Injury Prevention and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of protective equipment for biking, skating, or other sports 69.2 55.4 50.0 Water safety 54.6 42.8 38.0 * In at least 1 elementary school class or in at least 1 required health education course in middle schools or high schools. NA = not asked at this level. During ...

  20. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470

  1. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C. Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A.; Carter, Patrick M.; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B.

    2016-01-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal...

  3. The impact of mandatory helmet law on the outcome of maxillo facial trauma: a comparative study in kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S

    2014-06-01

    Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.

  4. Head injury patterns in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre with serious head injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Forbes

    Full Text Available Cycle use across London and the UK has increased considerably over the last 10 years. With this there has been an increased interest in cycle safety and injury prevention. Head injuries are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cyclists. This study aimed to ascertain the frequency of different head injury types in cyclists and whether wearing a bicycle helmet affords protection against specific types of head injury.A retrospective observational study of all cyclists older than 16 years admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015 was completed. A cohort of patients who had serious head injury was identified (n = 129. Of these, data on helmet use was available for 97. Comparison was made between type of injury frequency in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists within this group of patients who suffered serious head injury.Helmet use was shown to be protective against intracranial injury in general (OR 0.2, CI 0.07-0.55, p = 0.002. A protective effect against subdural haematoma was demonstrated (OR 0.14, CI 0.03-0.72, p = 0.02. Wearing a helmet was also protective against skull fractures (OR 0.12, CI 0.04-0.39, p<0.0001 but not any other specific extracranial injuries. This suggests that bicycle helmets are protective against those injuries caused by direct impact to the head. Further research is required to clarify their role against injuries caused by shearing forces.In a largely urban environment, the use of cycle helmets appears to be protective for certain types of serious intra and extracranial head injuries. This may help to inform future helmet design.

  5. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. M. Eltorai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Discussion Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. Conclusions The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  6. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-03-09

    Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.

  7. Helmet use in Connecticut motorcycle crashes: a state without a universal helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Adam B; Phipps, Michael S; Jawin, Kimberly; Bolton, Lauri; Van Gelder, Carin M; Kamin, Richard; Teel, Bill; Vaca, Federico E

    2011-05-01

    Assess the association of helmet use with motorcycle crash mortality and identify characteristics of riders who do not wear helmets in Connecticut crashes. Police crash data for Connecticut motorcycle crashes 2001-2007 were analyzed. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions were performed including age, gender, seating position, road type, season, time of day, and recklessness. Of the 9,214 crashes with helmet use data available, helmets were worn in 4072 (44.2%). Non-helmeted riders, age > or =18, riding interstate or state roads, in the evening or at night, and who were riding recklessly were associated with higher odds of fatality. Predictors of nonhelmet use included males, passengers, age helmets reduce fatal crashes in Connecticut. A set of factors help predict nonhelmeted riders to whom safety training could be targeted.

  8. Helmet use among motorcyclists who died in crashes and economic cost savings associated with state motorcycle helmet laws--United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for Helmet use consistently has been shown to reduce motorcycle crash-related injuries and deaths, and the most effective strategy to increase helmet use is enactment of universal helmet laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).

  9. Auditory and visual reaction time and peripheral field of vision in helmet users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbupillai Adhilakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and

  10. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emai Lynn; Haydel, Micelle J

    2004-01-01

    On August 15, 1999, Louisiana's mandatory motorcycle helmet law was repealed. Our primary objective was to determine if the repeal resulted in an increase in motorcyclist morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of helmet use and morbidity and mortality before and after the repeal of the law. Fatality statistics for Louisiana were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association between 1994 and 2002. Injury statistics were totaled for motorcyclists admitted to Medical Center of Louisiana New Orleans during the same period of time. Statewide, helmet use decreased 21.2% (p helmet law, while locally, helmet use decreased 34.7% (p Motorcycle helmet use decreased significantly and motorcyclist fatality rates increased significantly after repeal of the Louisiana mandatory helmet law.

  11. Children and cycle helmets -- the case against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1996-03-01

    Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.

  12. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  13. Observation of motorcycle helmet use rates in Michigan after partial repeal of the universal motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B

    2016-10-01

    Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  15. Making Football Safer: Assessing the Current National Football League Policy on the Type of Helmets Allowed on the Playing Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colello, Raymond J; Colello, Ian A; Abdelhameid, Duaa; Cresswell, Kellen G; Merchant, Randall; Beckett, Ethan

    2018-03-23

    In an effort to reduce concussions in football, a helmet safety-rating system was developed in 2011 that rated helmets based on their ability to reduce g-forces experienced by the head across a range of impact forces measured on the playing field. Although this was considered a major step in making the game safer, the National Football League (NFL) continues to allow players the right to choose what helmet to wear during play. This prompted us to ask: What helmets do NFL players wear and does this helmet policy make the game safer? Accordingly, we identified the helmets worn by nearly 1000 players on Week 13 of the 2015-2016 season and Week 1 of the 2016-2017 season. Using stop-motion footage, we found that players wore a wide range of helmets with varying safety ratings influenced in part by the player's position and age. Moreover, players wearing lower safety-rated helmets were more likely to receive a concussion than those wearing higher safety-rated helmets. Interestingly, many players suffering a concussion in 2015 did not switch to a higher safety-rated helmet in 2016. Using a helmet-to-helmet impactor, we found that the g-forces experienced in the highest safety-rated helmets were roughly 30% less than that for the lowest safety-rated helmets. These results suggest that the current NFL helmet policy puts players at increased risk of receiving a concussion as many players are wearing low safety-rated helmets, which transmits more energy to the brain than higher safety-rated helmets, following collision. Thus, to reduce concussions, the NFL should mandate that players only wear helmets that receive the highest safety rating.

  16. Crash helmets for moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C. & Paar, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    Research has been done into the requirements for crash helmets for moped drivers not only in relation to their comfort but also to their protection. It is stated that any helmet is better than no helmet.

  17. 49 CFR 571.218 - Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. 571.218 Section 571.218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard...

  18. Helmets for Kids: evaluation of a school-based helmet intervention in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, David J; Bui, Truong Van; Parker, Erin M; Roehler, Douglas R; Sidik, Mirjam; Florian, Michael J; Kim, Pagna; Sim, Sophal; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyses helmet use before and after implementing Helmets for Kids, a school-based helmet distribution and road safety programme in Cambodia. Nine intervention schools (with a total of 6721 students) and four control schools (with a total of 3031 students) were selected using purposive sampling to target schools where students were at high risk of road traffic injury. Eligible schools included those where at least 50% of students commute to school on bicycles or motorcycles, were located on a national road (high traffic density), had few or no street signs nearby, were located in an area with a history of crash injuries and were in a province where other Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative activities occur. Programme's effectiveness at each school was measured through preintervention and postintervention roadside helmet observations of students as they arrived or left school. Research assistants conducted observations 1-2 weeks preintervention, 1-2 weeks postintervention, 10-12 weeks postintervention and at the end of the school year (3-4 months postintervention). In intervention schools, observed student helmet use increased from an average of 0.46% at 1-2 weeks preintervention to an average of 87.9% at 1-2 weeks postintervention, 83.5% at 10-12 weeks postintervention and 86.5% at 3-4 months postintervention, coinciding with the end of the school year. Increased helmet use was observed in children commuting on bicycle or motorcycle, which showed similar patterns of helmet use. Helmet use remained between 0.35% and 0.70% in control schools throughout the study period. School-based helmet use programmes that combine helmet provision and road safety education might increase helmet use among children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity among motorcycle users. The use of crash helmet is the most successful approach to preventing injury among motorcycle users. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin ...

  20. Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Passmore, Jonathon; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Nguyen, Thi Hong Tu; Nguyen, Phuong Nam

    2009-05-01

    To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and chi2 was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90-99% among adults, from 15-53% among children 7 but helmet. Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions.

  1. Factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle users in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Abdullah; Aziz, Fatima; Islam, Muhammad; Shafqat, Saad

    2008-04-01

    Wearing a helmet is the single most effective measure for preventing head injuries in motorcycle users. The authors undertook this study to estimate compliance and determine reasons for noncompliance with helmet use among motorcyclists in their community. This was a cross-sectional survey of motorcyclists in three large randomly selected public-access parking spaces across Karachi, Pakistan's largest city. Questions covered personal demographics, frequency of helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse, and knowledge of local helmet laws. Analysis was based on frequencies and group comparisons using chi-square test or independent sample t-test. Of the 300 (100% male) subjects, 169 (56%) reported using helmets regularly. Users listed injury prevention (78%) as the major reason for compliance, while nonusers listed physical discomfort (44%) and limited vision (25%) as the leading reasons for noncompliance. In univariate analysis, helmet users were significantly better educated than nonusers and were more likely to believe that helmets are protective (p = 0.002) and that passengers should also wear helmets (p helmet laws) did not differ between users and nonusers. Helmets are underused by motorcyclists in the authors' community. This study underscores the need for improved helmet design, public understanding, intense public education, and rigorous law enforcement in raising compliance with helmet use and minimizing the risk of preventable trauma.

  2. Opioid Overdose Prevention: Safety Advice for Patients & Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMHSA Opioid Overdose Prevention TOOLKIT: Safety Advice for Patients & Family Members TABLE OF CONTENTS Safety Advice for Patients & Family ... Advice for Patients & Family Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Are Opioids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Preventing Overdose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 If You Suspect an ...

  3. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  4. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advertising Efficiency in Road Safety Prevention Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Catalina Serrano Cordero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the importance of the results evaluation processes in the education and road safety campaigns, although they have achieved remarkable progress in praxis, evidenced a lack of information as to the relevance and suitability of the tools of communication in prevention. The objective was to validate an education and road safety campaign implemented by the Municipal Transit and Transport Company of the city of Cuenca (Ecuador in 2014, for which qualitative and quantitative techniques were used, choosing a stratified probabilistic sample of 304 university students, (age: 15-39. The data collection instruments were: focus group, questionnaire and statistical records, interpreted through content analysis and descriptive statistics. The findings indicate that the most frequent perception about the causes of accidents is: alcohol consumption, speeding, cell phone use. Likewise, the campaign "Best to Prevent" obtained a level of generalized recognition, but it was the younger ones who received more influence of their content of communication. Results that corroborate that the methods of motivation and persuasion do affect the attitude changes, which influences the transformation towards a culture of road prevention.

  6. Motorcycle helmet laws in the United States from 1990 to 2005: politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Jenny; French, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The passage of universal helmet legislation requiring motorcycle riders of all ages to wear helmets is a timely and controversial issue with far-reaching public health implications, especially as the number of motorcycle fatalities continues to rise. In 2008, only 20 states had a universal helmet policy, an effective safety measure for reducing motorcycle fatalities and serious injuries. We used state-specific longitudinal data for the continental United States from 1990 through 2005 to determine which industry, political, economic, and demographic factors had a significant influence on the enactment of universal helmet policies. Our findings suggest that political climate and ideology are important predictors of helmet policies.

  7. Proyecto Co-Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Huerta, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    La reutilización del dispositivo Helmet, en la UCIP del HUCA, hace plantearnos registrar como afecta a los pacientes. La posibilidad de reinfección en pacientes críticos hace plantearnos este estudio en el cual haremos cultivos a los pacientes donde podremos comprobar si la desinfección del dispositivo es correcta, los patógenos causantes de infección,y a su vez un registro de cada helmet.

  8. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  9. Increased fatalities after motorcycle helmet law repeal: is it all because of lack of helmets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Terence; Dearwater, Steve R; Gentilello, Larry M; Cohen, Todd M; Wilkinson, James D; McKenney, Mark M

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 years, the number of motorcycle riders in the United States has risen sharply. The corresponding increase in fatalities observed during this time may be because of the increase in riders, or because the number of states that mandate universal helmet use has decreased. We examined the effect of the repeal of Florida's helmet law in July 2000 to test the hypothesis that the increase in fatalities observed after repeal resulted from an increase in the number of motorcycle riders. We identified all motorcycle fatalities (N = 197) in Miami-Dade county for a 3.5-year period before repeal (prelaw), and a similar period after repeal (postlaw), using police crash reports and medical examiner records. We compared the number of fatalities, frequency of helmet use in fatal crashes, and number of registered motorcycles in the two time periods. There was a decrease in helmet use from 80% to 33%, and an increase in motorcycle fatalities after repeal: 72 to 125. However, repeal was also associated with a rise in annual motorcycle registrations from 17,270 to 39,043. Fatality rates adjusted for numbers of registered motorcycles did not change significantly; 11.6 deaths per 10,000 motorcycles prelaw, and 12.5 deaths postlaw. There was a significant rise in motorcycle fatalities after Florida's helmet law repeal, which appears to be associated with an increase in the number of motorcycle riders. Injury prevention efforts focusing on factors other than helmet use should be developed in light of continuing repeal of universal motorcycle helmet laws across the nation.

  10. A descriptive study of bicycle helmet use in Montreal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Tara; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Boulva, Kerianne; Drudi, Laura; Feyz, Mitra; Rodrigue, Nathalie; Tze, Nancy; Fata, Paola; Khwaja, Kosar; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of this study was to describe bicycle helmet use among Montreal cyclists as a step towards injury prevention programming. Using a cross-sectional study design, cyclists were observed during 60-minute periods at 22 locations on the island of Montreal. There were 1-3 observation periods per location. Observations took place between August 16 and October 31, 2011. Standard statistical methods were used, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 4,789 cyclists were observed. The helmet-wearing proportion of all cyclists observed was 46% (95% CI 44-47). Women had a higher helmet-wearing proportion than men (50%, 95% CI 47-52 vs. 44%, 95% CI 42-45, respectively). Youth had the highest helmet-wearing proportion (73%, 95% CI 64-81), while young adults had the lowest (34%, 95% CI 30-37). Visible minorities were observed wearing a helmet 29% (95% CI 25-34) of the time compared to Caucasians, 47% (95% CI 46-49). BIXI (bike sharing program) riders were observed wearing a helmet 12% (95% CI 10-15) of the time compared to riders with their own bike, 51% (95% CI 49-52). Although above the national average, bicycle helmet use in Montreal is still considerably low given that the majority of cyclists do not wear a helmet. Injury Prevention Programs could target the entire cyclist population, but special attention may be warranted in specific groups such as young men, visible minorities, BIXI riders, and those riding in tourist areas. Additionally, a collaborative enterprise with the bicycle sharing system BIXI Montreal™ could prove to be fruitful in addressing the availability of bike helmets for BIXI riders.

  11. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14-60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages.

  12. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  13. Helmet Use Among Personal Bicycle Riders and Bike Share Users in Vancouver, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, Moreno; Winters, Meghan L

    2017-10-01

    Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC's all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk compensation and bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... rates translate to increased public and worker safety and decreased repair and outage costs for pipeline... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  16. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  17. Impact of North Carolina's motorcycle helmet law on hospital admissions and charges for care of traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Rebecca B; Marshall, Stephen W; Proescholdbell, Scott K; Austin, Anna; Creppage, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    BACKGROUND North Carolina requires motorcyclists of all ages to wear federally approved safety helmets. The purpose of this article is to estimate the impact of this state law in terms of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated hospital charges. METHODS Hospital admissions of North Carolina motorcyclists with TBIs and associated hospital charges in 2011 were extracted from the North Carolina Hospital Discharge Data system. We estimated hospital admissions and charges for the same year under the counterfactual condition of North Carolina without a universal motorcycle helmet law by using various substitutes (Florida, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina residents treated in North Carolina). RESULTS North Carolina's universal helmet law prevented an estimated 190 to 226 hospital admissions of North Carolina motorcyclists with TBI in 2011. Averted hospital charges to taxpayer-funded sources (ie, government and public charges) were estimated to be between $9.5 million and $11.6 million for 2011, and total averted hospital charges for 2011 were estimated to be between $25.3 million and $31.0 million. LIMITATIONS Cost estimates are limited to inpatients during the initial period of hospital care. This study was unable to capture long-term health care costs and productivity losses incurred by North Carolina's TBI patients and their caregivers. CONCLUSIONS North Carolina's universal motorcycle helmet law generates health and economic benefits for the state and its taxpayers.

  18. More Helmets Fewer Deaths: Motorcycle Helmet Legislation Impacts Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Mortality in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed; Jokar, Tahereh Orouji; Rhee, Peter; Ibraheem, Kareem; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Anderson, Kathryn Tinsley; Gries, Lynn; Roward, Zachary Thomas; Joseph, Bellal

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the impact of helmet legislations on the incidence and the mortality rate of motorcycle collision (MCC)-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young adult trauma patients. A 1-year (2011) retrospective analysis was performed of all patients under 21 years old with trauma-related hospitalization using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (representing 20% of all in-patient admissions). Patients with MCC were identified using E-codes. States were classified into three groups based on helmet legislations: universal age helmet legislation, legislation, and legislation. Outcome measures were the rates of TBI and mortality. Linear regression analysis was used to assess outcomes among the states. A total of 1,165,150 patients with trauma-related hospitalizations across 29 states were reviewed of which, 587 patients with MCC were included. Ten states had universal age legislation; 13 states had age legislation, and 6 states had age legislation. There was a lower incidence in the rate of TBI (P = 0.03) in states with universal helmet legislations compared with states with age-restricted helmet legislation. Universal helmet legislations lowered the rate of MCC-related TBI injures by a factor of 2.15 (β coefficient: 2.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.18; P = 0.04). States with age-restricted helmet legislations have a higher rate of traumatic brain injury and mortality compared with states with universal helmet legislations. Establishing universal helmet legislations across the states may provide a potential preventive strategy against traumatic brain injury.

  19. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries.

  20. Motorcycle helmet use in Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, A K; Williams, A F; Womack, K N

    1991-01-01

    Helmets worn by motorcyclists decrease head injuries and the likelihood of being killed in a crash by about 30 percent. From 1968 to 1977, Texas had a comprehensive motorcycle helmet use law, which was estimated to have saved 650 lives. But the law was amended in 1977 to apply only to motorcycle operators and passengers under age 18. In September 1989, a new law was passed that required helmets for all motorcycle operators and passengers. Observations of helmet use were conducted before and a...

  1. Exploring the economics of motorcycle helmet laws--implications for low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, A A; Waters, H; Phillips, T; Rehwinkel, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews economic evaluations of motorcycle helmet interventions in preventing injuries. A comprehensive literature review focusing on the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use, and on mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement was done. When helmet laws were lifted between 1976-80, 48 states within the U.S.A. experienced a cost of $342,047 per excess fatality of annual net savings. Helmet laws in the USA had a benefit-cost ratio of 1.33 to 5.07. Taiwan witnessed a 14% decline in motorcycle fatalities and a 22% reduction of head injury fatalities with the introduction of a helmet law. In Thailand, where 70-90% of all crashes involve motorcycle, after enforcement of a helmet law, helmet-use increased five-fold, the number of injured motorcyclists decreased by 33.5%, head injuries decreased by 41.4%, and deaths decreased by 20.8%. There is considerable evidence that mandatory helmet laws with enforcement alleviate the burden of traffic injuries greatly. For low and middle-income countries with high rates of motorcycle injuries, enforced, mandatory motorcycle helmet laws are potentially one of the most cost-effective interventions available.

  2. Associations between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in fatal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.

  3. Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle riders and passengers at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania. Phillipo L. Chalya, Isidori H. Ngayomela, Joseph B. Mabula, Nkinda Mbelenge, Ramesh M. Dass, Alphonce B. Chandika, Japhet M. Gilyoma, Sospatro E. Ngallaba, Anthony Kapesa ...

  4. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackaah, Williams; Afukaar, Francis K

    2010-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of helmet use among riders and pillion riders of motorcycles in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Cross-sectional observations of helmet use were made at locations where traffic generally slowed down. Statistical analysis was carried out for variables by calculating chi-square (χ(2)) tests to assess statistical significance. A total of 3115 riders and 1058 pillion riders (passengers) were observed at 10 different sites. The overall helmet use for riders was 34.2 percent and that for pillion riders was 1.9 percent. Riders' helmet use rate was highest among the elderly (49.6%), followed by adults (34.3%) and lowest for young people (21.9%) and the observed percentage differences were significant (χ(2)((2))= 67.1; p helmet use was observed between riders riding within the central business district (CBD; 36.5%) and those outside the CBD (32.1%). Riders with at least one pillion rider (27.4%) were less likely to wear a helmet compared to riders riding alone without passengers (37.3%; χ(2)((1))= 29.347; p Helmet use by motorcyclists in Ghana is generally low. There is a need for public awareness campaigns on the safety benefits of helmets to increase its prevalence in Ghana. The education on helmet use must be accompanied by sustained enforcement of the road traffic law by the traffic police to ensure compliance and change in attitudes.

  5. Safety, Health, and Fire Prevention Guide for Hospital Safety Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    hospital without inspection. Such equipment may include electric or battery-operated toothbrushes ; or small direct-current, battery- operated radios. (2...communication 0 3-15 T TP Q Electrical Safety I Ue ’:rd Q Liaison 0 4-1 Leakage tests on equipment 0 4-2 D! sttrbu ti=/ A.ialabillty Codes Aval and/or i...t’J-t Special USAEHA TG No. 152 March 1993 Patient care equipment 0 4-3 Emergency system electrical receptacles * 4-4 Tamperproof electrical

  6. Major accident prevention through applying safety knowledge management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalatpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Many scattered resources of knowledge are available to use for chemical accident prevention purposes. The common approach to management process safety, including using databases and referring to the available knowledge has some drawbacks. The main goal of this article was to devise a new emerged knowledge base (KB) for the chemical accident prevention domain. The scattered sources of safety knowledge were identified and scanned. Then, the collected knowledge was formalized through a computerized program. The Protégé software was used to formalize and represent the stored safety knowledge. The domain knowledge retrieved as well as data and information. This optimized approach improved safety and health knowledge management (KM) process and resolved some typical problems in the KM process. Upgrading the traditional resources of safety databases into the KBs can improve the interaction between the users and knowledge repository.

  7. Factors Influencing Helmet Use, Head Injury, and Hospitalization Among Children Involved in Skateboarding and Snowboarding Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.

  8. Helmet-Wearing Practices and Barriers in Toronto Bike-Share Users: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Steven Marc; Adamson, Matthew; Cleiman, Paula; Arenovich, Tamara; Oleksak, Karolina; Mohabir, Ishmael Michael; Ta, Robert; Reiter, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Helmet use among bike-share users is low. We sought to characterize helmet-use patterns, barriers to helmet use, and cycling safety practices among bike-share users in Toronto. A standardized survey of public bike-share program (PBSP) users at semi-random distribution of PBSP stations was undertaken. By maintaining a ratio of one helmet-wearer (HW): two non-helmet-wearers (NHW) per survey period, we controlled for location, day, time, and weather. Surveys were completed on 545 (180 HW, 365 NHW) unique users at 48/80 PBSP locations, from November 2012 to August 2013. More females wore helmets (F: 41.1%, M: 30.9%, p=0.0423). NHWs were slightly younger than HWs (NHW mean age 34.4 years vs HW 37.3, p=0.0018). The groups did not differ by employment status, education, or income. Helmet ownership was lower among NHWs (NHW: 62.4% vs HW: 99.4%, pbike ownership (NHW: 65.8%, vs HW: 78.3%, p=0.0026). NHWs were less likely to always wear a helmet on personal bikes (NHW: 22.2% vs HW: 66.7%, pbikes. As Toronto cyclists who do not wear helmets on PBSP generally do not wear helmets on their personal bikes, interventions to increase helmet use should target both personal and bike-share users. Legislating helmet use and provision of rental helmets could improve helmet use among bike-share users, but our results suggest some risk of reduced cycling with legislation.

  9. Helmets: A Threat to the Preservation of Women's Lacrosse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Ashley; Cavanaugh, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    A recent debate has raised controversy over the implementation of helmets in the game of women's lacrosse. Women have been participating in this game of finesse and skill without the need for safety equipment, yet in the past decade goggles have been mandated to compensate for the technological advancements in equipment that has increased the…

  10. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of helmet or knit cap use in head injury of snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro

    2007-11-01

    The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.

  12. Does wearing helmets reduce motorcycle-related death? A global evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Alaa K; Hefny, Ashraf F; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2012-11-01

    The high risk of injury and death of motorcycle riders is a major global health problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of helmet wearing on motorcycle riders' death rates on a global level. Data for motorcycle riders were collected from 70 countries. These data included motorcycle-related death rates per 100,000 population, helmet non-usage percentage, Gross National Income per capita (GNI), number of registered motorized 2-3 wheelers, the effectiveness of law enforcement in each country, and whether there was standards for helmets use or not. Correlations between studied variables were done using Pearson correlation. Multiple linear regression models were used to define factors affecting motorcycle-related death rates. The correlation between motorcycle-related death rate and helmet non-usage, was almost significant (p=0.056, r=0.28). Helmet non-usage percentage was significantly correlated with GNI (plaw (phelmet non-usage percentage (p=0.003), motorcycle per person ratio (p=0.01) and the presence of helmet standards (p=0.05) were positively associated with motorcycle-related death rates. A simple linear regression model between helmet usage and road traffic death rate has shown that for each 10% increase in helmet usage, one life per 1,000,000 inhabitants can be saved per year. Helmet non-usage percentage was the most significant factor affecting motorcyclists' death rate. Wearing a motorcycle helmet reduces the risk of death from a motorcycle crash. Enforcement of motorcycle helmet laws should be effectively supported by motorcycle safety programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological models for development of motorcycle helmet use among students in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh

    2018-04-01

    A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.

  14. Efficacy and safety of carotid artery stenting for stroke prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Elserwi, Ahmed; Amer, Talal; Soliman, Nermin; Gaballa, Ghada M.; Elmokadem, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Extracranial carotid artery stenosis is a leading cause of ischemic stroke. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the gold-standard management for secondary stroke prevention yet carotid artery stenting (CAS) has emerged in the last decade as an alternative for high surgical risk patients. Purpose: To assess the effectiveness, safety and outcomes of CAS in extra-cranial carotid artery stenosis patients in terms of stroke prevention. Methodology: Twenty patients with symptomatic an...

  15. Viet Nam’s mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255

  16. Bicycle helmet laws are associated with a lower fatality rate from bicycle-motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Lee, Lois K; Fischer, Christopher M; Mannix, Rebekah C

    2013-09-01

    To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates in age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (bicycle-related fatalities sustained by children aged 0.08% between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted fatality rate was lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs 2.5/1,000,000; P = .03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, lower fatality rates persisted in states with mandatory helmet laws (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.98). Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities in child cyclists involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Barriers to bicycle helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Samuel R; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Black, Jill D

    2014-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in bicycle crashes. The factors associated with bicycle helmet use in young children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school. Qualitative content analysis with semistructured interviews, observational field notes, and artifacts. Urban elementary school. Seventeen students whose age ranged from 5 to 7 years and whose ethnic background was identified as African American (14) or Caucasian (3). Children participated in a brain safety fair that included presentations and activities. Semistructured, pre- and postexperience interviews were completed. Observations of the students participating in the activities and reflective art projects from the students were collected. The analysis found the following barriers to helmet use: (a) lack of access to a helmet, (b) poor fit of helmets due to hairstyles, and (c) lack of knowledge regarding helmet use. The present study suggests that the issue of helmet design and comfort for younger children with variable hairstyles needs to be addressed in order to increase helmet use in this population.

  18. Community Safety and Crime Prevention Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheperdson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many jurisdictions around the world, community safety and crime prevention activity is supported by interagency committees. In the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, local government Community Safety Officers (CSOs lead, support or participate in a range of interagency and ‘whole of government’ networks, most of which were established to support central NSW state government crime prevention and community safety initiatives. Research was conducted with the aim of exploring the CSOs’ experience of the ‘whole of government’ partnerships established to support community safety and crime prevention in NSW.[i] The findings support international research which suggests that central-local partnerships are inhibited by different agendas, responsibilities and power dynamics across different levels of government. Some of the key contextual challenges for this work include concerns about costs shifting from State to local government and about shifting State government priorities; barriers to funding and to accessing crime (and other data; and various administrative burdens. Consequently, we argued that there is a need for formal engagement and negotiation between, on the one hand, State government agencies that steer NSW crime prevention and, on the other, community safety policy initiatives and local government. Such engagement could help overcome the perception, indeed the reality, that shifting and dumping costs and responsibilities to local government is creating a range of burdens for CSOs. [i] The authors thank the NSW Local Government Community Safety and Crime Prevention Network and the individual local government CSOs who kindly assisted and contributed to this research.

  19. 24 CFR 1006.220 - Crime prevention and safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crime prevention and safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.220 Crime... enforcement measures and activities appropriate to protect residents of affordable housing from crime...

  20. Advanced Extravehicular Helmet Assembly, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...

  1. LWH and ACH Helmet Hardware Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--15-9642 LWH & ACH Helmet Hardware Study November 30, 2015 Ronald l. Holtz PeteR...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT LWH & ACH Helmet Hardware Study...screws and nuts used with the Light Weight Helmet (LWH) and Advanced Combat Helmet ( ACH ). The testing included basic dimensional measurements, Rockwell

  2. Triangle of prevention: a union's experience promoting a systems-of-safety health and safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Cable, Steve; Cook, Linda; Drewery, Karen; Erwin, Glenn; Frederick, James; Lessin, Nancy; Ouellette, Dan; Scardella, John; Spaeth, Colin; Wright, Mike

    2012-01-01

    After years of watching company health and safety programs fail to prevent major incidents, injuries, illness, and death in industrial workplaces, union health and safety staff and rank and file activists took up the challenge of creating a union-run alternative program. Named the Triangle of Prevention (TOP), the program successfully engages both local unions and management in incident and near-miss reporting and investigation, root cause analysis, recommending and tracking solutions, and learning and sharing lessons. In all phases, TOP uses a hierarchical, systems-of-safety-based approach to hazard identification, reporting, prevention and control while aiming to engage the union, its members, and all other employees of a worksite. This article explains the foundations and workings of this program, the role of an expansive worker-to-worker training regimen, and the ways in which the program has transformed workplaces.

  3. Digital Head Avatars for combat helmet fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2018-01-01

    Today’s combat helmet is becoming more than only a means to protect the warriors head. It is increasingly also used as a platform for sensors and has to integrate with other protection devices. As such, the combat helmet is becoming an integrated system with higher demands on combat helmet fit and

  4. A study on Impact of Safety Culture on Safety Behavior: Moderating effect of Prevention Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sun Chul; Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In modern society, it has been acknowledged that disasters caused by civilization became inevitable. With growing attention to role of human as one component of the system to cope with accident to prevent disasters, various efforts have been deployed to keep safety. Most of the industries with high hazard have adopted the term as their banner in the efforts to promote safety in their installations and operations. Recently, the Fukushima nuclear power plants(NPPs) accident happened in Japan in 2011 resulted in great impact over the world and have highlighted the importance of safety culture again.

  5. Bicycle helmet use patterns in Italy. A description and analysis of survey data from an Italian friends of cycling association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ioana; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Orsi, Chiara; Morandi, Anna; Montomoli, Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Cycling is becoming one of the most popular forms of recreation and transport the world over, but cyclists still have a high level of vulnerability. A bicycle helmet is an important safety device available to cyclists, but little is known regarding possible determinants of helmet use among adults. This study aims at providing information on helmet usage patterns in Italy and identifying the factors associated with bicycle helmet use. Data on 2072 bicycle riders from an Italian friends of cycling association aged 18 years or older who had ridden a bicycle in the last month were collected using an ad-hoc questionnaire via the web. The sample was equally distributed among subjects who always, most of the time, sometimes, rarely, or never use a helmet. To evaluate the association among socio-demographic and bicycle use characteristics and helmet use, a multinomial logistic regression model was performed. The results show a higher propensity to use a helmet among males, riders coming from Central and Southern Italy, people who cycles more than 60kilometres in a week, cyclists who have already had a crash, people who do not cycle daily or almost daily, riders of sport bikes. Moreover, the propensity to use a helmet increases with age. The survey provided a first step in approaching the lack of data on cycling behaviour and the wearing of a helmet in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. National mandatory motorcycle helmet laws may save $2.2 billion annually: An inpatient and value of statistical life analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Wei, Shuyan; Safarik, Justin; Furlough, Courtney; Desai, Sapan S

    2015-06-01

    While statistics exist regarding the overall rate of fatalities in motorcyclists with and without helmets, a combined inpatient and value of statistical life (VSL) analysis has not previously been reported. Statistical data of motorcycle collisions were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, National Highway Transportation Safety Board, and Governors Highway Safety Association. The VSL estimate was obtained from the 2002 Department of Transportation calculation. Statistics on helmeted versus nonhelmeted motorcyclists, death at the scene, and inpatient death were obtained using the 2010 National Trauma Data Bank. Inpatient costs were obtained from the 2010 National Inpatient Sample. Population estimates were generated using weighted samples, and all costs are reported using 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. A total of 3,951 fatal motorcycle collisions were reported in 2010, of which 77% of patients died at the scene, 10% in the emergency department, and 13% as inpatients. Thirty-seven percent of all riders did not wear a helmet but accounted for 69% of all deaths. Of those motorcyclists who survived to the hospital, the odds ratio of surviving with a helmet was 1.51 compared with those without a helmet (p helmeted motorcyclists (p helmeted riders ($203,248 vs. $175,006) but led to more than 50% greater VSL generated (absolute benefit, $602,519 per helmeted survivor). A cost analysis of inpatient care and indirect costs of motorcycle riders who do not wear helmets leads to nearly $2.2 billion in losses per year, with almost 1.9 times as many deaths compared with helmeted motorcyclists. The per capita cost per fatality is more than $800,000. Institution of a mandatory helmet law could lead to an annual cost savings of almost $2.2 billion. Economic analysis, level III.

  7. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohua

    2005-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the 1997 Arkansas helmet law repeal on motorcycle registrations, crash and fatality risks, and alcohol involvement in motorcycle crashes. Annual motorcycle registration data for the years 1990 through 2001 were obtained from the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. These motorcycle registration data were complemented by the motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office and motorcycle fatality data for the state of Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. The impact of the repeal on crash rates, helmet usage, and alcohol involvement was assessed through comparisons of data from before (1993 to 1996) and after (1998 to 2001) the repeal. After the repeal, an increase in motorcycle registrations correlated with a marked rise in the total number of crashes and fatalities; however, fatalities per crash remained virtually the same. The proportion of motorcycle fatalities that were not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% (47/100) before the repeal to 78.2% (104/133) after the repeal (P = 0.001). The overall percentage of fatal motorcycle crashes involving alcohol use remained unchanged after the repeal (37.6% [29/77] to 38.5% [40/104], P = 0.91), but the percentage of fatal crashes involving drinking nonhelmeted drivers increased from 14.2% (11/77) to 33.6% (35/104) (P = 0.003). Inebriated motorcyclists killed in crashes were overwhelmingly non-helmeted (87.5%, 35/40) after the repeal, up from 37.9% (11/29) before the repeal (P helmet law in Arkansas has had a significant adverse effect on road safety.

  8. Effects of helmet laws and education campaigns on helmet use in young skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard; Nachbauer, Werner

    2013-11-01

    Helmet-compulsory laws for young skiers, accompanied by educational campaigns, have recently been implemented in several countries. However, data regarding compliance to these interventions during adolescence are scarce. In 2011, a questionnaire survey was performed among 10- to 16-year-old students in 62 Austrian secondary schools. A total of 2655 questionnaires were completed by 1376 males and 1279 females. Helmet use was reported in 99% of 10- to 15-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are mandatory) and in 91% of 16-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are not mandatory). Compliance with helmet laws, which were accompanied by educational campaigns, was very high among adolescent skiers. Nevertheless, helmet use decreased slightly during adolescence, and this decrease was particularly pronounced when helmet use was no longer mandatory. Sophisticated multifaceted interventions may have the potential to increase the use of ski helmets among individuals who refuse to wear helmets.

  9. Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Erhardt, Taryn; Trent, Roger B; Zhu, Motao

    2017-06-01

    To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1.95 (95% CI 1.11-3.40, p 0.019), comparing novelty helmets with full-face helmets. The risk ratios for modular, open-face, and half-helmets, compared with full-face helmets, were not significant. A more complete understanding of the inadequacy of novelty helmets can be used in educational and law enforcement countermeasures to improve helmet use among motorcycling populations in California and other US states. Law enforcement approaches to mitigating novelty helmet use would seem attractive given that novelty helmets can be visually identified by law enforcement officers with sufficient training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact test comparisons of 20th and 21st century American football helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Concussion is the signature American football injury of the 21st century. Modern varsity helmets, as compared with vintage leather helmets, or "leatherheads," are widely believed to universally improve protection by reducing head impact doses and head injury risk for the 3 million young football players in the US. The object of this study was to compare the head impact doses and injury risks with 11 widely used 21st century varsity helmets and 2 early 20th century leatherheads and to hypothesize what the results might mean for children wearing similar varsity helmets. In an injury biomechanics laboratory, the authors conducted front, oblique front, lateral, oblique rear, and rear head impact tests at 5.0 m/second using helmeted headforms, inducing near- and subconcussive head impact doses on par with approximately the 95th percentile of on-field collision severity. They also calculated impact dose injury risk parameters common to laboratory and on-field traumatic neuromechanics: linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, Gadd Severity Index, diffuse axonal injury, acute subdural hematoma, and brain contusion. In many instances the head impact doses and head injury risks while wearing vintage leatherheads were comparable to or better than those while wearing several widely used 21st century varsity helmets. The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend, especially for young players, instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.

  11. Helmet use among users of the Citi Bike bicycle-sharing program: a pilot study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.

  12. The effects of dynamic friction in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonugli, Enrique

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.

  13. Helmet use among motorcyclists in Cambodia: a survey of use, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Tran, Nhan T; Sann, Socheata; Ballesteros, Michael F; Gnim, Chandara; Ou, Amra; Sem, Panhavuth; Nie, Xiaoyu; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disability and fatality globally. Motorcycle-related injuries, mainly head injuries, and related deaths and disabilities are a significant contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Helmets have been proven to be an effective way to reduce the risk of head injury. As motorcycle use continually increases in Cambodia, head injuries and related deaths and disabilities are expected to rise. This article aims to assess the current status of helmet use in Cambodia, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among motorcyclists, in order to assist with better planning and implementation of injury prevention strategies. Two separate methodologies were employed for this study. Helmet observations were conducted in Phnom Penh, Kandal, Kampong Speu, Siem Reap, and Kampong Cham to assess the current status of helmet use during the day and at night. Roadside knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) interviews were also conducted in Phnom Penh, Kandal, and Kampong Speu to determine the prevailing beliefs around helmet use in Cambodia. Based on observations, the proportion of helmet wearing across all study sites was 25 percent at night and 43 percent during the day among all motorcyclists. The observed proportion was up to 10 times higher among drivers compared to passengers. The top 3 reasons for always wearing a helmet were lifesaving potential, legal duty, and police fines. Almost 60 percent of respondents said that their use or nonuse of a helmet depended on where they were driving. Helmet quality, price, style, and color were important factors influencing the decision to purchase a helmet. A paradox appears to exist in Cambodia; though awareness of the benefits of wearing a helmet is high, actual helmet use remains low in the country. Daytime usage is higher than nighttime, and these proportions are significantly higher among drivers compared to passengers. There is a

  14. BICYCLE HELMET DESIGN AND THE VIRTUAL VALIDATION OF THE IMPACT, AERODYNAMICS AND PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Boshevski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.

  15. Radiological safety in petroleum industry. Towards prevention culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Within the frame of regulatory control of industrial applications the audit of sealed and open radioactive sources in oil uses is one of the most relevant. The handling of radioactive sources, the requirement of procedures and training are just a few examples among all those that make up the radiological safety culture. A number of requirements divided into three main groups: operational safety at the storage area of radioactive sources, during transportation and during the applications (Cementation, well logging and use of radiotracers) are highlighted. Due to the great number of aspects that have to be taken in account as well as the interrelation of all control processes it is highly recommended that aspects of safety culture and quality should be considered and improvements regarding prevention, should be introduced so as to correct deviations that could arise in order to avoid radiological risk situations, emphasizing risk perception situations, attitude training, implementation of audit and level of safety in the facilities and control of duties, involving radiological material handling, described in the present work. (author) [es

  16. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF PATTERN OF FATAL HEAD INJURY IN HELMETED AND NONHELMETED VICTIMS OF TWO WHEELER ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sheeju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.

  17. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  18. Liquid Crystal Matrix Image Source for Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunther, John

    1988-01-01

    .... This image source was desired for experiments with helmet mounted display configurations in which an off-helmet image source is coupled to the on-helmet optical system through a coherent fiber optic bundle...

  19. Performance analysis of the protective effects of bicycle helmets during impact and crush tests in pediatric skull models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Bond, Brandon J; Goulart, Carlos R; Sloffer, Chris A; Morris, Martin J; Lin, Julian J

    2012-12-01

    Bicycle accidents are a very important cause of clinically important traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. One factor that has been shown to mitigate the severity of lesions associated with TBI in such scenarios is the proper use of a helmet. The object of this study was to test and evaluate the protection afforded by a children's bicycle helmet to human cadaver skulls with a child's anthropometry in both "impact" and "crushing" situations. The authors tested human skulls with and without bicycle helmets in drop tests in a monorail-guided free-fall impact apparatus from heights of 6 to 48 in onto a flat steel anvil. Unhelmeted skulls were dropped at 6 in, with progressive height increases until failure (fracture). The maximum resultant acceleration rates experienced by helmeted and unhelmeted skulls on impact were recorded by an accelerometer attached to the skulls. In addition, compressive forces were applied to both helmeted and unhelmeted skulls in progressive amounts. The tolerance in each circumstance was recorded and compared between the two groups. Helmets conferred up to an 87% reduction in so-called mean maximum resultant acceleration over unhelmeted skulls. In compression testing, helmeted skulls were unable to be crushed in the compression fixture up to 470 pound-force (approximately 230 kgf), whereas both skull and helmet alone failed in testing. Children's bicycle helmets provide measurable protection in terms of attenuating the acceleration experienced by a skull on the introduction of an impact force. Moreover, such helmets have the durability to mitigate the effects of a more rare but catastrophic direct compressive force. Therefore, the use of bicycle helmets is an important preventive tool to reduce the incidence of severe associated TBI in children as well as to minimize the morbidity of its neurological consequences.

  20. Autopsy Study of Motorcyclist Fatalities: The Effect of the 1992 Maryland Motorcycle Helmet Use Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auman, Kimberly M.; Kufera, Joseph A.; Ballesteros, Michael F.; Smialek, John E.; Dischinger, Patricia C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to determine the impact of Maryland’s all-rider motorcycle helmet law (enacted on October 1, 1992) on preventing deaths and traumatic brain injuries among motorcyclists. Methods. Statewide motorcyclist fatalities occurring during seasonally comparable 33-month periods immediately preceding and following enactment of the law were compared. Results. The motorcyclist fatality rate dropped from 10.3 per 10 000 registered motorcycles prelaw to 4.5 postlaw despite almost identical numbers of registered motorcycles. Motorcyclists wearing helmets had a lower risk of traumatic brain injury than those not wearing helmets (odds ratio = 0.31, 95% confidence interval = 0.14, 0.68). Conclusions. Maryland’s controversial motorcycle helmet law appears to be an effective public health policy and may be responsible for saving many lives. PMID:12144996

  1. Federally mandating motorcycle helmets in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Adam E. M. Eltorai; Chad Simon; Ariel Choi; Katie Hsia; Christopher T. Born; Alan H. Daniels

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Discussion Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing po...

  2. The mystery of the missing Viking helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2000-11-01

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.

  3. [Where are all the Viking helmets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    2001-06-30

    Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.

  4. Efficiency and safety of ondansetron in preventing postanaesthesia shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, K; Zhao, H; Zhou, H C

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Shivering is one of the most frequent complications of operation during the postanaesthesia period. Ondansetron has been proved to be valid in preventing postanaesthesia shivering (PAS) in several studies. However, its efficiency and safety are still disputable. We therefore performed an updated meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for evaluation and to clarify this issue. Methods A literature search using the PubMed, Embase™ and Cochrane Library databases was performed (from inception to January 2015). RCTs that evaluated the efficiency and safety of ondansetron in the prevention of PAS were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome measure was incidence of PAS, and secondary outcomes included subgroup analysis and the side effects of ondansetron. Results A total of 8 RCTs containing 905 subjects were identified as suitable for this review. Compared with placebo, ondansetron was associated with a significant reduction of PAS (relative risk [RR]: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.58, p=0.0001) while no difference was detected between ondansetron and pethidine (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.41-1.94, p=0.78). There was no significant difference between ondansetron and placebo or pethidine in terms of risk of bradycardia but ondansetron was associated with a lower risk of hypotension (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.79, p=0.020) than placebo. There was no difference in hypotension when ondansetron was compared with pethidine. Conclusions Ondansetron can prevent PAS effectively and reduce the risk of hypotension.

  5. Development and application of an integrated evaluation framework for preventive safety applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Joshi, S.; Gemou, M.; Hendriks, F.; Ljung Aust, M.; Luoma, J.; Netto, M.; Engstrom, J.; Leanderson Olsson, S.; Kutzner, R.; Tango, F.; Amditis, A.J.; Blosseville, J.M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2011-01-01

    Preventive safety functions help drivers avoid or mitigate accidents. No quantitative methods have been available to evaluate the safety impact of these systems. This paper describes a framework for the assessment of preventive and active safety functions, which integrates procedures for technical

  6. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  7. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  8. Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Discussion Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data. Summary This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.

  9. Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A

    2010-04-21

    In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data. This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.

  10. Application of system safety engineering techniques for hazard prevention at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A primary goal of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is to establish an exemplary safety program. Achieving this goal requires leadership, planning, coordination, and technical know-how. To ensure that safety is an inherent part of the design, the Environment, Safety and Health Office employs a systems engineering discipline and process known as System Safety. The goal of System Safety - hazard prevention - is accomplished by analyzing systems to identify hazards and to evaluate design and procedural options and countermeasures to prevent, eliminate, mitigate, or control hazards and risks. Establishment of safety and human factors design criteria at the outset of the project prevents unsafe designs and safety violations, reduces risks, and helps in avoiding costly design changes later. This process requires a considerable amount of coordination with a variety of technical disciplines and safety professionals to integrate methods of hazard prevention, mitigation, and risk reduction throughout the system life-cycle

  11. Prevention of Surgical Malpractice Claims by Use of a Surgical Safety Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Eefje N.; Eikens-Jansen, Manon P.; Hamersma, Alice M.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess what proportion of surgical malpractice claims might be prevented by the use of a surgical safety checklist. Background: Surgical disciplines are overrepresented in the distribution of adverse events. The recently described multidisciplinary SURgical PAtient Safety System

  12. Frequency Domain Evaluation of Helmet Padding Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-24

    F717 [8] have been used to evaluate helmets including motorcycle, football, and hockey helmets to ensure a basic level of protection. These standards... Physically , this means that the smaller the magnitude of fω, the less coupled the response at the surface of the head is to the force being applied

  13. Four Quarters of Football Helmet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PADRES Y ENTRENADORES Visión – Asegúrese de que los ojos del atleta sean visibles y de que éste pueda ver hacia adelante y de lado a lado. Cobertura – La almohadilla delantera del casco debe cubrir la cabeza del atleta desde la mitad de su frente hasta la parte trasera de su cabeza. El casco no debe ...

  14. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  15. Evaluation of the reinstatement of the helmet law in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Louisiana has enacted and repealed motorcycle helmet laws many times. Louisiana first adopted an all-rider motorcycle helmet law in 1968, amended it in 1976 to require helmet use only by riders under the age of 18, and reenacted a universal helmet la...

  16. The rewards of road safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    In May, the HSE Unit launched a cycling safety campaign at CERN over three days during which members of the Unit and representatives of the Swiss Office for Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse reminded people of the basic safety rules to which they should adhere when riding a bike. A competition was held to encourage people to be self-critical and to highlight best practice.    On 14 June, a month and 273 participants later, 40 lucky contestants received winners' prizes in a low-key reception at Restaurant 2. Among the prizes were "safety packs" containing a fluorescent jacket, arm-bands and a water-bottle, cycle helmets and two brand new bikes. More proof, if any were needed, that safety and prevention form a winning combination!  

  17. Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschke Kay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate use of helmets, lights, and visible clothing among cyclists and to examine trip and personal characteristics associated with their use. Methods Using data from a study of transportation infrastructure and injuries to 690 adult cyclists in Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we examined the proportion who used bike lights, conspicuous clothing on the torso, and helmets on their injury trip. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between personal and trip characteristics and each type of safety equipment. Results Bike lights were the least frequently used (20% of all trips although they were used on 77% of trips at night. Conspicuous clothing (white, yellow, orange, red was worn on 33% of trips. Helmets were used on 69% of trips, 76% in Vancouver where adult helmet use is required by law and 59% in Toronto where it is not. Factors positively associated with bike light use included night, dawn and dusk trips, poor weather conditions, weekday trips, male sex, and helmet use. Factors positively associated with conspicuous clothing use included good weather conditions, older age, and more frequent cycling. Factors positively associated with helmet use included bike light use, longer trip distances, hybrid bike type, not using alcohol in the 6 hours prior to the trip, female sex, older age, higher income, and higher education. Conclusions In two of Canada’s largest cities, helmets were the most widely used safety equipment. Measures to increase use of visibility aids on both daytime and night-time cycling trips may help prevent crashes.

  18. Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cody S; Thomas, Andrea M; Singleton, Michael; Gaichas, Anna M; Smith, Tracy J; Smith, Gary A; Peng, Justin; Bauer, Michael J; Qu, Ming; Yeager, Denise; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Cook, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System's General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department $1987 vs. $1443; inpatient $31,506 vs. $25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states.

  19. Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J

    2017-01-02

    Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate

  20. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  1. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirator...

  2. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge...

  3. 46 CFR 197.322 - Surface-supplied helmets and masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied...

  4. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  5. Applying the health action process approach to bicycle helmet use and evaluating a social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian

    2017-08-05

    Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Principles of Fit to Optimize Helmet Sizing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Catherine R; Robinette, Kathleen M

    2006-01-01

    ... anthropometric variability of the population. The method was tested on a prototype helmet concept using a stratified sample of males and females drawn to represent the Joint Strike Fighter population...

  7. The burden of motorcycle-related neuro-trauma in Ireland and associated helmet usage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, R K J

    2009-04-01

    Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.

  8. Motorcycle helmets: What about their coating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line

    2015-07-01

    In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics

  9. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Foster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  10. The internet of things in community safety and crime prevention for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available under community safety and crime prevention such as police efficiency and accountability, situational crime prevention and social crime prevention, but also a number of IoT applications that can be of value in these sectors. By drawing...

  11. The relationships between OHS prevention costs, safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Metin; Ünğan, Mustafa C; Ardıç, Kadir

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the costs of safety. A literature review conducted for this study indicates there is a lack of survey-based research dealing with the effects of occupational health and safety (OHS) prevention costs. To close this gap in the literature, this study investigates the interwoven relationships between OHS prevention costs, employee satisfaction, OHS performance and accident costs. Data were collected from 159 OHS management system 18001-certified firms operating in Turkey and analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that OHS prevention costs have a significant positive effect on safety performance, employee satisfaction and accident costs savings; employee satisfaction has a significant positive effect on accident costs savings; and occupational safety performance has a significant positive effect on employee satisfaction and accident costs savings. Also, the results indicate that safety performance and employee satisfaction leverage the relationship between prevention costs and accident costs.

  12. Compliance with the 1992 California motorcycle helmet use law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J F; Peek, C; Williams, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate helmet use in California before and after the introduction of an unrestricted helmet use law on January 1, 1992, observations of motorcycles and their riders were made at 60 locations in seven California counties, twice before and four times after the law was introduced. Helmet use increased from about 50% in 1991 to more than 99% throughout 1992. Compliance was achieved despite variations in helmet use by motorcycle design and road type. Seven percent of riders used nonstandard helmets after the law. With adequate enforcement, unrestricted helmet use laws can achieve almost 100% compliance and reduce the number of people riding motorcycles. PMID:7832270

  13. The National School Safety Framework: A framework for preventing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National School Safety Framework (NSSF) – approved by the Minister of Education in April 2015 - is located within a range of international and national laws and policies that recognise the safety of learners and educators as a prerequisite for quality learning and teaching at school. The framework affirms the ...

  14. Work zone safety : physical and behavioral barriers in accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the usefulness of creating a work zone traffic safety culture as a methodology to improve the overall : safety of both work zone personnel and the traveling public in Missouri. As part of this research, the existing MoDOT : Work...

  15. 9Th Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference, Melbourne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    drowning/water safety, occupational injuries, transport safety, injury data systems, trauma care, policy and ... Research translation is influenced by contextual, social actor, content and process factors. The opening sessions set the context for the rest of the conference. ... approaches to public health were the highlights.

  16. Loss Prevention through Safety Belt Use: A Handbook for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help managers address safety belt usage issues through a cost-effective and direct approach--establishing an employee safety belt program. The handbook offers a hands-on guide for conducting the program and provides for implementation at all levels. The handbook contains cost information, a program overview, policy and…

  17. The effect of bicycle helmet legislation on pediatric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Lisa A; King, Brian P; Salemi, Gina; Salvator, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    per 100,000 for 5- to 9-year-old girls in 2000 was 367, exceeding the 10- to 16-year category rate of 213 per 100,000. In 2005, female extremity injury per 100,000 was 299 for the 5- to 9-year-old girls and rose 16% to 250 for 10- to 16-year-old girls. Head injury rates per 100,000 for 5- to 9-year-old girls in 2000 were 325, ending with a rate of 254 per 100,000 in 2005. Head injury rates per 100,000 for 10- to 16-year-old girls in 2000 were 93, ending in 2005 with a rate of 91 per 100,000. The greatest reduction in injury occurred 1 year after legislation, suggesting that promoting bicycle helmet use in the community is effective in reducing injury. The overall rate of bicycle-related injury in the population studied continues to be down 24%, suggesting bicycle helmet legislation for children is an effective adjunct in reducing injury. Extremity injury rates were greater than head injury in both male and female populations, suggesting that future bicycle safety initiatives address extremity injury. Female head injury rates in the 10- to 16-year-old population changed very little from baseline and would benefit from further investigation of female riding habits and perceived barriers to bicycle helmet use.

  18. Predicting and preventing organizational failure: learning, stability and safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The physical definition of 'safety culture' is the creation of an organizational and operational structure that places unending emphasis on safety at every level. We propose and prefer the use of the term and the objective of sustaining a 'Learning Environment', where mistakes, outcomes and errors are used as learning vehicles to improve, and we can now define why that is true. Therefore we can manage and quantify safety effectively tracking and analyzing outcomes, using the trends to guide our needed organizational behaviors. (author)

  19. Modified Drop Tower Impact Tests for American Football Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, G Alston; Prabhu, R; Rush, Gus A; Williams, Lakiesha N; Horstemeyer, M F

    2017-02-19

    A modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test method for American football helmet drop impact test standards is presented that would provide better assessment of a helmet's on-field impact performance by including a faceguard on the helmet. In this study, a merger of faceguard and helmet test standards is proposed. The need for a more robust systematic approach to football helmet testing procedures is emphasized by comparing representative results of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Severity Index (SI), and peak acceleration values for different helmets at different helmet locations under modified NOCSAE standard drop tower tests. Essentially, these comparative drop test results revealed that the faceguard adds a stiffening kinematic constraint to the shell that lessens total energy absorption. The current NOCSAE standard test methods can be improved to represent on-field helmet hits by attaching the faceguards to helmets and by including two new helmet impact locations (Front Top and Front Top Boss). The reported football helmet test method gives a more accurate representation of a helmet's performance and its ability to mitigate on-field impacts while promoting safer football helmets.

  20. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Chapman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  1. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce

  2. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. ... mechanical behaviour of motorcycle helmet. ... the latter authors use a SI (Structural Intensity) approach to study power flow distribution.

  3. A Proposal for Increasing Student Safety through Suicide Prevention in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janice E.; Odegard, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    A considerable amount of literature points to the criticality of implementing prevention and intervention strategies to address suicide in the context of schools. The authors address these elements along with a case study to increase student safety in schools.

  4. Repeal of the Pennsylvania motorcycle helmet law: reflections on the ethical and political dynamics of public health reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cherry Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Discussion Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense...

  5. Motorcycle Helmet Laws: A Case Study of Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille

    1987-01-01

    The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…

  6. Helmets reduce death and brain injury in motorcycle and pushbike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    create cycle tracks for pedal bicycle users. ▫ ensure that bicycles and motorcycles are only sold with helmets as affordable packages. ▫ make riding motorcycles without wearing a helmet an offence punishable by confiscation of the owner's cycle or imprisonment. Wearing a helmet when riding a pushbike is to be encouraged ...

  7. Track buckling prevention : theory, safety concepts, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    This report is a part of the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Track Stability Research Program for the Federal Railroad Administration on thermal buckling of continuous welded rail (CWR) track and its prevention. Presented in ...

  8. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (pbicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventing Safety Hazards Associated With Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David G

    2015-12-01

    Do-not-resuscitate orders can promote patients' dignity near the end of life, but they also can carry safety hazards associated with miscommunication and inappropriate withdrawal of certain kinds of care. Oncology nurses have a responsibility to identify these potential hazards and to intervene as necessary.
.

  10. Preventing Youth Violence and Aggression and Promoting Safety in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Sean; And Others

    Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…

  11. Effect of Helmet Use on Traumatic Brain Injuries and Other Head Injuries in Alpine Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Nicolas; Laporte, Jean-Dominique; Afquir, Sanae; Masson, Catherine; Donnadieu, Thierry; Delay, Jean-Baptiste; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2018-01-31

    Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head). The effect of helmet use on the risk of TBI and OTHI was evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, sport, skill level, crash type, and crash location. Using participants without injury as control, we found that helmet wearers were less likely to sustain any head injury (odds ratio [OR] TBI = 0.65; OR OTHI = 0.42). When considering participants with an injury to another body part as control, the risk of OTHI was lower among helmet wearers (OR OTHI : 0.61). However, no significant effect was found for the risk of TBI. Participants with low skill levels, those aged 50 years, snowboarders, and those involved in collision and in snowpark accidents were at higher risk of head injury. This study confirms the effectiveness of helmets in protecting users from head injuries but questions their effects on TBI, especially concussion. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...

  13. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  14. A change management approach to improving safety and preventing needle stick injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    2017-09-01

    Key drivers for preventing healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) include evidence-based practices and procedures that prevent infection. Among the current guidance for preventing HCAIs is evidence and mandatory requirements for reducing needle stick injuries (NSIs). This article highlights how John Kotter's model for change could help healthcare workers plan for successful and sustained deployment of needle safety devices (NSDs) and ultimately reduce the risk of a NSI.

  15. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  16. Effects of repealing the motorcycle helmet law in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy

    2017-09-01

    In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5)

  18. The effect of the 1997 Texas motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle crash fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavon, Al; Standerfer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the effect of the Texas motorcycle helmet law on fatalities since the repeal of the universal helmet law in 1997. Texas monthly motorcycle accident data between 1994 and 2004 were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and supplemented with motorcycle registration data from the Texas Department of Transportation. An ARIMA model was used to estimate the impact of the law. A sharp increase in fatality rates occurred immediately following the implementation of the law in September 1997. Deaths increased by 30%, fatality rates per motorcycle registrations increased by 15.2%, and fatality rates per vehicle miles traveled increased by 25% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 77% in 1996 to 63% in 1997 and 36% in 1998 and thereafter. The parameter estimates of the ARIMA model (0,0,0) (0,1,1) show that the change in the law led to statistically significant increases of 2.3 fatalities and 1.18 fatality rate per 100 billion vehicle miles traveled. The repeal of the universal helmet law in Texas in 1997 has had a significant adverse effect on motorcyclist fatalities in Texas.

  19. The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Andersson, Ragnar

    2014-12-01

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998-2012, stratified by age (0-14, 15+), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  1. Safety assurance logic techniques for evaluation of accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.; Hagan, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Safety assurance methods have been developed and applied in reactor safety assessments of FFTF. These methods promote visibility of the total safety provided by the plant, both in prevention of off-normal or accident conditions as well as provision of various features which terminate conditions within acceptable bounds if such conditions should occur. One of the primary techniques applied in safety assurance is the development of safety assurance diagrams. These diagrams explicitly identify the multiple lines of defense which prevent accident progression. The diagrams graphically demonstrate the defense-in-depth provided by the plant for each postulated occurrence. Lines of defense are shown against ever having an occurrence in the first place; thus giving appropriate emphasis on accident prevention, and visibility to the designer's role in promoting this level of safety. These diagrams, or accident process trees, also show graphically the various paths of postulated accident progression to their logical termination. Evaluation of the importance and strength of each line-of-defense assures fulfillment of the safety objectives of the overall plant system

  2. Concussion Characteristics in High School Football by Helmet Age/Recondition Status, Manufacturer, and Model: 2008-2009 Through 2012-2013 Academic Years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-06-01

    manufacturers and models. Overall, for new and reconditioned football helmets, the most common helmet manufacturers and models on the market today appear to provide high school football players with similar protection against concussions. Concussions can have serious acute and long-term effects. An understanding of concussion patterns in high school athletes can drive targeted preventive measures, including improvements to and/or better use of protective equipment, to reduce the incidence and/or severity of sports-related concussions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Systems Thinking and Leadership: How Nephrologists Can Transform Dialysis Safety to Prevent Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Leslie P

    2018-04-06

    Infections are the second leading cause of death for patients with ESKD. Despite multiple efforts, nephrologists have been unable to prevent infections in dialysis facilities. The American Society of Nephrology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have partnered to create Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety to promote nephrologist leadership and engagement in efforts to "Target Zero" preventable dialysis infections. Because traditional approaches to infection control and prevention in dialysis facilities have had limited success, Nephrologists Transforming Dialysis Safety is reconceptualizing the problem in the context of the complexity of health care systems and organizational behavior. By identifying different parts of a problem and attempting to understand how these parts interact and produce a result, systems thinking has effectively tackled difficult problems in dynamic settings. The dialysis facility is composed of different physical and human elements that are interconnected and affect not only behavior but also, the existence of a culture of safety that promotes infection prevention. Because dialysis infections result from a complex system of interactions between caregivers, patients, dialysis organizations, and the environment, attempts to address infections by focusing on one element in isolation often fail. Creating a sense of urgency and commitment to eradicating dialysis infections requires leadership and motivational skills. These skills are not taught in the standard nephrology or medical director curriculum. Effective leadership by medical directors and engagement in infection prevention by nephrologists are required to create a culture of safety. It is imperative that nephrologists commit to leadership training and embrace their potential as change agents to prevent infections in dialysis facilities. This paper explores the systemic factors contributing to the ongoing dialysis infection crisis in the United States and the role

  4. The translation of sports injury prevention and safety promotion knowledge: insights from key intermediary organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Sheree; Paliadelis, Penny; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-03-28

    A recognised research-to-practice gap exists in the health research field of sports injury prevention and safety promotion. There is a need for improved insight into increasing the relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of injury prevention and safety promotion research knowledge for sport settings. The role of key organisations as intermediaries in the process of health knowledge translation for sports settings remains under-explored, and this paper aims to determine, and describe, the processes of knowledge translation undertaken by a set of key organisations in developing and distributing injury prevention and safety promotion resources. The National Guidance for Australian Football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project provided the context for this study. Representatives from five key NoGAPS organisations participated in individual face-to-face interviews about organisational processes of knowledge translation. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyse participants' descriptions of knowledge translation activities undertaken at their respective organisations. Several themes emerged around health knowledge translation processes and considerations, including (1) identifying a need for knowledge translation, (2) developing and disseminating resources, and (3) barriers and enablers to knowledge translation. This study provides insight into the processes that key organisations employ when developing and disseminating injury prevention and safety promotion resources within sport settings. The relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of health research knowledge is foregrounded, with a view to increasing the influence of research on the development of health-related resources suitable for community sport settings.

  5. Prevention of Sport-related Facial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen: report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls

  7. Food safety: emerging trends in foodborne illness surveillance and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Sellers, Beverly J; Beattie, Samuel E

    2004-11-01

    Between 250 and 350 million Americans are estimated to suffer acute gastroenteritis annually, with 25% to 30% thought to be caused by foodborne illnesses. Most vulnerable to foodborne diseases are elderly people, pregnant women, immune-compromised people, and children. While bacterial causes such as Salmonella are widely recognized and monitored as foodborne infections, other important bacterial causes such as Clostridium perfringens , Bacillus cereus , and Staphylococcus aureus are less well known. While the majority of cases of foodborne diseases are of unknown cause, bacteria and viruses are the most likely causative agents. Caliciviridae (Norwalk-like) virus cases are more difficult to identify, but represent the most common cause of known and probably unknown cases. Fresh produce has to be added to the traditional list of foods requiring careful selection and handling to prevent foodborne disease. To assess the disease burden in the United States, morbidity and mortality surveillance activities are done by several networks and systems with collaboration among federal agencies and health departments. Not all important causes are being equally monitored. Critical behaviors by food processors, food retailers, foodservice personnel, and consumers can reduce the risk of foodborne illness episodes. Dietetics professionals can more readily monitor new developments and update knowledge and practice through online resources.

  8. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. A comparative analysis of occupational health and safety risk prevention practices in Sweden and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Rosa María; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Fuertes, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of

  10. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  11. Health care-associated infection prevention in Japan: the role of safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Fumie; Sakihama, Tomoko; Saint, Sanjay; Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2014-08-01

    Limited data exist on the use of infection prevention practices in Japan. We conducted a nationwide survey to examine the use of recommended infection prevention strategies and factors affecting their use in Japanese hospitals. Between April 1, 2012, and January 31, 2013, we surveyed 971 hospitals in Japan. The survey instrument assessed general hospital and infection prevention program characteristics and use of infection prevention practices, including practices specific to preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Logistic regression models were used to examine multivariable associations between hospital characteristics and the use of the various prevention practices. A total of 685 hospitals (71%) responded to the survey. Maintaining aseptic technique during catheter insertion and maintenance, avoiding routine central line changes, and using maximum sterile barrier precautions and semirecumbent positioning were the only practices regularly used by more than one-half of the hospitals to prevent CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP, respectively. Higher safety-centeredness was associated with regular use of prevention practices across all infection types. Although certain practices were used commonly, the rate of regular use of many evidence-based prevention practices was low in Japanese hospitals. Our findings highlight the importance of fostering an organization-wide atmosphere that prioritizes patient safety. Such a commitment to patient safety should in turn promote the use of effective measures to reduce health care-associated infections in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 30 CFR 250.806 - Safety and pollution prevention equipment quality assurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality assurance requirements. 250.806 Section 250.806 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... of Safety and Pollution Prevention Equipment Used in Offshore Oil and Gas Operations; and (ii) API... specifications of API Spec 6A and 6AV1. All SSSVs must meet the technical specifications of API Specification 14A...

  13. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas to...

  14. Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic-associated fungemia: questioning the safety of this preventive probiotic's use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Isabella W; Tonner, Rita; Trivedi, Julie; Miller, Heather; Lee, Richard; Liang, Xinglun; Rotello, Leo; Isenbergh, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer; Perl, Trish; Zhang, Sean X

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of fungemia in an immunocompetent patient after administration of probiotic containing Saccharomyces boulardii. We demonstrated the strain relatedness of the yeast from the probiotic capsule and the yeast causing fungal infection using genomic and proteomic typing methods. Our study questions the safety of this preventative biotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Characteristics Associated with Violence and Safety in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…

  16. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...... that employees of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the employees of larger ones, and that small enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is important to develop...

  17. Hellcopter Aircrew Helmets and Head Injury: A Protective Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    the crash sequence. In 1959, the APH -5 flight helmet was made widely available to U.S. Army aviators, and within 4 years a significant reduction in...from the SPH-4 (table 4). This is an important finding, since most civilian flight nurses and medics are not provided 8-10 flight helmets...protection from head injury than previously published research based on an older flight helmet (the APH -5). The 1961 report, Army Aviation Accident

  18. Helmets, head injury and concussion in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S

    2015-07-01

    Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.

  19. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangho Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21st century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1 how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2 the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  20. Safety and efficacy of AMG 334 for prevention of episodic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hong Yan; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    laboratory values, vital signs, and anti-AMG 334 antibodies. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01952574. An open-label extension phase of up to 256 weeks is ongoing and will assess the long-term safety of AMG 334. FINDINGS: From Aug 6, 2013, to June 30, 2014, 483 patients were......BACKGROUND: The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is a promising target for preventive therapies in patients with migraine. We assessed the safety and efficacy of AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this multicentre...... in monthly migraine days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of the 12-week double-blind treatment phase. The primary endpoint was calculated using the least squares mean at each timepoint from a generalised linear mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Safety endpoints were adverse events, clinical...

  1. Prevention of child injuries during tornadoes: cases from the 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M; Baker, Mark D; Monroe, Kathy W

    2012-12-01

    Tornadoes and violent weather pose a hazard to children, yet little is known about the use of personal protective devices during storms. An outbreak of tornadoes on April 27, 2011, resulted in the deaths of 23 children in Alabama. Records from 60 patients seen in a pediatric emergency department for tornado-related injuries were reviewed to identify the use of injury prevention devices. Three children directly exposed to a violent tornado (Enhanced Fujita Scale 4) were using safety equipment, specifically, a helmet and infant car seats. These 3 children sustained only minor injuries. Personal protective devices may have played a role in preventing child injuries from tornadoes. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature on helmet and infant car seat use as child protective devices during tornadoes.

  2. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  3. Variation of bicycle helmet use rates with route distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, L B

    1994-09-01

    The relationship between bicycle helmet use and demographic measures has been studied extensively. To date, however, there have been very few studies of helmet use by amateur cyclists in organized, noncompetitive, long distance events. Seven hundred eleven riders were observed during three organized events offering route distances ranging from 16 to 161 kilometres. Helmet use ranged from 59% in the shorter distance groups to one hundred percent in the longest distance group. This information can assist organizers of bicycling events by permitting estimation of helmet use rates for planned routes of varying distance.

  4. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  5. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes

    2017-01-01

    In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...

  6. The Impact of Mandatory Helmet-Use Legislation on the Frequency of Cycling to School and Helmet Use Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the frequency of cycling to school and helmet wearing after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law, and attempts to identify factors associated with the acceptance of helmet use. A mixed-method study was designed with a 7-month follow-up period (April 2014 to November 2014). The initial sample included 262 students (aged 12 to 16 years) from Valencia, Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire and 2 focus-group interviews were conducted. No significant changes in cycling-to- school behavior were found during the study period. Cycle helmet use improved, especially among boys, those who used their own bike, and among adolescents who lived within 2 km of school (P sharing program. The implementation of the helmet-use law did not have a negative impact on the frequency of cycling to school. Our findings provide an empirical basis for designing educational interventions and programs to increase helmet use among adolescents.

  7. Nudging for Prevention in Occupational Health and Safety in South Africa Using Fiscal Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Pieter; Rees, David; Kisting, Sophia; Kgalamono, Spo; Ndaba, Mpume; Stacey, Nicolas; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in some countries occupational health and safety policy and practice have a bias toward secondary prevention and workers' compensation rather than primary prevention. Particularly, in emerging economies, research has not adequately contributed to effective interventions and improvements in workers' health. This article, using South Africa as a case study, describes a methodology for identifying candidate fiscal policy interventions and describes the policy interventions selected for occupational health and safety. It is argued that fiscal policies are well placed to deal with complex intersectoral health problems and to focus efforts on primary prevention. A major challenge is the lack of empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of fiscal policies in improving workers' health. A second challenge is the underprioritization of occupational health and safety partly due to the relatively small burden of disease attributed to occupational exposures. Both challenges can and should be overcome by (i) conducting policy-relevant research to fill the empirical gaps and (ii) reconceptualizing, both for policy and research purposes, the role of work as a determinant of population health. Fiscal policies to prevent exposure to hazards at work have face validity and are thus appealing, not as a replacement for other efforts to improve health, but as part of a comprehensive effort toward prevention.

  8. Correlates of motorcycle helmet use among recent graduates of a motorcycle training course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Mello, Michael J; Baird, Janette B; Chai, Peter R; Clark, Melissa A

    2010-11-01

    Helmets significantly decrease morbidity and mortality from motorcycle crashes, but many areas of the world lack universal helmet laws. To educate motorcyclists in areas without helmet laws, more knowledge of motorcyclists' helmet beliefs is needed. A web-based survey was therefore designed to assess motorcyclists' attitudes, norms and behaviors towards helmets in a U.S. state with a limited helmet law. Of 445 survey respondents, 68.4% of respondents reported always wearing a helmet. The not-always-helmeted riders were more likely than the always-helmeted to be male; to bave less education; and to have a history of previous motorcycle crashes and injuries. Although both groups had taken rider training classes, fewer of the not-always-helmeted had learned how to ride in a class. The strongest correlates of being not-always-helmeted (vs. always-helmeted) were attitudes that helmets were not protective and impaired sight/hearing; and the normative belief that they would only wear helmets if forced by law. Because attitudes are often more easily changed than normative beliefs, education may increase helmet use. However, less than half of riders in this state with a mandatory education program learned how to ride from a rider education course, and 44% of non-helmeted said they would only wear a helmet if forced by law. Legislation may therefore be a more efficient and effective strategy than education to increase helmet use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  10. Motorcycle helmets: head and neck dynamics in helmeted and unhelmeted oblique impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Lai, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    To assess the factors that contribute to head and neck dynamics in motorcycle crash simulation tests. A series of laboratory tests was undertaken using an oblique impact rig. The impact rig included a drop assembly with a Hybrid III head and neck. The head struck the top surface of a horizontally moving striker plate. Head linear and angular acceleration, striker plate force, and upper neck loads were measured. The following test parameters were varied: drop height to a maximum of 1.5 m, horizontal speed to a maximum of 35 km/h, impact orientation/location, and restraint adjustment. Two helmet models were used for the majority of tests. Visor impacts were conducted as were comparisons across 4 helmet models. Descriptive statistics were derived and multiple regression was applied to examine the role of each parameter. The data were compared to unhelmeted tests. The tests confirmed that motorcycle helmets compared to no helmet provide a high level of protection to the head and neck through management of both linear and angular head acceleration and neck loads. In the most severe lateral impacts (drop height 1.5 m and horizontal speed 35 km/h): the mean head injury criterion (HIC₁₅) and mean maximum headform acceleration were respectively 648, 150 g for 4 helmet models; the mean +αy was +9.5 krad/s² and +αx was +5.1 krad/s²; the upper neck resultant force, -Mx and -My, respectively, were 4947 N, -80 Nm, and 55 Nm. Drop height was a significant predictor of peak linear headform acceleration, HIC₁₅, and striker force. Horizontal speed and impact orientation were significant predictors of peak angular acceleration, in addition to drop height. Peak head and neck loads observed in visor impacts were similar to those observed in impacts directly to the shell. Peak head and neck loads observed in frontal impacts with tightly and loosely adjusted restraints were similar, but the helmet with the loosely adjusted restraint was ejected during the impact. Further

  11. The Impact of Michigan's Partial Repeal of the Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law on Helmet Use, Fatalities, and Head Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M; Buckley, Lisa; Flannagan, Carol A C; Cicchino, Jessica B; Hemmila, Mark; Bowman, Patrick J; Almani, Farideh; Bingham, C Raymond

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan's universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk. Helmet use decreased in crash (93.2% vs 70.8%; P helmet nonuse (AOR = 1.84), alcohol intoxication (AOR = 11.31), intersection crashes (AOR = 1.62), and crashes at higher speed limits (AOR = 1.04) increased fatality risk. Helmet nonuse (AOR = 2.31) and alcohol intoxication (AOR = 2.81) increased odds of head injury. Michigan's helmet law repeal resulted in a 24% to 27% helmet use decline among riders in crashes and a 14% increase in head injury.

  12. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Mathematical Basis for the Safety Analysis of Conflict Prevention Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, a conflict prevention system examines the traffic and provides ranges of guidance maneuvers that avoid conflicts. This guidance takes the form of ranges of track angles, vertical speeds, or ground speeds. These ranges may be assembled into prevention bands: maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for all maneuvers. Without conflict prevention information, a pilot might perform a maneuver that causes a near-term conflict. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of correct operation is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information. This paper examines multiple mathematical approaches: iterative, vector algebraic, and trigonometric. The correctness theories are structured first to analyze conflict prevention information for all aircraft. Next, these theories are augmented to consider aircraft which will create a conflict within a given lookahead time. Certain key functions for a candidate algorithm, which satisfy this mathematical basis are presented; however, the proof that a full algorithm using these functions completely satisfies the definition of safety is not provided.

  14. Safety climate and workplace violence prevention in state-run residential addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Jane A; London, M; Chen, Y M; Flannery, K; Watt, M; Geiger-Brown, J; Johnson, J V; McPhaul, K

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR=4.30 and OR=2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low

  15. Mechanisms of pediatric electrical injury. New implications for product safety and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabban, J T; Blair, J A; Rosen, C L; Adler, J N; Sheridan, R L

    1997-07-01

    To determine age-specific mechanisms of electrical injury in children, to examine product safety regulation of the major sources of electrical injury hazard, and to assess the adequacy of current prevention strategies. Case series of 144 pediatric and adolescent electrical injuries in patients seen in the specialized burn center and tertiary care hospital between 1970 and 1995, examination of Consumer Product Safety Commission product recall reports for electrical injury hazards between 1973 and 1995, and review of the National Electric Code. Eighty-six cases of electrical injuries resulted from low-voltage (products identified by the Consumer Product Safety Commission to be electrical injury hazards, 119 were appliance cords, extension cords, or holiday stringed light sets. Several products numbered more than 1.5 million units in US household distribution prior to the investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Household electrical cords are the major electrocution hazard for children younger than 12 years, yet no federal safety mandates exist. Despite voluntary standards, noncompliant manufacturers can introduce vast numbers of unsafe cords onto the US household market every year. Conversion of existing voluntary safety guidelines into federally legislated standards may be the most effective intervention against pediatric electrocutions.

  16. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.

  17. How motorcycle helmets affect trauma mortality: Clinical and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2017-08-18

    Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.

  18. One-piece transparent shell improves design of helmet assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.

  19. A system of safety management practices and worker engagement for reducing and preventing accidents: an empirical and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Jan K; Yorio, Patrick L

    2014-07-01

    The overall research objective was to theoretically and empirically develop the ideas around a system of safety management practices (ten practices were elaborated), to test their relationship with objective safety statistics (such as accident rates), and to explore how these practices work to achieve positive safety results (accident prevention) through worker engagement. Data were collected using safety manager, supervisor and employee surveys designed to assess and link safety management system practices, employee perceptions resulting from existing practices, and safety performance outcomes. Results indicate the following: there is a significant negative relationship between the presence of ten individual safety management practices, as well as the composite of these practices, with accident rates; there is a significant negative relationship between the level of safety-focused worker emotional and cognitive engagement with accident rates; safety management systems and worker engagement levels can be used individually to predict accident rates; safety management systems can be used to predict worker engagement levels; and worker engagement levels act as mediators between the safety management system and safety performance outcomes (such as accident rates). Even though the presence of safety management system practices is linked with incident reduction and may represent a necessary first-step in accident prevention, safety performance may also depend on mediation by safety-focused cognitive and emotional engagement by workers. Thus, when organizations invest in a safety management system approach to reducing/preventing accidents and improving safety performance, they should also be concerned about winning over the minds and hearts of their workers through human performance-based safety management systems designed to promote and enhance worker engagement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing preventive occupational health and safety activities in Danish enterprises during a period of financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.; Bach, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    is to unravel whether the onset of a general economic recession has had an impact on companies’ and public institutions’ preventive occupational health and safety activities. Hypotheses of the role of pro-cyclical and countercyclical effects are presented. This study is based on a survey of enterprise...... preventive occupational health safety activities. The baseline for the survey was established, in 2006 before the onset of the recession, with a follow up in 2011. Findings are discussed that support both the pro-cyclical and the countercyclical hypotheses. It is concluded that there is a need for a special......The onset of the financial crisis in 2008 has put pressure on enterprises that in turn have downsized and reorganized. Research has shown that economic recession has an effect on psychological and behavioral health that is attributed to working environment problems. The objective of this study...

  1. STATINES IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS CONNECTED DISEASES: EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Karpov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of large-scale studies carried out during last 10 years and devoted to the assessment of statines efficiency in prevention of ischemic heart disease (IHD, are analyzed. Decrease in risks of myocardial infarction, instable angina pectoris and mortality by 25-40%, ischemic stroke – by 25-30% (CARE, LIPID, WOSCOPS, AFCAPS/TexCAPS, HPS, ASCOT-LLA, CARDS is demonstrated. Recommendations for statines prescription for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including IHD and ischemic stroke, are significantly expanded. New goals in holesterol of low density lipoproteid (HLDL reduction are discussed, aswell as problems of statin treatment safety. The choice of the drug must be based on clinical research data, considering efficiency and safety at long-term use, as well as possibilities of achieving new goal level of HLDL.

  2. STATINES IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS CONNECTED DISEASES: EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Karpov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of large-scale studies carried out during last 10 years and devoted to the assessment of statines efficiency in prevention of ischemic heart disease (IHD, are analyzed. Decrease in risks of myocardial infarction, instable angina pectoris and mortality by 25-40%, ischemic stroke – by 25-30% (CARE, LIPID, WOSCOPS, AFCAPS/TexCAPS, HPS, ASCOT-LLA, CARDS is demonstrated. Recommendations for statines prescription for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including IHD and ischemic stroke, are significantly expanded. New goals in holesterol of low density lipoproteid (HLDL reduction are discussed, aswell as problems of statin treatment safety. The choice of the drug must be based on clinical research data, considering efficiency and safety at long-term use, as well as possibilities of achieving new goal level of HLDL.

  3. A system for quantifying the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J; Wang, E L

    2000-08-01

    This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998.

  4. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  5. [Biological safety of nanomaterials: the opportunity and challenge of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-09-01

    Nanotechnology, as a newly arisen technology, does not only benefit people, but also become one of the inevitable threats to public health due to the widely application of nanomaterials. The safety evaluation of nanomaterials has become one of the hottest research topics in the 21st century, which provides opportunities and challenges in the field of preventive medicine once in a blue moon. Although the history of development in the safety assessment of nanomaterials is just over twenty years, the achievements could not be underestimated. This paper summarized the research of nano biological, predicted the directions for future research, and proposed several recommendations, based on which, we hope it can promote the sustainable development safety in China.

  6. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea; E. Tolosana-Esteban; E. Roman-Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scie...

  7. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone open-quotes at faultclose quotes for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that open-quotes all accidents can be prevented.close quotes They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker''s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers'' compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers'' compensation expenditures

  8. Are youth-only motorcycle helmet laws better than none at all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Erin; Naud, Shelly; Shapiro, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The trend in state motorcycle helmet laws has been a reduction from universal coverage requiring all riders to wear helmets, to partial coverage requiring only younger riders to wear helmets. In the current study we evaluate whether partial helmet laws reduce motorcycle fatalities and increase helmet compliance among young riders. We compared a decade of motorcycle fatalities from the only 3 states with no helmet laws (New Hampshire, Iowa, Illinois) to 3 states with helmet laws (Connecticut, Indiana, Wisconsin). We excluded highway speeds, blood alcohol laws, and minimum legal drinking age as being significant variables. Overall, there was no significant difference in the average fatality rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations for helmet law states versus no helmet law states (P = 0.45). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the helmet wearing rate of helmet law versus no helmet law states (P = 0.79). Partial helmet laws neither significantly reduce fatality rates nor increase helmet compliance rates among young riders. A partial helmet law is roughly equivalent to none at all; only universal helmet laws have been shown to effectively protect young motorcyclists.

  9. Helmet Ownership and Use among Skateboarders: Utilisation of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…

  10. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Description of contributing factors in adverse events related to patient safety and their preventability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles

    2017-11-25

    To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Bicycle helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing: a re-analysis of Walker, 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Olivier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To re-analyse bicycle overtaking data collected by Walker (2007 with a view to assess factors associated with close passing (<1 m, to adjust for other observed factors in a multivariable analysis, and to assess the extent to which the sample size in the original analysis may have contributed to spurious results. METHOD: A re-analysis of 2,355 motor vehicle passing events recorded by Walker that includes information on cyclist's distance to the kerb, vehicle size and colour, city of observation, time of day, whether the event occurred while in a bikelane and helmet wearing. Each variable was considered for a final, multivariable model using purposeful selection of variables. The analysis was repeated using multiple logistic regression with passing distance dichotomised by the one metre rule. Bootstrap p-values were computed using sample sizes computed from conventional values of power and effect size. RESULTS: The previously observed significant association between passing distance and helmet wearing was not found when dichotomised by the one metre rule. Other factors were found to be significantly associated with close passing including cyclists' distance to the kerb, vehicle size and city of observation (Salisbury or Bristol, UK. P-values from bootstrap samples indicate the significance of helmet wearing resulted from an overly large sample size. CONCLUSIONS: After re-analysis of Walker's data, helmet wearing is not associated with close motor vehicle passing. The results, however, highlight other more important factors that may inform effective bicycle safety strategies.

  13. Protective Capacity of Ice Hockey Helmets against Different Impact Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Michio; Post, Andrew; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    In ice hockey, concussions can occur as a result of many different types of impact events, however hockey helmets are certified using a single injury scenario, involving drop tests to a rigid surface. The purpose of this study is to measure the protective capacity of ice hockey helmets for different impact events in ice hockey. A helmeted and unhelmeted Hybrid III headform were impacted simulating falls, elbow, shoulder and puck impacts in ice hockey. Linear and rotational acceleration and maximum principal strain (MPS) were measured. A comparison of helmeted and unhelmeted impacts found significant differences existed in most conditions (p  0.05). Impacts to the ice hockey helmet tested resulted in acceleration levels below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s, elbow collisions, and low velocity puck impacts but not for shoulder collisions or high velocity puck impacts and falls. The helmet tested reduced MPS below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s but not for the other impact events across all velocities and locations. This suggests that the ice hockey helmet tested is unable to reduce engineering parameters below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for impact conditions which do not represent a drop against a rigid surface.

  14. Radiant heat transfer of bicycle helmets and visors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets.

  15. Estimating the Size and Cost of the STD Prevention Services Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas L; Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Behl, Ajay S; Romaguera, Raul A; Leichliter, Jami S

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is expected to reduce the number of uninsured people in the United States during the next eight years, but more than 10% are expected to remain uninsured. Uninsured people are one of the main populations using publicly funded safety net sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention services. Estimating the proportion of the uninsured population expected to need STD services could help identify the potential demand for safety net STD services and improve program planning. In 2013, an estimated 8.27 million people met the criteria for being in need of STD services. In 2023, 4.70 million uninsured people are expected to meet the criteria for being in need of STD services. As an example, the cost in 2014 U.S. dollars of providing chlamydia screening to these people was an estimated $271.1 million in 2013 and is estimated to be $153.8 million in 2023. A substantial need will continue to exist for safety net STD prevention services in coming years.

  16. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (2). Reconstruction of safety logic diagram of nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Nakamura, Takao; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, severe accident occurred at multi units of nuclear power caused by natural disaster, which was the first of nuclear power in the world, and lead to nuclear disaster which contaminated a wide range of land and caused surrounding residents to evacuate for a long-term. Since Cyuetsu-oki earthquake and before this accident, Atomic Energy Society of Japan had activities to investigate 'safety of nuclear system' against earthquake beyond any expectation, identify research items and work out roadmap on future research activities. Correspondence against tsunami such as this accident was discussed but not included as proposal because of low tsunami hazards awareness. Based on this reflection and to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, reconsideration of nuclear safety from the standpoint of defense-in-depth against hazards beyond any expectation had been performed and proposed to establish roadmap for its realization. Basic principle of nuclear safety consisted of eleven principles so as to protect personnel and environment from harmful effects of radiation derived from nuclear facilities and their activities, which were categorized into three groups (responsibility and management system, personnel and environmental protection and prevention of accident initiation and effect mitigation). (T. Tanaka)

  17. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  18. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Michael D

    2017-05-19

    Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against

  19. Employee perception of a mandated helmet policy at Vail Resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Safety Standards: Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions and Sustaining Lower Fall Rates by Promoting the Culture of Safety on an Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Rita Marie; Adams, Rachel Joy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review a quality improvement project aimed to examine how nurse leaders in an inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) unit can reduce the number of patient falls by implementing multiple fall prevention interventions and sustain their results by promoting a strong culture of safety on the unit. A retrospective review of IPR fall rates was performed. Quarterly fall rates were then compared with implementation dates of fall prevention interventions (safety huddles, signage, and hourly rounding). Culture of safety scores were also examined to assess the effect of an enhanced culture of safety on the sustainability of lowered fall rates. The largest decrease in fall rate was noted after initial revitalization efforts of the IPR unit's culture of safety concurrently with hourly rounding. Fall rates rise and fall despite multiple fall prevention interventions and encouraging a positive shift in the culture of safety. Physical injuries following a fall can reduce mobility and increase morbidity. Costs associated with falls negatively impact costs and reimbursement. Employing evidence-based fall prevention strategies are then of critical importance to nurse leaders as falls remain an ongoing serious adverse event. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  1. Prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster (3). Agenda on nuclear safety from earthquake engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Hiroyuki; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Nakamura, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Based on results of activities of committee on seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, which started activities after Chuetsu-oki earthquake and then experienced Great East Japan Earthquake, (under close collaboration with the committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan started activities simultaneously), and taking account of further development of concept, agenda on nuclear safety were proposed from earthquake engineering. In order to prevent recurrence of nuclear disaster, individual technical issues of earthquake engineering and comprehensive issues of integration technology, multidisciplinary collaboration and establishment of technology governance based on them were of prime importance. This article described important problems to be solved; (1) technical issues and mission of seismic safety of NPPs, (2) decision making based on risk assessment - basis of technical governance, (3) framework of risk, design and regulation - framework of required technology governance, (4) technical issues of earthquake engineering for nuclear safety, (5) role of earthquake engineering in nuclear power risk communication and (6) importance of multidisciplinary collaboration. Responsibility of engineering would be attributed to establishment of technology governance, cultivation of individual technology and integration technology, and social communications. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Characteristics Associated With Violence and Safety in Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark R; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Carter, Sherry P; Carter, Stanley L

    2018-04-01

    This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and violence were assessed. Evaluators used the CPTED School Assessment (CSA) to quantify how well the physical elements of each school correspond to ideal CPTED principles. Generalized linear mixed models were used to adjust for school- and student-level characteristics. Higher CSA scores were generally associated with higher perceptions of safety and lower levels of violence perpetration and perceived risk in unadjusted models. Higher CSA scores were also associated with lower odds of missing school because of safety concerns in most adjusted models, with significant adjusted odds ratios (AORs) ranging from 0.32 to 0.63. CSA scores for parking and bus loading areas also remained associated with higher perceived safety (AORs = 1.28 and 1.32, respectively) and lower perceived risk (AORs = 0.73 and 0.66, respectively) in adjusted models. The CSA is useful for assessing school environments that are associated with violence-related behaviors and perceptions. The CSA might help guide school environmental modifications to reduce violence. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  3. Trends in helmet use by motorcycle riders in the decades following the repeal of mandatory helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jessica Laureano; Overton, Tiffany L; Campbell-Furtick, Mackenzie; Simon, Kaley; Duane, Therese M; Gandhi, Rajesh G; Shafi, Shahid

    2017-12-01

    Several US states repealed universal motorcycle helmet laws in the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to examine national trends in helmet use among adult trauma patients with motorcycle-related injuries. We hypothesized that motorcycle helmet use declined over time. We retrospectively analyzed the National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program for 2003-2010. We also obtained data on US motorcycle fatalities reported in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau to calculate motorcycle-related fatality rates over time. A total of 255,914 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 148,524 (58%) were helmeted. During the study period, helmet use increased from 56% in 2003 to 60% in 2010 (p motorcycle-related fatality rates also increased in states with and without universal helmet laws. Nationally, rates of helmet use have increased. However, fatalities due to motorcycle crashes have also increased during the same period.

  4. The implementation of a municipal indoor ice skating helmet policy: effects on helmet use, participation and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (effect of indoor ice skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Prevention, health and safety program in companies provide a more successful and healthier workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Lovisa

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the importance of injury prevention in the workplace and the status of this issue in Iceland. Using a theoretical approach, this article examines workers' psychological and physical health, as it is affect by work. The article seeks to answer the question, "What methods are appropriate when health and safety management is of primary importance in the workplace?" Finally, the article will explain the condition of these matters in Iceland, and will also discuss how one measurement strategy, called "Workplace Analysis", uses performance indicators to demonstrate the effectiveness of health and safety consultations. This tool has been developed by Solarpexus. It is important to analyze the work environment, set goals, and measure results.

  6. Safety evaluation of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    -drug interactions need to be considered before prescription. AREAS COVERED: This article thoroughly reviews aprepitant and, in particular, clinically relevant safety aspects of the drug. The literature review was performed using Medline with the following search terms: adverse events, aprepitant, chemotherapy, CYP3......A4, MK-0869, neurokinin(1) receptor antagonist, safety and tolerability. EXPERT OPINION: The recommended antiemetic regimen of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and a corticosteroid is safe. The combination of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and dexamethasone is now the gold standard of antiemetic treatment...... in prevention of CINV induced by HEC, or by the combination of an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. The intravenous formulation of aprepitant used as a single dose is expected to be of benefit to cancer patients....

  7. Population-based effectiveness and safety of different antiplatelet regimens as secondary prevention for ischemic stroke/Transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorsyahdy, Alfi; De Boer, Anthonius; Deneer, Vera H.M.; Ten Berg, Jurrien M.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different antiplatelet regimens are used for secondary prevention after ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA), but studies on the relative effectiveness and safety of each regimen in daily practice are lacking. Objectives: To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of

  8. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  9. Steering Kids to Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines to help parents explain traffic safety to children cover the following: school bus safety (e.g., remain seated, do not shout); walking (e.g., obey traffic signals, cross at crosswalks); driving (e.g., wear seatbelts, enter and exit from the curb side); and biking (e.g., wear helmets, do not ride at night). (SM)

  10. Repeal of the Michigan helmet law: early clinical impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alistair J; Titus, Rachel; Ferenchick, Hannah; Davis, Alan; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Michigan repealed a 35-year mandatory helmet law on April 13, 2012. We examined the early clinical impacts at a level 1 trauma center in West Michigan. Retrospective cohort study comparing outcomes among motorcycle crash victims in a 7-month period before and after the helmet law repeal. One hundred ninety-two patients were included. After the repeal, nonhelmeted motorcyclists rose from 7% to 29% (P helmet law. Motorcyclists not wearing helmets increased significantly in a short period of time. Nonhelmeted motorcyclists more frequently died on the scene, spent more time in the intensive care unit, required longer ventilator support, and had higher medical costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. State of infection prevention in US hospitals enrolled in the National Health and Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Weiner, Lindsey M; Furuya, E Yoko; Dick, Andrew; Larson, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    This report provides a national cross-sectional snapshot of infection prevention and control programs and clinician compliance with the implementation of processes to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). All hospitals, except Veterans Affairs hospitals, enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) were eligible to participate. Participation involved completing a survey assessing the presence of evidence-based prevention policies and clinician adherence and joining our NHSN research group. Descriptive statistics were computed. Facility characteristics and HAI rates by ICU type were compared between respondents and nonrespondents. Of the 3,374 eligible hospitals, 975 provided data (29% response rate) on 1,653 ICUs, and there were complete data on the presence of policies in 1,534 ICUs. The average number of infection preventionists (IPs) per 100 beds was 1.2. Certification of IP staff varied across institutions, and the average hours per week devoted to data management and secretarial support were generally low. There was variation in the presence of policies and clinician adherence to these policies. There were no differences in HAI rates between respondents and nonrespondents. Guidelines for IP staffing in acute care hospitals need to be updated. In future work, we will analyze the associations between HAI rates and infection prevention and control program characteristics, as well as the inplementation of and clinician adherence to evidence-based policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Italian National Health Service expenditure on workplace prevention and safety (2006-2013): a national-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Riccò, M; Odone, A

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) stated that countries' health policies should give high priority to primary prevention of occupational health hazards. Scant data are available on health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services and on its impact on occupational health outcomes in Italy and in other European countries. objective of the present study was to systematically retrieve, analyse and critically appraise the available national-level data on public health expenditure on workplace prevention and safety services as well as to correlate them with occupational health outcomes. National-level data on total public health expenditure on prevention services, its share spent on workplace prevention and safety services as well as on number of workers receiving appropriate health surveillance were derived from the national public health expenditure monitoring system over a 8-year study period (2006-2013). An analytic approach was adopted to explore the association between health expenditure and occupational health services supply. The Italian National Health Service spends almost € 5 billion per year on preventive care, of which 13.3% are spent on workplace prevention and safety programmes (€ 645 million, € 10.6 per capita). There is wide heterogeneity between Italian regions. Our findings are useful for health systems and policies analysis, national and international comparisons as well as for health policy makers to plan, implement and monitor occupational health prevention programmes.

  13. Attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons concerning protective bicycle-helmet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2010-05-01

    Wearing protective helmets decreases the risk of incurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) in bicycle accidents. In 2007, the German Neurosurgical Society advocated compulsory use of bicycle helmets. Although neurosurgeons are the specialists who primarily treat patients with TBI in Europe, the distribution of helmet users among neurosurgeons (NS), as well as factors that influence the decision to wear helmets and whether professional knowledge or experience in TBI influences the use or attitude concerning bicycle helmets, remains unclear. A total of 55 neurosurgical departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were contacted and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires concerning helmet use and TBI experience. To compare the neurosurgical attitude with that of a "non-neurosurgical, non-TBI-educated" control group, people of the general public (PUB) were interviewed. A total of 465 NS and 546 PUB returned questionnaires, with 49.7% of the NS and 44.5% of PUB indicated that they wear helmets while bicycling. Trauma experience did effect the personal decision of whether to wear bicycle helmets. Support of compulsory use was influenced by TBI experience. Furthermore, the incidence of helmet use in children was correlated to actual helmet use and disposition of their parents to make helmet use compulsory. NS and PUB behaved in similar ways. Only half wear protective helmets, while the others show cognitive dissonant behavior. With respect to compulsory helmet use, NS are also split in half. Experience with TBI and trauma education has effects. However, education alone does not suffice in promoting the use of bicycle helmets.

  14. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  15. Finite element modelling of helmeted head impact under frontal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and ...

  16. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities in the wake of governmentally implemented change: a retrospective analysis of the motorcycle morbidity and mortality before, during, and after the repeal of a statewide helmet mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Shane F; Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Nanda, Anil

    2013-06-01

    On August 15, 2004, Louisiana's universal motorcycle helmet mandate was reinstated. Previous studies have shown that mortality and morbidity of motorcycle riders who crashed had increased during the 5 years the mandate was repealed. The objective of this study was to discern whether the reinstatement of the universal helmet mandate has resulted in a subsequent decrease in motorcycle-related mortality and morbidity in the state of Louisiana. A retrospective analysis was performed observing the regularity of helmet use and the associated morbidity and mortality of motorcycle traffic accidents from the time before, during, and after the universal motorcycle helmet mandate was repealed in the state of Louisiana. Fatality statistics were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association. Injury, helmet use, and collision data were obtained from the Louisiana Highway Safety Commission. Motorcycle registration data were obtained from the Federal Highway Administration. Motorcycle crash-related fatalities increased significantly when the statewide helmet mandate was repealed, and interestingly, after reinstatement, these fatality rates never returned to their previous lows. Motorcycle fatalities have increased out of proportion to the increase in motorbike registrations, even when yearly fatalities are normalized to fatalities per 10,000 registered bikes. An all-time high in fatalities was seen in 2006, a year subsequent to the mandate's reinstatement. Fatalities per collision were elevated significantly after the mandate's repeal but did not return to prerepeal lows after the mandate's reinstatement. Although helmet use after reinstatement has reached all-time highs, fatality rates have remained elevated since the original mandate repeal in 1999. Other achievable changes in state policy and law enforcement should be explored to quell this heightened risk to motorcycle enthusiasts in Louisiana, and states considering changing their own motorcycle helmet

  17. Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? evidence from urban cities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra

    2013-09-01

    Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

  18. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  19. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  20. The radiological safety in the petroleum industry. The behavior toward the prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian T, W.

    2006-01-01

    Inside the mark of the regulatory control it takes a preponderant place the control of sealed and open radioactive sources, in oil applications. In this task, the handling of the radioactive sources, the demand of the use of written procedures and the training, they are only some examples, of all those that conform the regulatory control. Among these topics they stand out a series of aspects divided in three big groups: operative radiological safety in the base, in the transport and in the task properly said. Given the great quantity of aspects that should be kept in mind, as well as the integration of all the control processes should be included strongly, aspects of safety and quality culture, and to introduce improvements as for the prevention refers, to correct deviations and remoteness that can be produced, avoiding like this, situations of radiological risk, emphasizing aspects of perception of the risk, training in attitudes, the implementation of audits and verifications of the safety level of the installation and the pursuit and control of the tasks that involve the manipulation of radioactive material, which are described in this work. (Author)

  1. Fall risk and prevention agreement: engaging patients and families with a partnership for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnes, Cassandra; Wolf, Darcy

    2017-01-01

    Falls are multifactorial in medical oncology units and are potentiated by an older adult's response to anxiolytics, opiates and chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the oncology patient is at an increased risk for injury from a fall due to coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and advanced age. At our National Cancer Institute-designated inpatient cancer treatment centre located in the southeastern USA, 40% of the total discharges are over the age of 65. As part of a comprehensive fall prevention programme, bimonthly individual fall reports have been presented with the Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), nursing directors, nurse managers, physical therapists and front-line providers in attendance. As a result of these case discussions, in some cases, safety recommendations have not been followed by patients and families and identified as an implication in individual falls. Impulsive behaviour was acknowledged only after a fall occurred. A medical oncology unit was targeted for this initiative due to a prolonged length of stay. This patient population receives chemotherapeutic interventions, management of oncological treatment consequences and cancer progression care. The aim of this project was to explore if initiation of a Fall Prevention Agreement between the nursing team and older adults being admitted to medical oncology units would reduce the incidence of falls and the incidence of falls with injury. In order to promote patient and family participation in the fall reduction and safety plan, the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement was introduced upon admission. Using the Morse Fall Scoring system, patient's risk for fall was communicated on the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement. Besides admission, patients were reassessed based on change of status, transfer or after a fall occurs. Fall and fall injuries rates were compared two-quarters prior to implementation of the fall agreement and eight-quarters post implementation. Falls and fall injuries on the medical oncology unit

  2. Child Injury Prevention in the Home: A National Survey of Safety Practices and Use of Safety Equipment in Deprived Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, C. A.; Watson, M. C.; Smith, S.; Coupland, C.; Kendrick, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of home safety practices and use of safety equipment by disadvantaged families participating in a national home safety equipment scheme in England. Design: Cross-sectional postal survey sent to a random sample of 1,000 families. Setting: England, United Kingdom. Results: Half the families (51%) returned a…

  3. Primary prevention of ocular injury in agricultural workers with safety eyewear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Chatterjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of preventing eye injury with the use of safety eyewear in agriculture workers. Methods: A sample group of 575 agricultural workers (Group A engaged in harvesting paddy were provided with goggles with side covers. Following harvesting, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out to determine the frequency of their eye injuries. Workers with goggles were asked about the duration for which they used the goggles and also list barriers or difficulties with the same. The frequency of eye injuries in this group was compared with another group of agriculture workers (Group B who did not use any safety eyewear. Results: The frequency of eye injuries in Group A was 4 (0.7% and Group B was 61 (11.3% which was highly significant (P = 0.0001. The relative risk calculated was 0.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.02–0.2. Agricultural workers in Group A had 94% less risk of ocular trauma compared to those in Group B. Injuries in both groups were caused by parts of the paddy plant. A significant number (76.2% of workers used the goggles all or most of the time during work. Impaired vision when wearing goggles was the most frequent barrier reported by the workers. Other barriers were discomfort, shyness, forgetfulness, apathy, slowing of work pace, awkward appearance, and breakages. Conclusion: Safety eyewear conferred significant protection against work-related eye injuries in agriculture. Although safety eyewear was widely adopted by the workers, barriers reported by them will need to be addressed to make such programs more effective.

  4. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  5. The safety of antiemetic medications for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. The purpose of the review is to determine the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents. Information on antiemetic guideline recommended antiemetics derived from PubMed showed that the first and second generation 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists have been safe and effective in the control of acute emesis with a small number of patients experiencing mild headache, diarrhea, or constipation. Improvement in the prevention of delayed emesis has occurred with the neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant with mild headache, constipation, hiccups, and fatigue the most commonly reported adverse events. Olanzapine, an antipsychotic that blocks multiple neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, appears to be effective in the prevention of nausea and emesis with mild short term sedation the only reported adverse event. The current antiemetics that are recommended by the various international antiemetic guidelines are safe and effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting when used in the recommended doses. Practitioners should consult the antiemetic guidelines for patients receiving chemotherapy.

  6. Safety and efficacy of colchicine therapy in the prevention of recurrent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Judy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    A review of published data on the safety and efficacy of colchicine therapy for primary and secondary prevention of pericarditis is presented. Colchicine has been used effectively as an antiinflammatory agent for gout and has shown promise as a treatment for acute and recurrent pericarditis. Several small studies have indicated that colchicine can decrease pericarditis symptom persistence at 72 hours and pericarditis recurrence rates at 18 months compared with conventional therapy (corticosteroids and aspirin or ibuprofen). A review of pooled data from four prospective randomized trials concluded that colchicine is safe and efficacious for the management of acute and recurrent pericarditis, with the results indicating lower rates of the respective primary and secondary endpoints of recurrent disease and symptom persistence in colchicine-treated patients. A separate meta-analysis of five studies found a reduced risk of pericarditis with colchicine use, suggesting that the drug may have clinical utility in both primary and secondary prevention. The accumulated evidence suggests that treatment with colchicine in the context of pericarditis is safe and well tolerated, with gastrointestinal intolerance being the most common adverse event documented in the clinical trials to date. Based on a review of the literature, prevention of recurrent pericarditis with colchicine can be considered a safe and effective option, though some patients have experienced gastrointestinal intolerance. Due to evidence that corticosteroids may potentially exacerbate the risk of relapse, colchicine may be a safer and preferable option. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discussing Firearm Ownership and Access as Part of Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: "Means Safety" versus "Means Restriction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relative utility of the terms "means safety" versus "means restriction" in counseling individuals to limit their access to firearms in the context of a mock suicide risk assessment. Overall, 370 participants were randomized to read a vignette depicting a clinical scenario in which managing firearm ownership and access was discussed either using the term "means safety" or "means restriction." Participants rated the term "means safety" as significantly more acceptable and preferable than "means restriction." Participants randomized to the "means safety" condition reported greater intentions to adhere to clinicians' recommendations to limit access to a firearm for safety purposes (F[1,367] = 7.393, p = .007, [Formula: see text]). The term "means safety" may be more advantageous than "means restriction" when discussing firearm ownership and access in clinical settings and public health-oriented suicide prevention efforts.

  8. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  10. Evaluation of safety balls and faceguards for prevention of injuries in youth baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Mueller, Frederick O; Kirby, Daniel P; Yang, Jingzhen

    2003-02-05

    Safety balls and faceguards are widely used in youth baseball, but their effectiveness in reducing injury is unknown. To evaluate the association of the use of faceguards and safety balls and injuries in youth baseball. Ecological study using a national database of compensated insurance claims maintained by Little League Baseball Incorporated, combined with data on the number of participants in Little League and data from a census of protective equipment usage for youth aged 5 to 18 years participating in Little League Baseball in the United States during 1997-1999. Rate of injury and injury rate ratio comparing users with nonusers of protective equipment. A total of 6 744 240 player-seasons of follow-up and 4233 compensated injury claims were available for analysis. The absolute incidence of compensated injury per 100 000 player-seasons was 28.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.76-29.29) for ball-related injury and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.32-3.11) for facial injury. Overall, use of safety balls was associated with a reduced risk of ball-related injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93). This reduction was essentially due to 1 type of safety ball, known as the reduced-impact ball (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.91). Use of faceguards reduced the risk of facial injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.98). Metal and plastic guards appeared to be equally effective. Safety balls appeared to be more effective in the minor division (ages 7-12 years) than in the regular division (ages 9-12 years). Reduced-impact balls and faceguards were associated with a reduced risk of injury in youth baseball. These findings support increased usage of these items; however, it should be noted that the absolute incidence of injury in youth baseball is low and that these equipment items do not prevent all injuries.

  11. Safety of probiotics used to reduce risk and prevent or treat disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Susanne; Newberry, Sydne; Ruelaz, Alicia; Wang, Zhen; Miles, Jeremy N V; Suttorp, Marika J; Johnsen, Breanne; Shanman, Roberta; Slusser, Wendelin; Fu, Ning; Smith, Alex; Roth, Beth; Polak, Joanna; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja; Shekelle, Paul G

    2011-04-01

    To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease. We searched 12 electronic databases, references of included studies, and pertinent reviews for studies addressing the safety of probiotics from database inception to August 2010 without language restriction. We identified intervention studies on probiotics that reported the presence or absence of adverse health outcomes in human participants, without restriction by study design, participant type, or clinical field. We investigated the quantity, quality, and nature of adverse events. The search identified 11,977 publications, of which 622 studies were included in the review. In 235 studies, only nonspecific safety statements were made ("well tolerated"); the remaining 387 studies reported the presence or absence of specific adverse events. Interventions and adverse events were poorly documented. A number of case studies described fungemia and some bacteremia potentially associated with administered probiotic organisms. Controlled trials did not monitor routinely for such infections and primarily reported on gastrointestinal adverse events. Based on reported adverse events, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed no statistically significantly increased relative risk (RR) of the overall number of experienced adverse events (RR 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 1.07, p=0.999); gastrointestinal; infections; or other adverse events, including serious adverse events (RR 1.06; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16; p=0.201), associated with short-term probiotic use compared to control group participants; long-term effects are largely unknown. Existing studies primarily examined Lactobacillus alone or in combination with other genera, often Bifidobacterium. Few studies directly compared the safety among different intervention or

  12. Quality systems for radiotherapy: Impact by a central authority for improved accuracy, safety and accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervinen, H.; Sipilae, P.; Parkkinen, R.; Kosunen, A.; Jokelainen, I.

    2001-01-01

    High accuracy in radiotherapy is required for the good outcome of the treatments, which in turn implies the need to develop comprehensive Quality Systems for the operation of the clinic. The legal requirements as well as the recommendation by professional societies support this modern approach for improved accuracy, safety and accident prevention. The actions of a national radiation protection authority can play an important role in this development. In this paper, the actions of the authority in Finland (STUK) for the control of the implementation of the new requirements are reviewed. It is concluded that the role of the authorities should not be limited to simple control actions, but comprehensive practical support for the development of the Quality Systems should be provided. (author)

  13. Ergonomic work analysis as a tool of prevention for the occupational safety and health management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda Prottes, Verônica; Oliveira, Nádia Cristina; de Oliveira Andrade, Alessandra Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Ergonomic Work Analysis as a relevant instrument to identify the risks in occupational environments through the investigation of factors that influence the relationship between the worker and the productive process. It draws a parallel between the several aspects of risk identification in traditional tools of Health and Safety Management and the factors embraced by the Ergonomic Work Analysis, showing that the ergonomic methodology is able to go deeper in the scenarios of possible incident causes. This deepening enables the establishment of a relationship between the work context and the upcoming damage to the physical integrity of the worker. It acts as a complementary instrument in the traditional approach to the risk management. In order to explain the application of this methodology in a preventive way, it is presented a case study of a coal mill inspector in a siderurgic company.

  14. A Novel and High Performance System for Enhancing Speech in Helmet, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...

  15. Design of a Helmet Liner for Improved Low Velocity Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LS-DYNA CUSHIONING HEAD( ANATOMY ) COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION HELMETS PROTOTYPES...DC : Headquarters, Department of the Army, 2008. 11. Moss, W.C. Impact Response of US Army and National Footbal League Helmet Pad Systems

  16. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  17. Radiation Safety and Culture of Prevention in the Use of Radioactive Materials in Industry. Criteria and Trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  18. Radiation safety and culture of prevention in the use of radioactive materials in industry : criteria and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppa, Walter Adrian

    2008-01-01

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  19. Strategy for Coordinated EPA/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Implementation of the Chemical Accident Prevention Requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.

  20. Repeal of the Michigan helmet law: the evolving clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Rebecca H; Chapman, Alistair J; Titus, Rachel A; Davis, Alan T; Rodriguez, Carlos H

    2016-03-01

    Michigan repealed a 35-year mandatory helmet law in April 2012. We examined the impact of this legislation on a level 1 trauma center. A retrospective cohort study comparing the 7-month period before and the 3 motorcycle seasons after the helmet law repeal. A total of 345 patients were included in the study. Nonhelmeted riders increased from 7% to 28% after the repeal. Nonhelmeted crash scene fatalities were higher after the repeal (14% vs 68%). The nonhelmeted cohort had significantly higher in-patient mortality (10% vs 3%), injury severity score (19 vs 14.5) and abbreviated injury scale head (2.2 vs 1.3). Non-helmeted riders also had increased alcohol use, intensive care unit length of stay and need for mechanical ventilation. The median hospital cost for the non-helmeted cohort was higher (P helmet law repeal continues to evolve. Three years after this legislative change, we are now observing increased injury severity score, higher in-patient mortality, and worse neurologic injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SEISMIC SAFETY OF THE PRECAST BALCONY CANTILEVER ELEMENTS FOR PREVENTION OF THERMAL BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Azinović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the seismic response of precast balcony cantilever structural elements for prevention of thermal bridges was analysed. This solution has been developed in seismic non-prone areas with the main purpose of eliminating a thermal bridge at the point where the balcony is fixed to the building. The solution has been specially made to withstand vertical static loading, not accounting for eventual vertical seismic loads in the case of transferring the solution to more active seismic zones. This paper deals with the seismic analysis of existent precast cantilever elements exposed to vertical accelerations and has proven that some elements in the case of lifting are not sufficient from the safety point of view. The results of the main research results obtained by numerous seismic analyses can be summarized as follows: 1 the insertion of a precast load-bearing thermal insulation element increases the flexibility of RC fixed base cantilevers and therefore limits their length to 300–400 cm, 2 vertical seismic loads can result in the cantilever uplift, which means that tensile stresses could appear also at the bottom of the cross-section 3 precast elements, that appear on the Slovenian market to this day, do not have the appropriate steel reinforcement in the bottom part of the cross-section. For this reason, the possibility of damage is considerably higher for precast cantilever structural elements than for RC fixed base cantilevers. Statistically calculated probability of cantilever uplift for Ljubljana, which would result in severe damage, is relatively low (3% in the 50-year life span. However, the calculated value is greater than the maximum acceptable level of seismic risk for collapse. One of the possible solutions to prevent the negative influences of cantilever uplift is to consider the proper reinforcement also at the bottom of the precast elements' crosssection, or by other measures preventing uplift.

  2. Motorcycle Helmets: The Economic Burden of an Incomplete Helmet Law to Medical Care in the State of Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    The lack of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law leads to increased injury severity and increased health care costs. This study presents a financial model to estimate how the lack of a mandatory helmet law impacts the cost of health care in the state of Connecticut. The average cost to treat a helmeted rider and a nonhelmeted rider was $3,112 and $5,746 respectively (cost adjusted for year 2014). The total hospital treatment cost in the state of Connecticut from 2003 through 2012 was $73,106,197, with $51,508,804 attributed to nonhelmeted riders and $21,597,393 attributed to helmeted riders. The total Medicaid cost to the state of Connecticut for treating nonhelmeted patients was $18,277,317. This model demonstrates that the lack of a mandatory helmet law increases overall health care costs to the state of Connecticut, and provides a framework by which hospital costs can be reduced to contribute to the economic stability of health care economics in the state.

  3. Angles of entry of ultraviolet radiation into welding helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets.

  4. A Thermal Test System for Helmet Cooling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Fitzgerald

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.

  5. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-12-01

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  6. MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniekpeno Elijah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with commercial motorcycle helmets were investigated in the commercial city of Lagos, Nigeria. 300 motorcycle helmets were randomly collected from different commercial motor cyclists in two densely populated areas of Lagos: Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH and Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH main gates respectively. Two sterile swabs moistened with sterile water were rotated over the inner surface of each helmet and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Nutrient Agar for bacterial growth and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for fungi growth. The plates for bacteria growth were incubated aerobically at 37 ºC for 48 h, while plates for fungi at 28 ºC for 2 weeks. Biochemical tests were used to identify bacteria; while, cultural characteristics were used for fungi identification. The microorganisms consistently common to the samples investigated in the two locations were similar and included (with respective frequency of occurrence for both location: Staphylococcus aureus (80%; 7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%; 12%, Staphylococcus epidermis (60%; 8%, Enterobacter aerogenes (52%; 27%, Escherichia coli (40%; 13%, Bacillus spp (37%; 10%, Aspergillus spp (82%; 7%, Candida spp (55%; 22%, Rhizopus spp (40%; 27%, and Penicilium spp (35%; 12%. The motorcycle helmets collected at YABATECH had higher microbial colonization than LUTH irrespective of the isolates. This trend was similar for bacterial and fungi. Results showed that helmets could serve as vehicles for transmission of pathogens. Good hygiene practice (GHP and regular cleaning of motor cycle helmets with sterilants is strongly advocated in order to reduce the incidence of microbial transmission and its associated infection.

  7. Study of the use of personal equipment in low coal. Experiments on personal equipment for low seam coal miners: VI. Comparison bumping hazards with high and low profile helmets. Phase II report, number 6. Open file report 1 Jan 79-1 Sep 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Wick, D.; Krohn, G.

    1980-01-31

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal personal equipment design for use in low coal based on ergonomic, biomechanic, and safety considerations. This report describes an experiment that was conducted to compare the relative bumping hazards of a low- and high-profile hard hat (helmet) in a low seam mining environment. The study was specifically designed to assess the effect of lowering the helmet profile on frequency of head impacts.

  8. Medical Cost and Motorcycle Helmet Law in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether the implementation of the helmet law had reduced the likelihood of head injury and the associated medical cost in Taiwan. Data were taken from the 1996 and 1998 population-based data. In total, 888,179 and 921,058 effective samples were used in the study from the two years. Two different types of regression model were adopted to evaluate the impact of the motorcycle helmet use law on incidences of head injury and associated medical cost and h...

  9. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  10. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  11. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  12. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  13. Motorcycle Policy and the Public Interest: A Recommendation for a New Type of Partial Motorcycle Helmet Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt B; Healy, Colleen; Rees, Clifford M; Sklar, David

    2017-03-01

    Motorcycle helmet laws are perceived to infringe upon individual rights even though they reduce mortality and health care costs. We describe proposed helmet legislation that protects individual rights and provides incentives for helmet use through a differential motorcycle registration fee that requires higher fees for those who wish to ride without a helmet.

  14. An Evaluation of the Compressive Properties of Helmet Pads Pre- and Post-Shock Wave Overpressure Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    OVERPRESSURE WOUNDS AND INJURIES IMPACT STATIC TESTS PADS(CUSHIONS) TEST AND EVALUATION TRAUMA...HELMET PADS HEAD(ANATOMY) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY HELMETS SHOCK TUBES ACH(ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET) U.S...Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [5] W. C. Moss and M. J. King, "Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad

  15. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  16. Paternalism and its discontents: motorcycle helmet laws, libertarian values, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-02-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.

  17. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  18. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  19. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-07-07

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  20. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  1. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  3. Impact of motorcycle helmets and state laws on society's burden: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Martin A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Magnotti, Louis J; Fabian, Timothy C

    2009-09-01

    To analyze a large national database, the National Trauma Data Bank, regarding the contribution of motorcycle helmet use to outcome and the efficacy of state helmet laws. Motorcycle helmet laws remain controversial, and advocacy groups continue their lobbying efforts to rescind or weaken existing laws. One argument is that helmets contribute to severe injuries and are not associated with survival. The National Trauma Data Bank identified motorcycle crash patients from 2002 to 2007. Data collected included demographics, markers of injury severity, resource utilization, and outcome. Over 2.3 million patients were entered into the National Trauma Data Bank. A total of 76,944 were in motorcycle collisions and had helmet use documented. Mean age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score were 36 years, 13.7, and 13.5, respectively. Of the patients 76% wore helmets, and had lower Glasgow coma scale, injury severity score, head abbreviated injury scale, resource utilization, and mortality than unhelmeted patients. There were more uninsured patients who did not wear helmets. Logistic regression analysis indicated that helmet use has a strong protective effect on in-hospital mortality. Helmet use could save approximately $32.5 million by reducing ICU stay. Unhelmeted motorcycle crash patients suffer more severe brain injuries, consume more resources, and have the worst payor mix. Society bears a large financial burden for these uninsured unhelmeted patients. There is a survival advantage for helmeted patients. All states should have universal motorcycle helmet laws that are aggressively enforced.

  4. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  5. Improving patient safety through a clinical audit spiral: prevention of wrong tooth extraction in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, H; Waring, D

    2017-07-07

    Introduction With an increasing demand to improve patient safety within the NHS, it is important to ensure that measures are undertaken to continually improve patient care. Wrong site surgery has been defined as a 'never event'. This article highlights the importance of preventing wrong tooth extraction within orthodontics through an audit spiral over five years investigating the accuracy and clarity of orthodontic extraction letters at the University Dental Hospital of Manchester.Aims To examine compliance with the standards for accuracy and clarity of extraction letters and the incidence of wrong tooth extractions, and to increase awareness of the errors that can occur with extraction letters and of the current guidelines.Method A retrospective audit was conducted examining extraction letters sent to clinicians outside the department.Results It can be seen there has been no occurrence of a wrong site tooth extraction. The initial audit highlighted issues in conformity, with it falling below expected standards. Cycle two generally demonstrated a further reduction in compliance. Cycle three appeared to result in an increase in levels of compliance. Cycles 4 and 5 have demonstrated gradual improvements. However, it is noteworthy that in all cycles the audit standards were still not achieved, with the exception of no incidences of the incorrect tooth being extracted.Conclusion This audit spiral demonstrates the importance of long term re-audit to aim to achieve excellence in clinical care. There has been a gradual increase in standards through each audit.

  6. Injury prevention and safety promotion course in a Russian Master of Public Health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Sumarokov, Yury; Ytterstad, Børge

    2012-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Studies describe and emphasise injury as a major and increasing component in the panorama of global ill health. Russia has the one of the highest injury rates in Europe. When a Master in Public Health programme was planned and started in 2007 in Arkhangelsk, Russia, under the auspices of University of Tromsø, Norway, a course on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion was included. A take-over programme (training-the-trainers) was implemented within the course. The present paper describes the course content, the students and their background, the training-the-trainers programme, the evaluation procedure and its results. So far, 53 students have passed the course, 77% being female. The majority of students were medical doctors (51%), psychologists (11%), pedagogues (9%), dentists (6%) and nurses (6%). The take-over programme has functioned well by gradually using students of excellence as teachers. In 2012, the take-over programme is completed and only Russians teach. Evaluation by students of the course content, organisation and pedagogic approach was useful for improvements.

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Oxytocin for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Rajaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH is the commonest cause of maternal death worldwide. Studies suggest that the use of misoprostol may be beneficial in clinical settings where oxytocin is unavailable. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oxytocin and misoprostol when used in the prevention of PPH. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 400 pregnant women who had a vaginal delivery were assigned into two groups: to receive either 20 IU of oxytocin in 1000 mL Ringer’s solution and two placebo tablets or 400 mcg oral misoprostol (as two tablets and 2 mL normal saline in 1000 mL Ringer’s solution. The quantity of blood loss was higher in the oxytocin group in comparison to the misoprostol group. There was no significant difference in the decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin between the two groups. Although there was no significant difference in the need for transfusions between the two groups, the patients in the oxytocin group had greater need for additional oxytocin. Results from this study indicate that it may be considered as an alternative for oxytocin in low resource clinical settings. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01863706.

  8. The Impact of Michigan’s Partial Repeal of the Universal Motorcycle Helmet Law on Helmet Use, Fatalities, and Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrick M.; Buckley, Lisa; Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Cicchino, Jessica B.; Hemmila, Mark; Bowman, Patrick J.; Almani, Farideh; Bingham, C. Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan’s universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. Methods We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk. Results Helmet use decreased in crash (93.2% vs 70.8%; P helmet nonuse (AOR = 1.84), alcohol intoxication (AOR = 11.31), intersection crashes (AOR = 1.62), and crashes at higher speed limits (AOR = 1.04) increased fatality risk. Helmet nonuse (AOR = 2.31) and alcohol intoxication (AOR = 2.81) increased odds of head injury. Conclusions Michigan’s helmet law repeal resulted in a 24% to 27% helmet use decline among riders in crashes and a 14% increase in head injury. PMID:27854530

  9. Predicting bicycle helmet stage-of-change among middle school, high school, and college cyclists from demographic, cognitive, and motivational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey; Okun, Morris; Quay, Nancy

    2004-09-01

    To apply Prochaska's Transtheoretical model of behavior change to bicycle helmet use among middle school, high school, and college students. A battery of questionnaires was administered to cyclists in the seventh and ninth grades and to college students in Phoenix, Arizona (N=797). The battery included: (1) a question to determine respondent's stage of behavior change in Prochaska's Transtheoretical model; (2) items assessing the perceived pros and cons of helmet use; (3) a bicycle safety knowledge test; and (4) demographic information. Forty-three percent of the students were in "Precontemplation," 17% were in either "Contemplation" or "Preparation," 16% were in either "Action" or "Maintenance," and 24% were in the "Relapse" stage of change. Grade, Sex, Knowledge, Pros, and Cons, and the Grade by sex and the Grade by knowledge interactions were significant predictors of helmet use stages. Compared with students in Precontemplation, students in the Contemplation stage were disproportionately younger and had higher Pro scores, lower Con scores, and more knowledge (except in the ninth grade). The Transtheoretical model of behavior change is a viable theoretical framework for designing interventions aimed at increasing bicycle helmet use in children and adolescents.

  10. 76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... available, will be beneficial to highway safety. Production of vehicles with these systems has grown from.... ``Technical Assessment of Toyota Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Systems,'' National Highway Traffic Safety.... ``Technical Assessment of Toyota Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Systems,'' National Highway Traffic Safety...

  11. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were.

  12. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  13. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were used to collect ...

  14. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Abstract. Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that ...

  15. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate and keet survival rates in a wild (WL) and a semi-confined (SC) group. We undertook the study in Eastern ...

  16. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... birds were affected primarily by the loss of foraging and nesting habitat and by human disturbance. Different conservation measures ... wisely manage human helmeted guinea fowl interac- tions. There are six guinea .... flapping, bill cleaning, bill scratching, and body shaking and tail shaking, and v. Resting: ...

  17. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: slope perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.

  18. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  19. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  20. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  1. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  2. From learning from accidents to teaching about accident causation and prevention: Multidisciplinary education and safety literacy for all engineering students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Joseph H.; Pendley, Cynthia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we argue that system accident literacy and safety competence should be an essential part of the intellectual toolkit of all engineering students. We discuss why such competence should be taught and nurtured in engineering students, and provide one example for how this can be done. We first define the class of adverse events of interest as system accidents, distinct from occupational accidents, through their (1) temporal depth of causality and (2) diversity of agency or groups and individuals who influence or contribute to the accident occurrence/prevention. We then address the question of why the interest in this class of events and their prevention, and we expand on the importance of system safety literacy and the contributions that engineering students can make in the long-term towards accident prevention. Finally, we offer one model for an introductory course on accident causation and system safety, discuss the course logistics, material and delivery, and our experience teaching this subject. The course starts with the anatomy of accidents and is grounded in various case studies; these help illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, and provide the students with the important concepts to describe the phenomenology of accidents (e.g., initiating events, accident precursor or lead indicator, and accident pathogen). More importantly, the case studies invite a deep reflection on the underlying failure mechanisms, their generalizability, and the various safety levers for accident prevention. The course then proceeds to an exposition of defense-in-depth, safety barriers and principles, essential elements for an education in accident prevention, and it concludes with a presentation of basic concepts and tools for uncertainty and risk analysis. Educators will recognize the difficulties in designing a new course on such a broad subject. It is hoped that this work will invite comments and contributions from the readers, and that the journal will

  3. Motor carrier safety : reincarnating commercial vehicle companies pose safety threat to motoring public; federal safety agency has initiated efforts to prevent future occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In 2008, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) reports that there were about 300 fatalities from bus crashes in the United States. Although bus crashes are relatively rare, they are particularly deadly since many individuals may be ...

  4. Eighteen years of recommendations to prevent industrial chemical incidents: results and lessons learned of the US Chemical Safety Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, V A; Anenberg, S C; Kaszniak, M; Robinson, B

    2016-10-01

    The US Chemical Safety Board (CSB), a federal agency that investigates significant chemical incidents and hazards, is interested in determining the impact of the recommendations resulting from its investigations, and how to better more effective recommendations to prevent chemical incidents. This is a descriptive study of the US Chemical Safety Board's safety recommendations. The CSB coded and analysed its safety recommendations according to potential impact on reducing incidents, implementation status, purpose and recipient type. As of March 31, 2015, the CSB has issued 733 recommendations, 75% (548) of which are closed and 25% (185) of which remain open. For recommendations categorised as having high, medium, and low impact, 38% (78), 76% (160), and 78% (245) were implemented, respectively. CSB recommendations have led to important and lasting safety changes through regulations, industry guidance and voluntary consensus standards, and individual companies; however, coding recommendations by potential impact do not fully capture the influence of CSB recommendations. While this methodology serves as a preliminary way to determine the effect of recommendations, further data are needed to determine the extent to which these safety changes have reduced the frequency or severity of industrial accidents. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  5. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1400 - Safety equipment: All vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 154.1). (5) Three helmets that meet ANSI Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection, Z-89.1... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety equipment: All vessels. 154.1400 Section 154.1400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY...

  7. Radiation safety supervisory system in Latvia and its role in prevention of unauthorised practices with radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglajs, A.; Salmins, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the practical and legal aspects of the use of radiation sources. The existing regulatory infrastructure is briefly analysed and proposed systems are described. The proposed interactions between the regulatory body and the advisory board are presented and some details about joint activities of different institutions concerning radiation safety are given. An implementation example of the supervisory system in combating illicit trafficking is analysed and the essential components in the prevention of illicit trafficking are assessed. Some findings of investigations are quoted regarding improvements in protection and prevention on the national and the international level. (author)

  8. The challenge of compiling data profiles to stimulate local preventive health action: a European case study from child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Gissler, Mika; Köhler, Lennart; MacKay, Morag

    2015-05-01

    Positive recent experience of presenting comparative child safety data at national level has instigated policy action in Europe. It was hoped a Child Safety Index could quantify how safe a community, region or locality is for its children in comparison with similar areas within Europe, as a focus for local targeted action. Validated indicators proposed by previous European projects identified from areas of child injury prevention, such as road safety, burns or poisoning, were selected to give a balanced profile, and populated from available published data. An index using a sub-score for each specific injury topic was proposed. The indicators' presentation, sensitivity and appropriateness were considered, as well as data availability. Satisfactory indicators were not identified for all areas and very few local area data were available. This forced the researchers to conclude that at present, constructing a reliable Child Safety Index for use at the local level is not feasible. There is a worrying lack of data available at the sub-national level to support injury prevention, evaluate interventions, and enable informed local decision making.

  9. Effect of patient safety education in surgical clerkship to develop competencies for managing and preventing medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, HyeRin; Lee, Kuhn Uk; Lee, Yoon Seong; Kim, Ock Joo; Kim, Sun Whe; Choi, Jae Woon

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to define the necessity and effectiveness of patient safety education during surgical clerkship to develop competency for managing and preventing medical errors. Fifty 3rd-year students participated in the patient safety education program during a 4-week surgical clerkship. The students were divided into 4 groups: control group, pretest-only group, education-only group, and pretest and education group. Students were assessed using short essays and an oral exam for reasoning skills, clinical performance exams for patient education and communication skills, and multisource feedback and direct observation of error reporting for real-world problem-solving skills. The results were analyzed with SPSS 14.0K. The reliability (Cronbach alpha) of the entire assessment was 0.893. There was no difference in scores between early and late clerkship groups. Reasoning skills were improved by the pretest. Reasoning, patient education, and error reporting skills were much more developed by patient safety education. Real-world error identification, reporting, and communication did not change after the 4-week course. Patient safety education during surgical clerkship is necessary and effective. Error prevention and competency management in the real world should developed.

  10. Elevated Extravascular Lung Water Index (ELWI) as a Predictor of Failure of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Via Helmet (Helmet-CPAP) in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Major Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Calvo, Francisco Javier; Bejarano Ramirez, Natalia; Uña Orejon, Rafael; Villazala Garcia, Ruben; Yuste Peña, Ana Sofia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-01

    NIV is increasingly used for prevention and treatment of respiratory complications and failure. Some of them are admitted to the PACU with advanced hemodynamic monitors which allow quantification of Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) by transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability (PVP) providing information on lung edema. The objective of this study was to ascertain if EVLW Index and PVP Index may predict failure (intubation) or success (non-intubation) in patients developing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the postoperative period following major abdominal surgery, where the first line of treatment was non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure via a helmet. Hemodynamic variables, EVLWI and PVPI were monitored with a transpulmonary thermodilution hemodynamic monitor device (PiCCO™) before and after the application of CPAP. Avoidance of intubation was observed in 66% of patients with Helmet-CPAP. In these patients after the first hour of application of CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased (303.33±65.2 vs. 141.6±14.6, P<.01). Before starting Helmet-CPAP values of EVLWI and PVPI were significantly lower in non-intubated patients (EVLWI 8.6±1.08 vs. 11.8±0.99ml/kg IBW, P<.01 and PVPI 1.7±0.56 vs. 3.0±0.88, P<.01). An optimal cut-off value for EVLWI was established at 9.5, and at 2.45 for PVPI (sensitivity of 0.7; specificity of 0.9, P<.01). In this type of patient the physiological parameters that predict the failure of Helmet-CPAP with the greatest accuracy were the value of the EVLWI and PVPI before Helmet-CPAP institution and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the respiratory rate after one hour of CPAP. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 15351 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0174] RIN 2127-AK88 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and... (NPRM) to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 114, Theft Protection and Rollaway... requesting that certain information, including vehicle owner questionnaires (VOQs) referenced in the NPRM, be...

  12. Preventing Road Rage by Modelling the Car-following and the Safety Distance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Si; Fang, Ni; Zhao, Huanming; Ye, Shiqi

    2017-11-01

    Starting from the different behaviours of the driver’s lane change, the car-following model based on the distance and speed and the safety distance model are established in this paper, so as to analyse the impact on traffic flow and safety, helping solve the phenomenon of road anger.

  13. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  14. Unusual cause of a facial pressure ulcer: the helmet securing the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Ju, R K; Lee, J H; Jun, Y J; Kim, Y J

    2015-06-01

    Many medical devices, such as pulse oximetry, ventilation masks and other splints are put on critically ill patients. Although these devices are designed to deliver relatively low physical pressure to the skin of the patient, they can still cause pressure ulcers (PUs) in critically ill patients. There are reports of medical device-related PUs on the face. Here we describe forehead skin necrosis caused by the securing helmet for the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. It is difficult to detect this kind of PU early, because most of the patients have decreased mental status or delirium due to varix bleeding. For this reason, medical staff should be aware of the risk of developing a PU by the device and take preventive measures accordingly.

  15. An approach for optimal allocation of safety resources: using the knapsack problem to take aggregated cost-efficient preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  17. The effect of helmets on motorcycle outcomes in a level I trauma center in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Dai, Feng; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P

    2016-08-17

    The State of Connecticut has a partial motorcycle helmet law, which has been linked to one of the lowest helmet compliance rates in the Northeast. We examine the clinical and financial impact of low motorcycle helmet use in the State of Connecticut. A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes between helmeted and nonhelmeted motorcycle crash victims over a 12.5-year period, from July 2, 2002, to December 31, 2013. All patients who were admitted to the hospital after a motorcycle crash were included in the study. Patients were stratified into helmeted and nonhelmeted cohorts. Group differences were compared using t-test or Wilcoxon rank test for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous outcomes. Regression models were created to evaluate predictors of helmet use, alcohol and drugs as confounding variables, and factors that influenced hospital costs. The registry included 986 eligible patients. Of this group, 335 (34%) were helmeted and 651 (66%) were nonhelmeted. Overall, nonhelmeted patients had a worse clinical presentation, with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; P helmeted patients incurred $14,970 (P =.18). ISS, GCS, and ICU length of stay were significantly correlated with increased hospital costs (P helmet was a significant predictor of mortality (P =.04) after adjusting for alcohol/drug use and age. Helmet use is associated with lower injury severity and increased survival after a motorcycle crash. These outcomes remained consistent even after controlling for age and alcohol and drug use. The medical and financial impact of Connecticut's partial helmet law should be carefully evaluated to petition for increased education and enforcement of helmet use.

  18. Motorcycle helmets associated with lower risk of cervical spine injury: debunking the myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Joseph G; Bone, Curt; Oyetunji, Tolulope; Pollack, Keshia M; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Villegas, Cassandra; Stevens, Kent; Cornwell, Edward E; Efron, David T; Haut, Elliott R; Haider, Adil H

    2011-03-01

    There has been a repeal of the universal helmet law in several states despite definitive evidence that helmets reduce mortality, traumatic brain injury, and hospital expenditures. Opponents of the universal helmet law have successfully claimed that helmets should not be required because of greater torque on the neck, which is thought to increase the likelihood of a cervical spine injury. There is currently insufficient evidence to counter claims that helmets do not increase the risk of cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of motorcycle helmets on the likelihood of developing a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. We reviewed cases in the National Trauma Databank (NTDB) v7.0 involving motorcycle collisions. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the independent effect of helmets on cervical spine injury. Cases were adjusted for age, race, sex, insurance status, anatomic (Injury Severity Score) and physiologic injury severity (systolic blood pressure 3). Between 2002 and 2006, 62,840 cases of motorcycle collision were entered into the NTDB; 40,588 had complete data and were included in the adjusted analysis. Helmeted riders had a lower adjusted odds (0.80 [CI 0.72 to 0.90]) and a lower proportion of cervical spine injury (3.5% vs 4.4%, p Helmeted motorcyclists are less likely to suffer a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. This finding challenges a long-standing objection to mandatory helmet use that claims helmets are associated with cervical spine injury. Re-enactment of the universal helmet law should be considered in states where it has been repealed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sir Hugh Cairns: The neurosurgeon who introduced crash helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsivadhanan Sundaravadhanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.

  20. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  1. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  2. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  4. Does listening to music with an audio ski helmet impair reaction time to peripheral stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M

    2012-12-01

    With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three events associated with concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Michio; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three concussive impact events. A helmeted and unhelmeted headform was used to test three common impact events in ice hockey (fall, puck impacts and shoulder collisions). Peak linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and rotational velocity as well as maximum principal strain and von Mises stress were measured for each impact condition. The results demonstrated the tested ice hockey goaltender helmet was well designed to manage fall and puck impacts but does not consistently protect against shoulder collisions and an opportunity may exist to improve helmet designs to better protect goaltenders from shoulder collisions.

  6. Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Food Safety Monitoring: Proactive Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Marie Yung-Chen; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chen, Shih-Jen; Hwang, De-Kuang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Food safety has become an increasingly significant public concern in both developed and under-developed nations around the world; it increases morbidity, mortality, human suffering, and economic burden. This Opinion focuses on (i) examining the influence of pathogens and chemicals (e.g., food additives and pesticide residue) on food-borne illnesses, (ii) summarizing food hazards that are present in Asia, and (iii) summarizing the array of current point-of-care (POC) detection devices that have potential applications in food safety monitoring. In addition, we provide insight into global healthcare issues in both developing and under-developed nations with a focus on bridging the gap between food safety issues in the public sector (associated with relevant clinical cases) and the use of POC detection devices for food safety monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  8. Achieving all-age helmet use compliance for snow sports: strategic use of education, legislation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B

    2016-06-01

    Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Psychometrics of the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Machiko R; Saharan, Sumandeep; Rajendran, Sheela; Nochajski, Susan M; Schweitzer, Jo A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify psychometric properties of the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD. We tested content validity, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, construct validity, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change. RESULTS. The content validity index was .98, the intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was .97, and the interrater reliability was .89. The difference on identified risk factors between the use and nonuse of the HSSAT was significant (p = .005). Convergent validity with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Home Safety Checklist was high (r = .65), and discriminant validity with fear of falling was very low (r = .10). The responsiveness to change was moderate (standardized response mean = 0.57). CONCLUSION. The HSSAT is a reliable and valid instrument to identify fall risks in a home environment, and the HSSAT booklet is effective as educational material leading to improvement in home safety. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  11. The effectiveness of a bicycle safety program for improving safety-related knowledge and behavior in young elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Karen A; Glang, Ann

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Bike Smart" program, an eHealth software program that teaches bicycle safety behaviors to young children. Participants were 206 elementary students in grades kindergarten to 3. A random control design was employed to evaluate the program, with students assigned to either the treatment condition (Bike Smart) or the control condition (a video on childhood safety). Outcome measures included computer-based knowledge items (safety rules, helmet placement, hazard discrimination) and a behavioral measure of helmet placement. Results demonstrated that regardless of gender, cohort, and grade the participants in the treatment group showed greater gains than control participants in both the computer-presented knowledge items (p > .01) and the observational helmet measure (p > .05). Findings suggest that the Bike Smart program can be a low cost, effective component of safety training packages that include both skills-based and experiential training.

  12. Surrounded by Safety: A Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Handbook for Youth. YWCA Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sherry Plaster

    This handbook introduces students to essential elements of preventing crime at school by making sure the design, use, and upkeep of the facility do not provide opportunities for criminal behavior--crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It discusses how to identify problem areas and the steps to take to make sure these problems are…

  13. [Health and safety professional roles and competencies to promote company-level integration of preventive actions. A Delphy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual Llorens, Clara; Velarde Collado, José María; Portell Vidal, Mariona; Boix Ferrando, Pere

    2014-01-01

    To describe the view of faculty who train health and safety professionals on the roles and competencies needed to promote the integration of preventive actions at the company level. We used a Delphi method, in three rounds, on an intentional sample of experts, and asked them to rate the appropriateness, relevance and acceptability of 8 professional roles, on a scale of 1 to 9 points. We also asked them to formulate and rank order the corresponding competencies, in order of importance. Participant responses (n=76, 58% of the initially identified faculty) show a broad consensus when assessing professional roles (over 85% of participants rated two of these roles highly, with scores between 7 and 9) and general agreement on the three most important competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes to promote the integration of preventive actions. The experts participating in this study agreed that the main roles to be performed by health and safety professionals to promote prevention integration are as advisors and trainers. The competencies considered most important are knowledge about the company activity, its risks and the problems linked to the activity (to know), ability to work in multidisciplinary teams (to know how), and to perform professional duties ethically, with independence and impartiality (to know how to be). Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  14. Effect of the use of a safety intravenous catheters to prevent needle stick injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuladvandi M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by sharp objects is one of the most important biological hazards among health care workers. Due to the importance of occupational injury, this study aimed to investigate the efficiency of using safety intravenous catheters with the safety Chamber features in reducing the damage caused by the needle during veni puncture in Afzali pour hospital wards in Kerman. This was a Quasi-experimental study. The sample was consisted of all nurses who worked at Kerman Afzali pour Training hospital during the course of the study.After training was provided to the staff, the available intravenous catheters were distributed among them by hospital medical equipment units. The data were gathered six months before and after the use of safety intravenous catheters, and were analyzed by using SPSS and descriptive statistics tests.The average age at the time of NSI (4.7 ± was 30. People who were in the range of 25-29years oldhad40%injuries.There was a significant correlation between the NSI in the second half of2011 and first half of2012before and after the use of safety angicuts. (p<0.001Considering the results, the use of safety needles is recommended to reduce injury.

  15. A test of safety, violence prevention, and civility climate domain-specific relationships with relevant workplace hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazica, Michele W; Spector, Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Safety climate, violence prevention climate, and civility climate were independently developed and linked to domain-specific workplace hazards, although all three were designed to promote the physical and psychological safety of workers. To test domain specificity between conceptually related workplace climates and relevant workplace hazards. Data were collected from 368 persons employed in various industries and descriptive statistics were calculated for all study variables. Correlational and relative weights analyses were used to test for domain specificity. The three climate domains were similarly predictive of most workplace hazards, regardless of domain specificity. This study suggests that the three climate domains share a common higher order construct that may predict relevant workplace hazards better than any of the scales alone.

  16. Safety and efficacy of erenumab for preventive treatment of chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepper, Stewart; Ashina, Messoud; Reuter, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in monthly migraine days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of double-blind treatment (weeks 9-12). Safety endpoints were adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, and anti-erenumab antibodies. The efficacy analysis set included patients who......BACKGROUND: The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is important in migraine pathophysiology. We assessed the efficacy and safety of erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, in patients with chronic migraine. METHODS: This was a phase 2, randomised, double...... received at least one dose of investigational product and completed at least one post-baseline monthly measurement. The safety analysis set included patients who received at least one dose of investigational product. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02066415. FINDINGS: From April...

  17. Peer tutoring to prevent firearm play acquisition, generalization, and long-term maintenance of safety skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children.

  18. Peer Tutoring to Prevent Firearm Play: Acquisition, Generalization, and Long-term Maintenance of Safety Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children. PMID:18468285

  19. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  20. The problem of the pillion rider: India's helmet law and New Delhi's exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L

    2014-05-01

    In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety Culture to Prevent Infection in Normal Birth Care by Village Midwives Ateast Lombok Nusa Tenggara Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Bartini, Istri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Normal birth care is one of midwife's competence within the most of risks to both women and midwife. Limited of health facilities and social culture are major problem of midwifery care. In fact, infection cases have been occurring and become a significant cause in maternal death. At East Lombok most of 93,33% birth was provided by midwife. It was a tricky to explain that midwife does not work as well.Aim: to describe safety culture to prevent infection during normal birth care at ...

  2. Antiplatelet Drugs for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases : Drug Utilization, Effectiveness, and Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorsyahdy, A.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients who experience diseases in which the pathophysiology is associated with platelet aggregation and atherosclerosis, including acute coronary syndrome, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke,

  3. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  4. Aviation safety and pilot control: understanding and preventing unfavorable pilot-vehicle interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natl. Research Council Staff; Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-...

  5. Aviation safety and pilot control: understanding and preventing unfavorable pilot-vehicle interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natl. Research Council Staff

    1997-01-01

    ... of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-...

  6. Safety and efficacy of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients: The AMADEUS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, D.A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Minini, P.; Buller, H.R.; Lip, G.Y.H.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and previous ischemic stroke are at high risk of recurrent stroke, but are also perceived to be at increased bleeding risk while treated with anticoagulants. Methods: Post-hoc analyses examined the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation of 4576 AF

  7. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  8. Prevention and control of food safety risks: the role of governments, food producers, marketers, and academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2007-01-01

    Food systems are rapidly changing as world population grows, increasing urbanization occurs, consumer tastes and preferences change and differ in various countries and cultures, large scale food production increases, and food imports and exports grow in volume and value. Consumers in all countries have become more insistent that foods available in the marketplace are of good quality and safe, and do not pose risks to them and their families. Publicity about food risk problems and related risks, including chemical and microbiological contamination of foods, mad-cow disease, avian flu, industrial chemical contamination all have made consumers and policy makers more aware of the need of the control of food safety risk factors in all countries. To discuss changes in food systems, and in consumer expectations, that have placed additional stress on the need for better control of food safety risks. Food producers, processors, and marketers have additional food law and regulations to meet; government agencies must increase monitoring and enforcement of adequate food quality and safety legislation and coordinate efforts between agriculture, health, trade, justice and customs agencies; and academia must take action to strengthen the education of competent food legislation administrators, inspectorate, and laboratory personnel for work in government and industry, including related food and food safety research . Both Government and the food industry must assure that adequate control programs are in place to control the quality and safety of all foods, raw or processed, throughout the food chain from production to final consumption. This includes appropriate laboratory facilities to perform necessary analysis of foods for risk and quality factors, and to carry out a wide range of food science, toxicological and related research.

  9. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  10. Efficacy and safety of ondansetron in preventing postanesthesia shivering: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Hong-Tao; Su, Guang-Zhu; He, Kun; Liang, Shao-Rong; Yuan, Hao-Wei; Mou, Jun-Huan

    2014-03-03

    Shivering is a very common complication in the postanesthesia period. Increasing studies have reported ondansetron may be effective in prevention of postanesthesia shivering (PAS). However, the results remained controversial; hence we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ondansetron on the prevention of postanesthesia shivering. PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify the eligible randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of ondansetron on the prevention of PAS. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis was performed with fixed-effect model or random-effect model according to the heterogeneity. Six trials including 533 subjects were included. Compared with placebo, ondansetron was associated with a significant reduction of PAS (RR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.27-0.70), without an increased risk of bradycardia (RR 0.37, 95% CI, 0.12-1.15). Compared with meperidine, no difference was observed in the incidence of PAS (RR 0.68, 95% CI, 0.39-1.19) and bradycardia (RR 2.0, 95% CI, 0.38-10.64). Ondansetron has a preventive effect on PAS without a paralleled side effect of bradycardia.

  11. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  12. Do crash helmets retain their position on the head in case of an impact ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusenberg, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This report gives the description and results of three sled tests with each four dummy heads, to record the behaviour of the head and neck of the dummy and the helmet in case of a simulated accident. The simulated accident resulted in a motions of the head, neck and helmet owing to the effects of

  13. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; IJzerman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment is lacking. The HEADS study (Helmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) aims to

  14. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets...

  15. Inadequate Helmet Fit Increases Concussion Severity in American High School Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P

    2016-05-01

    There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. 75 FR 75472 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  17. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  19. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  20. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin

    2016-01-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO

  1. Safety and efficacy of distal perfusion catheterization to prevent limb ischemia after common femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cannula has the potential for obstructing flow to the lower limb, thus causing severe ischemia and possible limb loss. We evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous distal perfusion catheterization in preventing limb ischemia. Between March 2013 and February 2015, 28 patients with distal perfusion catheterization after ECMO were included in this retrospective study. The technical success was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound at the popliteal level after saline injection via distal perfusion catheter. Clinical success was assessed when at least one of the following conditions was met: restoration of continuous peripheral limb oximetry value or presence of distal arterial pulse on Doppler ultrasound evaluation or resolution of early ischemic sign after connecting the catheter with ECMO. Twenty-six patients with early ischemia were successfully cannulated with a distal perfusion catheter (92.8%). Clinical success was achieved in 12/28 (42.8%) patients; 8/10 (80.0%) patients with survival duration exceeding 7 days and 4/18 (22.2%) patients with survival duration less than 7 days, respectively. A percutaneous distal perfusion catheter placement was a feasible tool with safety and efficacy in preventing lower limb ischemia for patients with prolonged common femoral arterial cannulation for ECMO.

  2. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Preventive Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Orsini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    with the long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We first show that, after the release of the WHIS findings, HRT use dropped sharply among post-menopausal women. We then estimate the spillover effects of the WHIS findings on preventive care by means of a difference-in-differences methodology...... comparing changes in preventive care use among 60 to 69 year-old women (who have high rates of HRT use) with the change among women aged 75 and above (who have much lower rates of HRT use). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the period 1998–2007, we find that women aged 60...

  3. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    OpenAIRE

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate trainin...

  4. Paternalism & Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856

  5. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W T; Kuo, C Y; Hung, C C; Chen, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the motorcycle helmet law implemented in Taiwan on June 1, 1997. METHODS: Collecting data on 8795 cases of motorcycle-related head injuries from 56 major Taiwanese hospitals, we compared the situation 1 year before and after implementation of the helmet law. RESULTS: After implementation of the law, the number of motorcycle-related head injuries decreased by 33%, from 5260 to 3535. Decreases in length of hospital stay and in severity of injury and better outcome were also seen. The likelihood ratio chi 2 test showed that severity decreased after the law's implementation (P helmets were found to be safer than half-shell helmets. CONCLUSION: The helmet law effectively decreased the mortality and morbidity from motorcycle-related head injuries. PMID:10800433

  6. Helmets Matter: Kentucky Motorcycle Crash Victims Seen at a Tennessee Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testerman, George M; Prior, Daniel C; Wells, Tamie D; Sumner, William C; Johnston, Jeffrey T; Rollins, Sarah E; Meyer, Jeremy M

    2018-01-01

    Motorcycle helmet laws vary by state, with Kentucky requiring helmets only for younger riders. We hypothesized that motorcyclists injured in Kentucky and seen at a Tennessee trauma center would be more likely to be unhelmeted, have more severe head injuries, and sustain more fatal injuries than those injured in Tennessee or Virginia. A Trauma Registry review of 729 injured motorcyclists from January 2005 through June 2015 examined state location of crash, demographics, helmet use, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated predictors for head injury severity and death. Unhelmeted motorcycle rider status predicted more severe head injuries (relative risk 15.3, P motorcycle helmet laws for all ages in states where they are in effect and for upgrading helmet laws that apply only to some riders.

  7. Using baseline and formative evaluation data to inform the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehler, Douglas R; Naumann, Rebecca B; Mutatina, Boniface; Nakitto, Mable; Mwanje, Barbara; Brondum, Lotte; Blanchard, Claire; Baldwin, Grant T; Dellinger, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Motorcycles are an important form of transportation in Uganda, and are involved in more road traffic injuries than any other vehicle. The majority of motorcycles in Uganda are used as motorcycle taxis, better known locally as boda bodas. Research shows that a motorcycle helmet is effective at reducing a rider's risk of death and head injury. As part of the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative (UHVI), researchers collected baseline and formative evaluation data on boda boda operators' helmet attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to inform UHVI activities. Researchers collected data on motorcycle helmet-related attitudes and beliefs through focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews, and researchers conducted roadside observations to collect data on helmet-wearing behaviors. Of the 12,189 motorcycle operators and passengers observed during roadside observations, 30.8% of drivers and approach to future campaign activities.

  8. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  9. School-based prevention program associated with increased short- and long-term retention of safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs.

  10. Prevention of risks and dangers as a subject of the law relating to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court in the Kalkar case, the author discusses the requirement laid down in sec. 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act, to take every precaution necessary to prevent damage resulting from the erection and operation of nuclear installations. This concept of prevention of damage is dealt with in great detail by the author, defining two main aspects of the overall concept, namely prevention of danger (i.e. risks that can be assessed on the basis of current scientific knowledge and technology), and prevention of risks (i.e. risks that cannot be clearly defined). According to the author, the 'remaining risk' which, following the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court, is accepted by the Atomic Energy Act, can only be grouped among those that cannot be assessed in detail due to lack of knowledge. The author further states that Sec. 7 of the Atomic Energy Act, aiming at guaranteeing the rights of third parties, can be interpreted to grant a 'right' to individual persons to bring action in accordance with administrative jurisdiction. (HSCH) 891 HP/HSCH 892 CKA [de

  11. Concussion in professional football: performance of newer helmets in reconstructed game impacts--Part 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, David C; Pellman, Elliot J; Withnall, Chris; Shewchenko, Nick

    2006-09-01

    The performance of five newer helmets was compared with the baseline VSR-4 helmet in 10 reconstructed cases of National Football League (NFL) collisions causing concussion. The laboratory reconstructions were conducted to determine changes in concussion risk with newer football helmets. In 60 laboratory tests, translational and rotational head accelerations were measured in the striking and struck players represented by Hybrid III dummies. Six-axis upper neck loads and moments were measured in five cases with the struck player and five with the striking player. Biomechanical responses and concussion risks were evaluated for each collision to determine changes with newer helmet designs. Thirty-two out of 50 reconstructed cases showed greater than 10% reduction in severity index with newer helmets compared with the VSR-4; four cases increased. The average reduction in concussion risk with newer helmets was 10.8% (range, 6.9-16.7%) based on severity index. The reduction was 9.7% (range, 6.5-13.9%) based on translational acceleration and 18.9% (range, 10.6-23.4%) with rotational acceleration. Neck responses in the struck player showed a general reduction in moment and force with newer helmets. With newer football helmets, there was a trend toward 10 to 20% lower risks of concussion in reconstructed National Football League game collisions. However, a few designs and cases showed increased responses. The evaluation of football helmets to the proposed National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment concussion standard should lead to more uniform reductions in concussion risk with future football helmets.

  12. Florida’s Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal and Fatality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On July 1 2000, the State of Florida exempted adult motorcyclist and moped riders from wearing helmets provided they have medical insurance of $10 000. Monthly time series of motorcycle occupant deaths are examined from 1/1994 to 12/2001. The interrupted time series analysis estimates a 48.6% increase in motorcycle occupant deaths the year after the law change. The impact estimate reduces to 38.2% and 21.3% when trends in travel miles and motorcycle registrations are controlled. Our findings suggest that the law’s age exemption should be revoked. PMID:15054002

  13. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  14. Rates of motorcycle helmet use and reasons for non-use among adults and children in Luang Prabang, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M

    2015-09-28

    Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.

  15. Changes in motorcycle-related head injury deaths, hospitalizations, and hospital charges following repeal of Pennsylvania's mandatory motorcycle helmet law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Kristen J; Weiss, Harold B

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the 2003 repeal of Pennsylvania's motorcycle helmet law, we assessed changes in helmet use and compared motorcycle-related head injuries with non-head injuries from 2001-2002 to 2004-2005. Helmet use among riders in crashes decreased from 82% to 58%. Head injury deaths increased 66%; nonhead injury deaths increased 25%. Motorcycle-related head injury hospitalizations increased 78% compared with 28% for nonhead injury hospitalizations. Helmet law repeals jeopardize motorcycle riders. Until repeals are reversed, states need voluntary strategies to increase helmet use.

  16. Paediatric Patient Safety and the Need for Aviation Black Box Thinking to Learn From and Prevent Medication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Chi; Wong, Ian C K; Correa-West, Jo; Terry, David; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Since the publication of To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999, there has been much research conducted into the epidemiology, nature and causes of medication errors in children, from prescribing and supply to administration. It is reassuring to see growing evidence of improving medication safety in children; however, based on media reports, it can be seen that serious and fatal medication errors still occur. This critical opinion article examines the problem of medication errors in children and provides recommendations for research, training of healthcare professionals and a culture shift towards dealing with medication errors. There are three factors that we need to consider to unravel what is missing and why fatal medication errors still occur. (1) Who is involved and affected by the medication error? (2) What factors hinder staff and organisations from learning from mistakes? Does the fear of litigation and criminal charges deter healthcare professionals from voluntarily reporting medication errors? (3) What are the educational needs required to prevent medication errors? It is important to educate future healthcare professionals about medication errors and human factors to prevent these from happening. Further research is required to apply aviation's 'black box' principles in healthcare to record and learn from near misses and errors to prevent future events. There is an urgent need for the black box investigations to be published and made public for the benefit of other organisations that may have similar potential risks for adverse events. International sharing of investigations and learning is also needed.

  17. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Saeed; Anand Paul; Abdul Rehman; Won Hwa Hong; Hyuncheol Seo

    2018-01-01

    Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure....

  18. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed. PMID:19945973

  19. Accident prevention on ski slopes - Perceptions of safety and knowledge of existing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Mildner, Esmeralda; Hotter, Barbara; Kirschner, Werner; Höbenreich, Chistoph; Raschner, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Increases in the numbers of people participating in snow sports raise safety concerns. Despite declining numbers of skiing injuries among recreational skiers, collisions resulting in severe injuries appear to be on the rise. Skiers' risk of injury depends on a considerable number of different factors but only a few studies have investigated risk-taking behaviour and knowledge of proper skiing behaviour. To promote safe skiing the International Ski Federation (FIS) introduced regulations in 1967. We investigated participants' familiarity with the FIS regulations on the ski slopes in relation to age, skiing ability and country of origin. Random interviews were conducted with 1450 recreational skiers at 17 ski resorts in Tyrol, an Austrian province. A questionnaire assessing skiers' knowledge of existing rules, their intuitive behaviour in given situations and perceptions of safety was developed. The study revealed that beginners, young skiers and those who were not local residents displayed insufficient knowledge. Risk-inducing situations that could result in collisions, such as moving upwards during carving, were largely assessed incorrectly. Appropriate intuitive behaviour increases with experience, and beginners are less able to implement FIS regulations than more experienced skiers. Ski resorts, the media and schools should direct educational efforts toward these high-risk groups. More research is needed to determine the causal connection between skiing injuries and disregard of the FIS Rules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The importance of proper shoe gear and safety stirrups in the prevention of equestrian foot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; De Rosa, Vicenzo; De Coulon, Geraldo; Kaelin, André

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compile specific foot injuries occurring in pediatric patients that result from equestrian sports and to highlight the importance of wearing adequate riding boots to protect the feet. During a 12-year period, 258 children were admitted to Children's Hospital of Geneva for injuries resulting from horseback riding. Amongst these children, 8 sustained foot lesions that required hospital admission. Four children had compression-type fractures of the cuboid (nutcracker fracture of the cuboid) associated with other complex midfoot fractures, 2 had Lisfranc fracture dislocations, 1 had a fracture of the talus with associated intern malleolar fracture, and the last had a fracture of the 5 metatarsals with lateral displacement. All the noted lesions complied with the same traumatic mechanisms. The horse fell on the patient, and the child's foot, entrapped in the stirrup, was caught in between the animal and the ground. The forefoot was bent by indirect violence in abduction by the stirrup, which acted as a fulcrum. Serious foot injuries may occur in children during equestrian activities. These lesions may be very disabling. Therefore, it is important for doctors, instructors, and parents to promote the use of appropriate safety equipment, including strengthened riding boots and safety stirrups.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Bicyclists Involved in Crashes with Motor Vehicles: Bike Lanes, Alcohol, Lighting, Speed, and Helmet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helak, Kelsey; Jehle, Dietrich; McNabb, Daniel; Battisti, Amanda; Sanford, Steward; Lark, Mary Claire

    2017-07-01

    In 2014, 726 bicyclists were killed and an additional 50,000 were injured in crashes with motor vehicles. The number of cyclists in the United States is increasing, and as a result there has been a call for more bike lanes. We examined the difference in the severity of injury of bicyclists involved in motor vehicle crashes when riding in the traffic lane compared with riding in a bike lane or on a paved shoulder. We also controlled for other safety factors, including alcohol use, travel speed, posted speed, helmet usage, and lighting conditions to determine their impact on bicyclist safety. Single-year National Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System files were used to analyze data regarding the bike lanes, and multiyear data were used to analyze the additional factors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses controlling for confounders were performed on the data. When adjusting for speed limit, alcohol use by driver, weather conditions, time of day, and helmet use, the cyclist's position had no significant effect on the severity of injury ( P = 0.57). The severity of injury was significantly greater when the driver or bicyclist had been drinking alcohol ( P bike lane or a paved shoulder, does not reduce the severity of injuries sustained when a crash with a motor vehicle takes place. Cyclist safety could be improved by implementing changes that affect vehicle speed, alcohol use by drivers, and lighting conditions. Moreover, emergency physicians should be aware that when they receive a report of a cyclist being struck by a car in a bike lane, they should prepare to treat injuries of severity similar to those received by a bicyclist hit by a vehicle in traffic.

  3. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    and minimize the on antibiotics and zinc usage. Swine immunoglobulins were isolated directly from slaughterhouse swine plasma-waste by expanded bed chromatography. It was shown that the isolated Immunoglobulin fraction bound enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Salmonella ssp. and inhibited...... their adhesion to porcine epithelial cells in vitro. As the immunoglobulin fraction is intended for oral use as a feed supplement, we also tested the safety of feeding 4 grams of natural immunoglobulins to 4-5 week old weaner piglets for 14 days and observed no adverse effects. In an experimental model of E....... coli F4+ induced PWD, we observed that piglets given IgG as a feed supplement cleared the E coli infection significantly faster than control weaner piglets not receiving an immunoglobulin feed supplement. Furthermore, deep sequencing of the ileal microbiota showed a significantly lowered colonization...

  4. Comparison of helmet and facial mask during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlem, Çakir Gürbüz; Ali, Alagöz; Fatma, Ulus; Mehtap, Tunç; Şaziye, Şahin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is an approach to prevent complications in acute respiratory failure. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy of a full face mask and a helmet in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifty patients were divided randomly into 2 groups as full face mask (Group F) and helmet (Group H). Demographic data, forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), additional disease, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory rate, APACHE II score, peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), patient tolerance scale (PTS) score, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiG2) were recorded. Parameters were recorded as follows: 20 min before the NIMV; every 30 min of NIMV until 120 min; 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after NIMV; and prior to intensive care unit discharge. The SpO2, PTS, ABG, complication rate, and APACHE II scores were not different between the groups (P > 0.05). The decrease in PaCO2 was statistically significant at 60 min in Group F (P masks are efficient in improving the patients' outcome in COPD, but the decrease in PaCO2in the helmet group was slower than in the full face mask group.

  5. Pediatric bicycle helmet legislation and crash-related traumatic brain injury in Illinois, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chelsea; Weston, Raquel; Feinglass, Joe; Crandall, Marie

    2018-02-01

    Bicycling is one of the most popular forms of play and exercise for children in the US. However, over 200,000 children per year are injured in bicycle crashes, and an estimated 22,000 pediatric bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur annually. Bicycle helmets are known to decrease the risk of head injury, but efficacy and magnitude of the effect of helmet legislation have not been fully elucidated. This was a retrospective, observational study of children aged legislation. A total of 3080 pediatric bicycle-related crashes were identified. Children wearing helmets were less likely to sustain a TBI, odds ratio [OR] = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.84, P legislation in helmet legislation areas or over time in non-helmet legislation areas. Helmet use was protective against TBI, but socioeconomic and racial disparities exist in usage. Local legislation did not appear to impact helmet usage or admissions for bicycle-related TBIs in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton; Radman, Ivan; Kasović, Mario; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2) were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. The evaluation of speed skating helmet performance through peak linear and rotational accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.

  8. Motorcycle helmet use and the risk of head, neck, and fatal injury: Revisiting the Hurt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preventing in-facility pressure ulcers as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy; Schoelles, Karen M

    2013-03-05

    Complications from hospital-acquired pressure ulcers cause 60,000 deaths and significant morbidity annually in the United States. The objective of this systematic review is to review evidence regarding multicomponent strategies for preventing pressure ulcers and to examine the importance of contextual aspects of programs that aim to reduce facility-acquired pressure ulcers. CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PreMEDLINE were searched for articles published from 2000 to 2012. Studies (any design) that implemented multicomponent initiatives to prevent pressure ulcers in adults in U.S. acute and long-term care settings and that reported pressure ulcer rates at least 6 months after implementation were selected. Two reviewers extracted study data and rated quality of evidence. Findings from 26 implementation studies (moderate strength of evidence) suggested that the integration of several core components improved processes of care and reduced pressure ulcer rates. Key components included the simplification and standardization of pressure ulcer-specific interventions and documentation, involvement of multidisciplinary teams and leadership, use of designated skin champions, ongoing staff education, and sustained audit and feedback.

  10. Effect of wearing a ski helmet on perception and localization of sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J

    2014-07-01

    Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Risk-taking behavior in skiing among helmet wearers and nonwearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton

    2011-12-01

    To examine differences in on-the-snow ski behavior between helmet wearers and nonwearers. The data were collected using a survey. Several tourist agencies helped in administrating the survey to the skiers during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions. The subjects were asked to choose answers most suitable for their skiing style and preferred skiing technique, volume of off-piste skiing, readiness to use time measuring systems on the slopes, and group-skiing preferences, such as leading the group, beside the group, away from the group, etc. The Risk Index was then calculated for each subject. The answers of 710 skiers (mean age 35.5, range 16-81 years) were analyzed. The predictive power for risk-taking behavior was tested for gender, age, educational level, level of skiing, years of skiing, and helmet usage. Younger age, male gender, higher skiing level, and helmet usage were used as independent predictors for the overall Risk Index (Power [1-β err prob] = 0.942). Significantly higher risk was assessed for the male helmet wearers while the results were not significant for the female helmet wearers. The male occasional helmet wearers were found to be the most prone to risky behavior. In female nonhelmet wearers, there was a significant decrease in risk-taking behavior with age but this was not true for female helmet wearers. For males under 35 years of age, helmet use is one of the factors influencing risk-taking on the slopes. This is demonstrated for occasional helmet wearers in particular. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  14. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  15. Job safety analysis and hazard identification for work accident prevention in para rubber wood sawmills in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Thongjerm, Supawan; Incharoen, Salee; Siriwong, Wattasit; Harada, Kouji; Koizumi, Akio

    2017-11-25

    We utilized job safety analysis (JSA) and hazard identification for work accident prevention in Para rubber wood sawmills, which aimed to investigate occupational health risk exposures and assess the health hazards at sawmills in the Trang Province, located in southern Thailand. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included a walk-through survey, JSA, occupational risk assessment, and environmental samplings from March through September 2015 at four Para rubber wood sawmills. We identified potential occupational safety and health hazards associated with six main processes, including: 1) logging and cutting, 2) sawing the lumber into sheets, 3) planing and re-arranging, 4) vacuuming and wood preservation, 5) drying and planks re-arranging, and 6) grading, packing, and storing. Working in sawmills was associated with high risk of wood dust and noise exposure, occupational accidents injuring hands and feet, chemicals and fungicide exposure, and injury due to poor ergonomics or repetitive work. Several high-risk areas were identified from JSA and hazard identification of the working processes, especially high wood dust and noise exposure when sawing lumber into sheets and risk of occupational accidents of the hands and feet when struck by lumber. All workers were strongly recommended to use personal protective equipment in any working processes. Exposures should be controlled using local ventilation systems and reducing noise transmission. We recommend that the results from the risk assessment performed in this study be used to create an action plan for reducing occupational health hazards in Para rubber sawmills.

  16. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  17. Nalmefene to prevent epidural narcotic side effects in pediatric patients: a pharmacokinetic and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D A; Morris, J L; Rosen, K R; Nelson, E R; Steelman, R J; Gustafson, R A; Wilhelm, J A; Chang, C T; Thackara, J W; Frye, R F

    2000-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of nalmefene in children in preventing epidural-induced narcotic side effects. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study. University-affiliated children's hospital. Thirty-four children (aged 2-12 yrs) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with epidural anesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous bolus nalmefene 1 microg/kg or placebo. Six blood samples (one before nalmefene administration and five from 13 randomly designated time points) from each patient were assayed to determine plasma nalmefene concentrations. Patients were assessed for pain, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention for 24 hours after administration. Concentration-time data were analyzed by a limited sampling strategy with adult pharmacokinetic parameters used as Bayesian priors. A two-compartment, first-order model was fitted to the data using ADAPT II. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in these patients were similar to values reported in adults. The initial disposition half-life (t(1/2alpha)) was 0.36+/-0.11 hour, the terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) 8.7+/-2.3 hours, clearance 0.729+/-0.172 L/kg/hr, and steady-state volume of distribution 7.21+/-2.49 L/kg. Ability to prevent epidural narcotic-induced side effects could not be documented at the 1-microg/kg dose. No statistically significant differences were noted between study and placebo groups with regard to pain, nausea, vomiting, or urinary retention. Nalmefene has similar pharmacokinetics in children as in adults. It was administered safely to these patients and did not produce unmanageable pain.

  18. Strategies for reactor safety: Preventing loss of coolant accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    1997-12-01

    This final report on the NKS/RAK-1.2 summarizes the main features of the PIFRAP PC-program and its intended implementation. Regardless of the preferred technical approach to LOCA frequency estimation, the analysis approach must include recognition of the following technical issues: a) Degradation and failure mechanisms potentially affecting piping systems within the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) and the potential consequences; b) In-service inspection practices and how they influence piping reliability; and c) The service experience with piping systems. The report consists of six sections and one appendix. A Nordic perspective on LOCA and nuclear safety is given. It includes summaries of results from research in material sciences and current regulatory philosophies regarding piping reliability. A summary of the LOCA concept is applied in Nordic PSA studies. It includes a discussion on deterministic and probabilistic views on LOCA. The R and D on piping reliability by SKI and the PIFRAP model is summarized. Next, Section 6 presents conclusion and recommendations. Finally, Appendix A contains a list of abbreviations and acronyms, together with a glossary of technical terms. (EG)

  19. State-Level Implementation of Health and Safety Policies to Prevent Sudden Death and Catastrophic Injuries Within Secondary School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Scarneo, Samantha E; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Sudden death and catastrophic injuries during sport can be attenuated with the implementation of evidence-based health and safety policies. However, the extent of the implementation of these policies within secondary school athletics is unknown. To provide an assessment of the implementation of health and safety policies pertaining to the leading causes of sudden death and catastrophic injuries in sport within secondary school athletics in the United States. Descriptive epidemiology study. A rubric for evidence-based practices for preventing the leading causes of death and catastrophic injuries in sport was created. The rubric comprised 5 equally weighted sections for sudden cardiac arrest, head injuries, exertional heat stroke, appropriate medical coverage, and emergency preparedness. State high school athletic association (SHSAA) policies, enacted legislation, and Department of Education policies were extensively reviewed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. States meeting the specific criteria in the rubric, which required policies to be mandated for all SHSAA member schools, were awarded credit; the weighted scores were tabulated to calculate an aggregate score. States were then ranked from 1 (best) to 51 (worst) based on the aggregate score achieved. The median score on the rubric was 47.1% (range, 23.00%-78.75%). States ranked 1 through 10 (from 78.75% to 56.98%) were North Carolina, Kentucky, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, Missouri, Washington, Hawaii, Wisconsin, and Georgia, respectively. States ranked 11 through 20 (from 56.03% to 50.55%) were Arkansas, New York, Mississippi, West Virginia, Oregon, Illinois, Tennessee, Arizona, Texas, and District of Columbia, respectively. States ranked 21 through 30 (from 49.40% to 44.00%) were Virginia, Pennsylvania, Florida, New Mexico, Alabama, Maine, Rhode Island, Indiana, Nevada, and Utah, respectively. States ranked 31 through 40 (from 43.93% to 39.80%) were Ohio, Delaware, Alaska, Vermont

  20. Inherent Safety Features and Passive Prevention Approaches for Pb/Bi-cooled Accelerator-Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2003-03-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of passive safety and inherent features of subcritical nuclear transmutation systems - accelerator-driven systems. The general objective of this research has been to improve the safety performance and avoid elevated coolant temperatures in worst-case scenarios like unprotected loss-of-flow accidents, loss-of-heat-sink accidents, and a combination of both these accident initiators. The specific topics covered are emergency decay heat removal by reactor vessel auxiliary cooling systems, beam shut-off by a melt-rupture disc, safety aspects from locating heat-exchangers in the riser of a pool-type reactor system, and reduction of pressure resistance in the primary circuit by employing bypass routes. The initial part of the research was focused on reactor vessel auxiliary cooling systems. It was shown that an 80 MW th Pb/Bi-cooled accelerator-driven system of 8 m height and 6 m diameter vessel can be well cooled in the case of loss-of-flow accidents in which the accelerator proton beam is not switched off. After a loss-of-heat-sink accident the proton beam has to be interrupted within 40 minutes in order to avoid fast creep of the vessel. If a melt-rupture disc is included in the wall of the beam pipe, which breaks at 150 K above the normal core outlet temperature, the grace period until the beam has to be shut off is increased to 6 hours. For the same vessel geometry, but an operating power of 250 MW th the structural materials can still avoid fast creep in case the proton beam is shut off immediately. If beam shut-off is delayed, additional cooling methods are needed to increase the heat removal. Investigations were made on the filling of the gap between the guard and the reactor vessel with liquid metal coolant and using water spray cooling on the guard vessel surface. The second part of the thesis presents examinations regarding an accelerator-driven system also cooled with Pb/Bi but with heat-exchangers located in the

  1. Preventing Hereditary Angioedema Attacks in Children Using Cinryze®: Interim Efficacy and Safety Phase 3 Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Soteres, Daniel; Moldovan, Dumitru; Christensen, Jim; Van Leerberghe, Arthur; Hao, James; Schranz, Jennifer; Jacobson, Kraig W.; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease causing unpredictable and potentially life-threatening subcutaneous and submucosal edematous attacks. Cinryze® (Shire ViroPharma Inc., Lexington, MA, USA), a nanofiltered C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), is approved in Europe for the treatment, preprocedure prevention, and routine prophylaxis of HAE attacks, and for the routine prophylaxis of attacks in the USA. This phase 3 study assessed the safety and efficacy of 2 C1-INH doses in preventing attacks in children aged 6–11 years. Methods A randomized single-blind crossover study was initiated in March 2014. Results for the first 6 patients completing the study are reported here. After a 12-week qualifying observation period, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 C1-INH doses, 500 or 1,000 U, every 3–4 days for 12 weeks and crossed over to the alternative dose for a second 12-week period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of angioedema attacks per month. Results Six females with HAE type I and a median age of 10.5 years received 2 doses of C1-INH (500 and 1,000 U). The mean (SD) difference in the number of monthly angioedema attacks between the baseline observation period and the treatment period was −1.89 (1.31) with 500 U and −1.89 (1.11) with 1,000 U. During the treatment periods, cumulative attack severity, cumulative daily severity, and the number of attacks needing acute treatment were lower. No serious adverse events or study drug discontinuations occurred. Conclusions Interim findings from this study indicate that routine prevention with intravenous administration of C1-INH is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in children ≥6 years of age. PMID:28662509

  2. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  3. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Rayco-Solon, Pura

    2015-12-14

    It has been reported that neural tube defects (NTD) can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. This review aims to examine whether periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube and other congenital anomalies (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes in mothers or babies. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane review on this topic. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015). Additionally, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 August 2015) and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. Five trials involving 7391 women (2033 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 5358 with no history of NTDs) were included. Four comparisons were made: 1) supplementation with any folate versus no intervention, placebo or other micronutrients without folate (five trials); 2) supplementation with folic acid alone versus no treatment or placebo (one trial); 3) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus other micronutrients without folate (four trials); and 4) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus the same other micronutrients without

  4. [Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. A cold intravenous fluid, a cooling helmet and a cooling blanket efficiently reduce body temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Hans; Nielsen, Niklas; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Cronberg, Tobias; Widner, Håkan; Englund, Elisabet; Ersson, Anders

    2004-07-22

    Two controlled randomized trials have shown that mild systemic hypothermia after cardiac arrest is beneficial for neurological outcome and one of the studies shows an improved survival rate. A pilot study was performed to evaluate a model of induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest, using cold intravenous fluids and surface cooling with a cold helmet and a coldwater blanket (Thermowrap). The main purpose was to evaluate our cooling method regarding efficacy, safety and usability. Five unconscious patients after cardiac arrest were treated with induced hypothermia of whom three survived with good recovery to six-month follow up. Two patients died in the ICU without regaining consciousness. There were no adverse events during treatment. We conclude that our method is reasonably fast compared to other published methods, it is easy to perform and it offers a good temperature control during cooling and rewarming. Routines for evaluating prognosis and neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and hypothermia treatment need to be revised.

  5. Motorcycle fatalities among out-of-state riders and the role of universal helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Gumus, Gulcin; Homer, Jenny F

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that universal helmet laws (UHLs) and other motor vehicle policies are effective in reducing fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries. Although state policies can improve traffic safety overall, very little is known about how they affect different segments of motorcycle riders. In this paper, we investigate the differential effectiveness of such policies by license state of the rider (i.e., in-state versus out-of-state). From a policy perspective, this information gap is noteworthy because variations in state regulations may influence where individuals choose to ride. We use state-level longitudinal (1988-2008) data on motorcycle fatalities in the United States from the fatality analysis reporting system (FARS). Our results reconfirm the effectiveness of UHLs and offer new evidence suggesting that states without such policies may attract more risky riders from out-of-state. In particular, not having a UHL increases out-of-state rider fatalities by 18 percent and this effect is more pronounced for out-of-state riders who reside in a UHL state. These findings have important implications regarding unintended spillover effects of state-specific motor vehicle policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using total quality management approach to improve patient safety by preventing medication error incidences*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Nadin; Yousef, Farah

    2017-09-04

    medication doses to less than the global standard; as a result, it enhances patient safety. However, we hope other studies will be made later in hospitals to practically evaluate how much effective our proposed systematic strategy really is in comparison with other suggested remedies in this field.

  7. Nevirapine Pharmacokinetics and Safety in Neonates Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Vertical HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elaine; Brophy, Jason; Samson, Lindy; Kakkar, Fatima; Campbell, Douglas M; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie; Seto, Winnie; Colantonio, David; Read, Stanley E; Bitnun, Ari

    2017-04-15

    Nevirapine (NVP)-based combination antiretroviral therapy is routinely prescribed to infants deemed at high risk of vertical HIV infection in our centers. We evaluated NVP pharmacokinetics and safety of this regimen. Neonates were recruited prospectively between September 2012 and April 2015 or enrolled retrospectively if treated similarly before prospective study initiation. NVP was dosed at 150 mg/m daily for 14 days, then twice daily for 14 days. NVP levels were drawn at weeks 1, 2, and 4 [target trough (NVP-T): 3-8 mg/L]. Thirty-three neonates were included (23 prospectively). Median gestational age (GA) and birth weight were 38 weeks (32-41 weeks) and 2.9 kg (1.5-4.2 kg), respectively. Median NVP-Ts were 8.2 mg/L (1.6-25.1 mg/L), 3.5 mg/L (1.6-6.8 mg/L), and 4.3 mg/L (0.1-19.9 mg/L) at weeks 1, 2, and 4, respectively. The proportions with therapeutic NVP-T were 42%, 61%, and 73% at these same timepoints. Median apparent oral clearance (CL/F) increased from 0.05 L·kg·h (0.01-0.50 L·kg·h) at week 2 to 0.18 L·kg·h (0.01-0.78 L·kg·h) at week 4. Increased drug exposure [area under the curve (AUCτ)] correlated with younger GA (r = 0.459, P = 0.032) and lower birth weight (r = 0.542, P = 0.009). The most common adverse events potentially attributable to combination antiretroviral therapy were transient asymptomatic hyperlactatemia (26%), anemia (24.7%), and neutropenia (22.1%). Treatment dose NVP was generally well-tolerated and associated with normalization of trough levels over time in most cases without dose adjustment. Lower empiric dosing is recommended for infants <34 weeks of GA. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring may not be required for infants ≥34 weeks of GA.

  8. 3D assessment of damaged bicycle helmets and corresponding craniomaxillo-mandibular skull injuries: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baar, Gustaaf J C; Ruslin, Muhammad; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Sándor, George K; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Wolff, Jan

    2017-12-01

    In the Netherlands, cyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The wearing of bicycle helmets is not mandatory in the Netherlands even though research has shown that wearing bicycle helmets can reduce head and brain injuries by up to 88%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using 3D technology to evaluate bicycle-related head injuries and helmet protection. Three patients who had been involved in a bicycle accident while wearing a helmet were subjected to multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging after trauma. The helmets were separately scanned using the same MDCT scanner with tube voltages ranging from 80kVp to 140kVp and tube currents ranging from 10mAs to 300mAs in order to determine the best image acquisition parameters for helmets. The acquired helmet images were converted into virtual 3D surface hence Standard Tessellation Language (STL) models and merged with MDCT-derived STL models of the patients' skulls. Finally, all skull fractures and corresponding helmet damage were visualized and related. Imaging bicycle helmets on an MDCT scanner proved to be feasible using a tube voltage of 120kVp and a tube current of 120mAs. Merging the resulting STL models of the patients' skull and helmet allowed the overall damage sustained by both skull and helmet to be related. Our proposed 3D method of assessing bicycle helmet damage and corresponding head injuries could offer valuable information for the development and design of safer bicycle helmets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  11. Injury prevention practices as depicted in G-rated and PG-rated movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A R; Quinlan, K P; Sacks, J J; Van Gilder, T J; Gilchrist, J; Ahluwalia, H K

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies on alcohol, tobacco, and violence suggest that children's behavior can be influenced by mass media; however, little is known about the effect of media on unintentional injuries, the leading cause of death among young persons in the United States. To determine how injury prevention practices are depicted in G-rated (general audience) and PG-rated (parental guidance recommended) movies. Observational study. The 25 movies with the highest domestic box-office grosses and a rating of G or PG for each year from 1995 through 1997. Movies that were predominantly animated or not set in the present day were excluded from analysis. Movie characters with speaking roles. Safety belt use by motor vehicle occupants, use of a crosswalk and looking both ways by pedestrians crossing a street, helmet use by bicyclists, personal flotation device use by boaters, and selected other injury prevention practices. Fifty nonanimated movies set in the present day were included in the study. A total of 753 person-scenes involving riding in a motor vehicle, crossing the street, bicycling, and boating were shown (median, 13.5 person-scenes per movie). Forty-two person-scenes (6%) involved falls or crashes, which resulted in 4 injuries and 2 deaths. Overall, 119 (27%) of 447 motor vehicle occupants wore safety belts, 20 (18%) of 109 pedestrians looked both ways before crossing the street and 25 (16%) of 160 used a crosswalk, 4 (6%) of 64 bicyclists wore helmets, and 14 (17%) of 82 boaters wore personal flotation devices. In scenes depicting everyday life in popular movies likely to be seen by children, characters were infrequently portrayed practicing recommended safe behaviors. The consequences of unsafe behaviors were rarely shown. The entertainment industry should improve its depiction of injury prevention practices in G-rated and PG-rated movies.

  12. Repeal and modification of mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation : a review of available information : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, Congress relieved the Secretary of Transportation of the power to impose sanctions upon states for not having a law requiring the use of helmets by motorcyclists. Shortly afterward, the states having such laws began repealing or modifying th...

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response During Lateral +Gy Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Chris

    2003-01-01

    .... A series of tests was conducted by AFRL/HEPA on a horizontal impulse accelerator using human subjects to investigate the effects of helmet inertial properties on human response to short duration...

  14. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six

  15. Youth motorcycle-related brain injury by state helmet law type: United States, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Harold; Agimi, Yll; Steiner, Claudia

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-seven states have youth-specific helmet laws even though such laws have been shown to decrease helmet use and increase youth mortality compared with all-age (universal) laws. Our goal was to quantify the impact of age-specific helmet laws on youth under age 20 hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our cross-sectional ecological group analysis compared TBI proportions among US states with different helmet laws. We examined the following null hypothesis: If age-specific helmet laws are as effective as universal laws, there will be no difference in the proportion of hospitalized young motorcycle riders with TBI in the respective states. The data are derived from the 2005 to 2007 State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We examined data for 17 states with universal laws, 6 states with laws for ages laws for children younger than 18 (9287 motorcycle injury discharges). In states with a law, serious TBI among youth was 38% higher than in universal-law states. Motorcycle riders aged 12 to 17 in 18 helmet-law states had a higher proportion of serious/severe TBI and higher average Abbreviated Injury Scores for head-region injuries than riders from universal-law states. States with youth-specific laws had an increased risk of TBI that required hospitalization, serious and severe TBI, TBI-related disability, and in-hospital death among the youth they are supposed to protect. The only method known to keep motorcycle-helmet use high among youth is to adopt or maintain universal helmet laws.

  16. Wearing American Football helmets increases cervicocephalic kinaesthetic awareness in "elite" American Football players but not controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter W; Hume, Phillip J; Heusch, Andrew I; Lark, Sally D

    2015-01-01

    While there have been investigations into the reduced neck injury rate of wearing protective helmets, there is little information on its effects on normal kinaesthetic neck function. This study aims to quantify the kinaesthetic and movement effects of the American football helmet. Fifteen British Collegiate American football players (mean age 22.2, SD 1.9; BMI kg.m(2) 26.3, SD 3.7) were age and size matched to 11 non-American football playing university students (mean age 22.5, SD 3.6; BMI 24.3, SD 3.3 kg.m(2)). Both groups had their active cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy measured during neck flexion/extension using a modified cervical range of motion device and a similarly modified football helmet. Wearing helmets significantly reduced active cervical range of motion in extension in both groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 Controls and American Footballers respectively). While both groups had similar repositioning when not wearing a helmet (flexion P = 0.99; extension P = 0.52), when wearing helmets, American football players appeared to be more accurate in relation to cervical kinaesthetic repositioning (ANOVA: P = 0.077: flexion effect size =0.84; extension effect size =0.38). Wearing American football helmets significantly reduces the active cervical range of motion in extension, along with a change in the neutral head position. American footballers have a greater accuracy in repositioning their head from flexion (potentially enhanced proprioception) when wearing a helmet. This finding might allow development of a simple objective test to help discern presence of minor concussive or cervical musculoskeletal injury on or off the field.

  17. Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response to -Gx Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    gender difference, the female subjects were on average unable to sustain as forceful a brace during pre- impact as the males, which may account for...AFRL-RH-WP-SR-2016-0002 EFFECTS OF VARIABLE HELMET WEIGHT ON HUMAN RESPONSE TO –Gx IMPACT John R. Buhrman, Grant C. Roush, Erica M...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb 2003 – Feb 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response to –Gx Impact 5a

  18. [Preventive effects of 4 Se-enriched plants on rat stomach cancer induced by MNNG 2. Safety of different selenium resources for prevention of stomach cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjie; Chen, Jing; Li, Weidong; Chen, Xiaobin

    2008-01-01

    To guide the application of selenium (Se) in the prevention of human chronic diseases, the safety of different Se resources (selenite, Se-enriched garlic, Se-enriched broccoli, Se-enriched green kale and Se-enriched red kale) was investigated. Ninety rats were fed the basal diet for a week, divided equally into the control, N-methyl- N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and seven Se treatment groups. Rats were daily given 15 mg/kg bw of MNNG for ten days except those in the control group, and rats in seven Se supplementation groups were daily given 75 microg/kg bw or 150 microg/kg bw sodium selenite solution, 150 or 300 microg/kg bw Se as of Se-enriched plant suspension by gavage for 17 weeks. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 18th week, the liver glutathione S-transferase (GST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were detected. Rats were given with the basal diet and water freely during the experiment. The data was statistically analyzed by SPSS 12.0 software. All rats in Se 75 microg/kg bw of Se as sodium selenite group died within 6 weeks, the body weights of rats in 75 microg/kg bw of Se as sodium selenite group were significantly lower than those of rats in other groups, the serum AST and ALT activities of rats in 75 microg/kg bw of Se as sodium selenite group were significantly higher than those of rats in other groups, and only the Se supplementation of 75 microg/kg bw of Se as selenite led to rat liver pathological change. Selenite is at least 4 times as toxic as Se-enriched higher plants selected in this experiment.

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  1. Efficacy and safety of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria in African infants: a pooled analysis of six randomised, placebo-controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, John J.; Schellenberg, David; Egan, Andrea; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Carneiro, Ilona; Critchley, Julia; Danquah, Ina; Dodoo, Alexander; Kobbe, Robin; Lell, Bertrand; May, Jürgen; Premji, Zul; Sanz, Sergi; Sevene, Esperanza; Soulaymani-Becheikh, Rachida; Winstanley, Peter; Adjei, Samuel; Anemana, Sylvester; Chandramohan, Daniel; Issifou, Saadou; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Greenwood, Brian; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Macete, Eusebio; Mshinda, Hassan; Newman, Robert D.; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Alonso, Pedro; Menendez, Clara

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising strategy for malaria control in infants. We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa. METHODS: We pooled data from six double-blind, randomised,

  2. Mechanisms, injuries and helmet use in cyclists presenting to an inner city emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Michael M; Kastelein, Christopher; Hopkins, Roy; Royle, Timothy J; Bein, Kendall J; Chalkley, Dane R; Ivers, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to describe the injury profiles of cyclists presenting to an ED and determine the risk of significant head injury associated with bicycle helmet use. This was a retrospective single trauma centre study of all adult cyclists presenting to an inner city ED and undergoing a trauma team review between January 2012 and June 2014. The outcome of interest was significant head injury defined as any head injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score of two or more. Variables analysed included demographic characteristics, helmet use at time of incident, location, time and the presence of intoxication. The most common body regions were upper limb injuries (57%), followed by head injuries (43%), facial injuries (30%) and lower limb injuries (24%). A lower proportion of people wearing helmets had significant head injury (17% vs 31%, P = 0.018) or facial injury (26% vs 48%, P = 0.0017) compared with non-helmet users. After adjustment for important covariates, helmet use was associated with a 70% decrease in the odds of significant head injury (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.15, 0.76, P = 0.008). Head injuries were common after inner city cycling incidents. The use of helmets was associated with a reduction in significant head injury. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  4. Experimental investigations on the cooling of a motorcycle helmet with phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.

  5. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for stroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Dan; Li, Da-Bing; Yu, Xin; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous study indicated that high-dose statin treatment might increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and adverse reactions. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. Methods: A thorough search was performed of multiple databases for publications from 1990 to June 2015. We selected the randomized clinical trials comparing standard-dose statin with placebo and intensive-dose statin with standard-dose statin or placebo for the prevention of stroke events in patients. Duplicate independent data extraction and bias assessments were performed. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present. Results: For the all stroke incidences, intensive-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment and standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment showed a significant 21% reduction in relative risk (RR) (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.71, 0.87], P statin treatment compared with standard dose or placebo was effective reducing fatal stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.39, 0.96], P = 0.03) and the RR was 1.01 (95% CI [0.85, 1.20], P = 0.90) in standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that intensive-dose statin treatment might be more favorable for reducing the incidences of all strokes than standard-dose statin treatment, especially for patients older than 65 years in reducing the incidences of all stroke incidences. PMID:27684837

  7. Contemporary Reflections on the Safety of Long-Term Aspirin Treatment for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    Aspirin has been the cornerstone of therapy for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease since landmark trials were completed in the late 1970s and early 1980s that demonstrated the efficacy of aspirin for reducing the risk of ischemic events. Notwithstanding the consistent benefits demonstrated with apirin for both acute and chronic cardiovascular disease, there are a number of toxicities associated with aspirin that have been showcased by recent long-term clinical trials that have included an aspirin monotherapy arm. As an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, aspirin impairs gastric mucosal protective mechanisms. Prior trials have shown that up to 15–20% of patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms with aspirin monotherapy and roughly 1% of patients per year had a clinically significant bleeding event, including 1 in 1000 patients who suffered an intracranial or fatal bleed. These risks have been shown to be compounded for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), who are also treated with other anti-thrombotic agents during the acute care/procedural period, as well as for an extended time period afterwards. Given observations of substantial increases in bleeding rates from many prior long-term clinical trials that have evaluated aspirin together with other oral platelet inhibitors or oral anti-coagulants, the focus of contemporary research has pivoted towards tailored anti-thrombotic regimens that attempt to either shorten the duration of exposure to aspirin or replace aspirin with an alternative anti-thrombotic agent. While these shifts are occurring, the safety profile of aspirin when used for the secondary prevention treatment of patients with established cardiovascular disease deserves further consideration. PMID:27028617

  8. [Asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law - in reference to the ordinance on prevention of hazards due to specified chemical substances and the ordinance on prevention of health impairment due to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2013-10-01

    Recently in Japan, mesothelioma and lung cancer caused by asbestos are increasing in number and in proportion among occupational cancers. It is thus obvious that asbestos will remain an important theme in the field of occupational health and safety. We hereby report on the relationship between asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law, the Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards due to Specified Chemical Substances, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Health Impairment due to Asbestos, in reference to laws and regulations as well as official notifications issued by the Ministry. In particular, we will focus on the process by which our country totally prohibited the use of asbestos, countermeasures to prevent exposure of workers, historical changes regarding administrative concentration levels, and measures for the management of health of workers handling and dealing with asbestos.

  9. Potential risk of using General Estimates System: bicycle safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Young-Jun; Lee, Joyoung

    2010-11-01

    Beneficial effects of bicycle helmet use have been reported mostly based on medical or survey data collected from hospitals. This study was to examine the validity of the United States General Estimates System (GES) database familiar to many transportation professionals for a beneficial effect of helmet use in reducing the severity of injury to bicyclists and found potential risk of erroneous conclusions that can be drawn by a narrowly focused study when the GES database is used. Although the focus of the study was on bicycle helmet use, its findings regarding potential risk might be true for any type of traffic safety study using the GES data. A partial proportional odds model reflecting intrinsic ordering of injury severity was mainly used. About 16,000 bicycle-involved traffic crash records occurring in 2003 through 2008 in the United States were extracted from the GES database. Using the 2003-2008 GES data, a beneficial effect of helmet use was found in 2007, yet a detrimental effect in 2004 and no effect in 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2008, which are contrary to the past findings from medical or hospital survey data. It was speculated that these mixed results might be attributable to a possible lack of representation of the GES data for bicycle-involved traffic crashes, which may be supported by the findings, such as the average helmet use rates at the time of the crashes varying from 12% in 2004 to 38% in 2008. This suggests that the GES data may not be a reliable source for studying narrowly focused issues such as the effect of helmet use. A considerable fluctuation over years in basic statistical values (e.g., average) of variables of interest (e.g., helmet use) may be an indication of a possible lack of representation of the GES data. In such a case, caution should be exercised in interpreting and generalizing analysis results. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Analysis of Commercially Available Firefighting Helmet and Boot Options for the Joint Firefighter Integrated Response Ensemble (JFIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    from the top, while the Targa 0086showed an increase in both measurements due to its motorcycle helmet -like design. None of the helmets met the RCM...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0022 ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HELMET AND BOOT OPTIONS FOR THE JOINT FIREFIGHTER INTEGRATED RESPONSE ENSEMBLE...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of

  11. Helmet use in winter sport activities--attitude and opinion of neurosurgeons and non-traumatic-brain-injury-educated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter season, some fatal sport injuries with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) prompted major discussions about protective helmet use. Although ski helmets reportedly lead to a 60% decrease of risk to incur TBI, little is known about the distribution of helmet users and which factors are crucial for the decision to wear a helmet. Especially, it is unknown whether knowledge or experience concerning TBI in winter sports influences the use of helmets, as well as the attitude and opinion of people. Since treatment of TBI is a major field in neurosurgery, 55 neurosurgical departments (NS) in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were addressed and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires. A "non-trauma-educated" control cohort (NTP) was interviewed in ski resorts in Austria as well as sports equipment stores in Germany. Questionnaires were returned by 465 NS and 546 NTP. Half of NS and NTP wore helmets in winter sports. Although some interviewees showed cognitive dissonant behaviour, experience in TBI after ski or snowboard accidents significantly affected the decision to wear helmets. After the fatal ski accidents, and increased media coverage 15.4% NS and 13.2% NTP bought their helmet. Furthermore, incidence of helmet use in children was correlated with the actual use and disposition of their parents to make the use of helmet compulsory. This study indicates that brain-trauma education affects ones attitude and opinion concerning protective helmet use in winter sports. However, without neglecting educational measures, emotional arguments should be added in the promotion of helmets to make them a popular integral part of winter sport outfits.

  12. Long-term safety and efficacy of raloxifene in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messalli, Enrico M; Scaffa, Cono

    2010-08-09

    The integrity of bone tissue and its remodeling that occurs throughout life requires a coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The decreased estrogen circulating level during postmenopausal transition, with a prevalence of osteoclastic activity over osteoblastic activity, represents the main cause of bone loss and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease requiring long-term therapy and it is important to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatments over several years, as the fear of health risks is a common reason for discontinuing therapy. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) leading to estrogen-agonist effects in some tissues and estrogen-antagonist effects in others. Raloxifene is effective to prevent and treat postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis, with reduction of spine fractures and, in post-hoc analyses, non-spine fractures in high-risk subjects. Moreover, raloxifene reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer and improves the levels of serum lipoprotein but with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and fatal stroke, without significant change in the incidence of coronary events. For these reasons the overall risk-benefit profile is favorable. Therefore, when considering the use of raloxifene in a postmenopausal woman, we should take into account the osteoporosis-related individual risk and weigh the potential benefits, skeletal and extra-skeletal, against the health risks.

  13. Long-term safety and efficacy of raloxifene in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M Messalli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Enrico M Messalli, Cono ScaffaDepartment of Gynaecology, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Largo Madonna delle Grazie 1, Naples, ItalyAbstract: The integrity of bone tissue and its remodeling that occurs throughout life requires a coordinated activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The decreased estrogen circulating level during postmenopausal transition, with a prevalence of osteoclastic activity over osteoblastic activity, represents the main cause of bone loss and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease requiring long-term therapy and it is important to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatments over several years, as the fear of health risks is a common reason for discontinuing therapy. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM leading to estrogen-agonist effects in some tissues and estrogen-antagonist effects in others. Raloxifene is effective to prevent and treat postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis, with reduction of spine fractures and, in post-hoc analyses, non-spine fractures in high-risk subjects. Moreover, raloxifene reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer and improves the levels of serum lipoprotein but with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and fatal stroke, without significant change in the incidence of coronary events. For these reasons the overall risk-benefit profile is favorable. Therefore, when considering the use of raloxifene in a postmenopausal woman, we should take into account the osteoporosis-related individual risk and weigh the potential benefits, skeletal and extra-skeletal, against the health risks.Keywords: raloxifene, osteoporosis, menopause

  14. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  15. Efficacy and safety of selenium nanoparticles administered intraperitoneally for the prevention of growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Kang; Tan, Yanping; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-07-01

    Peritoneal implantation of cancer cells, particularly postoperative seeding metastasis, frequently occurs in patients with primary tumors in the stomach, colon, liver, and ovary. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is associated with poor prognosis. In this work, we evaluated the prophylactic effect of intraperitoneal administration of selenium (Se), an essential trace element and a putative chemopreventive agent, on peritoneal implantation of cancer cells. Elemental Se nanoparticles were injected into the abdominal cavity of mice, into which highly malignant H22 hepatocarcinoma cells had previously been inoculated. Se concentrations in the cancer cells and tissues, as well as the efficacy of proliferation inhibition and safety, were evaluated. Se was mainly concentrated in cancer cells compared to Se retention in normal tissues, showing at least an order of magnitude difference between the drug target cells (the H22 cells) and the well-recognized toxicity target of Se (the liver). Such a favorable selective distribution resulted in strong proliferation suppression without perceived host toxicity. The mechanism of action of the Se nanoparticle-triggered cytotoxicity was associated with Se-mediated production of reactive oxygen species, which impaired the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Our results suggest that intraperitoneal administration of Se is a safe and effective means of preventing growth of cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity for the above-mentioned high-risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  17. Influence of adult role modeling on child/adolescent helmet use in recreational sledging: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, Gerhard; Pocecco, Elena; Raas, Christoph; Blauth, Michael; Brucker, Peter U; Burtscher, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-04-01

    During recreational sledging (tobogganing), the head represents the most frequent injured body region with approximately one-third of all sledging injuries among children and adolescents. Whether children are wearing a helmet or not might be influenced on parental encouragement and role modeling of helmet use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of adult helmet use on child/adolescent helmet use in recreational sledging. More than 500 adults sitting together with another adult or child/adolescent on a two-seater sledge were interviewed during two winter seasons at the bottom of six sledging tracks on demographics, mean frequency of sledging per season, self-estimated skill level, risk-taking behavior, and the use of a helmet. Total helmet use of all observed persons was 41.0 %. Helmet use among interviewed adults significantly increased with increasing age up to 45 years, frequency of sledging, and skill level, respectively. Helmet use of interviewed adults was 46.5 % if a child/adolescent was sitting on the same sledge and 29.8 % (odds ratios (OR): 2.1, 95 % confidence intervals (CI): 1.4-2.9, p educational campaigns on helmet use are urgently needed for tobogganists.

  18. Helmet and shoulder pad removal from a player with suspected cervical spine injury. A cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, W F; Lauerman, W C; Heil, B; Blanc, R; Swenson, T

    1998-08-15

    Video fluoroscopy was used to evaluate the motion in an unstable spine during helmet and shoulder pad removal. To observe the amount of motion that occurs during the removal of helmet and shoulder pads in an injured spine. Removal of shoulder pads and helmet from a football player with suspected cervical spine injury can be particularly hazardous. How much flexion occurs at the unstable level during removal of equipment is unknown. Six fresh cadavers were used in the study. In three, an unstable C1-C2 segment was created by transoral osteotomy of the base of C2. In the remaining three, instability was created at C5-C6 by a posterior release. Under fluoroscopic recording, the helmets were removed by first removing the chin strap, face mask, and ear pieces. With the neck stabilized, the helmet was carefully removed. The shoulder pads were carefully removed, with the head stabilized. Angulation, distraction, and space available for the cord were measured at C1-C2. Translation, angulation, distraction, and change in disc height were measured in the specimens with unstable C5-C6. In cadavers with C1-C2 instability, the mean change in angulation was 5.47 degrees, and space available for the cord was 3.91 mm. Shoulder pads were removed while the head was stabilized. The mean change in angulation at C1-C2 was less during removal of shoulder pads than during helmet removal at 2.9 degrees. Space available for the cord was 2.64 mm. Distraction was also greater during helmet removal (2.98 mm) than during shoulder pad removal (1.76 mm). In the unstable spine, the change in displacement in translation was greater during shoulder pad removal (3.87 mm), than during helmet removal (0.41 mm). Disc height change was similar. Distraction of the spinous processes was greater during helmet removal (3.68 mm) than during shoulder pad removal (1.37 mm). Angulation was similar in both maneuvers. Helmet and shoulder pad removal in the unstable cervical spine is a complex maneuver. In the

  19. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... airway) Always follow all manufacturers' age recommendations when buying toys . Some toys have small parts that can ... difficult. If you can't childproof the entire house, you can shut the doors (and install doorknob ...

  20. All-terrain vehicle dealership point-of-sale child safety compliance in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Getz, Marjorie A; Begley, Brandon

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, an estimated 37,700 children younger than 16 were treated in US emergency departments for nonfatal all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries. This study identifies safety guidelines and recommendations dealers convey to consumers at the point of sale. A telephone survey of all 2004 licensed motorcycle dealers in Illinois was conducted. Trained investigators, using aliases and posing as a parent of a 13-year-old teenager, spoke with dealership personnel. Investigators indicated they wished to purchase an ATV with the dealership, but had no knowledge of ATV use or safety issues. The telephone call's true purpose was concealed during the survey. Specific responses from the salesperson, models and brands of ATVs, price quotes, engine sizes, and safety information/recommendations were recorded in a written survey instrument. One hundred twenty-seven ATV dealers completed the survey. A salesperson most often fielded the telephone interview (124/127). Telephone interviews by male investigators were longer than those by female interviewers (5 minutes 37 seconds vs 3 minutes 51 seconds; P = 0.001). Dealers recommended Consumer Product Safety Commission-based child-size ATVs (vehicles as "safe." Most dealers (83.5%) recommended some form of rider training, with half (49.6%) offered point-of-purchase training. All-terrain vehicle dealers in Illinois recommend child-size vehicles, safety training, and helmet use for the majority of telephone inquiries. Injury prevention efforts targeting ATV dealers may be less needed than those using other populations.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Immunocompetent Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Nicholas J; Owen, Andrew; Shiels, Sarah C; Millar, Joanne; Woolley, Rebecca; Ives, Natalie; Osman, Husam; Moss, Paul; Bion, Julian F

    2017-06-01

    Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is present in more than half the adult population, and a viral reactivation (ie, when the virus becomes measurable in body fluids such as blood) can occur in up to one-third of these individuals during episodes of critical illness. To determine whether antiviral therapy is safe and effective for preventing CMV reactivation in a general population of critically ill patients. A single-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial recruited 124 CMV-seropositive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours in the intensive care unit between January 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014. The mean baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of all patients was 17.6. Patients were randomized to receive anti-CMV prophylaxis with valacyclovir hydrochloride (n = 34) or low-dose valganciclovir hydrochloride (n = 46) for up to 28 days to suppress viral reactivation, or to a control group with no intervention (n = 44). Time to first CMV reactivation in blood within the 28-day follow-up period following initiation of the study drug. Among the 124 patients in the study (46 women and 78 men; mean [SD] age, 56.9 [16.9] years), viral reactivation in the blood occurred in 12 patients in the control group, compared with 1 patient in the valganciclovir group and 2 patients in the valacyclovir group (combined treatment groups vs control: hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% CI 0.04-0.50). Although this trial was not powered to assess clinical end points, the valacyclovir arm was halted prematurely because of higher mortality; 14 of 34 patients (41.2%) had died by 28 days, compared with 5 of 37 (13.5%) patients in the control arm at the point of the decision to halt this arm. Other safety end points showed similar outcomes between groups. Antiviral prophylaxis with valacyclovir or low-dose valganciclovir suppresses CMV reactivation in patients with critical illness. However, given the higher mortality, a

  2. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Viteri, Fernando E

    2009-10-07

    Intake of supplements containing iron or a combination of iron and folic acid by pregnant women may improve maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Recently, intermittent supplementation regimens have been proposed as alternatives to daily regimens. To assess the effectiveness and safety of daily and intermittent use of iron or iron+folic acid supplements by pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2009) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with iron or iron+folic acid during pregnancy. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assessed which trials to include in the review and one author extracted data. We included 49 trials, involving 23,200 pregnant women. Overall, the results showed significant heterogeneity across most prespecified outcomes and were analysed assuming random-effects. The trials provided limited information related to clinical maternal and infant outcomes.Overall, daily iron supplementation was associated with increased haemoglobin levels in maternal blood both before and after birth and reduced risk of anaemia at term. These effects did not differ significantly between women receiving intermittent or daily iron or iron+folic acid supplementation. Women who received daily prenatal iron supplementation with or without folic acid were less likely to have iron deficiency at term as defined by current cut-off values than those who received no treatment or placebo. Side effects and haemoconcentration (a haemoglobin level greater than 130 g/L) were more common among women who received daily iron or iron+folic acid supplementation than among those who received no treatment or placebo. The risk of haemoconcentration during the second and third trimester was higher among those on a daily

  3. Research-informed evidence and support for road safety legislation: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Road safety perspectives among employees of a multinational corporation in urban India: local context for global injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Winston, Flaura K; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-12-01

    In rapidly developing economies, like urban India, where road traffic injury rates are among the world's highest, the corporate workplace offers a non-traditional venue for road safety interventions. In partnership with a major multinational corporation (MNC) with a large Indian workforce, this study aimed to elicit local employee perspectives on road safety to inform a global corporate health platform. The safety attitudes and behaviours of 75 employees were collected through self-report survey and focus groups in the MNC offices in Bangalore and Pune. Analysis of these data uncovered incongruity between employee knowledge of safety strategies and their enacted safety behaviours and identified local preference for interventions and policy-level actions. The methods modelled by this study offer a straightforward approach for eliciting employee perspective for local road safety interventions that fit within a global strategy to improve employee health. Study findings suggest that MNCs can employ a range of strategies to improve the road traffic safety of their employees in settings like urban India including: implementing corporate traffic safety policy, making local infrastructure changes to improve road and traffic conditions, advocating for road safety with government partners and providing employees with education and access to safety equipment and safe transportation options.

  5. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  6. Argos 500: operation of a helmet vector-MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarelli, A; Rossi, R; De Melis, M; Marzetti, L; Trebeschi, A; Müller, H-P; Erné, S N

    2004-11-30

    We here describe the MEG system recently installed at the University of Ulm; it is specifically designed for clinical application and routine use, to allow investigation of a large number of patients per day. To reach this goal, the system design meets the requirements of reliability, high field sensitivity, minimal set-up time before each measurement and an easy-to-handle user interface. The sensor system consists of a 163 vector-magnetometers array oriented and located in a suitable way to cover the whole head of the patient. Four additional triplets are available as references to arrange software gradiometers. The helmet shaped sensor system is positioned to accommodate the patient in a supine position. Simultaneously to the MEG, there are 64 EEG channels. Other relevant patient information can be recorded up to a total number of 660 acquisition channels. Noise level of a single magnetometer is about 5 fT/square root of Hz. Maximum sampling rate is 4200 Hz.

  7. HElmet therapy Assessment in infants with Deformed Skulls (HEADS: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Renske M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to

  8. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  9. Head position in the MEG helmet affects the sensitivity to anterior sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2004-11-30

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.

  10. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  11. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  12. Hockey STAR: A Methodology for Assessing the Biomechanical Performance of Hockey Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Bethany; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the protective capabilities of helmets is one of several methods of reducing brain injury risk in sports. This paper presents the experimental and analytical development of a hockey helmet evaluation methodology. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) formula combines head impact exposure with brain injury probability over the broad range of 227 head impacts that a hockey player is likely to experience during one season. These impact exposure data are mapped to laboratory testing parameters using a series of 12 impact conditions comprised of three energy levels and four head impact locations, which include centric and non-centric directions of force. Injury risk is determined using a multivariate injury risk function that incorporates both linear and rotational head acceleration measurements. All testing parameters are presented along with exemplar helmet test data. The Hockey STAR methodology provides a scientific framework for manufacturers to optimize hockey helmet design for injury risk reduction, as well as providing consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of hockey helmets.

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  15. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  16. Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    and one had one serious adverse event, and in the placebo group, one patient had one serious adverse event. There were no differences in vital signs or laboratory safety data between the two treatment groups. The mean change in migraine days between baseline and weeks 5-8 was -5·6 (SD 3·0) for the ALD403......BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is crucial in the pathophysiology of migraine. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ALD403, a genetically engineered humanised anti-CGRP antibody, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo...... to treatment allocation during the study. The primary objective was to assess safety at 12 weeks after infusion. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to weeks 5-8 in the frequency of migraine days, as recorded in patient electronic diaries. Patients were followed up until 24 weeks...

  17. Neck pain among fighter pilots after the introduction of the JHMCS helmet and NVG in their environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....

  18. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  19. [Prevalence and evolution of helmet use in motorcycle riders in an Argentine city (Mar del Plata, 2006-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Jeremías David; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Poó, Fernando Martín; Montes, Silvana Andrea; López, Soledad Susana

    2016-03-01

    Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962), 2008 (n=977), 2012 (n=2,542), and 2014 (n=2,466). The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.

  20. 2013 Bike safety campaign: outcome and feedback

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From 3 to 17 June, the HSE Unit, in collaboration with the Reception and Access Control Service, led a campaign targeting CERN cyclists.   Photo: Laëtitia Wohlgemuth. In exchange for vouchers distributed by the security guards, 195 persons received a helmet and a reflective vest as well as documents on safety issues (ex: how to adjust one’s safety helmet properly; how to avoid blind spots; what is the required equipment for bikes and bike users, etc.). These persons also took part in a survey that contained questions on their cycling habits and level of knowledge on bike safety issues. It appeared that, for instance, 43% of the participants were aware that wearing a reflective vest is mandatory whenever visibility is poor (in France). 95% gave particular attention to the need to protect their heads (by assuming that wearing a helmet is either “mandatory” or “highly recommended”). The HSE Unit provided the participants with further i...

  1. The Effects of Thermal Non-Equilibrium on a Helmet Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, M.; Antiochos, S. K.; MacNeice, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effects of localized heating on the evolution of the plasma within helmet streamers. By implementing a sufficiently small heating scale height, the process of thermal non-equilibrium triggers the formation of coronal rain within the helmet streamer. We present the comparative formation rates of coronal rain in simulations of 3 different grid resolutions. The heating scale height itself is also varied to examine its affect on the rain that is observed. Lastly, we present the evolution of plasma along particular field lines. Our model shows that the thermal physics of the plasma and the dynamical motions of the magnetic field work together to affect the creation rate of coronal rain. This finding has wider implications and suggests that the presence of coronal rain within a helmet streamer can drive the process of magnetic reconnection above the cusp of the streamer. This work was supported in part by the NASA LWS and SR Programs.

  2. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  3. Concussion in professional football: location and direction of helmet impacts-Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C; Tucker, Andrew M; Casson, Ira R

    2003-12-01

    National Football League game video was analyzed for the typical locations of severe helmet impacts in professional football. By use of selected cases that were reconstructed in laboratory tests and reported previously, the magnitude and direction of force causing concussion was determined for these locations. Multiple video views were obtained for 182 severe helmet impacts that occurred between 1996 and 2001. From a top view, the helmet was divided into 45-degree quadrants with 0 degrees eyes forward. From a side view, it was divided into seven equal levels, four (+Q1 to +Q4) above the head center of gravity and three below (-Q1 to -Q3). The initial helmet contact was located in these regions. Thirty-one impacts were reconstructed with helmeted Hybrid III dummies involving 25 concussions. Measurement of head translational and rotational acceleration was used to determine the average and +/-1 standard deviation in responses, with impacts reflected to the right side. From video, the majority (71%) of impact is to the helmet shell primarily from a striking player's helmet, arm, or shoulder pad to the side (45-135 degrees) or from ground contact to the back (135-180 degrees). Most impacts were high on the helmet at +Q2 to +Q4. The remainder (29%) were primarily from helmet contact on the facemask at an oblique frontal angle (0-45 degrees) and -Q3 to +Q1 height. From reconstructions, concussion occurred with the lowest peak head acceleration in facemask impacts at 78 +/- 18 g versus an average 107 to 117 g for impacts on other quadrants (t = 2.90, P force was essentially horizontal for facemask impacts and downward at 12 to 27 degrees for impacts to the helmet side and back. Concussion in professional football involves four typical conditions, as follows: A, 0- to 45-degree quadrant, -Q3 to +Q3 level, peak force 49 +/- 18 degrees from front and horizontal; B, 45- to 90-degree quadrant, -Q2 to +Q3 level, peak force 73 +/- 12 degrees and horizontal; C, 90- to 135-degree

  4. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent road traffic injuries in low- and middle-income countries: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banstola, Amrit; Mytton, Julie

    2017-05-19

    The objective of this study was to identify, critically appraise, summarize, and synthesize evidence from cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of interventions aimed at preventing road traffic injuries (RTIs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by age group and road users targeted. A search strategy was applied to 12 electronic databases for studies published between May 2002 and August 2015 that met prespecified inclusion criteria. Additional studies were identified by contacting authors and searching bibliographies. Included studies were critically appraised against published criteria and a narrative synthesis was conducted including a use of the strength of evidence criteria. Five studies were included in the final review that reported 9 interventions. Only 2 out of 9 interventions (drink-drive legislation with enforcement via breath testing campaign and combined interventions for reducing RTIs) showed moderate evidence of being cost-effective, whereas the evidence of cost-effectiveness of other interventions was weak. Only 2 interventions (bicycle and motorcycle helmet use legislation and enforcement) were explicitly targeted to children, young people and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists. The cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent RTIs in LMICs ranged from US$4.14 per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted for building speed bumps at the most dangerous junctions that caused 10% of junction deaths in the area studied to US$3,403 per DALYs averted for legislation and enforcement of helmet use by motorcyclists in the World Health Organization (WHO) sub-Saharan Africa region. Evidence of cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent RTIs in LMICs is limited, particularly for children, young people, and vulnerable road users. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a larger number of possible road safety interventions in a variety of LMIC settings is warranted to generate the evidence base for effective

  5. Florida's weakened motorcycle helmet law: effects on death rates in motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, Sergey Y; McCartt, Anne T

    2006-03-01

    Effective July 1, 2000, Florida's universal helmet law was amended to exclude riders ages 21 and older with insurance coverage providing at least 10,000 US dollars in medical benefits for injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash. Observed helmet use in Florida was reported to have declined from nearly 100% in 1998, before the law change, to 53% after. This study examined the effects of the law change on the likelihood of death, given involvement in a motorcycle crash. Rates of motorcyclist deaths per crash involvement in Florida for 2001-2002 (after the law change) were compared with those for 1998-1999 (before the law change). Before/after death rate ratios (95% CIs) were examined, and logistic regression models estimated the effect of the helmet law change on the odds of death in a crash, while controlling for rider gender, age, and seating position, and number of vehicles. The motorcyclist death rate increased significantly after the law change, from 30.8 to 38.8 deaths per 1,000 crash involvements. Motorcyclist death rates increased for single- and multiple-vehicle crashes, for male and female operators, and for riders of all ages including those younger than 21. After controlling for gender and age, the likelihood of death given involvement in a motorcycle crash was 25% higher than expected after the law change. It is estimated that 117 motorcyclist deaths could have been avoided during 2001-2002 if Florida's universal helmet law had remained in place. This study provides evidence of the life-saving benefits of universal helmet laws. The results also suggest that age-specific helmet laws are not effective in protecting the youngest drivers. This is not surprising, as these laws are largely unenforceable.

  6. Social inequality in motorcycle helmet use: when a reduction in inequality is not necessarily good news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lai, Ching-Huei; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-07-01

    We sought to examine changes in the magnitude of social inequality in motorcycle helmet use in Taiwan between 2001 and 2009. Using data from the 2001 and 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Surveys, we calculated absolute (the slope index of inequality, SII) and relative (relative index of inequality, RII) measures of inequality in helmet use by three indicators of socioeconomic position. The rate of motorcycle helmet use was 92% (14 801/16 100) in 2001 and decreased to 89% (15 748/17 948) in 2009. We noted a significant decrease in social inequality in helmet use in RII according to urbanisation level, a significant decrease in SII and RII according to income level, and a significant increase in SII according to education level. The reduction in RII according to urbanisation level was more prominent than that based on income level, from 1.73 (95% CI 1.63 to 1.84) in 2001 to 1.33 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.39) in 2009. The decline in helmet use was most prominent for motorcycle users who live in suburban areas, from 94% in 2001 to 88% in 2009. The significant reduction of social inequality in helmet use according to urbanisation level and income is not a public health success story. Rather, it is a warning sign of slackening law enforcement in Taiwan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  8. Impact of helmet use on traumatic brain injury from road traffic accidents in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B

    2018-01-02

    Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.

  9. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  10. Bicycle safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local sporting goods store, sports facility, or bike shop can help make sure your helmet fits properly. ... sidewalks, children need to learn to watch for cars pulling out from driveways and alleys. Also, teach ...

  11. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  12. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  13. Evaluation of military helmets and roof padding on head injury potential from vertical impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Melanie; Laing, Sheridan

    2016-10-02

    Soldiers in military vehicles subjected to underbelly blasts can sustain traumatic head and neck injuries due to a head impact with the roof. The severity of head and neck trauma can be influenced by the amount of head clearance available to the occupant as well as factors such as wearing a military helmet or the presence of padding on the interior roof. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between a Hybrid III headform, the helmet system, and the interior roof of the vehicle under vertical loading. Using a head impact machine and a Hybrid III headform, tests were conducted on a rigid steel plate in a number of different configurations and velocities to assess helmet shell and padding performance, to evaluate different vehicle roof padding materials, and to determine the relative injury mitigating contributions of both the helmet and the roof padding. The resultant translational head acceleration was measured and the head injury criterion (HIC) was calculated for each impact. For impacts with a helmeted headform hitting the steel plate only, which represented a common scenario in an underbelly blast event, velocities of ≤6 m/s resulted in HIC values below the FMVSS 201U threshold of 1,000, and a velocity of 7 m/s resulted in HIC values well over the threshold. Roof padding was found to reduce the peak translational head acceleration and the HIC, with rigid IMPAXX foams performing better than semirigid ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. However, the head injury potential was reduced considerably more by wearing a helmet than by the addition of roof padding. The results of this study provide initial quantitative findings that provide a better understanding of helmet-roof interactions in vertical impacts and the contributions of the military helmet and roof padding to mitigating head injury potential. Findings from this study will be used to inform further testing with the future aim of developing a new minimum head clearance standard for

  14. Helmet Versus Active Repositioning for Plagiocephaly: A Three-Dimensional Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used......). The greatest difference was localized to the occipital region. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-head 3D asymmetry analysis is capable of rigorously quantifying the relative efficacy of the 2 common treatments of DP. Orthotic helmets provide statistically superior improvement in head symmetry compared with active...

  15. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  16. Preventable ADRs leading to hospitalization - results of a long-term prospective safety study with 6,427 ADR cases focusing on elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedl, S; Rottenkolber, M; Szymanski, J; Drewelow, B; Siegmund, W; Hippius, M; Farker, K; Guenther, I R; Hasford, J; Thuermann, P A

    2018-02-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of age and potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) on avoidable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are scarce. In this prospective, multi-center, long-term (8.5 years) observational study, we analysed ADRs leading to hospitalization in departments of internal medicine. ADRs causality and preventability were assessed using standardised algorithms. PIM was defined based on the PRISCUS-list. Multivariate analyses and estimation of ADR incidence rates were conducted. Of all 6,427 ADR patients, a preventable ADR was present in 1,253 (19.5%) patients (elderly patients ≥70 years: 828). Risk factors for preventable ADRs in elderly patients were multimorbidity, two to four ADR-causative drugs, and intake of particular compounds (e.g. spironolactone) but not sex, PIM usage, or the total number of drugs. Regarding particular compounds associated with preventable ADRs, highest incidence rates for preventable ADRs were found for patients aged ≥70 years for spironolactone (3.3 per 1,000 exposed persons (95% CI: 1.4-6.6)) and intermediate-acting insulin (3.3 per 1,000 exposed persons (95% CI: 1.6-6.1)). Avoiding PIM usage seems to be of limited value in increasing safety in elderly patients whereas our results underline the importance of an individualized medication review of the most commonly implicated drugs in preventable ADRs (supported by BfArM FoNr: V-11337/68605/2008-2010).

  17. The challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents for people with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals: evidence from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Goulding, Lucy; Gordon, Vanessa; Abraham, Elisabeth; Giatras, Nikoletta; Edwards, Christine; Gillard, Steve; Hollins, Sheila

    2014-09-24

    There has been evidence in recent years that people with intellectual disabilities in acute hospitals are at risk of preventable deterioration due to failures of the healthcare services to implement the reasonable adjustments they need. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents involving people with intellectual disabilities, to describe patient safety issues faced by patients with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals, and investigate underlying contributory factors. This was a 21-month mixed-method study involving interviews, questionnaires, observation and monitoring of incident reports to assess the implementation of recommendations designed to improve care provided for patients with intellectual disabilities and explore the factors that compromise or promote patient safety. Six acute NHS Trusts in England took part. Data collection included: questionnaires to clinical hospital staff (n = 990); questionnaires to carers (n = 88); interviews with: hospital staff including senior managers, nurses and doctors (n = 68) and carers (n = 37); observation of in-patients with intellectual disabilities (n = 8); monitoring of incident reports (n = 272) and complaints involving people with intellectual disabilities. Staff did not always readily identify patient safety issues or report them. Incident reports focused mostly around events causing immediate or potential physical harm, such as falls. Hospitals lacked effective systems for identifying patients with intellectual disabilities within their service, making monitoring safety incidents for this group difficult.The safety issues described by the participants were mostly related to delays and omissions of care, in particular: inadequate provision of basic nursing care, misdiagnosis, delayed investigations and treatment, and non-treatment decisions and Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders. The events leading to avoidable harm

  18. Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Kristen J.; Weiss, Harold B.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the 2003 repeal of Pennsylvania’s motorcycle helmet law, we assessed changes in helmet use and compared motorcycle-related head injuries with non-head injuries from 2001–2002 to 2004–2005. Helmet use among riders in crashes decreased from 82% to 58%. Head injury deaths increased 66%; nonhead injury deaths increased 25%. Motorcycle-related head injury hospitalizations increased 78% compared with 28% for nonhead injury hospitalizations. Helmet law repeals jeopardize motorcycle riders. Until repeals are reversed, states need voluntary strategies to increase helmet use. PMID:18556613

  19. PREVENT : education to improve road safety around work zones. Paper presented at the third International Conference Working on Safety, in Eemhof, the Netherlands, 12-15 September 2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. & Mesken, J.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively high traffic accident rate around work zones is partly caused by driver error. To reduce driver error and to improve driver behaviour around workzones, a training programme was developed within the framework of the European Union 'Leonardo Da Vinci" "PREVENT" project. Literature

  20. Preventing errors in administration of parenteral drugs: the results of a four-year national patient safety program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C. de; Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of a four-year national patient safety program concerning the parenteral drug administration process in the Netherlands. Methods: Structuring the preparation and administration process of parenteral drugs reduces the number of medication errors. A