Sample records for prevention risk reduction


    The mission of the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory is to advance the understanding, development and application of engineering solutions for the prevention or reduction of risks from environmental contamination. This mission is accomplished through basic and applied researc...

  2. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction


    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami


    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  3. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa


    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  4. Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry. (United States)

    Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R


    In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry.

  5. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

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    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden


    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  6. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs (United States)

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina


    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  7. Impact of the new Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction on Paris flood prevention program

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    Thepot Regis


    Full Text Available The greater Paris region faces a significant risk of flooding due to potential spill-over from the Seine and the Marne. Because the last major flood occurred in 1910, the event has faded in the collective memory. Consequently, the population and the public authorities have difficulty imagining that such a catastrophe might repeat itself. In parallel, widespread urban expansion into flood zones has considerably aggravated the foreseeable damage if an event of a comparable intensity were to hit the region.In response to this situation, the EPTB Seine Grands Lacs – a public territorial basin establishment– decided to take action to reduce this risk.It began by commissioning a study from the OECD on flood risk prevention in the Seine Basin. This study was presented in January 2014 and highlighted the considerable risk of flooding in or near Paris, which could, affect a total of nearly 5 million people, cause up to €30 billion in direct damage and affect up to 400.000 jobs. It also put forward 14 recommendations that are being implemented by the public authorities, at either the national, basin or local level.The EPTB launched in partnership with the government a second initiative for which it steers and coordinates a coherent, balanced, relevant and gradual programme of 78 flood prevention actions. As a new post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted in Sendai in March 2015 taking in account lessons learned during the 2005-2015 period, gaps identified and future challenges, this paper addresses the question of the impact of this new international framework on the implementation of the flood prevention of Paris region. One of the main points developed is the necessity to increase public awareness, to enhance disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

  8. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

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    H Aranpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  9. Risk reduction using DDP (Defect Detection and Prevention): Software support and software applications (United States)

    Feather, M. S.


    Risk assessment and mitigation is the focus of the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) process, which has been applied to spacecraft technology assessments and planning, both hardware and software. DDP's major elements and their relevance to core requirement engineering concerns are summarized. The accompanying research demonstration illustrates DDP's tool support, and further customizations for application to software.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk. (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell


    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.

  11. The burden of disease preventable by risk factor reduction in Serbia

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    Šipetić Sandra


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Reliable and comparable analysis of health risks is an important component of evidence-based and preventive programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the most relevant avoidable risk factors on the burden of the selected conditions in Serbia. Methods. Attributable fractions were calculated from the survey information on the prevalence of a risk factor and the relative risk of dying if exposed to a risk factor. The population-attributable risks were applied to deaths, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL, years of life with disability (YLD and disability adjusted life years (DALY. Results. More than 40% of all deaths and of the total YLL are attributable to cigarette smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables, hypertension and high blood cholesterol. Alcohol consumption has in total a beneficial effect. According to the percent of DALY for the selected conditions attributable to the observed risk factors, their most harmful effects are as follows: alcohol consumption on road traffic accidents; cigarette smoking on lung cancer; physical inactivity on cerebrovascular disease (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and colorectal cancer; overweight on type 2 diabetes; hypertension on renal failure and CVD; inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables on IHD and CVD, and high blood cholesterol on IHD. Conclusions. This study shows that a high percentage of disease and injury burden in Serbia is attributable to avoidable risk factors, which emphasizes the need for improvement of relevant preventive strategies and programs at both individual and population levels. Social preferences should be determined for a comprehensive set of conditions and cost effectiveness analyses of potential interventions should be carried out. Furthermore, positive measures, derived from health, disability and quality of life surveys, should be included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  12. Methodologic issues in clinical trials for prevention or risk reduction in osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Jordan, J M; Sowers, M F; Messier, S P; Bradley, J; Arangio, G; Katz, J N; Losina, E; Rovati, L; Bachtell, N; Cooper, C; Spector, T; Zhang, W; Gardiner, J; Wahba, M


    The design and execution of prevention trials for OA have methodological issues that are distinct from trials designed to impact prevalent disease. Disease definitions and their precise and sensitive measurement, identification of high-risk populations, the nature of the intervention (pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, behavioral) and its potential pleiotropic impacts on other organ systems are critical to consider. Because prevention trials may be prolonged, close attention to concomitant life changes and co-morbidities, adherence and participant retention in the trial is of primary importance, as is recognition of the potential for "preventive misconception" and "behavioral disinhibition" to affect the ability of the trial to show an effect of the intervention under study. None of these potential pitfalls precludes a successful and scientifically rigorous process and outcome. As technology improves the means to measure and predict the OA process and its clinical consequences, it will be increasingly possible to screen individuals for high-risk phenotypes, combining clinical factors with information from imaging, genetic, metabolic and other biomarkers and to impact this high-risk condition to avoid or delay OA both structurally and symptomatically. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preventive potential of body mass reduction to lower cardiovascular risk: the Italian Progetto CUORE study. (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Palmieri, Luigi; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Vanuzzo, Diego; Chiodini, Paolo; Cesana, Giancarlo; Ferrario, Marco; Mattiello, Amalia; Pilotto, Lorenza; Sega, Roberto; Giampaoli, Simona; Stamler, Jeremiah


    To estimate effects of weight change on incidence of major cardiovascular events in the Italian population-based Progetto CUORE. Prospective observation in 12 Italian population-based cohorts on etiology of cardiovascular disease. Twenty-thousand six-hundred-forty-seven men and women aged 35-69 years without previous CVD, examined at baseline between 1984 and 1993 and followed for median time 8.5 years, with validated first cardiovascular events. Standardised anthropometric variables, lifestyle and biochemical risk factors for CVD; major cardiovascular events as end-points. Linear regression between BMI and major CVD risk factors was combined with Cox coefficients from a prediction model of CVD, CHD and stroke using major risk factors as dependent variables. Estimated cardiovascular risk reductions with BMI lowered by 1 to 3 U were: for men 3.8% to 10.9% for all cardiovascular events, 4.2% to 12.1% for CHD, and 2.3% to 6.9% for stroke; for women 2.8% to 8.1% for all cardiovascular events, 3.4% to 9.8% for CHD, and 2.1% to 6.2% for stroke. Body weight level influences cardiovascular disease risk in the Italian population.

  14. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus. (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo


    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  15. Reductions in Transmission Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Clients Receiving Prevention Case Management Services: Findings from a Community Demonstration Project (United States)

    Gasiorowicz, Mari; Llanas, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Benotsch, Eric G.; Brondino, Michael J.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Hoxie, Neil J.; Reiser, William J.; Vergeront, James M.


    Prevention case management (PCM) for HIV-infected persons is an HIV risk reduction intervention designed to assist clients who are aware of their HIV infection and who continue to engage in risk transmission behaviors. PCM combines individual risk reduction counseling with case management to address the psychosocial factors affecting HIV…

  16. A risk reduction strategy to prevent maternal deaths associated with unsafe abortion. (United States)

    Briozzo, L; Vidiella, G; Rodríguez, F; Gorgoroso, M; Faúndes, A; Pons, J E


    Worldwide, 13% of maternal deaths are caused by complications of spontaneous or induced abortion, 29% in Uruguay and nearly half (48%) in the Pereira Rossell Hospital. This paper describes a risk reduction strategy for unsafe abortions in Montevideo, Uruguay, where over one-fourth of maternal deaths are caused by unsafe abortion. Although abortion is not legal in Uruguay, women desiring abortions can be counseled before and immediately after to reduce the risk of injury. Women contemplating abortion were invited to attend a "before-abortion" and an "after-abortion" visit at a reproductive health polyclinic. At the "before-abortion" visit, gestational age, condition of the fetus and pathologies were diagnosed and the risks associated with the use of different abortion methods (based on the best available scientific evidence) were described. The "after-abortion" visit allowed for checking for possible complications and offering contraception. From March 2004 through June 2005, 675 women attended the "before-abortion" and 495 the "after-abortion" visit, the number increasing over time. Some women (3.5%) decided not to abort, others were either not pregnant, the fetus/embryo was dead or the woman had a condition that permitted legal termination of pregnancy in the hospital (7.5%). Most women, however, aborted. All women used vaginal misoprostol in the doses recommended in the medical literature. There were no serious complications (one mild infection and two hemorrhages not requiring transfusion). The strategy is effective in reducing unsafe abortions and their health consequences.

  17. Pronurturance Plus at birth: A risk reduction strategy for preventing postpartum haemorrhage. (United States)

    Saxton, A; Fahy, K; Hastie, C


    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) rates continue to rise in the developed world. A recent study found that any skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding within 30min of birth was associated with an almost 50% reduction in PPH rates. Improved oxytocin release is the biological reason proposed to explain this. The combination of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding within 30min of birth is termed 'Pronurturance'. Midwifery theory and research claims that optimal third stage care is more holistic than simple Pronurturnace which suggests that further reductions in PPH rates may be possible. What can midwives and women do to minimise blood loss in the third and fourth stages of labour? We present a new theory that describes and explains how to optimise the woman's reproductive psychophysiology in the third and fourth stages of labour to ensure a well contracted uterus which inhibits excessive bleeding regardless of risk status or whether active management was used. In developing the Pronurturance Plus theory we expand upon what is already known about oxytocin in relation to simple pronurturance to integrate concepts from birth territory theory, cognitive neuroscience, mindfulness psychology and the autonomic nervous system to develop an holistic understanding of how to optimise care and minimise PPH. Pronurturance Plus is a psycho-biologically grounded theory which is consistent with existing evidence. It is free, natural and socially desirable. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual risk reduction for HIV-infected persons: a meta-analytic review of "positive prevention" randomized clinical trials. (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Wang, Na; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu


    Prevention intervention trials have been conducted to reduce risk of sexual transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but the findings were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate overall efficacy of prevention interventions on unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVAI) among PLWHA from randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RCTs of prevention interventions among PLWHA published as of February 2012 were identified by systematically searching thirteen electronic databases. The primary outcome was UVAI. The difference of standardized mean difference (SMD) of UVAI between study arms, defined as effect size (ES), was calculated for each study and then pooled across studies using standard meta-analysis with a random effects model. Lower likelihood of UVAI was observed in the intervention arms compared with the control arms either with any sexual partners (mean ES: -0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32, -0.11) or with HIV-negative or unknown-status sexual partners (mean ES and 95% CI: -0.13 [-0.22, -0.04]). Short-term efficacy of interventions with ≤ 10 months of follow up was significant in reducing UVAI (1-5 months: -0.27 [-0.45, -0.10]; 6-10 months: -0.18 [-0.30, -0.07]), while long-term efficacy of interventions was weaker and might have been due to chance (11-15 months: -0.13 [-0.34, 0.08]; >15 months: -0.05 [-0.43, 0.32]). Our meta-analyses confirmed the short-term impact of prevention interventions on reducing self-reported UVAI among PLWHA irrespective of the type of sexual partner, but did not support a definite conclusion on long-term effect. It is suggested that booster intervention sessions are needed to maintain a sustainable reduction of unprotected sex among PLWHA in future risk reduction programs.

  19. Reading and Writing as Risk-Reduction: The School's Role in Preventing Teenage Pregnancies. (United States)

    Pittman, Karen J.


    Schools can reduce teenage pregnancy by providing specific sex education, counseling, and health services, and by improving schooling for high risk students. Emphasizes early childhood education and alternative programs for pregnant adolescents and adolescent parents. (FMW)

  20. An evaluation of CardioPrevent: a technology-enabled, health-behavior change program for the global reduction of cardiovascular risk. (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Reid, Robert D; Pipe, Andrew L; McDonnell, Lisa A


    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality globally. Primary CVD prevention programs have the potential to improve risk factor profiles and, ultimately, the risk of developing CVD. The present study presents an evaluation of CardioPrevent, a global cardiovascular risk reduction program. Of the 478 participants enrolled in the CardioPrevent program, 308 and 236 had complete 6-month and 12-month data, respectively at the time of evaluation. At 6 months, the average reduction in the Framingham risk score was -19.5% (median = -26.5%). Women experienced a greater reduction in risk than men (-23.1 vs. -11.4%, P = 0.013). Significant improvements were observed in body composition, blood pressure, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein ratio, HbA1c, perceived stress, anxiety, depression, quality of life, physical activity, sitting time, fruit and vegetable consumption, and medication adherence. Improvements seen at 6 months were maintained at 12 months. The majority (98%) of participants were very satisfied with the program and would recommend it to others. Results of this evaluation identified that CardioPrevent is an effective CVD risk reduction program with high satisfaction rates. CardioPrevent is an effective, scalable program with the capacity to reduce CVD risk among primary care patients.

  1. Behavioral risk-reduction strategies to prevent HIV infection among homosexual men: a grounded theory approach. (United States)

    de Wit, J B; Teunis, N; van Griensven, G J; Sandfort, T G


    To be able to design effective health education interventions for homosexual men, it is necessary to understand determinants of safe and unsafe sex from the perspective of those involved. In this qualitative study, therefore, an open approach was taken to allow for this perspective. Interviews were conducted with 50 randomly selected HIV-antibody negative participants in the Amsterdam Cohort Study. Detailed questions were asked about sexual interactions and behaviors with steady and nonsteady partners. Whether or not homosexual men consciously protected themselves from HIV infection and which strategy they adopted was found to depend on three major factors: 1) motivation and intention, 2) significance of anal sex, and 3) risk perception within specific relationships. From a theoretical perspective results indicate that, next to the centrality of individual motivation as postulated in both the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, symbolic meaning inherent in sexual acts, as well as type of relationship are important determinants of protective sexual behaviors that have to be taken into account to understand adequately why homosexual men engage in safe or unsafe sex. Some strategies employed by homosexual men carry uncertainties that continue to put them at increased risk for HIV infection. Health education interventions can be designed to address these issues.

  2. Landslide Catastrophes and Disaster Risk Reduction: A GIS Framework for Landslide Prevention and Management

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    Xin Wang


    Full Text Available As catastrophic phenomena, landslides often cause large-scale socio-economic destruction including loss of life, economic collapse, and human injury. In addition, landslides can impair the functioning of critical infrastructure and destroy cultural heritage and ecological systems. In order to build a more landslide resistant and resilient society, an original GIS-based decision support system is put forth in order to help emergency managers better prepare for and respond to landslide disasters. The GIS-based landslide monitoring and management system includes a Central Repository System (CRS, Disaster Data Processing Modules (DDPM, a Command and Control System (CCS and a Portal Management System (PMS. This architecture provides valuable insights into landslide early warning, landslide risk and vulnerability analyses, and critical infrastructure damage assessments. Finally, internet-based communications are used to support landslide disaster modelling, monitoring and management.

  3. Assessment of nurses' knowledge on evidence-based preventive practices for pressure ulcer risk reduction in patients with impaired mobility. (United States)

    Akese, M I; Adejumo, P O; Ilesanmi, R E; Obilor, H N


    The increase in the prevalence of pressure ulcer among patients with impaired physical mobility has currently been associated with nurses' inadequate knowledge of preventive interventions. To assess nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer identification/staging, risk factors and evidence-based preventive practices. This descriptive study was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital Maiduguri (UMTH), Borno State, Nigeria. Total sampling technique was utilized in the recruitment of the study participants. An adapted 75-item-pressure ulcer questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The hypotheses on nurses' knowledge were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Chi square test. A total of 219 nurses participated in this study with response rate of 68.0%. The nurses' years of professional practice ranged from 1 to 35 years with a mean of 11.7 (± 7.8) years. Approximately, 73% of the nurses demonstrated a low level of knowledge of pressure ulcer identification/staging, 69.4% demonstrated an average level of knowledge of risk factors and 79.9% demonstrated high level of knowledge of preventive practices. The relationship between nurses' knowledge of risk factors and knowledge of preventive practices (p = 0.37) was not significant. Nurses demonstrated a knowledge deficit in core areas on pressure ulcer identification/staging, risk factors' assessment and evidence-based preventive practices. In order to address this dearth, there is a need to institute an educational-based practice-guideline on pressure ulcer prevention for nurses.

  4. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.


    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  5. [Prevention of psychosocial risks]. (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie


    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H.; Amarenco, P.; Hennerici, M.G.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial found that treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per day reduced the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with a recent transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke. We hypothesized...... this benefit would be greatest in the subgroup of patients with carotid stenosis. METHODS: The SPARCL trial randomized patients with TIA or stroke within 1 to 6 months without known coronary heart disease (CHD) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 190 mg/dL to treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg per...

  7. HIV Risk and Prevention (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  8. Software for Probabilistic Risk Reduction (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry; Madsen, Soren; Chapin, Elaine; Rodriguez, Ernesto


    A computer program implements a methodology, denoted probabilistic risk reduction, that is intended to aid in planning the development of complex software and/or hardware systems. This methodology integrates two complementary prior methodologies: (1) that of probabilistic risk assessment and (2) a risk-based planning methodology, implemented in a prior computer program known as Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP), in which multiple requirements and the beneficial effects of risk-mitigation actions are taken into account. The present methodology and the software are able to accommodate both process knowledge (notably of the efficacy of development practices) and product knowledge (notably of the logical structure of a system, the development of which one seeks to plan). Estimates of the costs and benefits of a planned development can be derived. Functional and non-functional aspects of software can be taken into account, and trades made among them. It becomes possible to optimize the planning process in the sense that it becomes possible to select the best suite of process steps and design choices to maximize the expectation of success while remaining within budget.

  9. What is killing? People's knowledge about coronary heart disease, attitude towards prevention and main risk reduction barriers in Ismailia, Egypt (descriptive cross-sectional study). (United States)

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders; Stafström, Martin


    Cardiovascular diseases are a public health concern everywhere, especially ischemic or coronary heart diseases (CHD) which are on top of causes list of mortality and morbidity in both genders globally. From which nearly 80% can be because of modifiable risks. In Egypt, there is a lack of studies on the knowledge of people about coronary heart diseases and its modifiable risks. So, this research reported here we designed to measure the dimensions of peoples knowledge about CHD and their attitude towards prevention, and to identify the main risk reduction barriers. By using comprehensive cross-sectional, descriptive research design, all adult individuals attending the family health clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital were eligible for inclusion with total number 125 participants. An interview questionnaire designed and used to collect data. The study revealed that (10.4%) of participants had a history of CHD, and (7.2%) had a family history of CHD. 79.2% Had a satisfactory total knowledge about CHD, and (94.4%) had a positive total attitude towards prevention. Risk reduction barriers as a medical setting barriers were (24%), patient related barriers were (22.4%). Community-societal barriers were almost the same as knowledge barriers which were around (16%). At last the systemic-organizational barriers were (9.6%). The findings settled that, total knowledge about CHD was satisfactory but lower than the level total of attitude. More effort the health system needs to improve the settings and engage patients in their plans and breaking related barriers, with development of health education programs based on needs assessment. Further studies we recommend to explore the reasons and follow up the changes.

  10. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H


    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  11. Perceptions of Black College Women on Barriers to HIV-Risk Reduction and Their HIV Prevention Intervention Needs. (United States)

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne


    HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomised controlled trial of a sexual risk reduction intervention for STI prevention among men who have sex with men in the USA. (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert; Zohren, Larissa; Conway-Washington, Christopher


    Novel interventions to address sexual risk taking and slow rates of STIs are urgently needed, in particular among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. Serosorting, or limiting condomless sex acts to partners of the same HIV status, is commonly practised among MSM, yet can lead to STI and remains largely unaddressed by public health agencies. A two-arm, randomised controlled trial was conducted from 2012 to 2015. This trial assessed the effects of a single-session, sexual partner selection and risk decision intervention (experimental arm) versus a single-session, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based, sexual risk reduction intervention (control arm) on psychosocial measures, sexual risk taking and STI. At study follow-ups, multiple beneficial changes were observed on sexual risk beliefs measures (ie, changes in serosorting and condom use beliefs, and HIV risk perceptions) and sexual risk taking among the experimental arm relative to the control arm. Overall main effects, however, of the intervention on STI outcomes on year-long follow-ups were non-significant. There was evidence for short-term effects on STI outcomes, and self-report of multiple STIs and STI symptoms demonstrated positive effects over the follow-up period. Brief interventions to address sexual risk taking can result in short-term beneficial outcomes and can be incorporated into currently existing infrastructure at healthcare agencies. Additional intervention will be necessary for demonstrating long-term results. NCT02128594. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention. (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Woods, Briana A


    This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to many European countries, Canada, and Australia. Zero-tolerance approaches continue to be the norm in individually focused prevention efforts in the US, especially amongst adolescents, despite research suggesting that harm reduction approaches can be effective. Moreover, existing evidence supports that harm reduction approaches show considerable promise in universal prevention and have become best practices in selective and indicated prevention contexts.

  14. Harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention


    Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Woods, Briana A.


    This paper provides a brief overview of harm reduction and individually focused alcohol prevention strategies. Universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies are described for several populations including elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and medical settings. This paper primarily reviews individually focused alcohol prevention efforts in the United States (US), where harm reduction has been less well received in comparison to many European countries, Canada, and Austral...

  15. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  16. Cancer prevention-the feasibility and acceptability of promoting breast cancer risk reduction in the screening setting through a lifestyle magazine. (United States)

    Macleod, Maureen; Anderson, Annie S


    Cancer prevention and early detection strategies are fundamental to reducing breast cancer burden. Offering prevention guidance on modifiable risk factors within early detection settings is rare. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability of a magazine focused on lifestyle and cancer prevention for use in breast screening clinics. A lifestyle magazine was developed and distributed within two breast screening settings in the West of Scotland over a 2-month period. Women were either offered the magazine on arrival or in a self-service format. Uptake was recorded by NHS staff. Women's views were sought via an evaluation questionnaire. Staff were interviewed on their experiences of intervention delivery. Uptake was greatest when offered to attendees (95% vs. 20% self-service). The evaluation questionnaire response rate was 17.3%. Almost 60% of respondents reported an increased knowledge about breast cancer and lifestyle and felt motivated to find out more about cancer prevention and 40% expressed intentions to make lifestyle changes. Over 90% of respondents thought lifestyle factors were important in breast cancer prevention. Staff feedback was positive, indicating no detrimental effects on workloads. In conclusion, a cancer prevention lifestyle magazine can be successfully delivered in the breast screening setting and deserves further exploration for roll out. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik


    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid...... management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  18. Absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Andres Calvache


    Full Text Available This article illustrates the epidemiological concepts of absolute risk, absolute risk reduction and relative risk through a clinical example. In addition, it emphasizes the usefulness of these concepts in clinical practice, clinical research and health decision-making process.

  19. A randomized, controlled trial for risk factor reduction in patients with symptomatic vascular disease: the multidisciplinary Vascular Prevention by Nurses Study (VENUS). (United States)

    Goessens, Bertine M B; Visseren, Frank L J; Sol, Berna G M; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van der Graaf, Yolanda


    Patients with manifest vascular disease are at high risk of a new vascular event or death. Modification of classical risk factors is often not successful. We determined whether the extra care of a nurse practitioner could be beneficial to the cardiovascular risk profile of high-risk patients. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial based on the Zelen design. Two hundred and thirty-six patients with manifestations of a vascular disease and who had two or more modifiable vascular risk factors were pre-randomized to receive treatment by a nurse practitioner plus usual care or usual care alone. After 1 year, risk factors were remeasured. The primary endpoint was achievement of treatment goals for blood pressure, lipid, glucose and homocysteine levels, body mass index, and smoking. Of the pre-randomized patients, 95 of 119 (80%) in the intervention group and 80 of 117 (68%) in the control group participated in the study. After a mean follow-up of 14 months, the patients in the intervention group achieved significantly more treatment goals than did the patients in the control group (systolic blood pressure 63 versus 37%, total cholesterol 79 versus 61%, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 88 versus 67%, and body mass index 38 versus 24%). Medication use was increased in both groups and no differences were found in patients' quality of life (SF-36) at follow-up. Treatment delivered by nurse practitioners, in addition to a vascular risk factor screening and prevention program, resulted in a better management of vascular risk factors than usual care alone in vascular patients after 1-year follow-up.

  20. Effectiveness of a combination prevention strategy for HIV risk reduction with men who have sex with men in Central America: a mid-term evaluation. (United States)

    Firestone, Rebecca; Rivas, Jorge; Lungo, Susana; Cabrera, Alejandra; Ruether, Susan; Wheeler, Jennifer; Vu, Lung


    Despite over a decade of research and programming, little evidence is available on effective strategies to reduce HIV risks among Central American men who have sex with men (MSM). The Pan-American Social Marketing Organization (PASMO) and partners are implementing a HIV Combination Prevention Program to provide key populations with an essential package of prevention interventions and services: 1) behavioral, including interpersonal communications, and online outreach; 2) biomedical services including HIV testing and counseling and screening for STIs; and 3) complementary support, including legal support and treatment for substance abuse. Two years into implementation, we evaluated this program's effectiveness for MSM by testing whether exposure to any or a combination of program components could reduce HIV risks. PASMO surveyed MSM in 10 cities across Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama in 2012 using respondent-driven sampling. We used coarsened exact matching to create statistically equivalent groups of men exposed and non-exposed to the program, matching on education, measures of social interaction, and exposure to other HIV prevention programs. We estimated average treatment effects of each component and all combined to assess HIV testing and condom use outcomes, using multivariable logistic regression. We also linked survey data to routine service data to assess program coverage. Exposure to any program component was 32% in the study area (n = 3531). Only 2.8% of men received all components. Men exposed to both behavioral and biomedical components were more likely to use condoms and lubricant at last sex (AOR 3.05, 95% CI 1.08, 8.64), and those exposed to behavioral interventions were more likely to have tested for HIV in the past year (AOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.01, 3.10). PASMO's strategies to reach MSM with HIV prevention programming are still achieving low levels of population coverage, and few men are receiving the complete essential

  1. Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi SJ


    Full Text Available Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of preventive programs according to risk assessment."nBecause children vary widely in their ability to develop cavities, a well-organized program holds great promise for promoting dental heath for pre-school children of varying caries risk. This article considered a series of principals that dentist can use in case planning, management and prevention programs according to risk assessment.

  2. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne


    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk o...

  3. A case-case study on sinonasal cancer prevention: effect from dust reduction in woodworking and risk of mastic/solvents in shoemaking. (United States)

    Emanuelli, Enzo; Alexandre, Enrico; Cazzador, Diego; Comiati, Vera; Volo, Tiziana; Zanon, Alessia; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Carrieri, Mariella; Martini, Alessandro; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe


    Sinonasal cancers (SNCs) are rare neoplasms, accounting for about 3 % of head and neck cancers, with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) as the most common subtypes. ADCs present strong associations with occupational wood dust exposure. Preventive measures have progressively reduced wood dust concentrations in workplaces but no study has evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions. Few studies indicate associations between ADC and exposure to solvents, which is common in the shoe industry, but this hypothesis still needs confirmation. In a case-case study, we contrasted 32 ADCs against 21 Non-Adenocarcinoma Epithelial Tumors (NAETs) - all recruited from the same clinical setting (Padua's University Hospital; period 2004-2015) - using questionnaires and clinical records to collect information on potential predictors. Non-occupational factors were age, sex, smoking, allergy and chronic sinusitis. Occupational factors were intensity and frequency of wood dust exposure, protection from wood dust, type of wood (in woodworking); frequency of exposure to leather dust or mastic/solvent (in shoemaking). Odds-ratio (OR), 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) and two-tail p-values were obtained through stepwise backward logistic regression for each industry, always using as reference patients never employed in either trade and adjusting for non-occupational risk factors. Adjusted OR was 22.5 (95 % CI = 3.50-144; p = 0.001) and 9.37 (95 % CI = 1.29-67.6; p = 0.026), respectively, in patients with low or high degree of protection against wood dust. In the shoe industry, adjusted OR was 1 and 18.8 (95 % CI = 1.29-174; p = 0.030), respectively, in patients with low or high exposure to only mastic/solvent; and 1 and 22.5 (95 % CI = 2.07-244; p = 0.011), respectively, in patients with low or high exposure to only leather dust. The questionnaire used was able to estimate with simple algorithms past exposures in wood and

  4. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne


    approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...

  5. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne


    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  6. Association of Osteopontin, Neopterin, and Myeloperoxidase With Stroke Risk in Patients With Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attacks: Results of an Analysis of 13 Biomarkers From the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels Trial. (United States)

    Ganz, Peter; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Bao, Weihang; Preston, Gregory M; Welch, K Michael A


    Established risk factors do not fully identify patients at risk for recurrent stroke. The SPARCL trial (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) evaluated the effect of atorvastatin on stroke risk in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. This analysis explored the relationships between 13 plasma biomarkers assessed at trial enrollment and the occurrence of outcome strokes. We conducted a case-cohort study of 2176 participants; 562 had outcome strokes and 1614 were selected randomly from those without outcome strokes. Time to stroke was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. There was no association between time to stroke and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 , monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, resistin, matrix metalloproteinase-9, N-terminal fragment of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, or soluble CD40 ligand. In adjusted analyses, osteopontin (hazard ratio per SD change, 1.362; P strokes. After adjustment for the Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II and treatment, osteopontin, neopterin, and myeloperoxidase remained independently associated with outcome strokes. The addition of these 3 biomarkers to Stroke Prognostic Instrument-II increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by 0.023 ( P =0.015) and yielded a continuous net reclassification improvement (29.1%; P stroke and improved risk classification when added to a clinical risk algorithm. URL: Unique Identifier: NCT00147602. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic.

  8. Sound transit climate risk reduction project. (United States)


    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...





    This dissertation on Harm Reduction approach in the prevention of drug addictions deals with tertiary drug prevention. It aims to show the importance of how much information about this topic students at comprehensive schools get and have. The theoretical part provides some information about the consequences of drug addiction in general, about drug prevention, substitution treatment, Harm Reduction approach and the services involved. The practical part presents the results of a survey which ai...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Vojinović


    Full Text Available One of the indispensable factors in sports is insurance. The accidents influence not only the health, permanently or temporarily,they also influence the financial resources, more or less, depending on the recovery time of the injuries. Insurer in this case pay the agreed amount (the agreed compensation to the insured. Each participant in the sporting competition should have personal insurance. The reasons for the theme are to find ways to explain how athletes can reduce the risks they are exposed to in doing their activities, training and competition, and other moments in life. Every man has a need for certainty in the future, regardless of the category in which he works, the values and skills available. The only difference is in absolute values and everyone has his own need. Athletes ,those from less successful to the most successful ones, whose transfers or fees are in millions, all think about the future and of course how to save and invest funds that are earned. They can find a solution in insurance, as an institution that takes over their risks, taking care of the invested money and benefits of those stakes. When there is uncertainty in our lives we seek security and see it as a basic need. Insurers claim that insurance offers just that - the security of property and life

  11. Treatment as long-term prevention: sustained reduction in HIV sexual transmission risk with use of antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Tsai, Alexander C; Muzoora, Conrad; Kembabazi, Annet; Weiser, Sheri D; Bennett, John; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R


    Suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially decreases HIV transmission in clinical research settings. We sought to measure the frequency and correlates of periods of transmission risk among individuals taking ART during multiple years of observation in rural, southwestern Uganda. Observational cohort study. We collected sexual behavior and viral load data in a Ugandan cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS from the time of ART initiation. We defined each 90-day visit as a potential transmission period if HIV-1 RNA was more than 400 copies/ml and the participant reported sexual transmission risk behavior, defined as unprotected sexual contact with at least 1 HIV-uninfected partners or partners of unknown serostatus in the prior 90 days. We evaluated data from 463 individuals on ART over a median 3.5 years of observation and 5293 total study visits. During that time, over half (259, 56%) had detectable viremia or reported sexual transmission risk behavior at least once. However, only 23 (5%) had both simultaneously, at 28 (Transmission sexual behavior was reported at 6% of visits with detectable viremia. In multivariable regression modeling, correlates of transmission risk periods included younger age, lower CD4 cell count, low household asset ownership and increased internalized stigma. Although detectable viremia and/or sexual transmission risk behavior occurred in over half of individuals, ART reduced periods of HIV transmission risk by over 90% during up to 6 years of observation time. These findings provide further support for provision of ART, along with interventions to promote long-term adherence, to reduce HIV transmission in HIV-endemic settings.

  12. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction]. (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo


    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  13. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K


    OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively......, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable....

  14. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial. (United States)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik; Benavente, Oscar; Zweifler, Richard M; Callahan, Alfred; Hennerici, Michael G; Zivin, Justin A; Welch, K Michael A


    Noncoronary forms of atherosclerosis (including transient ischemic attacks or stroke of carotid origin or >50% stenosis of the carotid artery) are associated with a 10-year vascular risk of >20% and are considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) -risk equivalent from the standpoint of lipid management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients. A total of 4731 patients (mean age, 63 years) was randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin placebo. The rates of major coronary event, any CHD event, and any revascularization procedure were evaluated. After 4.9 years of follow-up, the risks of a major coronary event and of any CHD end point in the placebo group were 5.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The rate of outcome of stroke decreased over time, whereas the major coronary event rate was stable. Relative to those having a large vessel-related stroke at baseline, those having a transient ischemic attack, hemorrhagic stroke, small vessel stroke, or a stroke of unknown cause had similar absolute rates for a first major coronary event and for any CHD event; transient ischemic attack, small vessel, and unknown cause groups had lower absolute revascularization procedure rates. Major coronary event, any CHD event, and any revascularization procedure rates were similarly reduced in all baseline stroke subtypes in the atorvastatin arm compared with placebo with no heterogeneity between groups. CHD risk can be substantially reduced by atorvastatin therapy in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack regardless of stroke subtype.

  15. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshedi, N.


    During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)

  16. Does flutter prevent drag reduction by reconfiguration? (United States)

    Leclercq, T.; Peake, N.; de Langre, E.


    The static reconfiguration of flexible beams exposed to transverse flows is classically known to reduce the drag these structures have to withstand. But the more a structure bends, the more parallel to the flow it becomes, and flexible beams in axial flows are prone to a flutter instability that is responsible for large inertial forces that drastically increase their drag. It is, therefore, unclear whether flexibility would still alleviate, or on the contrary enhance, the drag when flapping occurs on a reconfiguring structure. In this article, we perform numerical simulations based on reduced-order models to demonstrate that the additional drag induced by the flapping motion is almost never significant enough to offset the drag reduction due to reconfiguration. Isolated and brief snapping events may transiently raise the drag above that of a rigid structure in the particular case of heavy, moderately slender beams. But apart from these short peak events, the drag force remains otherwise always significantly reduced in comparison with a rigid structure.

  17. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A


    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  18. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A


    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  19. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble


    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI:

  20. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  1. Monitoring environmental burden reduction from household waste prevention. (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeshi; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Asari, Misuzu; Yano, Junya; Miura, Takahiro; Ii, Ryota; Sakai, Shin-Ichi


    In this study, the amount of prevented household waste in Kyoto city was quantified using three methods. Subsequently, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction by waste prevention was calculated in order to monitor the impact of waste prevention. The methods of quantification were "relative change from baseline year (a)," "absolute change from potential waste generation (b)," and "absolute amount of activities (c)." Method (a) was popular for measuring waste prevention, but method (b) was the original approach to determine the absolute amount of waste prevention by estimating the potential waste generation. Method (c) also provided the absolute value utilizing the information of activities. Methods (b) and (c) enable the evaluation of the waste prevention activities with a similar baseline for recycling. Methods (b) and (c) gave significantly higher GHG reductions than method (a) because of the difference in baseline between them. Therefore, setting a baseline is very important for evaluating waste prevention. In practice, when focusing on the monitoring of a specific policy or campaign, method (a) is an appropriate option. On the other hand, when comparing the total impact of waste prevention to that of recycling, methods (b) and (c) should be applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B


    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...

  3. Primordial Prevention of Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood. (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Meryem A; Agirbasli, Mehmet; Berenson, Gerald


    Fetal life and childhood are important in the development of cardiometabolic risk and later clinical disease of atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Molecular and environmental conditions leading to cardiometabolic risk in early life bring us a challenge to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in children and later disease. It is important that prevention strategies begin at an early age to reduce future CV morbidity and mortality. Pioneering work from longitudinal studies such as Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), the Finnish Youth Study and other programs provide an awareness of the need for public and health services to begin primordial prevention. The impending CV risk beginning in childhood has a significant socioeconomic burden. Directions to achieve primordial prevention of cardiometabolic risk in children have been developed by prior longitudinal studies. Based on those studies that show risk factors in childhood as precursors of adult CV risk, implementation of primordial prevention will have effects at broad levels. Considering the epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiometabolic risk, prevention early in life is valuable. Comprehensive health education, such as 'Health Ahead/Heart Smart', for all elementary school age children is one approach to begin primordial prevention and can be included in public education beginning in kindergarten along with the traditional education subject matter.

  4. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention. (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V


    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Using alternative statistical formats for presenting risks and risk reductions. (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger


    The success of evidence-based practice depends on the clear and effective communication of statistical information. To evaluate the effects of using alternative statistical presentations of the same risks and risk reductions on understanding, perception, persuasiveness and behaviour of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (1980 to October 2007), PsycLIT (1887 to October 2007), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3). We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles, and contacted experts in the field. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled parallel and cross-over studies. We focused on four comparisons: a comparison of statistical presentations of a risk (eg frequencies versus probabilities) and three comparisons of statistical presentation of risk reduction: relative risk reduction (RRR) versus absolute risk reduction (ARR), RRR versus number needed to treat (NNT), and ARR versus NNT. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using adjusted standardized mean difference (SMD). We included 35 studies reporting 83 comparisons. None of the studies involved policy makers. Participants (health professionals and consumers) understood natural frequencies better than probabilities (SMD 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.93)). Compared with ARR, RRR had little or no difference in understanding (SMD 0.02 (95% CI -0.39 to 0.43)) but was perceived to be larger (SMD 0.41 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.79)) and more persuasive (SMD 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.81)). Compared with NNT, RRR was better understood (SMD 0.73 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.04)), was perceived to be larger (SMD 1.15 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.50)) and was more

  6. The design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction and human immunodeficiency virus prevention videogame intervention in minority adolescents: PlayForward: Elm City Stories (United States)

    Fiellin, Lynn E; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Duncan, Lindsay R; Dziura, James D; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, David A


    Background To address the need for risk behavior reduction and HIV prevention interventions that capture adolescents “where they live,” we created a tablet-based videogame to teach skills and knowledge and influence psychosocial antecedents for decreasing risk and preventing HIV infection in minority youth in schools, after-school programs, and summer camps. Methods We developed PlayForward: Elm City Stories over a 2-year period, working with researchers, commercial game designers, and staff and teens from community programs. The videogame PlayForward provides an interactive world where players, using an avatar, “travel” through time, facing challenges such as peer pressure to drink alcohol or engage in risky sexual behaviors. Players experience how their choices affect their future and then are able to go back in time and change their choices, creating different outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of PlayForward. Participants were randomly assigned to play PlayForward or a set of attention/time control games on a tablet at their community-based program. Assessment data were collected during face-to-face study visits and entered into a web-based platform and unique real-time “in-game” PlayForward data were collected as players engaged in the game. The innovative methods of this randomized controlled trial are described. We highlight the logistical issues of conducting a large-scale trial using mobile technology such as the iPad®, and collecting, transferring, and storing large amounts of in-game data. We outline the methods used to analyze the in-game data alone and in conjunction with standardized assessment data to establish correlations between behaviors during gameplay and those reported in real life. We also describe the use of the in-game data as a measure of fidelity to the intervention. Results In total, 333 boys and girls, aged 11–14 years, were randomized over a 14-month period: 166 were assigned to

  7. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge


    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  8. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention. (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; van Genderen, P; Ward, B J; Wilder-Smith, A; Steffen, R; Osterhaus, A D M E


    Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some travellers. © International Society of

  9. Forging process design for risk reduction (United States)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  10. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards (United States)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.


    Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization

  11. Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture through Geospatial (Big Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Řezník


    Full Text Available Intensive farming on land represents an increased burden on the environment due to, among other reasons, the usage of agrochemicals. Precision farming can reduce the environmental burden by employing site specific crop management practices which implement advanced geospatial technologies for respecting soil heterogeneity. The objectives of this paper are to present the frontier approaches of geospatial (Big data processing based on satellite and sensor data which both aim at the prevention and mitigation phases of disaster risk reduction in agriculture. Three techniques are presented in order to demonstrate the possibilities of geospatial (Big data collection in agriculture: (1 farm machinery telemetry for providing data about machinery operations on fields through the developed MapLogAgri application; (2 agrometeorological observation in the form of a wireless sensor network together with the SensLog solution for storing, analysing, and publishing sensor data; and (3 remote sensing for monitoring field spatial variability and crop status by means of freely-available high resolution satellite imagery. The benefits of re-using the techniques in disaster risk reduction processes are discussed. The conducted tests demonstrated the transferability of agricultural techniques to crisis/emergency management domains.

  12. Contrast-induced nephropathy: risks, pathogenetic, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, D.; Balev, B.


    Full text: The aim of the presentation is to review the contrast induced nephropathy ? nature, mechanisms of development, risk factors. Summary of the most important ways of prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The definition of CIN according the European Association of Urogenital Radiology is: 'A condition, in which renal function is impaired (elevation of serum creatinine with more than 25% or 44 μmol/l above the initial level) due to intravasal application of contrast media (CM) within 3 days following the application and when no other etiology factors are present'. We summarize the main risk factors of developing CIN - renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, dehydration, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, age above 70 yrs, nephrotoxic medicines. The most effective ways of preventing CIN are the good hydratation of the patients and the usage of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar CM. Therapeutic treatment is with no proven preventive effect and currently is not routinely recommended. An early hem dialysis does not decrease the risk level of CIN development in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). In such patients complete elimination of CM is achieved only after several hem dialyses. Hem filtration reliably decreases the risk of CIN in CRF patients, but is expensive and not widely available. We present a case from our hospital of a patient with diabetic nephropathy, who developed CIN following a coronary angiography

  13. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; van der Giet, M; Schwarzfeld, C


    Radiographic contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function that may be due to reactive oxygen species. Whether the reduction can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown.......Radiographic contrast agents can cause a reduction in renal function that may be due to reactive oxygen species. Whether the reduction can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown....

  14. Life-years gained from coronary heart disease mortality reduction in Scotland: prevention or treatment? (United States)

    Critchley, J A; Capewell, S; Unal, B


    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) death rates have fallen considerably in many countries. We estimated the life-years-gained (LYG) in Scotland between 1975 and 1994 attributable to cardiology treatments, and population reductions in major CHD risk factors, using a previously validated mortality model. This combines published effectiveness data with information on uptake of CHD treatments; risk factor trends; and median survival by age and sex. Compared with 1975, there were 4,536 fewer CHD deaths in 1994, resulting in approximately 48,016 LYG among those aged 45-84 (maximum estimate 53,317; minimum estimate 36,867). Medical and surgical treatments for CHD patients gained approximately 12,025 life-years; the largest contribution coming from pharmacologic secondary prevention. Population reductions in major risk factors (smoking, cholesterol, and blood pressure) accounted for some 35,991 LYG, reductions in smoking accounted for over 50% of this. Modern cardiologic treatments gained many thousands of life-years in Scotland, but modest reductions in risk factors gained almost three times as many life-years.

  15. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.


    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...... and for prevention and possible treatment of this important entity of chronic pain....

  16. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.


    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  17. Physical activity in the prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Veselin


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are more widespread today, whereby they take dimensions of global epidemic. They are the leading cause of diseases in the world, of inability to work, of absenteeism and premature mortality up to 65 years of age. Modern lifestyle in which there is not enough physical activity is recognized as one of the major risk factors for health and emergence of CVD. Physical inactivity is responsible for poor health quality, unnecessary illnesses and premature death. The aim of this work is to point out the basic risk factors and importance and the role of physical exercise in the prevention and rehabilitation of CVD. In the analysis of the data, the methods of speculation and introspection are used. Numerous studies have shown that properly practiced physical activity is a powerful and beneficial effect in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases (Scrutino et al. 2005; Secco et al. 2000; Jovović, 2008; Šuščević et al. 2011. Physical activity belongs to the concept of numerous factors, which along with the reduction of risk factors, lifestyle changes and medical therapy leads to the reduction of risk for cardiovascular diseases. To achieve the desired effect, a combination of aerobic, interval and isotonic muscle activity of moderate intensity at least four times a week for 45 minutes is recommended. During the secondary prevention and rehabilitation, physical activity adapts to health status, level of individual risk and the estimated functional abilities of patients. Transformational processes can only be achieved through regular exercise. The risk of emergence of complications during physical exercise is negligible, especially if the walking is practiced as a form of physical exercise.

  18. Merging Cultural Heritage Assessments with Risk Reduction and Disaster Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    , disaster risk reduction interventions tend to overlook the importance of incorporating cultural heritage, as an independent and highly valuable component in order to increase the risk reduction. Furthermore, there is a lack of methodological expansion in order to merge disaster assessment and cultural...

  19. Adaptation of an HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa urgently needs HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction interventions for recently circumcised men for use in clinic and community settings. A theory-based HIV behavioural disinhibition risk reduction counselling intervention has recently been adapted for use in a South African traditional and medical ...

  20. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability. (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J


    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 44301 - Information Collection; Homeowner Risk Reduction Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate... (United States)


    ... is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on a new, one-time information... wildfire, (2) risk reduction behaviors associated with wildfire, (3) sources of information regarding... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Homeowner Risk Reduction...

  2. Risk Reduction Education: Voices from the Field (United States)

    Lamorey, Suzanne


    Teens with disabilities need information about risk topics such as addiction, abuse, sex, and delinquency to make healthy choices as they participate in mainstream society. This article presents questionnaire-based information provided by special educators in secondary schools about their efforts, limitations, and needs in providing risk reduction…

  3. Building Capacity for Disaster Risk Reduction (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Bryner, V.


    Disaster risk is acutely high in many emerging economies due to a combination of geophysical hazards and social and ecological vulnerabilities. The risk associated with natural hazards can be a critical component of a nation's wealth, hence knowledge of these hazards will affect foreign investment in these emergent economies. On the hazard side of the risk profile, geophysicists research the frequency and magnitude of the extant hazards. These geophysicists, both local and foreign, have a responsibility to communicate these risks in the public sphere - whether they are through the mass media, or in personal conversations. Because of this implicit responsibility, it is incumbent upon geophysicists to understand the overall risk, not just the hazards. When it comes to communicating these risks, local scientists are often more effective because they speak the language, understand the social context, and are often connected to various modes of communication unavailable to foreign researchers. Investment in multidisciplinary undergraduate education is critical, as is training of established local scientists in understanding the complexities of risk assessment as well as communicating these risks effectively to broad audiences. Onagawa, Japan. 2011.

  4. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don


    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  5. Risk reduction for legionella; Risicobeperking legionellose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Olffen, E. [Tebodin Consultants and Engineers, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Simple technical measures suffice to fight infection diseases caused by legionella bacteria. Next to the fact that there is not any form of prevention present in cold water supply systems, there also appears to be a lack of information to users of such systems. In this article some of the necessary information is given. 5 refs.

  6. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi


    River flood events often cause large economic damages and casualties requiring stakeholders to manage flood risk. In flood prone areas, flood risk management can be achieved through a series hierarchically integrated protection structures, which together form a hierarchical flood protection system...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...... the hierarchical level on which risk reducing measures are most beneficial might change....

  7. Semantic Mediation Tool for Risk Reduction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focuses on providing an infrastructure to aid the building of ontologies from existing NASA applications, in a manner that leads to long-term risk...

  8. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation


    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya


    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention progr...

  9. The association of technology in a workplace wellness program with health risk factor reduction. (United States)

    Loeppke, Ron; Edington, Dee; Bender, Joel; Reynolds, Ashley


    Determine whether there is a relationship between level of engagement in workplace wellness programs and population/individual health risk reductions. A total of 7804 employees from 15 employers completed health risk appraisal and laboratory testing at baseline and again after 2 years of participating in their personalized prevention plan. Population and individual health risk transitions were analyzed across the population, as well as by stage of engagement. Of those individuals who started in a high risk category at baseline, 46% moved down to medium risk and 19% moved down to low risk category after 2 years on their prevention plan. In the group that only engaged through the Web-based technology, 24% reduced their health risks (P technology and interactive Web-based tools can empower individuals to be more proactive about their health and reduce their health risks.

  10. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon


    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  11. Climate change, uncertainty and investment in flood risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.


    Economic analysis of flood risk management strategies has become more complex due to climate change. This thesis investigates the impact of climate change on investment in flood risk reduction, and applies optimisation methods to support identification of optimal flood risk management strategies.

  12. Toward Risk Reduction for Mobile Service Composition. (United States)

    Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Li, Ying; Zhou, Honggeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Cao, Xiongfei; Kataev, Mikhail Yu; Li, Ling


    The advances in mobile technologies enable us to consume or even provide services through powerful mobile devices anytime and anywhere. Services running on mobile devices within limited range can be composed to coordinate together through wireless communication technologies and perform complex tasks. However, the mobility of users and devices in mobile environment imposes high risk on the execution of the tasks. This paper targets reducing this risk by constructing a dependable service composition after considering the mobility of both service requesters and providers. It first proposes a risk model and clarifies the risk of mobile service composition; and then proposes a service composition approach by modifying the simulated annealing algorithm. Our objective is to form a service composition by selecting mobile services under the mobility model and to ensure the service composition have the best quality of service and the lowest risk. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can yield near-optimal solutions and has a nearly linear complexity with respect to a problem size.

  13. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M. Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.


    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation

  14. [Day clinic, a gateway towards risk reduction]. (United States)

    Ben Nifla, Viviane; Celli, Philippe; Samba, Hélène; Vincent, Cécile


    The addictology day clinic at Fernand-Widal hospital in Paris caters mainly for patients suffering from alcohol dependence. The aim is to consolidate the withdrawal which has taken place, to help reduce risks and harm and to support people waiting for follow-up care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual Risk and Prevention of Complications:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen


    Doctors who are consulted about health and tattoo risks have an important role in the prevention of an individual's tattoo complications. Tattooing is a tremendous exposure of the human body to needle operation, particles, and chemicals. The risk is related to a person's health condition, level...... of insight, decision-making, and to the operation of tattooing, tattoo inks and utensils, tattoo parlour, and the aftercare. Tattooing is painful minor surgery performed without anesthesia. It can be associated with syncope. It is major needle trauma with histamine release and wheal and flare...... in the operation field. The skin barrier is broken. Bacterial infections come early. Chronically intermittent and mild complaints affect 4/10 of all the tattooed, and 2/10 have sensitivity to sun. Chronic complications with allergy in red tattoos and nodules due to pigment agglomeration and foreign body formation...

  16. Efficacy of lifestyle change psychological intervention in coronary risk reduction. (United States)

    Pugliese, Rita; Zanella, Maria Tereza; Blay, Sérgio Luís; Plavinik, Frida; Andrade, Marco Antonio; Galvão, Roberto


    To evaluate the efficacy of a program of lifestyle change through psychological intervention, combined with pharmacological therapy, for coronary risk reduction in uncontrolled hypertensive patients with overweight and dyslipidemia over 11 months of follow-up. A randomized controlled trial with 74 patients assigned to three different treatment programs. One group (CT) only received conventional pharmacological treatment. Another group (OG) received pharmacological treatment and participated in a guidance program to control cardiovascular risk factors. A third group (LSPI) received pharmacological treatment and participated in a brief psychological intervention program for reduction of estresse levels and changing of eating behavior. The main measure was the Framingham risk index. CT patients presented an average reduction of 18% (p = 0.001) in coronary risk; OG patients elevated the risk by 0.8% (NS) and the LSPI group showed an average reduction of 27% on the Framingham risk index (p = 0.001). Pharmacological treatment combined with psychological intervention for reduction of estresse level and changing of eating behavior resulted in additional benefits in coronary risk reduction.

  17. Preventing disasters: public health vulnerability reduction as a sustainable adaptation to climate change. (United States)

    Keim, Mark E


    Global warming could increase the number and severity of extreme weather events. These events are often known to result in public health disasters, but we can lessen the effects of these disasters. By addressing the factors that cause changes in climate, we can mitigate the effects of climate change. By addressing the factors that make society vulnerable to the effects of climate, we can adapt to climate change. To adapt to climate change, a comprehensive approach to disaster risk reduction has been proposed. By reducing human vulnerability to disasters, we can lessen--and at times even prevent--their impact. Human vulnerability is a complex phenomenon that comprises social, economic, health, and cultural factors. Because public health is uniquely placed at the community level, it has the opportunity to lessen human vulnerability to climate-related disasters. At the national and international level, a supportive policy environment can enable local adaptation to disaster events. The purpose of this article is to introduce the basic concept of disaster risk reduction so that it can be applied to preventing and mitigating the negative effects of climate change and to examine the role of community-focused public health as a means for lessening human vulnerability and, as a result, the overall risk of climate-related disasters.

  18. Pediatricians' Role and Practices regarding Provision of Guidance about Sexual Risk Reduction to Parents (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Lin, Carol Y.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Sukalac, Thomas; Fowler, Mary Glenn


    A randomly selected nationally representative sample of 508 practicing pediatricians was surveyed in order to identify factors associated with physician delivery of primary prevention to parents about sexual risk reduction (SRR). A full 86% (n=435) reported that provision of SRR guidance is equally or more important than other guidance provided to…

  19. Cancer Risks in Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers (United States)

    Labrèche, France


    Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725

  20. Household flood risk reduction in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, B.; Vikhrov, Dmytro; Kelman, I.; Stojanov, R.; Jakubínský, J.


    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 499-504 ISSN 1381-2386 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : flood risk reduction * household adaptation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.085, year: 2015

  1. Household flood risk reduction in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, B.; Vikhrov, Dmytro; Kelman, I.; Stojanov, R.; Jakubínský, J.


    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 499-504 ISSN 1381-2386 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : flood risk reduction * household adaptation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.085, year: 2015

  2. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures. (United States)

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik


    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  3. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro


    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)


    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R; Convey, Mark; Li, Jianghong


    The authors present a model of interactive social psychological and relational feedback processes leading to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction behavior change among active drug users trained as Peer Health Advocates (PHAs). The model is supported by data from qualitative interviews with PHAs and members of their drug-using networks in the Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP) project. Results suggest three mutually reinforcing social psychological processes that motivate PHAs to provide HIV prevention intervention to their peers and to reduce their own risk behaviors: development of a prosocial identity, positive social reinforcement from drug users and community members, and cognitive dissonance associated with continued risk behavior while engaging in health advocacy. These processes directly influence peer interventionists' motivation and efficacy to continue giving intervention to their peers, and to reduce their HIV risk behaviors. The authors discuss implications of the model for continued research on effective HIV prevention in high-risk groups.

  5. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.


    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  6. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction (United States)

    Celebi, M.


    This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

  7. Effectiveness of a fall-risk reduction programme for inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Globokar, Daniel; Puzić, Nataša; Kopitar, Natalija; Vrabič, Maja; Ivanovski, Matic; Vidmar, Gaj


    To evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk-assessment-based fall prevention for stroke rehabilitation inpatients. A consecutive series of 232 patients admitted for the first time to a subacute stroke-rehabilitation ward during 2010-2011 was studied in detail. The Assessment Sheet for Fall Prediction in Stroke Inpatients (ASFPSI by Nakagawa et al.) was used to assess fall-risk upon admission. Association of ASFPSI score and patient characteristics with actual falls was statistically tested. Yearly incidence of falls per 1000 hospital days (HD) was retrospectively audited for the 2006-2014 period to evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk reduction measures. The observed incidence of falls over the detailed-study-period was 3.0/1000 HD; 39% of the fallers fell during the first week after admission. ASFPSI score was not significantly associated with falls. Longer hospital stay, left body-side affected and non-extreme FIM score (55-101) were associated with higher odds of fall. Introduction of fall-risk reduction measures followed by compulsory fall-risk assessment lead to incidence of falls dropping from 7.1/1000 HD in 2006 to 2.8/1000 HD in 2011 and remaining at that level until 2014. The fall-risk-assessment-based measures appear to have led to decreasing falls risk among post-stroke rehabilitation inpatients classified as being at high risk of falls. The fall prevention programme as a whole was successful. Patients with non-extreme level of functional independence should receive enhanced fall prevention. Implications for Rehabilitation Recognising the fall risk upon the patient's admission is essential for preventing falls in rehabilitation wards. Assessing the fall risk is a team tasks and combines information from various sources. Assessing fall risk in stroke patients using the assessment sheet by Nakagawa et al. immediately upon admission systematically draws attention to the risk of falls in each individual patient.

  8. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety. (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L


    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy. (United States)

    Jebari, Karim


    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.

  10. Communication about melanoma and risk reduction after melanoma diagnosis. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Berwick, Marianne; Hay, Jennifer L


    Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening. Patients were, on average, 56 years old and 6.7 years' post diagnosis; 51% were male, 93% reported "fair/very fair" skin color, 75% completed at least some college, and 22% reported a family history of melanoma. Patients reported varying levels of regular (always/nearly always) sun protection: sunscreen use (79%), shade seeking (60%), hat use (54%), and long-sleeve shirt use (30%). Only 28% performed thorough SSE regularly, whereas 92% reported undergoing physician-led skin examinations within the past year. Participants who were female, younger, and had a higher perceived risk of future melanoma were more likely to report past communication. In adjusted analyses, communication remained uniquely associated with increased sunscreen use and SSE. Encouraging melanoma patients to have a more active role in discussions concerning melanoma risk and screening with relatives and physicians alike may be a useful strategy to promote 2 key risk-reduction practices post melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Future research is needed to identify additional strategies to improve comprehensive risk reduction in long-term melanoma patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Weight reduction for primary prevention of stroke in adults with overweight or obesity. (United States)

    Curioni, C; André, C; Veras, R


    Obesity is seen as a worldwide chronic disease with high prevalence that has been associated with increased morbidity from many conditions including stroke, which is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and a leading cause of severe long-term disability. The causal association between overweight or obesity and stroke is unclear and there is no definite study clarifying the role of obesity treatment in the prevention of a first stroke (primary prevention). Given the prevalence of stroke and the enormous health and economic cost of the disease, it is important to establish the possible impact of weight reduction per se on stroke incidence. To assess the effects of weight reduction in people with overweight or obesity on stroke incidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, databases of ongoing trials and reference lists were used to identify relevant trials. The last search was conducted in April 2006. Randomised controlled trials comparing any intervention for weight reduction (single or combined) with placebo or no intervention in overweight or obese people. No trials were found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. Obesity seems to be associated with an increased risk of stroke and it has been suggested that weight loss may lead to a reduction of stroke occurrence. However, this hypothesis is not based on strong scientific evidence resulting from randomised controlled clinical trials. This systematic review identified the urgent need for well-designed, adequately-powered, multi centre randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of weight reduction in persons with overweight or obesity on stroke occurrence.

  12. Mitigating fall risk: A community fall reduction program. (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M

    One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam


    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  14. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia


    Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.

  15. Risk Factors and Sexual Assault Prevention. (United States)

    McCall, George J.


    Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…

  16. Treating Addictions: Harm Reduction in Clinical Care and Prevention. (United States)

    Drucker, Ernest; Anderson, Kenneth; Haemmig, Robert; Heimer, Robert; Small, Dan; Walley, Alex; Wood, Evan; van Beek, Ingrid


    This paper examines the role of clinical practitioners and clinical researchers internationally in establishing the utility of harm-reduction approaches to substance use. It thus illustrates the potential for clinicians to play a pivotal role in health promoting structural interventions based on harm-reduction goals and public health models. Popular media images of drug use as uniformly damaging, and abstinence as the only acceptable goal of treatment, threaten to distort clinical care away from a basis in evidence, which shows that some ways of using drugs are far more harmful than others and that punitive approaches and insistence on total abstinence as the only goal of treatment often increases the harms of drug use rather than reducing drug use. Therefore the leadership and scientific authority of clinicians who understand the health impact of harm-reduction strategies is needed. Through a review of harm-reduction interventions in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, we identify three ways that clinicians have helped to achieve a paradigm shift from punitive approaches to harm-reduction principles in clinical care and in drug policy: (1) through clinical research to provide data establishing the effectiveness and feasibility of harm-reduction approaches, (2) by developing innovative clinical programmes that employ harm reduction, and thereby (3) changing the standard of care to include routine use of these evidence-based (but often misunderstood) approaches in their practices. We argue that through promotion of harm-reduction goals and methods, clinicians have unique opportunities to improve the health outcomes of vulnerable populations.

  17. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete


    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases.......Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  18. The Technostress: definition, symptoms and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chiappetta


    Full Text Available With the advent of Web 2.0 and Social media, a radical change in the world of communication and information flows has occurred, that have crossed space and time limits. The new technology, with its rapid evolution marked by the access to the digital world through the Smartphone invention, resulted in a sharp acceleration of the rhythms of life and work. On the other hand a massive pervasiveness of digital technology in the professional and personal rhythms has been recorded. Technostress, defined for the first time in 1984, is a syndrome that occurs when the person, subjected to information overload and continuous contact with most digital devices, develops a state of stress, or an abnormal response characterized by specific symptoms at the cardiocirculatory, mental and neurological levels. The repercussions of Technostress invest business and relational sphere causing absenteeism, loss of professional effectiveness, conflict and isolation. In 2007, the syndrome has been recognized as an occupational disease: this requires that in all workplace where a frequently use of digital technologies (ICT, publishing etc. does exist, there is the needto include Technostress in the document of work-related risk assessment. This application is essential to put in place adequate protection and prevention measures, such as increased training of employees on the harmful effect of Technostress and implementation of specific strategies for managing symptoms.

  19. Computer technologies for industrial risk prevention and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduccelli, C.; Bologna, S.; Di Costanzo, G.; Vicoli, G.


    This document provides an overview about problems related to the engineering of computer based systems for industrial risk prevention and emergency management. Such systems are rather complex and subject to precise reliability and safety requirements. With the evolution of informatic technologies, such systems are becoming to be the means for building protective barriers for reduction of risk associated with plant operations. For giving more generality to this document, and for not concentrating on only a specific plant, the emergency management systems will be dealt with more details than ones for accident prevention. The document is organized in six chapters. Chapter one is an introduction to the problem and to its state of art, with particular emphasis to the aspects of safety requirements definition. Chapter two is an introduction to the problems related to the emergency management and to the training of operators in charge of this task. Chapter three deals in details the topic of the Training Support Systems, in particular about MUSTER (multi-user system for training and evaluation of environmental emergency response) system. Chapter four deals in details the topic of decision support systems, in particular about ISEM (information technology support for emergency management) system. Chapter five illustrates an application of support to the operators of Civil Protection Department for the management of emergencies in the fields of industrial chemical. Chapter six is about a synthesis of the state of art and the future possibilities, identifying some research and development activities more promising for the future

  20. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.


    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  1. The feasibility of integrating alcohol risk-reduction counseling into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pretest-posttest separate-sample study with intervention and comparison groups documented the abilities and willingness of trained voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) service providers to integrate alcohol screening and risk reduction counseling into their routine service delivery. Pre-test (n=1073) and post-test ...

  2. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete


    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  3. Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for Developing Countries. • Views disasters as different from accidents and minor emergencies;. • Views catastrophes as different from disasters;. • Focuses on multiple hazards and is generic rather than agent specific;. • Includes all four time phases of the planning ...

  4. Sexual risk reduction among Zambian couples | Jones | SAHARA-J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zambia has over 1 million HIV infections nationwide and an urban prevalence rate of 23%. This study compared the impact of male involvement in multiple and single session risk reduction interventions among inconsistent condom users in Zambia and the role of serostatus among HIV-seropositive and serodiscordant ...

  5. Danish GPs' perception of disease risk and benefit of prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob


    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty and risk are central issues in relation to health and health care services. Healthy individuals do not necessarily fall ill, despite the presence of risk factors. It has been documented that doctors, health service administrators and patients are more inclined to choose...... interventions against risk factors when information about the effects is presented in terms of relative risk reductions rather than absolute risk reductions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to gain better insight into how GPs perceive risk of disease, and how this perception is influenced by the way...... the risk is presented, e.g. whether changes in risk are presented in absolute or relative terms. METHODS: Questionnaires with clinical episodes were sent to 1500 Danish GPs. The GPs were randomized into four groups of 375, who all received the same case story with information about risk reduction achieved...

  6. Clinical utility of rosuvastatin and other statins for cardiovascular risk reduction among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney B Long


    Full Text Available Sydney B Long, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D MichosJohns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Age is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Treatment with statins can significantly reduce CVD events and mortality in both primary and secondary prevention. Yet despite the high CVD risk among the elderly, there is underutilization of statins in this population (ie, the treatment-risk paradox. Few studies have investigated the use of statins in the elderly, particularly for primary prevention and, as a result, guidelines for treating the elderly are limited. This is likely due to: uncertainties of risk assessment in older individuals where the predictive value of individual risk factors is decreased; the need to balance the benefits of primary prevention with the risks of polypharmacy, health care costs, and adverse medication effects in a population with decreased life expectancy; the complexity of treating patients with many other comorbidities; and increasingly difficult social and economic concerns. As life expectancy increases and the total elderly population grows, these issues become increasingly important. JUPITER (Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin is the largest primary prevention statin trial to date and enrolled a substantial number of elderly adults. Among the 5695 JUPITER participants ≥70 years of age, the absolute CVD risk reduction associated with rosuvastatin was actually greater than for younger participants. The implications of this JUPITER subanalysis and the broader role of statins among older adults is the subject of this review.Keywords: JUPITER, rosuvastatin, elderly, risk

  7. Preventive risk assessment in forensic child and youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, M.


    Risk assessment is central to the work of forensic mental health professionals, since it serves as a guide for prevention and intervention strategies. For effective risk assessment, knowledge on risk factors and their effects as well as the availability of valid and reliable instruments for risk

  8. Ovarian Cancer Prevention in High-risk Women. (United States)

    Temkin, Sarah M; Bergstrom, Jennifer; Samimi, Goli; Minasian, Lori


    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal malignancy of the female genital tract. Population-based trials in the general population have not demonstrated that screening improves early detection or survival. Therefore, application of prevention strategies is vital to improving outcomes from this disease. Surgical prevention reduces risk and prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is the most effective means to prevent ovarian carcinoma in the high-risk patient although the risks do not outweigh the benefits in average risk patients. Other surgical and medical options have unknown or limited efficacy in the high-risk patient. In this review, we define the patient at high risk for ovarian cancer, discuss how to identify these women and weigh their available ovarian cancer prevention strategies.

  9. Baseline blood pressure, low- and high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and the risk of vascular events in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred


    AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio...

  10. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse


    Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.

  11. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.


    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  12. [Are programs supporting parenthood skills effective in the prevention and reduction of conduct disorders and problems of childhood?]. (United States)

    Karjalainen, Piia; Santalahti, Pälvi; Sihvo, Sinikka


    In this systematic review it will be evaluated whether parent-targeted programs teaching positive methods of upbringing and interaction are effective in the reduction and prevention of conduct disorders and behavioral problems in children belonging to a risk group. Altogether 29 European studies on parent-targeted programs were selected for the review. Most of the examined methods were based on the social learning theory and the cognitive behavior theory. The majority of the studies proved that long-term programs of 8 to 20 weeks'duration are effective in the reduction of behavioral problems and conduct disorders of childhood.

  13. Risk Factor Research and Prevention for Anxiety Disorders: Introduction to the Special Series on Risk and Prevention of Anxiety Pathology (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.


    In relation to treatment-related research in the United States, there is relatively little systematic effort focused on the combination of risk and prevention for anxiety pathology. This article broadly discusses risk factor research and prevention program development for anxiety psychopathology. The authors also specifically discuss papers in…

  14. Understanding why gay men seek HIV-seroconcordant partners: intimacy and risk reduction motivations. (United States)

    Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J; Ouellette, Suzanne C


    Our goal was to situate the interest of some gay men in having HIV-seroconcordant partners within the psychosocial context of concurrent motivations for intimacy and sexual risk reduction. Data were obtained from semi-structured qualitative interviews with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 32 gay men (16 HIV-positive and 16 HIV-negative) living in New York City who sought HIV-seroconcordant partners. Thematic analysis indicated that seroconcordant partner selection was strongly motivated by a desire to reduce sexual risk as well as the pursuit of multiple forms of intimacy. Affirmative experiences in seroconcordant relationships and goals for future long-term relationships also informed men's current partner selection practices. When seeking seroconcordant partners, men reported key junctures and disjunctures between motivations for intimacy and interests in risk reduction. Our findings suggest that HIV prevention efforts will have greater relevance if they address broader motivational concerns for partner selection and serosorting, including the pursuit of intimacy.

  15. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction. (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David


    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  16. Levelized cost-risk reduction prioritization of waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.


    The prioritization of solid waste disposal options in terms of reduced risk to workers, the public, and the environment has recently generated considerable governmental and public interest. In this paper we address the development of a methodology to establish priorities for waste disposal options, such as incineration, landfills, long-term storage, waste minimization, etc. The study is one result of an overall project to develop methodologies for Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) of non-reactor nuclear facilities for the US Department of Energy. Option preferences are based on a levelized cost-risk reduction analysis. Option rankings are developed as functions of disposal option cost and timing, relative long- and short-term risks, and possible accident scenarios. We examine the annual costs and risks for each option over a large number of years. Risk, in this paper, is defined in terms of annual fatalities (both prompt and long-term) and environmental restoration costs that might result from either an accidental release or long-term exposure to both plant workers and the public near the site or facility. We use event timing to weigh both costs and risks; near-term costs and risks are discounted less than future expenditures and fatalities. This technique levels the timing of cash flows and benefits by converting future costs and benefits to present value costs and benefits. We give an example Levelized Cost-Benefit Analysis of incinerator location options to demonstrate the methodology and required data

  17. Baseline risk and marginal willingness to pay for health risk reduction. (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Dickie, Mark; Veronesi, Marcella


    Empirical results presented in this paper suggest that parents' marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for a reduction in morbidity risk from heart disease is inversely related to baseline risk (i.e., the amount of risk initially faced) both for themselves and for their children. For instance, a 40% reduction from the mean of baseline risk results in an increase in MWTP by 70% or more. Thus, estimates of monetary benefits of public programs to reduce heart disease risk would be understated if the standard practice is followed of evaluating MWTP at initial risk levels and then multiplying this value by the number of cases avoided. Estimates are supported by: (1) unique quantitative information on perceptions of the risk of getting heart disease that allow baseline risk to be defined at an individual level and (2) improved econometric procedures to control for well-known difficulties associated with stated preference data.

  18. Danish GPs' perception of disease risk and benefit of prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob


    the risk is presented, e.g. whether changes in risk are presented in absolute or relative terms. METHODS: Questionnaires with clinical episodes were sent to 1500 Danish GPs. The GPs were randomized into four groups of 375, who all received the same case story with information about risk reduction achieved...

  19. Prevention of occupational risks in animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Palacio, J.


    This work focuses on the main specific risks for those working with laboratory animals in a Research Center such as CIEMAT. First we present the general biological risks, their laws and rules. Next, we development the specific risks associated with the laboratory animals, zoonotic diseases and allergies. then we deal with the risks that can be consequence of working with laboratory animals, ionizing radiations, chemical products, genetically modified organisms, liquid nitrogen management, bio containment and human samples management. As they are subjects of interest, we also include the workers health assesment for those exposed to biological agents, including recommendations about hygiene and disinfections. (Author)

  20. Household flood risk reduction in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, Barbora; Vikhrov, Dmytro; Kelman, I.; Stojanov, Robert; Jakubínský, Jiří


    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 1381-2386 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13033 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Bečva River Basin * Czech Republic * flood risk reduction * floods * household adaptation * household coping Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 3.085, year: 2015

  1. Eban HIV/STD risk reduction intervention: conceptual basis and procedures. (United States)


    To describe the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention being evaluated in the NIMH Multisite HIV/STD Prevention trial for heterosexual African American couples, including the integrated theoretical framework, the structure, core elements and procedures of the intervention, and how the content was shaped by culturally congruent concepts to address the needs of the study target population. The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention is designed to address multilevel individual-, interpersonal-, and community-level factors that contribute to HIV/STD transmission risk behaviors among heterosexual African American couples who are HIV serodiscordant. The Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention employs a mixed modality, couple-based approach that is based on an integrated ecological framework incorporating social cognitive theory and uses an Afrocentric paradigm that is informed by previous evidence-based couples HIV prevention interventions. For this randomized controlled trial, African American serodiscordant couples were recruited from 4 urban sites (Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York, and Philadelphia) and were randomized to either the Eban HIV/STD Risk Reduction Intervention (treatment condition) or a Health Promotion Intervention that served as an attentional control condition. Both interventions had 4 individual couple sessions and 4 group sessions, but only the treatment condition was focused on reducing HIV/STD risk behaviors. Behavioral and biological data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months. The theoretical framework, core elements, and content of each session are described and lessons learned from this intervention trial are discussed. An HIV prevention intervention combining couple and group sessions can be feasibly implemented with African American HIV-serodiscordant couples who remain at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The lessons learned from the trial suggest that the participants responded very well

  2. Indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction: An African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi G. Iloka


    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge is valuable knowledge that has helped local communities all over the world survive for generations. This knowledge originates from the interaction between members of the community and the environment in which they live. Although much has been written about indigenous knowledge, its documentation in the area of disaster risk reduction and climate change in Africa has been very limited. The wealth of this knowledge has not been well-recognised in the disaster risk reduction field, as policy-makers still rely on mitigation strategies based on scientific knowledge. Colonialism and lack of proper documentation of indigenous knowledge are some of the contributing factors to this. Ignoring the importance of understanding adaptive strategies of the local people has led to failed projects. Understanding how local people in Africa have managed to survive and adapt for generations, before the arrival of Western education, may be the key to developing sustainable policies to mitigate future challenges. Literature used in this article, obtained from the books, papers and publications of various experts in the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, indigenous knowledge and adaptation, highlight the need for more interest to be shown in indigenous knowledge, especially in the developing country context. This would lead to better strategies which originate from the community level but would aim for overall sustainable development in Africa.

  3. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.


    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  4. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in drug relapse prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hamedi


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness in the prevention of relapse in drug abusers. Method: Using a quasi experimental design, 90 male drug abusers who had undergone detoxification were selected from among all detoxified individuals referred to drug rehabilitation centers in the City of Tehran. Patients were placed randomly in three groups: Mindfulness training intervention, behavioral drug reduction counseling and a control group in which no intervention was applied. Diagnosis of drug abuse was made using structured clinical interview for diagnosing axis I disorders on DSMIV (SCID-I as well as tests to measure morphine levels in the blood. Fisher test was used to compare groups. Patients were assessed two weeks and two months after the intervention as follow up measure. Findings: Results show that both intervention groups were effective in preventing relapse as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of mindfulness training and BDRC was about the same. There were no significant differences between patients with and without experience of drug abuse and married and single patients. Conclusion: Both mindfulness training and BDRC may be considered effective practical methods in reducing the risk of relapse in male drug abusers.

  5. Measurements for reduction and prevention of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Becker, W.


    After incorporation of radioiodine the thyroid gland is the organ with the highest radiation exposure. The most important methods for reduction or prevention of radioiodine incorporation by inhalation, ingestion or cutaneous resorption are the prevention of contamination and incorporation. The protection against external radiation and the prophylaxis with iodine are also very useful. The maximum of radioiodine exposure is reached within the first few days after exposure due to the short physical half-life of I-131. In addition to non-specific methods of protection for contamination and incorporation, thyroid blockage by iodine is of major importance. With 100 mg potassium iodide, taken in intervalls of eight hours, the radioiodine uptake of the thyroid gland can be reduced to 1%, provided that administration takes place before, or simultaneously with the exposure. The most important side effect, especially in endemic goiter areas, is the induction of thyrotoxicosis. In newborns and infants myxedema and the induction of an iodide-goiter may occur. Alternatively to iodide prophylaxis, the competitive restriction of the radioiodine uptake into the thyroid gland may be achieved using perchlorate. However, perchlorate shall not be preferred to iodide because of its potential side-effects. High doses of iodide should only be given, if the calculated thyroid radiation exposure is more than 0.25 Sv, because only at this dose level benefit is higher than risk. (orig.) [de

  6. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: Awareness, risk compensation, and risk perceptions among South African women. (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa A; Nkoko, Koena


    Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a proven method of HIV risk reduction for men in southern Africa. MMC promotion campaigns and scale-up programmes are widely implemented throughout the Republic of South Africa. However, the impact of promoting MMC on women's awareness, beliefs, and behaviours has been understudied. We conducted a self-administered anonymous survey of 279 women receiving health services in an impoverished township located in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that two in three women were unaware that male circumcision partially protects men from contracting HIV. Women who were aware of MMC for HIV prevention also endorsed beliefs that male circumcision reduces the need for men to worry about HIV and reduces the need for men to use condoms. Male circumcision awareness was also related to reduced perceptions of HIV risk among women. Multivariable models showed that women's MMC awareness, circumcision risk compensation beliefs, and risk perceptions were associated with decreased condom use and higher HIV risk index scores defined as number of condomless vaginal intercourse X number of sex partners. These results suggest a need for MMC education efforts tailored for women living in communities with high-HIV prevalence where men are targeted for MMC.

  7. [Prevention of shoulder dystocia risk factors before delivery]. (United States)

    Fuchs, F


    To determine whether it is possible to prevent the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia before or during pregnancy. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Studied measures were exercise before or during pregnancy, dietary management, and gestational diabetes management in obese and non-obese patients. No study has proven that the correction of these risk factors (except gestational diabetes) would reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the general population, physical exercise is recommended either before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (physical activity before pregnancy) (grade B), fetal macrosomia (grade C) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (grade C). No dietary regimen is recommended to reduce these issues (grade B). In overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]>25), physical activity coupled with dietary management is recommended (grade A) because it reduces fetal macrosomia (EL1). In addition, it allows a modest reduction in maternal weight gain during pregnancy (EL2), but did have an effect on the occurrence of gestational diabetes (EL1). In case of gestational diabetes, diabetes care is recommended (diabetic diet, glucose monitoring, insulin if needed) (grade A) as it reduces the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia (EL1). The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11.5 kg to 16 kg for normal BMI patients (grade B). Obese patients should be aware of the importance of controlling their weight gain during pregnancy (professional consensus). It is recommended that patients regain their pre-conception weight, and ideally a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2), 6 months postpartum (grade B) to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and macrosomia in a subsequent pregnancy (EL2). Physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia

  8. Youth at Risk: Teens and Crime Prevention. (United States)

    Zimmer, Judith A.


    Describes four activities for secondary students which deal with teenagers and crime. States that through these activities students will be able to identify those who are commonly victimized, discuss community services for victims, talk about the causes of crime, and explain how teens can play a role in community crime prevention. (GEA)

  9. Meditation and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Levine, Glenn N; Lange, Richard A; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Davidson, Richard J; Jamerson, Kenneth; Mehta, Puja K; Michos, Erin D; Norris, Keith; Ray, Indranill Basu; Saban, Karen L; Shah, Tina; Stein, Richard; Smith, Sidney C


    Despite numerous advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Novel and inexpensive interventions that can contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are of interest. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of meditation. Meditation instruction and practice is widely accessible and inexpensive and may thus be a potential attractive cost-effective adjunct to more traditional medical therapies. Accordingly, this American Heart Association scientific statement systematically reviewed the data on the potential benefits of meditation on cardiovascular risk. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies demonstrate that meditation can have long-standing effects on the brain, which provide some biological plausibility for beneficial consequences on the physiological basal state and on cardiovascular risk. Studies of the effects of meditation on cardiovascular risk have included those investigating physiological response to stress, smoking cessation, blood pressure reduction, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, endothelial function, inducible myocardial ischemia, and primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit on cardiovascular risk, although the overall quality and, in some cases, quantity of study data are modest. Given the low costs and low risks of this intervention, meditation may be considered as an adjunct to guideline-directed cardiovascular risk reduction by those interested in this lifestyle modification, with the understanding that the benefits of such intervention remain to be better established. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted. Such studies, to the degree possible, should utilize randomized study design, be adequately powered to meet the primary study outcome, strive to achieve low drop-out rates, include long

  10. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Bell, K. [Convergence Research, Seattle, WA (United States); Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M. [Tellus Inst., Boston, MA (United States); Spinney P. [Charles River Associates, Boston, MA (United States)


    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka


    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary prevention of food allergy in infants who are at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne


    on primary prevention of food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: In prospective observational controlled studies of high quality of birth cohorts, exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months combined with introduction of solid foods after 4 months of age is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy and atopic...... dermatitis, particularly in high-risk infants. When breastfeeding for 4-6 months is not possible or insufficient, randomized controlled trials have shown a significant reduction in food allergy and atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants fed a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula. SUMMARY......: Breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusively breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months. As regards primary prevention of food allergy there is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention during...

  13. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de


    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  14. [Bibliografic resources on chemical risk administration and prevention]. (United States)

    Calera Rubio, Alfonso A; Juan Quilis, Verónica; López Samaniego, Luz M; Caballero Pérez, Pablo; Ronda Pérez, Elena


    The documentation produced by public and private institutions in relation to the chemical risk constitutes an essential tool for prevention. The objective of this research is to locate and to revise the documents related to the management of the prevention of chemical risk focus to PYMES in Spain from 1995 to 2004. The methodology carried out for the selection of the bibliographical materials has been the consultation of automated databases and Web pages. 812 documents have been identified. Most corresponds to grey literature. The thematic more frequent has been the security and the most frequent objective of the papers has been the prevention. Most of the documents go to the technical sector. The results suggest that although that there is a great diversity of documents in Spain dedicated to the prevention of chemical risk it seems convenient: 1) to increase their diffusion, 2) to pay attention to the communication of the risks, 3) to investigate and to translate the research in good practice.

  15. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati


    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  16. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention (United States)

    ... Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Many ... is the only 100% effective way to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy. The correct and consistent use of male latex ...

  17. Army Health Promotion, Risk Reduction, Suicide Prevention: Report 2010 (United States)


    distribution because a Soldier with an “as needed” prescription could buy and sell the drug to other Soldiers with impunity. In a recent briefing, the Army...depression, obsessive- compulsive , panic, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorders in adult outpatients. Brand names include Paxil and

  18. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through risk based insurance premiums : Trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Botzen, W.J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297620584; Feyen, L.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.


    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and

  19. Earth observation for disaster risk reduction in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, L.


    This thesis investigates the role of Earth Observation (EO) for disaster risk reduction for Pakistan. It demonstrates that significant improvements are possible through the utilization of EO data for natural disaster risk reduction activities in Pakistan. In this thesis, a multi hazard approach is proposed in order to identify vulnerability and risk at district level in Pakistan. In particular, a methodology for ranking hazards, vulnerabilities and risks based on Delphi methods is developed. This method is implemented and the results are mapped for four selected hazards i.e., earthquakes, floods, cyclones and droughts. Based on the final risk rankings, the potential of EO is explored with a focus on vulnerability assessment through detailed analysis of two case studies i.e.; Flood and Cyclone/Tsunami. The study also reviews and evaluates the institutional framework of the National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan in order to identify existing gaps and address them in view of modern technology being used globally. Results reveal that these gaps are mainly related to policies, coordination and communication of different stakeholders at the national level. The work also reviews the available Early Warning System (EWS) in Pakistan and particularly its usage during disasters. Within the context of EWS, multi-sensor satellite data have been utilized for the analysis of structure of an Arabian Sea tropical Cyclone. Results of this focal study provide useful information for operational analysis and forecasting as well as for designing disaster mitigation measures. This information may also play a major role in the development of cyclone warning strategies in the future. (author)

  20. Valuing Drinking Water Risk Reductions Using the Contingent Valuation Method: A Methodological Study of Risks from THM and Giardia (1986) (United States)

    This study develops contingent valuation methods for measuring the benefits of mortality and morbidity drinking water risk reductions. The major effort was devoted to developing and testing a survey instrument to value low-level risk reductions.

  1. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation. (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje


    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  2. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; hide


    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  3. Prevent the risk of climate change by taxing fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Y.


    Of all the greenhouse gases, it is emissions of CO 2 which most urgently require reduction. On the one hand, given the very long lifetime of this gas, its emissions are almost irreversible in character. On the other hand, the measures to be taken concern technological choices, and choices in matters of planning and land use, which are not easily reversible either. It would be very costly, later on, to go back on decisions we make in the coming years without taking into account the risk of climate change. We will only be able to stabilize the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere if we are able to reduce present emissions by 60 per cent. The challenge to humanity is considerable, since this reduction in emissions has to be achieved despite the forecast doubling of the world's population. We must organize ourselves both to stabilize the world's forests (reforestation in certain regions compensating for the inevitable deforestation elsewhere), and to reduce by 25 per cent the average consumption of fossil fuel per inhabitant. Such a radical reorientation of our habits in the consumption of fossil energy does not seem to me technically unreachable, and it will not cause widespread ruin if we manage to optimize its organization. Preventive work will only be effective if it is made on a planetary scale. It will only be undertaken if we are able to share the burden fairly between the various countries; and it will not be ruinous if we manage to decentralize necessary initiatives, so that the least costly methods are undertaken everywhere from the outset. (author)

  4. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhail Robert C


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful.

  5. Promoting flood risk reduction: The role of insurance in Germany and England (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Thieken, Annegret H.


    Improving society's ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from flooding requires integrated, anticipatory flood risk management (FRM). However, most countries still focus their efforts on responding to flooding events if and when they occur rather than addressing their current and future vulnerability to flooding. Flood insurance is one mechanism that could promote a more ex ante approach to risk by supporting risk reduction activities. This paper uses an adapted version of Easton's System Theory to investigate the role of insurance for FRM in Germany and England. We introduce an anticipatory FRM framework, which allows flood insurance to be considered as part of a broader policy field. We analyze if and how flood insurance can catalyze a change toward a more anticipatory approach to FRM. In particular we consider insurance's role in influencing five key components of anticipatory FRM: risk knowledge, prevention through better planning, property-level protection measures, structural protection and preparedness (for response). We find that in both countries FRM is still a reactive, event-driven process, while anticipatory FRM remains underdeveloped. Collaboration between insurers and FRM decision-makers has already been successful, for example in improving risk knowledge and awareness, while in other areas insurance acts as a disincentive for more risk reduction action. In both countries there is evidence that insurance can play a significant role in encouraging anticipatory FRM, but this remains underutilized. Effective collaboration between insurers and government should not be seen as a cost, but as an investment to secure future insurability through flood resilience.

  6. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  7. Risks of flexible ureterorenoscopy: pathophysiology and prevention. (United States)

    Osther, Palle J S


    Currently, indications for flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) are expanding, mainly due to technological advancements. Although data from clinical series definitely presents fURS as a safe procedure, serious complications including sepsis and ureteral lesions do occur. These complications seem to be a result of the unique elements of fURS, ureteral access and irrigation, pushing normal upper urinary tract physiology into pathophysiological processes, including intrarenal/pyelo-veneous backflow and ureteral contractions, potentially resulting in septic, haemorrhagic and ureteral lesional complications. Knowledge on normal upper urinary tract physiology are crucial for understanding how these harmful effects of fURS may be avoided or minimized. The pathophysiology of intrarenal pressure increases and ureteral access will be discussed as a basis for understanding preventive measures. Role of antibiotics, ureteral access sheaths, safty guidewires, pain medication, prestenting and pharmacologic modulation of pyeloureteral dynamics are reviewed from a pathophysiological perspective.

  8. Prevention and risks limitation of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Segundo, T.


    Associated risks to the ionizing radiation, in general, and to the radioactive installations, in particular, are exposed; as well as the prevention and limitation techniques applied in order to keep risk into acceptable levels are detatched. Finally, the effect in the human life of the radioactivity use and other activities are compared and man-made occupational and public exposures are explained. (author)

  9. Preventive maintenance - An important element in the `risk management` philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullev, Lars [VEKS (Denmark)


    The contents of the paper is a presentation of the company VEKS with particular focus on the connection between preventive maintenance and the `Risk Management` philosophy. Implementation of Risk Management was preferred instead of an ISO-9000 certification of the company. The experience is that the responsibility in the organisation has been increased. (au)

  10. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koullali, B.; Oudijk, M. A.; Nijman, T. A. J.; Mol, B. W. J.; Pajkrt, E.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history

  11. Iatrogenic disease in the elderly: risk factors, consequences, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompol Permpongkosol


    Full Text Available Sompol PermpongkosolDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: The epidemiology of iatrogenic disease in the elderly has not been extensively reported. Risk factors of iatrogenic disease in the elderly are drug-induced iatrogenic disease, multiple chronic diseases, multiple physicians, hospitalization, and medical or surgical procedures. Iatrogenic disease can have a great psychomotor impact and important social consequences. To identify patients at high risk is the first step in prevention as most of the iatrogenic diseases are preventable. Interventions that can prevent iatrogenic complications include specific interventions, the use of a geriatric interdisciplinary team, pharmacist consultation and acute care for the elderly units.Keywords: iatrogenic disease, elderly, risk factors, prevention

  12. [Individuals, structures, and risks: an overview of primary HIV prevention in Portugal]. (United States)

    Sacramento, Octávio


    This article debates the principal guidelines and procedures that shape HIV/AIDS prevention in Portugal, focusing on risk reduction in the two major scenarios for spread of the epidemic: sexuality and injection drug use. The analysis views the risks of infection as expressions of practices that are densely interwoven into social structures and cultural frameworks. Based on this conception, the article seeks to evaluate and understand the extent to which preventive strategies take a broad and integrative underlying approach by including individuals and their circumstances. Meanwhile, the study identifies some of the main structural constraints impeding the achievement of more favorable conditions for minimizing risks and adopting safe behaviors. These analytical exercises include not only policy and program guidelines, but also processes in daily reality, showing how the non-implementation of measures already guaranteed by law poses powerful structural barriers to HIV prevention.

  13. Disaster risk reduction in developing countries: costs, benefits and institutions. (United States)

    Kenny, Charles


    Some 60,000 people worldwide die annually in natural disasters, mostly due to the collapse of buildings in earthquakes, and primarily in the developing world. This is despite the fact that engineering solutions exist that can eliminate almost completely the risk of such deaths. Why is this? The solutions are expensive and technically demanding, so their cost-benefit ratio often is unfavourable as compared to other interventions. Nonetheless, there are various public disaster risk reduction interventions that are highly cost-effective. That such interventions frequently remain unimplemented or ineffectively executed points to a role for issues of political economy. Building regulations in developing countries appear to have limited impact in many cases, perhaps because of inadequate capacity and corruption. Public construction often is of low quality, perhaps for similar reasons. This suggests the need for approaches that emphasise simple and limited disaster risk regulation covering only the most at-risk structures-and that, preferably, non-experts can monitor-as well as numerous transparency and oversight mechanisms for public construction projects. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  14. [The economics of preventing psycho-social risks]. (United States)

    Golzio, Luigi


    The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared

  15. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey (United States)

    Alexander, D. E.


    This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of general systems theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the "state of the system". The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm.

  16. Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karran A. Phillips


    Full Text Available We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability “as is” in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P<0.05. Additionally, all of our video modules met our a priori criteria for feasibility: ≤20% of data were missing due to participant noncompliance and ≤20% were missing due to technical failure. We concluded that video-based mHIVRR education delivered via smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Risk reduction and TQM: A corporate culture of continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, D.C.


    A company supplying products and services to the nuclear industry that implements a cultural commitment to continuous improvement, in addition to providing higher quality products and services, also represents a significant reduction in operational risk to that industry. The implementation of a culture of total quality management (TQM), initiated by Sorrento Electronics (SE) in 1989, involves total commitment to the basic TQM principles: continuous improvement, people performing the work are the best sources of how to do it better, and employees must be empowered to make the improvements. What this means to the nuclear industry is a significant reduction in operational risk through: (1) products based on simpler, standardized, proven designs with established operational track records, enhancing confidence that they will perform as expected; (2) the highest confidence that products and supporting documentation are delivered with zero defects; (3) critical power plant schedules can be supported through the shortest possible equipment delivery times; (4) highly motivated employees with extremely positive attitudes, working together in cross-functional teams, virtually eliminate the possibility of deliberate product tampering or sabotage

  18. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić


    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  19. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention. (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna


    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  20. Aspirin and the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: An Approach Based on Individualized, Integrated Estimation of Risk. (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Battistoni, Allegra; Gallo, Giovanna; Coluccia, Roberta; De Caterina, Raffaele


    While the use of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CVD) is well established, aspirin in primary prevention is not systematically recommended because the absolute CV event reduction is similar to the absolute excess in major bleedings. Recently, emerging evidence suggests the possibility that the assumption of aspirin, may also be effective in the prevention of cancer. By adding to the CV prevention benefits the potential beneficial effect of aspirin in reducing the incidence of mortality and cancer could tip the balance between risks and benefits of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention in favour of the latter and broaden the indication for treatment with in populations at average risk. While prospective and randomized study are currently investigating the effect of aspirin in prevention of both cancer and CVD, clinical efforts at the individual level to promote the use of aspirin in global (or total) primary prevention could be already based on a balanced evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio.

  1. The Struggle to Prevent and Evaluate: Application of Population Attributable Risk and Preventive Fraction to Suicide Prevention Research (United States)

    Krysinska, Karolina; Martin, Graham


    Population attributable risk (PAR) estimates have been used in suicide research to evaluate the impact of psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors, including affective disorders, traumatic life events, and unemployment. A parallel concept of preventive fraction (PF), allowing for estimation of the impact of protective factors and effectiveness…

  2. 2nd Generation RLV Risk Reduction Definition Program: Pratt & Whitney Propulsion Risk Reduction Requirements Program (TA-3 & TA-4) (United States)

    Matlock, Steve


    This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.

  3. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South (United States)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean


    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  4. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport. (United States)

    Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel


    Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.

  5. Arthroscopic Anatomy of the Dislocated Hip in Infants and Obstacles Preventing Reduction. (United States)

    Eberhardt, Oliver; Wirth, Thomas; Fernandez, Francisco F


    The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomy as seen arthroscopically, the role of the labrum and its relevance in luxation and reduction procedures, and secondary changes to the cartilaginous acetabular roof and to determine the main obstacles preventing reduction of dislocated hips in infants and young children. A specialized pediatric medial approach to hip arthroscopy was performed on 25 hip joints in 21 patients younger than 4 years of age. The arthroscopic procedure was conducted using a 2.7-mm cannulated instrument. A subadductor portal was used for the 70° arthroscope, and a high anterolateral portal served as a working portal. The anatomic findings of the individual hip joints were recorded. We examined the femoral head, the teres ligament, the transverse ligament, the acetabulum, and the acetabular labrum. The obstacles preventing reduction were successively resected. An arthroscopic investigation of all major structures and arthroscopic reduction was possible in 25 hip joints. A hypertrophic teres ligament was present in 23 of the 25 hips. Capsular constriction prevented reduction in 22 of the 25 hips. The acetabular labrum was not inverted in any of the examined hip joints and was also never an obstacle to reduction. Secondary changes to the cartilaginous preformed acetabular roof were present in 10 hips. We have shown that arthroscopy of a developmentally dislocated hip can be safely performed using the subadductor portal. Through this arthroscopic approach, we were able to identify the previously described pathologic structures-the limbus, neolimbus, pulvinar, hypertrophic teres ligament, and capsular constriction. The capsule was the most common block to reduction, followed by the teres ligament. Successful reduction can be achieved by removal of intra-articular tissues, the pulvinar, and the teres ligament, and nearly always a capsular release. The limbus and neolimbus were not factors in achieving reduction in our series. Level IV, case

  6. Risk avoidance versus risk reduction: a framework and segmentation profile for understanding adolescent sexual activity. (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne


    The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.

  7. Prevention (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  8. Exercise for fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Arnold, Catherine M; Sran, Meena M; Harrison, Elizabeth L


    To evaluate the influence of exercise on falls and fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults and to present an updated synthesis of outcome measures for the assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. A systematic review was performed, considering English-language articles published from 2000 to 2006 and accessible through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, and/or AMED. Included were randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) that used an exercise or physical activity intervention and involved participants over age 50. Screening and methodological quality for internal validity were conducted by two independent reviewers. The search retrieved 156 abstracts; 22 articles met the internal validity criteria. Both individualized and group exercise programmes were found to be effective in reducing falls and fall risk. The optimal type, frequency, and dose of exercise to achieve a positive effect have not been determined. A variety of outcome measures have been used to measure fall risk, especially for balance. Falls and fall risk can be reduced with exercise interventions in the community-dwelling elderly, although the most effective exercise variables are unknown. Future studies in populations with comorbidities known to increase fall risk will help determine optimal, condition-specific fall-prevention programmes. Poor balance is a key risk factor for falls; therefore, the best measure of this variable should be selected when evaluating patients at risk of falling.

  9. Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming


    Michael Todinov; Eberechi Weli


    The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expres...

  10. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico (United States)

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.


    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9% for the monthly model, and 80.4% for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and it was 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM & MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average willingness-to-accept estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model for targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  11. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study. (United States)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter S; Colhoun, Helen M; Livingstone, Shona J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L; Davis, Barry R; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J


    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Lipid Lowering Arm of the Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT-LLA) study (atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) were used for model derivation. The model was based on 8 clinical predictors including treatment allocation (statin/placebo). Ten-year individualized ARR on major cardiovascular events by statin therapy were calculated for each patient by subtracting the estimated on-treatment risk from the estimated off-treatment risk. Predicted 10-year ARR by statin therapy was 4% (median ARR, 3.2%; interquartile range, 2.5%-4.3%; 95% confidence interval for 3.2% ARR, -1.4% to 6.8%). Addition of treatment interactions did not improve model performance. Therefore, the wide distribution in ARR was a consequence of the underlying distribution in cardiovascular risk enrolled in these trials. External validation of the model was performed in data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT; pravastatin 40 mg versus usual care) and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS; atorvastatin 10 mg versus placebo) of 3878 and 2838 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Model calibration was adequate in both external data sets, discrimination was moderate (ALLHAT-LLT: c-statistics, 0.64 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.67] and CARDS: 0.68 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.72]). ARRs of major cardiovascular events by statin therapy can be accurately estimated for individual patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a model based on routinely available patient characteristics. There is a wide distribution in ARR that may complement informed decision making. URL: http

  12. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on cardiovascular risk factors. (United States)

    Eliasson, B; Hjalmarson, A; Kruse, E; Landfeldt, B; Westin A


    This open study examined the effect of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on established cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-eight healthy adult smokers (smoking >or=15 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years) were provided with nicotine nasal spray (to be used ad libitum) and asked to stop smoking. The primary goal during the first 8 weeks, however, was to reduce their daily smoking by at least 50%. Subjects were then followed for another 8 weeks; at this point, 33 participants had successfully stopped smoking. Cardiovascular risk factors including fibrinogen, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 9 and 17 weeks. After 8 weeks of smoking reduction, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day had decreased from 21.5 +/- 0.6 (baseline) to 10.8 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.001). This was accompanied by significant improvements in fibrinogen (from 2.9 +/- 0.1 g/l at baseline to 2.6 +/- 0.1 g/l, p = 0.011), white blood cells (from 7.0 +/- 0.4 to 6.2 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.005) and the high-density/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio (0.33 +/- 0.03 to 0.37 +/- 0.03, p < 0.005). Following 8 weeks of abstinence from smoking, the mean white blood cell count was further reduced (to 6.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.026 vs. baseline) and there were also significant improvements in HDL (from 1.16 +/- 0.06 mmol/l at baseline to 1.32 +/- 0.06, p < 0.001) and LDL (from 3.78 +/- 0.16 mmol/l at baseline to 3.52 +/- 0.17, p = 0.015). In conclusion, 8 weeks of smoking reduction resulted in clinically significant improvements in established cardiovascular risk factors. These improvements were even greater after an additional period of abstinence from smoking.

  13. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion? (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J


    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  14. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme? (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle


    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  15. Coastal community resilience in climate adaptation and risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mie; Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    are combined with community resilience studies to provide the corresponding municipalities with a more elaborate knowledge platform for climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Community resilience is investigated in four dimensions (information & communication, community competence, social capital......, and institutional capacity) from +25 semi-structured interviews conducted with local citizens, municipal level employees as well as national government officials. Despite facing the same flood hazards, the two communities have different h istories, social structures, and previous flood experiences and, accordingly......Storm surge impacts on the Limfjord coasts of Denmark are exacerbated by the expansion of the Thyborøn Channel that causes increased water transport into the fjord from the North Sea. This, in combination with sea level rise, jeopardizes the strength of existing flood protection and challenges...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Abakarov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Ensuring of urban areas seismic safety is a task which do not require delay. But it cannot be solved by separate parts. It is essential that all components of the seismic hazard must be grouped together in one problem based on the system approach. In the present paper is presented not only the main flowchart of systems approach to ensuring the territory seismic safety but also the flowcharts of components of each main unit. They cover the whole package of measures for a full assessment of territory seismic hazard, seismic risk and its reduction.The proposed methodology can be carried out for design and implementation of regional territory seismic safety programs. 

  17. Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Duemmer, C.L. [Hull, Duemmer and Garland (United States)


    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.

  18. Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M.; Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G.; Duemmer, C.L.


    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms' responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE's direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government's unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management

  19. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies. (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick


    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Healthy Teen Girls project: comparison of health education and STD risk reduction intervention for incarcerated adolescent females. (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen


    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

  1. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach. (United States)

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A


    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions.

  2. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.


    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  3. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC) (United States)

    Lewis, James


    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes—and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters—tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which “vulnerability drivers” emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability. PMID:22919564

  4. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC). (United States)

    Lewis, James


    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes-and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters-tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which "vulnerability drivers" emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability.

  5. Mainstreaming risk reduction in urban planning and housing: a challenge for international aid organisations. (United States)

    Wamsler, Christine


    The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change.

  6. Religious narratives and their implications for disaster risk reduction. (United States)

    McGeehan, Kathleen M; Baker, Charlene K


    The role of religious factors in the disaster experience has been under-investigated. This is despite evidence of their influence throughout the disaster cycle, including: the way in which the event is interpreted; how the community recovers; and the strategies implemented to reduce future risk. This qualitative study examined the role of faith in the disaster experience of four faith communities in the Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Twenty-six individuals from the Bahá'í, Buddhist, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), and United Methodist Church communities participated, including 10 faith leaders and 16 laypersons. The results suggest that religious narratives provide a framework for interpretation of, preparedness for, and responses to disasters. Preparedness varied widely across faith communities, with the LDS community reporting greater levels of preparedness than other communities. Recommendations include the development of collaborative efforts between disaster managers and faith leaders to increase preparedness within faith communities, which may facilitate community-wide disaster risk reduction. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  7. Capability for Integrated Systems Risk-Reduction Analysis (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.


    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is working to increase the likelihoods of human health and performance success during long-duration missions, and subsequent crew long-term health. To achieve these goals, there is a need to develop an integrated understanding of how the complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. This understanding will allow HRP to provide cross-disciplinary spaceflight countermeasures while minimizing resources such as mass, power, and volume. This understanding will also allow development of tools to assess the state of and enhance the resilience of individual crewmembers, teams, and the integrated mission system. We will discuss a set of risk-reduction questions that has been identified to guide the systems approach necessary to meet these needs. In addition, a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space, called the Contributing Factor Map (CFM), is being applied as the backbone for incorporating information addressing these questions from sources throughout HRP. Using the common language of the CFM, information from sources such as the Human System Risk Board summaries, Integrated Research Plan, and HRP-funded publications has been combined and visualized in ways that allow insight into cross-disciplinary interconnections in a systematic, standardized fashion. We will show examples of these visualizations. We will also discuss applications of the resulting analysis capability that can inform science portfolio decisions, such as areas in which cross-disciplinary solicitations or countermeasure development will potentially be fruitful.

  8. Therapeutical approach to plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ciaccio


    Full Text Available Marcello Ciaccio, Giulia Bivona, Chiara BelliaDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing aminoacid produced during metabolism of methionine. Since 1969 the relationship between altered homocysteine metabolism and both coronary and peripheral atherotrombosis is known; in recent years experimental evidences have shown that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular ischemic events. Several mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine impairs vascular function have been proposed, including impairment of endothelial function, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequent oxidation of low-density lipids. Endothelial function is altered in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia, and endothelial dysfunction is correlated with plasma levels of homocysteine. Folic acid and B vitamins, required for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, are the most important dietary determinants of homocysteine and daily supplementation typically lowers plasma homocysteine levels; it is still unclear whether the decreased plasma levels of homocysteine through diet or drugs may be paralleled by a reduction in cardiovascular risk.Keywords: homocysteine, MTHFR, cardiovascular disease, folate, B vitamin

  9. Trialability, observability and risk reduction accelerating individual innovation adoption decisions. (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn J; Eljiz, Kathy; Dadich, Ann; Fitzgerald, Janna-Anneke; Sloan, Terry


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a retrospective analysis of computer simulation's role in accelerating individual innovation adoption decisions. The process innovation examined is Lean Systems Thinking, and the organizational context is the imaging department of an Australian public hospital. Intrinsic case study methods including observation, interviews with radiology and emergency personnel about scheduling procedures, mapping patient appointment processes and document analysis were used over three years and then complemented with retrospective interviews with key hospital staff. The multiple data sources and methods were combined in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to explore an extreme case that provides potential to act as an instructive template for effective change. Computer simulation of process change ideas offered by staff to improve patient-flow accelerated the adoption of the process changes, largely because animated computer simulation permitted experimentation (trialability), provided observable predictions of change results (observability) and minimized perceived risk. The difficulty of making accurate comparisons between time periods in a health care setting is acknowledged. This work has implications for policy, practice and theory, particularly for inducing the rapid diffusion of process innovations to address challenges facing health service organizations and national health systems. Originality/value - The research demonstrates the value of animated computer simulation in presenting the need for change, identifying options, and predicting change outcomes and is the first work to indicate the importance of trialability, observability and risk reduction in individual adoption decisions in health services.

  10. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Louw


    Full Text Available Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (, factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents ( with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

  11. A comparative study of European insurance schemes for extreme weather risks and incentives for risk reduction (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen; Hudson, Paul; de Ruig, Lars; Kuik, Onno; Botzen, Wouter


    This paper provides an analysis of the insurance schemes that cover extreme weather events in twelve different EU countries and the risk reduction incentives offered by these schemes. Economic impacts of extreme weather events in many regions in Europe and elsewhere are on the rise due to climate change and increasing exposure as driven by urban development. In an attempt to manage impacts from extreme weather events, natural disaster insurance schemes can provide incentives for taking measures that limit weather-related risks. Insurance companies can influence public risk management policies and risk-reducing behaviour of policyholders by "rewarding behaviour that reduces risks and potential damages" (Botzen and Van den Bergh, 2008, p. 417). Examples of insurance market systems that directly or indirectly aim to incentivize risk reduction with varying degrees of success are: the U.S. National Flood Insurance Programme; the French Catastrophes Naturelles system; and the U.K. Flood Re program which requires certain levels of protection standards for properties to be insurable. In our analysis, we distinguish between four different disaster types (i.e. coastal and fluvial floods, droughts and storms) and three different sectors (i.e. residential, commercial and agriculture). The selected case studies also provide a wide coverage of different insurance market structures, including public, private and public-private insurance provision, and different methods of coping with extreme loss events, such as re-insurance, governmental aid and catastrophe bonds. The analysis of existing mechanisms for risk reduction incentives provides recommendations about incentivizing adaptive behaviour, in order to assist policy makers and other stakeholders in designing more effective insurance schemes for extreme weather risks.

  12. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy


    Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de


    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...

  13. Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon-Steensma Jantsje M.


    foreland into the dike design does not automatically mean that nature values and flood protection are well integrated. Flood protection imposes rather different requirements on the extent and features of marshes than nature conservation and development. Wave damping is most effective with a high and stable marsh, while nature thrives with dynamic processes and differences in elevation. Therefore, only a design that allows natural marsh dynamics and includes different marsh zones could combine nature values with flood protection. In practice, this means a dike design with an uncertain foreland, that offers space for natural processes. The uncertainty in foreland development reduces the possible flood risk reduction. In our paper we describe the critical points of interest concerning risk reduction in this system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead


    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  15. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  16. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention. (United States)

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C


    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis.

  17. Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention: a systematic review. (United States)

    Pancorbo-Hidalgo, Pedro L; Garcia-Fernandez, Francisco Pedro; Lopez-Medina, Isabel Ma; Alvarez-Nieto, Carmen


    This paper reports a systematic review conducted to determine the effectiveness of the use of risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention in clinical practice, degree of validation of risk assessment scales, and effectiveness of risk assessment scales as indicators of risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers are an important health problem. The best strategy to avoid them is prevention. There are several risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention which complement nurses' clinical judgement. However, some of these have not undergone proper validation. A systematic bibliographical review was conducted, based on a search of 14 databases in four languages using the keywords pressure ulcer or pressure sore or decubitus ulcer and risk assessment. Reports of clinical trials or prospective studies of validation were included in the review. Thirty-three studies were included in the review, three on clinical effectiveness and the rest on scale validation. There is no decrease in pressure ulcer incidence was found which might be attributed to use of an assessment scale. However, the use of scales increases the intensity and effectiveness of prevention interventions. The Braden Scale shows optimal validation and the best sensitivity/specificity balance (57.1%/67.5%, respectively); its score is a good pressure ulcer risk predictor (odds ratio = 4.08, CI 95% = 2.56-6.48). The Norton Scale has reasonable scores for sensitivity (46.8%), specificity (61.8%) and risk prediction (OR = 2.16, CI 95% = 1.03-4.54). The Waterlow Scale offers a high sensitivity score (82.4%), but low specificity (27.4%); with a good risk prediction score (OR = 2.05, CI 95% = 1.11-3.76). Nurses' clinical judgement (only considered in three studies) gives moderate scores for sensitivity (50.6%) and specificity (60.1%), but is not a good pressure ulcer risk predictor (OR = 1.69, CI 95% = 0.76-3.75). There is no evidence that the use of risk assessment scales decreases pressure

  18. Risk prevention and management in cooperatives: An instrument to eliminate it or reduce it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Jesús Ribet-Cuadot


    Full Text Available The article exposes a methodological proposal that covers aspects to consider in the process of managing and preventing risks, which must be developed in any business or business association, for it constitutes an indispensable instrument for risk elimination or reduction that will further aid to achieve the desired goals.  This methodology comes from an investigation that had a precise question as starting point: How to contribute to the risk management and prevention in cooperatives? This was its fundamental problem. The idea comes, of course, from the sudden awakening and ever –growing use of this type of association in a difficult economical and financial context. Its general goal is to expose a methodology for risk management and prevention in cooperatives. The methodology has the necessary flexibility to be adjusted to the peculiarities of each cooperative. Its main advantage consists of assuring a systematic approach to management and prevention that begins with a diagnostic and later elaboration of a map of risks in each area, which will all ease into constant check up and reviewing. Furthermore, it allows to assess the positive impact regarding economics, society and ecology.

  19. Blood pressure reduction combining baroreflex restoration for stroke prevention in hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Song


    Full Text Available Blood pressure reduction is an important and effective strategy in stroke prevention in hypertensives. Recently, we found that baroreflex restoration was also crucial in stroke prevention. The present work was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for stroke prevention. In Experiment 1, the effects of ketanserin (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, amlodipine (0.3, 1, 2, 3 mg/kg and their combination (1+0.3, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3 mg/kg on blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP were determined under conscious state. It was found that both amlodipine and ketanserin decreased blood pressure dose-dependently. Ketanserin enfanced BRS from a very small dose but amlodipine enfanced BRS only at largest dose used. At the dose of 1 + 2 mg/kg (ketanserin + amlodipine, the combination possessed the largest synergism on blood pressure reduction. In Experiments 2 and 3, SHR-SP and two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C renovascular hypertensive rats received life-long treatments with ketanserin (1 mg/kg and amlodipine (2 mg/kg or their combination (0.5+1, 1+2, 2+4 mg/kg. The survival time was recorded and the brain lesion was examined. It was found that all kinds of treatments prolonged the survival time of SHR-SP and 2K2C rats. The combination possessed a significantly better effect on stroke prevention than mono-therapies. In conclusion, combination of blood pressure reduction and baroreflex restoration may be a new strategy for the prevention of stroke in hypertension.

  20. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando


    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23577276

  1. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa


    Full Text Available In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc, currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC, was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT. The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Absolute Vascular Risk Reduction by Moderate-Intensity Statin Therapy in Individual Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial, and Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter S.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Livingstone, Shona J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Pressel, Sara L.; Davis, Barry R.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L. J.


    In this study, we aimed to translate the average relative effect of statin therapy from trial data to the individual patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus by developing and validating a model to predict individualized absolute risk reductions (ARR) of cardiovascular events. Data of 2725 patients

  3. Primary prevention of dementia: focus on modifiable risk factors. (United States)

    Srisuwan, Patsri


    Dementia will inevitably increase in the aging world. Moreover there is no cure for dementia. Therefore, primary prevention is very important. There are several factors possibly and/or certainly influencing dementia risk including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. There are evidences that the risk of developing dementia may be reduced by modifiable risk factors. LIFESTYLE FACTORS: The strategies are to encourage regular physical and mental exercise in midlife and in late-life. Those include cognitive activity and higher education, mentally demanding occupations or participation in mentally challenging leisure activities, being more socially active, a diet that is low in saturated fat, a diet with lots of fruits and vegetables, smoking cessation, and prevention of head injury, with loss of consciousness. Chronic disease factors: The strategies are to prevent high blood pressure, especially at midlife, diabetes, high serum cholesterol, especially at midlife, and depression or high depressive symptoms. It is important to develop a systematic public-health strategy and research specific to primary prevention of dementia in Thailand with the evidence-based medicine.

  4. Falls in older people: risk factors and strategies for prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lord, Stephen R. (Stephen Ronald)


    ... on visual, neuropsychological and medical risk factors. The book also reviews the numerous new randomized controlled trials that have examined the effects of exercise, visual, cardiovascular and environmental interventions in preventing falls. The new edition will be an invaluable update for medical practitioners, physiotherapists, occupational therap...

  5. Awareness on causes, risk factors and prevention of periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the awareness on causes, risk factors and preventive measures for periodontal diseases was collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: The study participants pinpointed that the predisposing factors for periodontal diseases were lack of brushing (86.2%), cigarette smoking (55.1%) ...

  6. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Risk Factors and Prevention in Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. The occurrence of the disease is related to presence of risk factors, which are related primarily to trauma, venous stasis and hyper-coagulability. DVT seems not to be taken seriously by many ...

  8. Training Needs Assessment in Occupational Risk Prevention into Schools (United States)

    Burgos-Garcia, Antonio; Alonso-Morillejo, Enrique; Pozo-Munoz, Carmen


    The assessment of needs plays a relevant role in the training for preventing of risks at work into school, as it is a scientific procedure to identify and prioritise problems existing within an educative context. This type of assessment is the starting point for a subsequent planning of the educative interventions that will enable pupils and…

  9. Noise and Vibration Risk Prevention Virtual Web for Ubiquitous Training (United States)

    Redel-Macías, María Dolores; Cubero-Atienza, Antonio J.; Martínez-Valle, José Miguel; Pedrós-Pérez, Gerardo; del Pilar Martínez-Jiménez, María


    This paper describes a new Web portal offering experimental labs for ubiquitous training of university engineering students in work-related risk prevention. The Web-accessible computer program simulates the noise and machine vibrations met in the work environment, in a series of virtual laboratories that mimic an actual laboratory and provide the…

  10. Risk Assessment in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Assessment in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Low-Resource Settings: Lessons for practitioners in Nigeria. Sandra N Ofori, Osaretin James Odia. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African ...

  11. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.


    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  12. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  13. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program. (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica


    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  14. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women. (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B


    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The Reduction of Mass Atrocity Crimes in East Asia: The Evolving Norms of ASEAN's Prevention Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Frank


    Full Text Available ASEAN member states represent a region that has experienced a dramatic reduction in mass atrocity crimes in the last forty years. Scholars have identified three structural explanations for this reduction: the decrease in the use of mass atrocities as a tool of war, rising incomes, and the spread of democracy. The evolution of complex and contested human rights norms during this same period contributed significantly to the positive role played by the three structural factors in the decline of atrocity crimes. This paper highlights the human rights norms that anchor ASEAN atrocity prevention mechanisms and suggests that the association can serve as a model for other regional organizations.

  16. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease. (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A


    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Kariptas, Cagatay; Biyikoglu, Hikmet; Ozarpa, Cevat


    Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867km of gas lines with 750 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. The natural gas comes to Istanbul city borders with 70bar in 30inch diameter steel pipeline. The gas pressure is reduced to 20bar in RMS stations and distributed to district regulators inside the city. 110 of 750 district regulators are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers in order to cut gas flow during an earthquake event in the case of ground motion parameters exceeds the certain threshold levels. Also, state of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the gas pipelines are detected. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 750 district regulator sites. IGDAS Real-time Earthquake Risk Reduction algorithm follows 4 stages as below: 1) Real-time ground motion data transmitted from 110 IGDAS and 110 KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) acceleration stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI data center. 2) During an earthquake event EEW information is sent from IGDAS Scada Center to the IGDAS stations. 3) Automatic Shut-Off is applied at IGDAS district regulators, and calculated parameters are sent from stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI. 4) Integrated building and gas pipeline damage maps are prepared immediately after the earthquake event. The today's technology allows to rapidly estimate the

  18. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.; Maggio, F.


    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  19. The efficacy of an HIV risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. (United States)

    Peragallo, Nilda; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina


    Culturally-specific HIV risk reduction interventions for Hispanic women are needed. SEPA (Salud/Health, Educación/Education, Promoción/Promotion, y/and Autocuidado/Self-care) is a culturally-specific and theoretically-based group intervention for Hispanic women. The SEPA intervention consists of five sessions covering STI and HIV prevention; communication, condom negotiation and condom use; and violence prevention. A randomized trial tested the efficacy of SEPA with 548 adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA n = 274; delayed intervention control n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that SEPA decreased positive urine samples for Chlamydia; improved condom use, decreased substance abuse and IPV; improved communication with partner, improved HIV-related knowledge, improved intentions to use condoms, decreased barriers to condom use, and increased community prevention attitudes. Culturally-specific interventions have promise for preventing HIV for Hispanic women in the U.S. The effectiveness of SEPA should be tested in a translational community trial.

  20. Reducing exposure to environmental toxicants before birth: moving from risk perception to risk reduction. (United States)

    Grason, Holly A; Misra, Dawn P


    In this study, we considered approaches to reducing maternal exposure to hazardous environmental toxicants, focusing on risk communication to pregnant women and providers, but also considering identification of environmental toxicants in the community and reduction of environmental toxicants. We addressed the following questions: (1) What do pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health? and (2) What policy strategies are needed (should be considered) to move forward in risk reduction in this area? We reviewed the literature on knowledge of pregnant women and providers regarding these issues. While there is limited research on what pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health, there is evidence of reproductive and perinatal toxicity. This article describes a wide range of policy strategies that could be implemented to address environmental toxicants in the context of perinatal health. Effective leadership in this area will likely require collaboration of both environmental health and maternal and child health leaders and organizations.

  1. The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile M.


    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey (CGS), the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  2. Manual hyperinflation partly prevents reductions of functional residual capacity in cardiac surgical patients--a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, Frederique; Veelo, Denise P.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Bresser, Paul; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Schultz, Marcus J.


    Cardiac surgery is associated with post-operative reductions of functional residual capacity (FRC). Manual hyperinflation (MH) aims to prevent airway plugging, and as such could prevent the reduction of FRC after surgery. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of MH on

  3. Hypoxia and Nutrient Reduction in the Coastal Zone: Advice for Prevention, Remediation and Research.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meryl Williams, M.; Harper, N.; Chaitovitz, C.; Dansie, A.; Diaz, R.; Harper, N.; Heidemeier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Kemp, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Neretin, L.; Ross, A.; Susan, C.; Schuster-Wallace, C.; Zavadksy, I.

    areas matching those in the most comprehensive scientific database. 1 To assist projects, GEF guidance for International Waters Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and Strategic Action Programs should include new tools on how to address hypoxia... and nutrient reduction. Existing LME projects should examine the current knowledge on coastal hypoxia and establish monitoring, prevention and remediation programs if these are not already underway. To assist new projects, GEF should support the development...

  4. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  5. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents. (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine


    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV-prevention

  6. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.


    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  7. Risk assessment tools for the prevention of pressure ulcers. (United States)

    Moore, Zena E H; Cowman, Seamus


    Use of pressure ulcer risk assessment tools or scales is a component of the assessment process used to identify individuals at risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Indeed, use of a risk assessment tool is recommended by many international pressure ulcer prevention guidelines, however it is not known whether using a risk assessment tool makes a difference to patient outcomes. We conducted a review to provide a summary of the evidence pertaining to pressure ulcer risk assessment in clinical practice. To determine whether using structured, systematic pressure ulcer risk assessment tools, in any health care setting, reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers. In December 2013, for this second update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of structured, systematic, pressure ulcer risk assessment tools with no structured pressure ulcer risk assessment, or with unaided clinical judgement, or RCTs comparing the use of different structured pressure ulcer risk assessment tools. Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of the studies identified by the search strategy for eligibility, obtained full versions of potentially relevant studies and screened these against the inclusion criteria. We included two studies in this review. One small, cluster randomised study found no statistical difference in pressure ulcer incidence in patients who were assessed by nurses using the Braden risk assessment tool (n=74) compared with patients assessed by nurses who had receiving training and then used unstructured risk assessment (n=76) (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.77) and those patients assessed by nurses using unstructured risk assessment alone (n=106) (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68). The second study was a large single blind randomised controlled study which compared

  8. LISA Technology Development and Risk Reduction at NASA (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin T.


    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA project to design, build and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector based on a laser interferometer. LISA relies on several technologies that are either new to spaceflight or must perform at levels not previously demonstrated in a spaceflight environment. The ESA-led LISA Pathfinder mission is the main effort to demonstrate LISA technology. NASA also supports complementary ground-based technology development and risk reduction activities. This presentation will report the status of NASA work on micronewton thrusters, the telescope, the optical pointing subsystem and mission formulation. More details on some of these topics will be given in posters. Other talks and posters will describe NASA-supported work on the laser subsystem, the phasemeter, and aspects of the interferometry. Two flight-qualified clusters of four colloid micronewton thrusters, each capable of thrust Levels between 5 and 30 microNewton with a resolution less than 0.l microNewton and a thrust noise less than 0.1 microNewton/vHz (0.001 to 4 Hz), have been integrated onto the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The complementary ground-based development focuses on lifetime demonstration. Laboratory verification of failure models and accelerated life tests are just getting started. LISA needs a 40 cm diameter, afocal telescope for beam expansion/reduction that maintains an optical pathlength stability of approximately 1 pm/vHz in an extremely stable thermal environment. A mechanical prototype of a silicon carbide primary-secondary structure has been fabricated for stability testing. Two optical assemblies must point at different distant spacecraft with nanoradian accuracy over approximately 1 degree annual variation in the angle between the distant spacecraft. A candidate piezo-inchworm actuator is being tested in a suitable testbed. In addition to technology development, NASA has carried out several studies in support of the

  9. Effectiveness of Methadone in Reduction of High Risk Behaviors in Clients of MMT Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ehsani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction as a social, health problem with its specific complications threatens societies. High risk behaviors such as violence, self mutilation, tattooing, shared injections and unprotected sex behaviors are some of the problems in addicts that need to be treated. One of these treatments is methadone therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of methadone in prevention or reduction of high risk behaviors in clients of a MMT center of Shaheed Sadoughi University of medical sciences of Yazd. Methods: This study was done on 93 clients of a MMT center.Questionnaire for this study included items from MAP and questions about some other risky behaviors. This questionnaire was completed at onset of treatment and 6 months after. Data was analyzed with SPSS software program Results: 89.2% of participants were married and 10.8% were single. 63.5% of them were in the20-40 years age group. Most commonly abused substances were heroin and opium. Before onset of treatment, 37.6% of participants had history of imprisonment, 35.5% had shared injections, 32.3%had had unprotected sex, 22.6%had tattooing and 5.4%had mutilated their own selves. Only 36.6% didn’t have any high risk behavior. These behaviors were more common in heroin users and in the20-40 years age group. After onset of treatment and during 6 month of MMT, 86% of clients didn’t have any risky behavior. Only 14%of them continued to have unsafe sex behaviors Conclusion: Addiction can cause high risk behaviors. Data in this paper suggests that young age, heroin use, low education level and no or inadequate information about addictive substances and their consequences are effective and important factors that cause high risk behaviors. Treatment of addicts with methadone maintenance therapy plays an important role in reduction of risky behaviors. Development of appropriate and more MMT centers are recommended.

  10. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design. (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba


    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde García


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  12. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program. (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth


    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  13. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth


    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  14. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism. (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn


    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway (United States)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.


    ? As a result, we may use large amounts of money to mitigate the risk for a few houses with a yearly probability of damage of 1/300 and not do anything for an isolated farm with a yearly probability of damage larger than 1/50. 3. Is it ethical to stop the plan to construct a pedestrian and a cycling way or a new road crossing exposed to potential landslide hazard, when the delay or disapproval of the implementation of the plan itself involves a severe consequence than the actual landslide hazard? 4. Most fatalities from natural hazards in Norway happen because of snow avalanches in recreational activities. On the one hand, this suggests that one should use a large share of the annual budget to prevent this type of accident, where there are most lives to spare. On the other hand, one could argue that the voluntary exposure to hazard shouldn't be given too much priority at the expense of buildings and public infrastructures. 5. More generally, how ethical is it to use large amounts of money to manage hazards that has a remote probability to occur or that will not cause human losses or property damage, instead of for example strengthening other social demands?

  16. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan (United States)

    Fang, David; Fang, Chen-Ling; Tsai, Bi-Kun; Lan, Li-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Shan


    Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. PMID:23066394

  17. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch


    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications....

  18. Risk and benefit associated with preventive mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.


    The risk of mammographic examination was estimated. It is concluded that a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1 mGy per exposure can be associated with a risk of 1 radiation-induced carcinoma per less than 100 positive detected by the preventive examination. The variability of actual MGD at various hospitals can be quite large. Although the majority of measurements were made on phantoms it is assumed that the national MGD average will exceed 3 mGy for the average breast size of 55 mm

  19. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd


    of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...... risk factors among middle-aged men and women....

  20. Dosimetry on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornet R, O. M.; Perez G, F.


    Dosimetry in its various forms plays a determining role on the radiological risks prevention in radiotherapy. To prove this in this paper is shown an analysis based on the risk matrix method, how the dosimetry can influence in each stages of a radiotherapy service; installation and acceptance, operation, maintenance and calibration. For each one of these stages the role that can play is analyzed as either the initiating event of a radiological accident or limiting barrier of these events of the dosimetric processes used for the individual dosimetry, the area monitoring, fixed or portable, for radiation beam dosimetry and of the patients for a radiotherapy service with cobalt-therapy equipment. The result of the study shows that the application of a prospective approach in the role evaluation of dosimetry in the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a radiological accident in radiotherapy is crucial and should be subject to permanent evaluation at each development stage of these services. (author)

  1. Aspirin for Stroke Prevention in Elderly Patients With Vascular Risk Factors: Japanese Primary Prevention Project. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo


    The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Reduction of femoral fractures in long-term care facilities: the Bavarian fracture prevention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a major public health burden. In industrialized countries about 20% of all femoral fractures occur in care dependent persons living in nursing care and assisted living facilities. Preventive strategies for these groups are needed as the access to medical services differs from independent home dwelling older persons at risk of osteoporotic fractures. It was the objective of the study to evaluate the effect of a fall and fracture prevention program on the incidence of femoral fracture in nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. METHODS: In a translational intervention study a fall prevention program was introduced in 256 nursing homes with 13,653 residents. The control group consisted of 893 nursing homes with 31,668 residents. The intervention consisted of staff education on fall and fracture prevention strategies, progressive strength and balance training, and on institutional advice on environmental adaptations. Incident femoral fractures served as outcome measure. RESULTS: In the years before the intervention risk of a femoral fracture did not differ between the intervention group (IG and control group (CG. During the one-year intervention period femoral fracture rates were 33.6 (IG and 41.0/1000 person years (CG, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of a femoral fracture was 0.82 (95% CI 0.72-0.93 in residents exposed to the fall and fracture prevention program compared to residents from CG. CONCLUSIONS: The state-wide dissemination of a multi-factorial fall and fracture prevention program was able to reduce femoral fractures in residents of nursing homes.

  3. Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (United States)

    Psaila, Kim; Foster, Jann P; Pulbrook, Neil; Jeffery, Heather E


    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been most recently defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than one year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including the performance of a complete autopsy and a review of the circumstances of death and clinical history. Despite the success of several prevention campaigns, SIDS remains a leading cause of infant mortality. In 1994, a 'triple risk model' for SIDS was proposed that described SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three factors: a vulnerable infant; a critical development period in homeostatic control (age related); and an exogenous stressor. The association between pacifier (dummy) use and reduced incidence of SIDS has been shown in epidemiological studies since the early 1990s. Pacifier use, given its low cost, might be a cost-effective intervention for SIDS prevention if it is confirmed effective in randomised controlled trials. To determine whether the use of pacifiers during sleep versus no pacifier during sleep reduces the risk of SIDS. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL to 16 March 2016. We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Published and unpublished controlled trials using random and quasi-random allocations of infants born at term and at preterm (less than 37 weeks' gestation) or with low birth weight (pacifiers for reduction in risk of SIDS. We found no randomised control trial evidence on which to support or refute the use of pacifiers for the prevention of SIDS.

  4. Left atrial appendage closure devices for cardiovascular risk reduction in atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Gonzalez I


    Full Text Available Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez,* Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan,* Javier Rodriguez-Collado, Javier Martin-Moreiras, Alejandro Diego-Nieto, Antonio Arribas-Jimenez, Pedro Luís SanchezDepartment of Cardiology, University Hospital of Cardiology and IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain *Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez and Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan have contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is associated with a 4–5-fold increased risk of stroke and systemic embolism. Oral anticoagulant is the first-line therapy for this purpose, but it has various limitations and is often contraindicated or underutilized. Autopsy and surgical data have suggested that 90% of atrial thrombi in nonvalvular AF patients originate from the left atrial appendage, leading to the development of percutaneous closure for thromboembolic prevention. This paper examines the current evidence on left atrial appendage closure devices for cardiovascular risk reduction in AF patients. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, left atrial appendage, stroke, oral anticoagulant, percutaneous closure, thromboembolic prevention

  5. Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia’s mak nyah community (United States)

    Gibson, Britton A.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.


    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalize them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilization patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally-sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW. PMID:26824463

  6. Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia's mak nyah community. (United States)

    Gibson, Britton A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L


    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW.

  7. Caries risk and prevention: Evaluation of a preventive program in a clinic for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Correia Sampaio


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the Nexø caries risk assessment system together with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, in a preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: A sample of 107 children (2- to 14-year-old was attended on two occasions. The patients’ clinical data (DMF-T, dmf-t, Bleeding index, OHI-S and those from the preventive procedures performed (professional cleaning, fluoride application, Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, Nexø caries risk were collected twice: first from the clinical record cards and on the second occasion by exams. Parents and guardians evaluated the clinical attendance in an interview and the children, by means of a VAS scale. According to the Nexø caries risk assessment system, 53 children (49.5% were classified at low risk (6. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (11.0. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the two risk systems: Nexø and Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden of chances of avoiding new caries lesions. The possibility of avoiding new caries lesions increased 5% in both groups and a discrete increase was observed in the other parameters. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Nexø system associated with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, contributed to the assessment of the patients’ caries risk profile and to the success of the preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

  8. Building on the links between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K


    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction are closely related. Both address the same risks as well as the same objectives when dealing with climate change impacts. This chapter discusses the linkages between these two - especially...

  9. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A.


    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  10. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.


    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  11. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.


    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  12. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life. (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Alfonso, Helman; Pirkis, Jane; Kerse, Ngaire; Sim, Moira; Flicker, Leon; Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Byrne, Gerard; Goldney, Robert; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Stocks, Nigel; Scazufca, Marcia; Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Pfaff, Jon


    Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for depression with the aim of developing a practical probabilistic model of depression that can be used to guide risk reduction strategies. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 20,677 community-dwelling Australians aged 60 years or over in contact with their general practitioner during the preceding 12 months. Prevalent depression (minor or major) according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessment was the main outcome of interest. Other measured exposures included self-reported age, gender, education, loss of mother or father before age 15 years, physical or sexual abuse before age 15 years, marital status, financial stress, social support, smoking and alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. The mean age of participants was 71.7 ± 7.6 years and 57.9% were women. Depression was present in 1665 (8.0%) of our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed depression was independently associated with age older than 75 years, childhood adverse experiences, adverse lifestyle practices (smoking, risk alcohol use, physical inactivity), intermediate health hazards (obesity, diabetes and hypertension), comorbid medical conditions (clinical history of coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or cancers), and social or financial strain. We stratified the exposures to build a matrix that showed that the probability of depression increased progressively with the accumulation of risk factors, from less than 3% for those with no adverse factors to more than 80% for people reporting the maximum number of risk factors. Our

  13. Carbon nano-tubes - what risks, what prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Myriam; Lafon, Dominique; Roos, Frederique


    Carbon nano-tubes are arousing considerable interest in both the research world and industry because of their exceptional intrinsic properties and dimensional characteristics. Health risks of nano-tubes have been little studied, although the general public is already aware of their existence on account of their numerous promising applications. Existing, sometimes extremely brief, publications only reveal insufficient data for assessing risks sustained due to carbon nano-tube exposure. Yet, the great interest aroused by these new chemicals would indicate strongly that the number of exposed workers will increase over the coming years. It therefore appears essential to review not only the characteristics and applications of carbon nano-tubes, but also the prevention means to be implemented during their handling. We recommend application of the principle of precaution and measures to keep the exposure level as low as possible until the significance of occupational exposure and the corresponding human health risks are better known and have been assessed. (authors)

  14. Promising strategies for advancement in knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention. (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Isaak, Corinne; Katz, Laurence Y; Bolton, James; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B


    Suicide is an important public health problem. Although there have been advances in our knowledge of suicide, gaps remain in knowledge about suicide risk factors and prevention. Here, we discuss research pathways that have the potential to rapidly advance knowledge in suicide risk assessment and reduction of suicide deaths over the next decade. We provide a concise overview of the methodologic approaches that have the capacity to rapidly increase knowledge and change practice, which have been successful in past work in psychiatry and other areas of medicine. We suggest three specific pathways to advance knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention. First, analysis of large-scale epidemiologic surveys and administrative data sets can advance the understanding of suicide. Second, given the low base rate of suicide, there is a need for networks/consortia of investigators in the field of suicide prevention. Such consortia have the capacity to analyze existing epidemiologic data sets, create multi-site cohort studies of high-risk groups to increase knowledge of biological and other risk factors, and create a platform for multi-site clinical trials. Third, partnerships with policymakers and researchers would facilitate careful scientific evaluation of policies and programs aimed at reducing suicide. Suicide intervention policies are often multifaceted, expensive, and rarely evaluated. Using quasi-experimental methods or sophisticated analytic strategies such as propensity score-matching techniques, the impact of large-scale interventions on suicide can be evaluated. Furthermore, such partnerships between policymakers and researchers can lead to the design and support of prospective RCTs (e.g., cluster randomized trials, stepped wedge designs, waiting list designs) in high-risk groups (e.g., people with a history of suicide attempts, multi-axial comorbidity, and offspring of people who have died by suicide). These research pathways could lead to rapid knowledge uptake

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures to reach water safety targets. (United States)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R


    Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fall risk and prevention agreement: engaging patients and families with a partnership for patient safety. (United States)

    Vonnes, Cassandra; Wolf, Darcy


    Falls are multifactorial in medical oncology units and are potentiated by an older adult's response to anxiolytics, opiates and chemotherapy protocols. In addition, the oncology patient is at an increased risk for injury from a fall due to coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and advanced age. At our National Cancer Institute-designated inpatient cancer treatment centre located in the southeastern USA, 40% of the total discharges are over the age of 65. As part of a comprehensive fall prevention programme, bimonthly individual fall reports have been presented with the Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), nursing directors, nurse managers, physical therapists and front-line providers in attendance. As a result of these case discussions, in some cases, safety recommendations have not been followed by patients and families and identified as an implication in individual falls. Impulsive behaviour was acknowledged only after a fall occurred. A medical oncology unit was targeted for this initiative due to a prolonged length of stay. This patient population receives chemotherapeutic interventions, management of oncological treatment consequences and cancer progression care. The aim of this project was to explore if initiation of a Fall Prevention Agreement between the nursing team and older adults being admitted to medical oncology units would reduce the incidence of falls and the incidence of falls with injury. In order to promote patient and family participation in the fall reduction and safety plan, the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement was introduced upon admission. Using the Morse Fall Scoring system, patient's risk for fall was communicated on the Fall Risk and Prevention Agreement. Besides admission, patients were reassessed based on change of status, transfer or after a fall occurs. Fall and fall injuries rates were compared two-quarters prior to implementation of the fall agreement and eight-quarters post implementation. Falls and fall injuries on the medical oncology unit

  17. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, Ivana


    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  18. Dissonance-Based Prevention of Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Middle School Girls: Results from Two Pilot Trials (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Auslander, Beth A.; Shaw, Heather; Raineri, Kate M.; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric


    Objective Although several eating disorder prevention programs reduce eating disorder risk factors and symptoms for female high school and college students, few efficacious prevention programs exist for female middle school students, despite the fact that body image and eating disturbances often emerge then. Two pilot trials evaluated a new dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program for middle school girls with body image concerns. Methods Female middle school students with body dissatisfaction from two sites (Study 1: N = 81, M age = 12.1, SD = 0.9; Study 2: N = 52, M age = 12.5, SD = 0.8) were randomized to a dissonance intervention (MS Body Project) or educational brochure control; Study 2 included a 3-month follow-up. Results Intervention participants showed significant posttest reductions in only one of six variables with both Studies 1 and 2 (i.e., pressure to be thin and negative affect, respectively), though posttest effect sizes suggested medium reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms (Study 1 M d = 0.40; Study 2 M d = 0.65); reductions at 3-month follow-up in Study 2 were not evident (M d = 0.19). Conclusions Results suggest that this new middle school version of the Body Project is producing medium magnitude reductions in eating disorder risk factors at posttest but that effects are showing limited persistence. Continued refinement and evaluation of this intervention appears warranted to develop more effective prevention programs for this age group. PMID:24590419

  19. HIV sexual transmission risk among serodiscordant couples: assessing the effects of combining prevention strategies. (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J; Green, Timothy A; Borkowf, Craig B; Patel, Pragna; Mermin, Jonathan


    The number of strategies to prevent HIV transmission has increased following trials evaluating antiretroviral therapy (ART), preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and male circumcision. Serodiscordant couples need guidance on the effects of these strategies alone, and in combination with each other, on HIV transmission. We estimated the sexual risk of HIV transmission over 1-year and 10-year periods among male-male and male-female serodiscordant couples. We assumed the following reductions in transmission: 80% from consistent condom use; 54% from circumcision in the negative male partner of a heterosexual couple; 73% from circumcision in the negative partner of a male-male couple; 71% from PrEP in heterosexual couples; 44% from PrEP in male-male couples; and 96% from ART use by the HIV-infected partner. For couples using any single prevention strategy, a substantial cumulative risk of HIV transmission remained. For a male-female couple using only condoms, estimated risk over 10 years was 11%; for a male-male couple using only condoms, estimated risk was 76%. ART use by the HIV-infected partner was the most effective single strategy in reducing risk; among male-male couples, adding consistent condom use was necessary to keep the 10-year risk below 10%. Focusing on 1-year and longer term transmission probabilities gives couples a better understanding of risk than those illustrated by data for a single sexual act. Long-term transmission probabilities to the negative partner in serodiscordant couples can be high, though these can be substantially reduced with the strategic use of preventive methods, especially those that include ART.

  20. How Veterans Health Administration Suicide Prevention Coordinators Assess Suicide Risk. (United States)

    Pease, James L; Forster, Jeri E; Davidson, Collin L; Holliman, Brooke Dorsey; Genco, Emma; Brenner, Lisa A


    This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the suicide risk assessment practices of Suicide Prevention Coordinators (SPCs) within the Veterans Health Administration. Specifically, this study sought to (1) identify factors SPCs consider most important in assessing risk and patient priority; (2) measure the level of consistency and agreement between SPCs in assessing suicide risk and prioritizing cases; and (3) measure individual SPC consistency between cases. SPCs (n = 63) responded to online survey questions about imminent and prolonged risk for suicide in response to 30 fictional vignettes. Combinations of 12 acute and chronic suicide risk factors were systematically distributed throughout the 30 vignettes using the Fedorov () procedure. The SPCs were also asked to identify the level of priority for further assessment both disregarding and assuming current caseloads. Data were analysed using clinical judgement analysis. Suicidal plan, β = 1.64; 95% CI (1.45, 1.82), and preparatory behaviour, β = 1.40; 95% CI (1.23, 1.57), were considered the most important acute or imminent risk factors by the SPCs. There was less variability across clinicians in the assessment of risk when alcohol use (p = 0.02) and hopelessness (p = 0.03) were present. When considering acute or imminent risk factors, there was considerable variability between clinicians on a vignette-by-vignette basis, median SD = 0.86 (range = 0.47, 1.13), and within individual clinicians across vignettes, median R 2  = 0.80 (0.49, 0.95). These findings provide insight into how this group of providers think about acute and chronic risk factors contributing to imminent suicide risk in Veterans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Identifies factors that practitioners consider most important in suicide risk assessment Discusses how to distinguish between chronic and acute risk for suicide Identifies factors that lead to more consistent clinical judgments. Copyright

  1. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper


    of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took...... a bottom-up approach and included elements of meat quality, meat safety and risk reduction strategies. The study shows the dilemma risk reduction presents to members of the public. On the one hand, people want safe meat; on the other, the study showed that with the exception of hygiene practices, people...... generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar...

  2. Reduction of regulatory risk: a network economic approach


    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg


    Several definitions of regulatory risk are known from the literature. From the perspective of regulatory reform it is important to differentiate between the impact of a given regulatory scheme on the firm's risk exposure and the risk arising from discretionary behavior of regulatory agencies. Whereas the conse-quences of effective regulation in principle are known and accepted, excessive regulatory discretion may cause a strong need for regulatory reform. Regulatory reform focussing on the re...

  3. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through ris based insurance premiums: trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, P.G.M.B.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.


    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and

  4. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.


    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  5. Cardiovascular risk reduction and weight management at a hospital-based postpartum preeclampsia clinic. (United States)

    Janmohamed, Rahim; Montgomery-Fajic, Erin; Sia, Winnie; Germaine, Debbie; Wilkie, Jodi; Khurana, Rshmi; Nerenberg, Kara A


    Women who develop preeclampsia during pregnancy are at high risk of developing future chronic diseases, including premature cardiovascular disease. We have established an interdisciplinary clinic that aims to prevent cardiovascular disease through educational counselling focused on lifestyle modifications in the early postpartum period. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in weight and cardiovascular risk factors in participating women after six months of attendance at the clinic. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women who had a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, and who subsequently attended the Postpartum Preeclampsia Clinic. Study subjects had baseline assessments of lifestyle, physical, and laboratory parameters. Individualized goals for cardiovascular risk reduction and lifestyle were established, centering on physical activity and dietary modifications. The primary outcome was change in weight. Over the study period, 21 women were seen for a minimum of six months of follow-up. At an average (± SD) of 4.4 ± 1.4 months postpartum, subjects showed a non-significant improvement in weight (mean weight loss of 0.4 ± 4.5 kg) and BMI (mean decrease in BMI 0.1 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Physical activity improved significantly, from 14% of subjects participating in physical activity before pregnancy to 76% at a mean of 4.4 months postpartum. This study has demonstrated the early benefits of a longitudinal interdisciplinary intervention with counselling about lifestyle modifications for prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with recent preeclampsia. A study with a larger sample size and longer duration of follow-up is planned to confirm these findings.

  6. Risk reduction by use of a buffer zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant-Timmerman, S.L.; Wiersma, T.


    In situations where chemical industries and residential areas are situated close to each other, the population runs a safety risk associated with the accidental release of toxic gases. TNO has investigated the possibilities to reduce this risk by integrating safety measures in the area between the

  7. Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Buytaert, Wouter; Allen, Simon; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A.; Bhusal, Jagat K.; Cieslik, Katarzyna; Clark, Julian; Dugar, Sumit; Hannah, David M.; Stoffel, M.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Dhital, Megh R.; Liu, Wei; Nayaval, Janak Lal; Neupane, Bhanu; Schiller, Arnulf; Smith, P.J.; Supper, Robert


    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience

  8. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.


    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  9. Prevalence of malaria and use of malaria risk reduction measures among resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf


    reduction measures and their associations with selected background characteristics. Two hundred and twenty women were tested for malaria parasitaemia and questioned about their malaria prevention and treatment practices. Results: The results showed a prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia of 9.......1%. No statistically significant associations were observed between selected background characteristics and malaria infection status. However, school attendance was significantly associated with insecticide-treated net ownership (OR¼ 6.52, 95% CI 2.37–17.94; p ¼ 0.001) and access to malaria diagnosis and treatment (OR...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures....

  10. Family as a factor of risk prevention and victim behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean


    Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.

  11. Risk factors and prevention of vascular complications in polycythemia vera. (United States)

    Barbui, T; Finazzi, G


    Risk factors for vascular complications in polycythemia vera (PV) include laboratory and clinical findings. Among laboratory values, the hematocrit has been clearly associated with thrombosis, particularly in the cerebral circulation. Platelet count is a possible but not yet clearly established predictor of vascular complications. Platelet function tests are of little help in prognostic evaluation because most attempts to correlate these abnormalities with clinical events have been disappointing. Clinical predictors of thrombosis include increasing age and a previous history of vascular events. Identifying risk factors for thrombosis is important to initiate therapy. Phlebotomy is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis in the first 3 to 5 years, whereas chemotherapy may induce a higher risk of secondary malignancies after 7 to 10 years of follow-up. New cytoreductive drugs virtually devoid of mutagenic risk include interferon-alpha and anagrelide, but their role in reducing thrombotic complications remains to be demonstrated. Antithrombotic drugs, such as aspirin, are frequently used in PV, despite doubts regarding safety and efficacy. Two recent studies from the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera (GISP) assessed the rate of major thrombosis as well as the tolerability of low-dose aspirin in PV patients. These investigations created a favorable scenario for launching a European collaborative clinical trial (ECLAP study) aimed at testing the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing thrombosis and prolonging survival in patients with PV.

  12. Complications of thoracentesis: incidence, risk factors, and strategies for prevention. (United States)

    Cantey, Eric P; Walter, James M; Corbridge, Thomas; Barsuk, Jeffrey H


    Although thoracentesis is generally considered safe, procedural complications are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. In this article, we review the risk factors and prevention of the most common complications of thoracentesis including pneumothorax, bleeding (chest wall hematoma and hemothorax), and re-expansion pulmonary edema. Recent data support the importance of operator expertise and the use of ultrasound in reducing the risk of iatrogenic pneumothorax. Although coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia and the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications have traditionally been viewed as contraindications to thoracentesis, new evidence suggests that patients may be able to safely undergo thoracentesis without treating their bleeding risk. Re-expansion pulmonary edema, a rare complication of thoracentesis, is felt to result in part from the generation of excessively negative pleural pressure. When and how to monitor changes in pleural pressure during thoracentesis remains a focus of ongoing study. Major complications of thoracentesis are uncommon. Clinician awareness of risk factors for procedural complications and familiarity with strategies that improve outcomes are essential components for safely performing thoracentesis.

  13. [Occupational risk and prevention in the biotechnology industry: a review]. (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Colombi, A; Imbriani, M


    The biotechnology industry has expanded greatly in the last 20-30 years and has led to a number of applications in different sectors of work, i.e., medical and pharmaceutical, agricultural, chemical, energetic and others. Nowadays hundreds of thousands of workers worldwide are employed in biotechnology plants. Health and safety issues related to such working activities are considered as relevant to workers as well as to the general public. In particular, when compared to traditional biotechnology, modern methods of processing microrganisms have given rise to public concern that they might generate hazards to human beings and to the environment. After summarizing the most important products and fields of application, the paper sets out to detail potential adverse effects for the health of biotechnology workers; in addition, an analysis of the literature highlights the various concepts of primary and secondary prevention. Along with occupational risk factors common to other working activities (i.e. the well-known physical and chemical hazards), the peculiarity of handling microrganisms and/or different biologic systems may induce infections, immunological alterations or non-infective and non-immunologic toxic reactions in the workers involved The need is emphasized for an accurate risk assessment, careful control by means of the current monitoring strategies and implementation of the confinement measures, taking into account the criteria set by Italian legislation for occupational biological risk. Lastly, attention is focussed on examinations for the medical surveillance of workers at risk.

  14. Semantic Mediation Tool for Risk Reduction, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focuses on providing an infrastructure to aid the building of ontologies from existing NASA applications, in a manner that leads to long-term risk...

  15. Acute heart failure: Epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention. (United States)

    Farmakis, Dimitrios; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos


    Acute heart failure represents the first cause of hospitalization in elderly persons and is the main determinant of the huge healthcare expenditure related to heart failure. Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis of acute heart failure is poor, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 4% to 7%, 60- to 90-day mortality ranging from 7% to 11%, and 60- to 90-day rehospitalization from 25% to 30%. Several factors including cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions as well as patient-related and iatrogenic factors may precipitate the rapid development or deterioration of signs and symptoms of heart failure, thus leading to an acute heart failure episode that usually requires patient hospitalization. The primary prevention of acute heart failure mainly concerns the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease, including coronary artery disease, while the secondary prevention of a new episode of decompensation requires the optimization of heart failure therapy, patient education, and the development of an effective transition and follow-up plan. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Chronic migraine and work: occupational risks and prevention]. (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, Á A; Terradillos García, M J


    Chronic migraine is a clinically difficult to manage primary headache which affects the quality of life of the patients. This impact is important in the occupational world, where along with the clinical aspects of the disease, the therapies used for the control of the symptoms or preventive aspects, must be assessed. The side effects of the drugs and the limitations associated with their symptoms are aspects to highlight in occupational health, especially in individual workplaces, where there is a high risk of work-related injuries. The medical officer must assess the occupational risks of particular importance in the progression of this disease, as well as preventive actions, within the ambit of the current Spanish legislation, that may be favorable for both the company and the worker. The coordinated medical intervention and knowledge of these occupational aspects can provide clinically relevant tools, andoccupational and social optimization in the use of available resources. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk reduction of international mining projects by means of investor consortia and diversification of external financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, C.


    Investors and creditors of international mining projects bear specific risks which may be reduced by means of forming investor and financing consortia. Risk is defined for each actor separately. Project risk and investor risk respectively credit risk are useful categories in order to analyze risk reduction. In each case formation of consortia has a positive influence on the economic viability of the project, and thus reduces the project risk. Furthermore, formation of consortia leads to better compliance of the host country of the mining project with the project and financing agreements. Thus, investor and credit risk may be reduced. (orig.) [de

  18. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie-Therese; Dudina, Alexandra; Whincup, Peter


    , the high-risk estimates are very optimistic, as their achievement would require complete compliance. CONCLUSION: High-risk and population strategies are complementary. These estimates of the benefits of each may be useful to health planners, when combined with their local knowledge. Recently, benefits......BACKGROUND: Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently...... questioned. OBJECTIVE: To compare the estimated effects of population strategies at varying levels of population-wide risk factor reduction and high-risk strategies at varying rates of screening uptake on cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Data (of 109 954 participants) were pooled from six European...

  19. Male urinary incontinence: prevalence, risk factors, and preventive interventions. (United States)

    Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Wyman, Jean F; Ping, Ryan; Wilt, Timothy J; Kane, Robert L


    Urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling men affects quality of life and increases the risk of institutionalization. Observational studies and randomized, controlled trials published in English from 1990 to November 2007 on the epidemiology and prevention of UI were identified in several databases to abstract rates and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of incontinence, calculate absolute risk difference (ARD) after clinical interventions, and synthesize evidence with random-effects models. Of 1083 articles identified, 126 were eligible for analysis. Pooled prevalence of UI increased with age to 21% to 32% in elderly men. Poor general health, comorbidities, severe physical limitations, cognitive impairment, stroke (pooled OR 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.1), urinary tract infections (pooled OR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.23), prostate diseases, and diabetes (pooled OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61) were associated with UI. Treatment with tolterodine alone (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32) or combined with tamsulosin (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) resulted in greater self-reported benefit compared with placebo. Radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer compared with watchful waiting increased UI. Short-term prevention of UI with pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation after prostatectomy was not consistently seen across randomized, controlled trials. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Stroke, diabetes, poor general health, radiation, and surgery for prostate cancer were associated with UI in community-dwelling men. Men reported overall benefit from drug treatments. Limited evidence of preventive effects of pelvic floor rehabilitation requires future investigation.

  20. Earthquake consequences and measures for reduction of seismic risk. (United States)

    Jurukovski, D


    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of all natural disasters. This article discusses the consequences of earthquakes on material property. In addition, measures for the control and reduction of the consequences of earthquakes are described. Emphasis is placed on appropriate preparation by the general population and the need for a rapid and efficient response of governmental agencies. Finally, the experience of the staff of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in minimizing the consequences of earthquakes is described.

  1. 75 FR 41217 - Federal Housing Administration Risk Management Initiatives: Reduction of Seller Concessions and... (United States)


    ... Administration Risk Management Initiatives: Reduction of Seller Concessions and New Loan-to-Value and Credit... with lower credit scores, who represent a higher risk of default and mortgage insurance claim. Finally... nationwide scope, FHA provided credit enhancement to protect mortgage lenders from risk of loss, which...

  2. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Motlagh, Audry S; Smith, Donald R; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A; Ory, Marcia G


    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related "hot spots," service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping.

  3. The importance of continuing surveillance of risk factors for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Lanza


    Full Text Available After peaking in the 1960s’, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have shown a consistent decline in western countries in recent decades [1].Despite this,CVDs remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized populations, with relevant associated socio-economical issues, while their incidence is increasing in developing countries. Several factors have likely contributed to the reduced incidence of CVDs in industrialized societies, including an increase in education and attention to health issues, lifestyle changes and improvement in diagnostic facilities and therapeutic tools. Epidemiologic studies have played an outstanding role in the decline of CVDs. Indeed, they have allowed for the identification of habits and conditions which expose healthy subjects to an increased risk of development of atherosclerosis and its complications They have also led to the implementation of appropriate programs and campaigns aimed at fighting the identified risk factors by means of changes in diet and lifestyle and the use of specific drug treatments. In particular, tight control and prevention of hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia has largely contributed to the reduction of CVDs, accounting for more than 50% of the reduction of mortality from the 1960s’ to the 1990s’ [2].This approach was also crucial in improving the clinical outcomes of secondary prevention for CVDs.

  4. Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribeau, A.; Bradley, R.; Brown, P.; Goodwin, J.; Kihm, U.; Lotero, E.; O' Connor, D.; Schuppers, M.; Taylor, D.


    potential to inactivate TSE infectivity, for example, exposure to strong acids or bases and, depending on the process, exposure to high temperature or purification by chromatography or precipitation. However, the two-phase aqueouslipidic nature of transesterification introduces an element of uncertainty about the effect of these procedures on infectivity. Biodiesel use. Combustion temperatures, even at millisecond exposures, might partially inactivate contaminated biodiesel. But experimental data have so far been limited to saline tissue suspensions of infected tissues and several minute exposure times in static rather than dynamic combustion processes. A substantial body of epidemiological and laboratory evidence indicates that TSE is not transmitted by aerosol inhalation. Overall conclusion. Biodiesel produced from animals infected with TSE poses a negligible risk to animal and public health. This conclusion extends even to the use of SRM as a source of tallow, based on experimental evidence showing that rendered tallow from infected animal tissues does not transmit disease to inoculated susceptible animals. Although infectivity reductions during biodiesel manufacturing steps should therefore be redundant, any such reduction would still be desirable as an added measure of safety. At present, the potential for infectivity reduction through biodiesel manufacturing and combustion can only be estimated from analogy to methods known to inactivate infectivity in saline suspensions of infected tissue. Studies of the actual biodiesel process, using experimentally contaminated input tallow, are recommended as the only means by which a scientifically-based conclusion can be made about the capacity of these processes to reduce or eliminate TSE infectivity.

  5. Treatment options for hypertriglyceridemia: from risk reduction to pancreatitis (United States)

    Berglund, Lars; Brunzell, John D.; Goldberg, Anne C.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Stalenhoef, Anton


    While there has been considerable focus on the role and treatment of LDL cholesterol levels, a definitive role of triglycerides in the management of cardiovascular disease has been uncertain. Notably, with increasing triglyceride levels, there is a parallel increase in cholesterol levels carried by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, which has prompted interest in the use of non-HDL cholesterol levels as a tool guiding interventions. Recent studies have provided evidence for an independent role of triglyceride levels as a cardiovascular risk factor, and recently, an Endocrine Society guideline was published for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast to the relative uncertainty regarding triglycerides and cardiovascular disease, a role of very high triglyceride levels as a risk factor for pancreatitis has been well known. The present paper summarizes the underlying evidence for a risk role for triglyceride levels in cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis, current treatment recommendations and areas of future research. PMID:24840268

  6. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities (United States)

    Masure, P.


    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  7. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C.; Bell, K.; Spinney, P. [and others


    The question of uncertainty and risk in electric utility resource planning has received considerable attention in recent years. During the 1980s, many utilities suffered financial losses because of unexpectedly high plant construction costs and low growth in electricity demand. In addition, the introduction of competition to the electric industry is creating new risks for power companies. No longer will utilities be able to count on regulatory protections and a base of captive consumers to provide a stable market and adequate return on their investments. Alternative risk management strategies will have to be considered instead. One approach to managing risk is for a utility company to invest in diverse power sources such as wind power plants. Since wind plants consume no fuel, can be built in relatively small increments with short construction lead times, and generate no pollutants, it is often said that they offer significant protection from risks associated with conventional fossil-fuel power plants. So far there have been few efforts to quantify these benefits, however. The study compares the costs and risks of two competing resource options, a gas-fired combined cycle plant and a wind plant, both utility-owned, through decision analysis. The case study utility is Texas Utilities Electric, a very large investor-owned company serving an area with substantial, high-quality wind resources. The authors chose a specific moment in the future - the year 2003 - when the utility currently plans to build a large fossil-fueled power plant, and examined the implications for the utility`s expected revenues, costs, and profits if a wind plant were to be built instead.

  8. HIV risk and prevention among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: listen to our stories. (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don; Soma, Toho; Bao, Daniel; Vajrabukka, Alberto; Crisostomo, Vincent


    Despite increasing need for HIV prevention research and intervention programs, the voices and stories of Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM) have remained absent from HIV prevention literature. Five focus groups with API MSM (N = 38) were conducted to identify psychological, social, and cultural factors related to HIV risk and protection. Six themes were identified based on focus group discussion: (a) dual-identity status, (b) coming out and disclosure issues, (c) relationships and dating, (d) substance use, (e) sexual risk reduction strategies, and (f) health and social services. Narrative data indicate that multilevel HIV prevention intervention strategies are necessary for addressing the unique psychosocial and behavioral HIV risk factors among API MSM, such as dual stigma stemming from homophobia and racism, discomfort with sexuality, power dynamics and stereotypes in relationships with White men, substance use, and low utilization of health and social services.

  9. Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    Full Text Available The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future.We conducted a cross-sectional study among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples (a population at high risk for HIV transmission attending a research clinic in Kampala, Uganda on perceptions and attitudes about medical circumcision for male children for HIV prevention. Correlates of willingness to circumcise male children were assessed using generalized estimating equations methods.318 HIV serodiscordant couples were interviewed, 51.3% in which the female partner was HIV uninfected. Most couples were married and cohabiting, and almost 50% had at least one uncircumcised male child of ≤18 years of age. Overall, 90.2% of male partners and 94.6% of female partners expressed interest in medical circumcision for their male children for reduction of future risk for HIV infection, including 79.9% of men and 87.6% of women who had an uncircumcised male child. Among both men and women, those who were knowledgeable that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.34 and 1.14 and those who had discussed the HIV prevention effects of medical circumcision with their partner (APR 1.08 and 1.07 were significantly (p≤0.05 more likely to be interested in male child circumcision for HIV prevention. Among men, those who were circumcised (APR 1.09, p = 0.004 and those who were HIV seropositive (APR 1.09, p = 0.03 were also more likely to be interested in child circumcision for HIV prevention.A high proportion of men and women in Ugandan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant partnerships were willing to have their male children circumcised for eventual HIV prevention benefits. Engaging both parents may increase interest in medical male circumcision for HIV prevention.

  10. Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda. (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Whalen, Christopher; Celum, Connie; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Katabira, Elly; Baeten, Jared M


    The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future. We conducted a cross-sectional study among heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples (a population at high risk for HIV transmission) attending a research clinic in Kampala, Uganda on perceptions and attitudes about medical circumcision for male children for HIV prevention. Correlates of willingness to circumcise male children were assessed using generalized estimating equations methods. 318 HIV serodiscordant couples were interviewed, 51.3% in which the female partner was HIV uninfected. Most couples were married and cohabiting, and almost 50% had at least one uncircumcised male child of ≤18 years of age. Overall, 90.2% of male partners and 94.6% of female partners expressed interest in medical circumcision for their male children for reduction of future risk for HIV infection, including 79.9% of men and 87.6% of women who had an uncircumcised male child. Among both men and women, those who were knowledgeable that circumcision reduces men's risk for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.34 and 1.14) and those who had discussed the HIV prevention effects of medical circumcision with their partner (APR 1.08 and 1.07) were significantly (p≤0.05) more likely to be interested in male child circumcision for HIV prevention. Among men, those who were circumcised (APR 1.09, p = 0.004) and those who were HIV seropositive (APR 1.09, p = 0.03) were also more likely to be interested in child circumcision for HIV prevention. A high proportion of men and women in Ugandan heterosexual HIV serodiscordant partnerships were willing to have their male children circumcised for eventual HIV prevention benefits. Engaging both parents may increase interest in medical male circumcision for HIV prevention.

  11. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Taylor


    Full Text Available High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute mountain sickness is a wide-spread clinical condition. Risk factors include home elevation, maximum altitude, sleeping altitude, rate of ascent, latitude, age, gender, physical condition, intensity of exercise, pre-acclimatization, genetic make-up, and pre-existing diseases. At higher altitudes, sleep disturbances may become more profound, mental performance is impaired, and weight loss may occur. If ascent is rapid, acetazolamide can reduce the risk of developing AMS, although a number of high-altitude travelers taking acetazolamide will still develop symptoms. Ibuprofen can be effective for headache. Symptoms can be rapidly relieved by descent, and descent is mandatory, if at all possible, for the management of the potentially fatal syndromes of high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. The purpose of this review is to combine a discussion of specific risk factors, prevention, and treatment options with a summary of the basic physiologic responses to the hypoxia of altitude to provide a context for managing high-altitude illnesses and advising the non-acclimatized high-altitude traveler.

  12. Preventative Therapeutics: A Study of Risk and Prevention in Australian Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLachlan


    Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.

  13. Valuing reductions in environmental risks to children’s health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Dickie, M.


    This article reviews the economics literature dealing with valuation of reduced environmental risks to children’s health. We describe conceptual models together with results from a number of empirical studies. The conceptual models analyze valuation issues from the perspective of parents; treat

  14. Osteoporosis: Implications for Risk Reduction in the College Setting. (United States)

    Leslie, Maryann; St. Pierre, Richard W.


    Examines risk factors for osteoporosis that are especially relevant to the college health setting, focusing on bone development, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking and alcohol use, steroid use and high protein diets, and physical inactivity and excessive exercise. Also presents intervention strategies for college health…

  15. Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Sung, Andrew


    This project developed an Artificial Intelligence system that drew up on a wide variety of information in providing realistic estimates of risk. ''Fuzzy logic,'' a system of integrating large amounts of inexact, incomplete information with modern computational methods derived usable conclusions, were demonstrated as a cost-effective computational technology in many industrial applications.

  16. Quantifying the risk-reduction potential of new Modified Risk Tobacco Products. (United States)

    Martin, Florian; Vuillaume, Gregory; Baker, Gizelle; Sponsiello-Wang, Zheng; Ricci, Paolo F; Lüdicke, Frank; Weitkunat, Rolf


    Quantitative risk assessment of novel Modified Risk Tobacco Products (MRTP) must rest on indirect measurements that are indicative of disease development prior to epidemiological data becoming available. For this purpose, a Population Health Impact Model (PHIM) has been developed to estimate the reduction in the number of deaths from smoking-related diseases following the introduction of an MRTP. One key parameter of the model, the F-factor, describes the effective dose upon switching from cigarette smoking to using an MRTP. Biomarker data, collected in clinical studies, can be analyzed to estimate the effects of switching to an MRTP as compared to quitting smoking. Based on transparent assumptions, a link function is formulated that translates these effects into the F-factor. The concepts of 'lack of sufficiency' and 'necessity' are introduced, allowing for a parametrization of a family of link functions. These can be uniformly sampled, thus providing different 'scenarios' on how biomarker-based evidence can be translated into the F-factor to inform the PHIM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral triiodothyronine for the prevention of thyroid hormone reduction in adult valvular cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.A. Magalhães


    Full Text Available Treatment of non-thyroidal illness by intravenous triiodothyronine (T3 after cardiac surgery causes a disproportional elevation of hormone levels. The administration of oral T3, which has never been studied in this context, could cause physiological hormone levels. The aim of this study was to test oral T3 for the prevention of T3 reduction during the postoperative period of valvular cardiac surgery in adults. Eighteen patients who underwent cardiac surgery for valvular disease with invasive hemodynamic monitoring were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the T group received oral T3 (N = 8, 25 µg three times/day, initiated 24 h before surgery and maintained for 48 h and the NT group (N = 10 received placebo. Serum T3, thyroxine and thyrotropin were determined at baseline, 1 h before surgery, within 30 min of cardiopulmonary bypass and 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after removal of the aortic cross-clamp. Baseline T3 was similar in both groups (T: 119 ± 13; NT: 131 ± 9 ng/dL. Serum T3 increased during the first 24 h in the T group compared to the NT group (232 ± 18 vs 151 ± 13 ng/dL; P < 0.001. In the NT group, T3 was reduced by 24% (P = 0.007 6 h after removal of the aortic cross-clamp, confirming the non-thyroidal illness syndrome. There were no differences in clinical or hemodynamic parameters between groups. Administration of oral T3 prevented its serum reduction after valvular cardiac surgery in adults, with normal serum levels for 48 h without disproportional elevations.

  18. Estimating risk reduction required to break even in a health promotion program. (United States)

    Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Goetzel, Ron Z; Santoro, Jan; Saenz, Betty-Jo; Eley, Christine; Gorsky, Bob


    To illustrate a formula to estimate the amount of risk reduction required to break even on a corporate health promotion program. A case study design was implemented. Base year (2001) health risk and medical expenditure data from the company, along with published information on the relationships between employee demographics, health risks, and medical expenditures, were used to forecast demographics, risks, and expenditures for 2002 through 2011 and estimate the required amount of risk reduction. Motorola. 52,124 domestic employees. Demographics included age, gender, race, and job type. Health risks for 2001 were measured via health risk appraisal. Risks were noted as either high or low and related to exercise/eating habits, body weight, blood pressure, blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, depression, stress, smoking/drinking habits, and seat belt use. Medical claims for 2001 were used to calculate medical expenditures per employee. Assuming a dollar 282 per employee program cost, Motorola employees would need to reduce their lifestyle-related health risks by 1.08% to 1.42% per year to break even on health promotion programming, depending upon the discount rate. Higher or lower program investments would change the risk reduction percentages. Employers can use information from published studies, along with their own data, to estimate the amount of risk reduction required to break even on their health promotion programs.

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. The social value of mortality risk reduction: VSL versus the social welfare function approach. (United States)

    Adler, Matthew D; Hammitt, James K; Treich, Nicolas


    We examine how different welfarist frameworks evaluate the social value of mortality risk reduction. These frameworks include classical, distributively unweighted cost-benefit analysis--i.e., the "value per statistical life" (VSL) approach-and various social welfare functions (SWFs). The SWFs are either utilitarian or prioritarian, applied to policy choice under risk in either an "ex post" or "ex ante" manner. We examine the conditions on individual utility and on the SWF under which these frameworks display sensitivity to wealth and to baseline risk. Moreover, we discuss whether these frameworks satisfy related properties that have received some attention in the literature, namely equal value of risk reduction, preference for risk equity, and catastrophe aversion. We show that the particular manner in which VSL ranks risk-reduction measures is not necessarily shared by other welfarist frameworks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction in dietary trans fat intake is associated with decreased LDL particle number in a primary prevention population. (United States)

    Garshick, M; Mochari-Greenberger, H; Mosca, L


    Increased trans fat intake has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the effect of trans fat on traditional lipids is known, it's association with LDL particle number (LDL-P), a novel marker of CVD risk, has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between trans fat intake and LDL-P over 1-year among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention trial. Family members (N = 400, 33% male, mean age 48 ± 13) of patients hospitalized with CVD who participated in a 1-year randomized controlled primary prevention lifestyle intervention trial and had complete dietary data and LDL-P measures at baseline and 1-year. Change in trans fat as a percentage of total diet and mean absolute change in LDL-P at 1-year was assessed using multivariate adjusted linear regression models. At baseline, there was a significant positive correlation between dietary trans fat intake and LDL-P (Beta = 37, p = 0.04). For every 1 percent change in trans fat intake there was a 27 nmol/L change in LDL-P (Beta = 27, p = 0.04) over 1-year which was independent of baseline predictors and confounders (age, sex, smoking, statin use, waist size and physical activity; Beta = 30, p = 0.03). A reduction in trans fat intake over 1-year was significantly associated with a reduction in LDL-P independent of potential confounders. Healthcare providers should reinforce the beneficial impact of a healthy diet, and in particular modifications in trans fat intake on improving lipid profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant. (United States)

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide


    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water. (United States)

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan


    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  4. Pilot Test of a Culturally Appropriate Diabetes Prevention Intervention for At-Risk Latina Women. (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Fortmann, Addie L; Gutierrez, Angela P; Gonzalez, Patricia; Euyoque, Johanna; Clark, Taylor; Preciado, Jessica; Ahmad, Aakif; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Gallo, Linda C


    Purpose The purpose of the study was to test the preliminary effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of a peer-led, culturally appropriate, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-based lifestyle intervention for Latina women at high-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Participants (N = 61) were overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) Latina women with no diabetes, at elevated risk either due to midlife age (45-65 years; n = 37) or history of gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 24). The study used a 1-group pretest-posttest design and offered 12 weeks of peer-led education sessions in a community setting. The intervention targeted physical activity and dietary behaviors to facilitate weight reduction and included culturally appropriate content, age-specific health information, and stress/emotion management strategies. Clinical and self-report assessments were conducted at baseline, month 3, and month 6. Results Mean participant age was 47.8 years (SD = 10.8). Most (91.2%) were born in Mexico, and 43.3% had a ninth-grade education or less. At month 6, participants achieved a mean reduction of 4.1% body weight (7 lb [3.2 kg]). Statistically significant improvements were observed for dietary behaviors, stress, and depression symptoms. Attrition was low, 5% (3 women). Focus groups indicated that intervention content increased knowledge, was applicable, highly valued, culturally relevant, and would be recommended to others. Conclusions This culturally tailored DPP adaptation was feasible and acceptable for 2 groups of Latina women at high-risk for T2DM and showed preliminary effectiveness in reducing weight and modifying self-reported dietary behaviors, stress, and depression symptoms. Further research is needed to identify ways to enhance weight loss and diabetes prevention in this at-risk, underserved population.

  5. Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Abossie, Ashenafi; Yohanes, Tsegaye


    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. The study was a hospital-based retrospective study. A total of 271 study participants' available information such as demographic data, the type of prophylaxis used, and TB/HIV coinfection status as well as other variables were collected from clinical laboratory and HIV care/ART follow-up clinic. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. TB-infected ART patients were higher among non-IPT group (37 [27.8%]) compared to IPT group (12 [8.7%]). The finding showed that IPT prophylaxis significantly reduces acquiring TB with the relative risk =0.31 (95% confidence interval =0.122, 0.49) in ART patients of this study site where the tuberculosis prevalence is prominent. ART had significant contribution for CD4 + T-cell lymphocyte count improvement in both IPT and non-IPT groups ( P ART patients than non-IPT group. This result highlights the use of IPT for the prevention of TB, especially for all ART patients. Other longitudinal studies are needed to observe the benefits and side effects of IPT prophylaxis in tuberculin skin test-positive individuals.

  6. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program. (United States)

    Crandall, Jill P; Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L


    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3-7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or =24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion-an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at as NCT00038727.

  7. [Refeeding syndrome : Pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention, and treatment]. (United States)

    Wirth, R; Diekmann, R; Janssen, G; Fleiter, O; Fricke, L; Kreilkamp, A; Modreker, M K; Marburger, C; Nels, S; Pourhassan, M; Schaefer, R; Willschrei, H-P; Volkert, D


    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening complication that may occur after initiation of nutritional therapy in malnourished patients, as well as after periods of fasting and hunger. Refeeding syndrome can be effectively prevented and treated if its risk factors and pathophysiology are known. The initial measurement of thiamine level and serum electrolytes, including phosphate and magnesium, their supplementation if necessary, and a slow increase in nutritional intake along with close monitoring of serum electrolytes play an important role. Since refeeding syndrome is not well known and the symptoms can be extremely heterogeneous, this complication is poorly recognized, especially against the background of severe disease and multimorbidity. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge and increase awareness about refeeding syndrome.

  8. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Work-related Risk Factors and Prevention. (United States)

    Kilbom; Armstrong; Buckle; Fine; Hagberg; Haring-Sweeney; Martin; Punnett; Silverstein; Sjøgaard; Theorell; Viikari-Juntura


    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders cause chronic pain and functional impairment, impose heavy costs on society, and reduce productivity. In this position paper from the Scientific Committee for Musculoskeletal Disorders of the ICOH, the most important risk factors at work are described. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have high incidences and prevalences among workers who are exposed to manual handling, repetitive and static work, vibrations, and poor psychological and social conditions. The application of ergonomic principles in the workplace is the best method for prevention. International organizations should develop standards, common classifications, and terminologies. Surveillance systems should be further developed nationally and in workplaces, and more effort should be directed to information dissemination, education, and training.

  9. The Effect of Risk Reduction Intervention on Earthquake Disaster Preparedness of the Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Nourozi


    Conclusion: Preparedness programs for disaster risk reduction has a positive effect on the elders’ preparedness. Thus, similar multimodal preparedness programs should be used more frequently for this vulnerable community citizens.

  10. Prevention of cancer risk of workers of glass fibers manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Mukhammadieva


    Full Text Available In the process of producing of continuous glass fiber workers are exposed to complex impact of carcinogenic chemicals released into the air of the working area (including formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, ethane acids, aerosol of mineral oil. The penetrating effect of harmful substances through the skin is enhanced by the fine glass dust, which has a traumatic and irritating effect. Aggravating factors of the impact of lubricants on the body of the operators is the increased temperature and the excess of heat radiation. A risk factor is also the unfavorable climate of the workplace. Among the professional patients (71 person of 170 examined employees most of persons aged 50–59 years. The average age of the patients at the time of detection of hyperkeratosis was 51,9 ± 0,9 years, skin cancer – 57,3 ± 1,7 years. Professional skin neoplasms were diagnosed mainly in workers who have been working for more than 10 years (average period of 12.6 ± 2.4 years. The period of transformation of limited hyperkeratosis to the skin cancer was on average 5–8 years. It was found that the molecular-genetic factors predisposing to the development of professional skin lesions are polymorphic variants of the gene suppressor of tumor growth TP53 (Ex4 + 119G>C, IVS3 16 bp Del/Ins and IVS6+62A>G. It has been shown that the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of occupational diseases is relevant and should include the interaction of administration, engineering and technical staff of the enterprise, labor protection service, Rospotrebnadzor specialists, doctors specialized in occupational diseases and the workers themselves. The complex of measures of primary and secondary prevention of health problems is suggested. The necessity of including the continuous glass fiber production to the list of carcinogen production processes, presented in national normative documents.

  11. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices? (United States)

    Kogi, K


    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  12. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk calculator in a high-risk screening population. (United States)

    Kaplan, David J; Boorjian, Stephen A; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L; Chen, David Y T; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G; Buyyounouski, Mark K; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N


    Diagnostic (exploratory cohort). 2b. To evaluate the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP). The PCPT calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA level, race, previous biopsy, and family history. Eligibility for PRAP includes men aged 35-69 years who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. In all, 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 242 (38.7%) men with a family history of prostate cancer; the median (range) age was 49.0 (34.0-69.0) years and the median PSA level 0.9 (0.1-27.2) ng/mL. The PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, vs 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (P calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score > or =7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason > or =7 prostate cancer vs 15.2% in all other participants (P calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA level. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for assessing the risk of prostate cancer in high-risk men.

  13. Brief communication: Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction – success or warning sign for Paris?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mysiak


    Full Text Available In March 2015, a new international blueprint for disaster risk reduction (DRR was adopted in Sendai, Japan, at the end of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR, 14–18 March 2015. We review and discuss the agreed commitments and targets, as well as the negotiation leading the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR and discuss briefly its implication for the later UN-led negotiations on sustainable development goals and climate change.

  14. Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan for Flood Risk Reduction (United States)


    downstream from Mount Saint Helens . As part of this effort, an initial study was launched using a 2-dimensional model (MIKE21-C) to evaluate the impact...PROGRESS REPORT Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan for Flood Risk Reduction Sediment Retention Structure on...SUBTITLE Mount St. Helens Long-Term Sediment Management Plan for Flood Risk Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  15. Selection of risk reduction portfolios under interval-valued probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppila, Antti; Salo, Ahti


    A central problem in risk management is that of identifying the optimal combination (or portfolio) of improvements that enhance the reliability of the system most through reducing failure event probabilities, subject to the availability of resources. This optimal portfolio can be sensitive with regard to epistemic uncertainties about the failure events' probabilities. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to support the allocation of resources to improvements that mitigate risks in coherent systems in which interval-valued probabilities defined by lower and upper bounds are employed to capture epistemic uncertainties. Decision recommendations are based on portfolio dominance: a resource allocation portfolio is dominated if there exists another portfolio that improves system reliability (i) at least as much for all feasible failure probabilities and (ii) strictly more for some feasible probabilities. Based on non-dominated portfolios, recommendations about improvements to implement are derived by inspecting in how many non-dominated portfolios a given improvement is contained. We present an exact method for computing the non-dominated portfolios. We also present an approximate method that simplifies the reliability function using total order interactions so that larger problem instances can be solved with reasonable computational effort. - Highlights: • Reliability allocation under epistemic uncertainty about probabilities. • Comparison of alternatives using dominance. • Computational methods for generating the non-dominated alternatives. • Deriving decision recommendations that are robust with respect to epistemic uncertainty.

  16. Risk and protective factors, longitudinal research, and bullying prevention. (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M; Farrington, David P


    This chapter presents the results from two systematic/meta-analytic reviews of longitudinal studies on the association of school bullying (perpetration and victimization) with adverse health and criminal outcomes later in life. Significant associations between the two predictors and the outcomes are found even after controlling for other major childhood risk factors that are measured before school bullying. The results indicate that effective antibullying programs should be encouraged. They could be viewed as a form of early crime prevention as well as an early form of public health promotion. The findings from a systematic/meta-analytic review on the effectiveness of antibullying programs are also presented. Overall, school-based antibullying programs are effective, leading to an average decrease in bullying of 20 to 23 percent and in victimization of 17 to 20 percent. The chapter emphasizes the lack of prospective longitudinal research in the area of school bullying, which does not allow examination of whether any given factor (individual, family,. or social) is a correlate, a predictor, or a possible cause for bullying. This has important implications for future antibullying initiatives, as well as implications for the refinement of theories of school bullying. It is necessary to extend the framework of the traditional risk-focused approach by incorporating the notion of resiliency and investigating possible protective factors against school bullying and its negative consequences. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  17. [Prevention of Alzheimer's dementia in Germany : A projection of the possible potential of reducing selected risk factors]. (United States)

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G


    Current international projections suggest that reducing the prevalence of seven well-established risk factors, midlife hypertension and obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, physical inactivity, smoking and low educational attainment, may also substantially reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Following the procedures of the international projections, in this study we aimed to provide projections of a corresponding potential for prevention specific for Germany. For each risk factor separately and combined (with adjustment for the association between the risk factors) we calculated (1) the population attributable risk (PAR) for AD, (2) the corresponding total number of attributable AD cases and (3) the potential number of current AD cases that may have been prevented by a 10 %, 25 % and 50 % lower prevalence of the risk factors. According to the population projections 30.5 % of the current AD cases in Germany could be attributable to the risk factors considered (305,000 AD cases in total). The highest estimated impact on AD prevalence was found for physical inactivity (PAR = 21.7 %, 217,000 attributable cases) and smoking (PAR = 14.9 %, 149,000 cases). A 10-50 % reduction in the prevalence of all seven risk factors could have potentially prevented 23,000-130,000 of the current AD cases in Germany. The identified possible substantial potential for reducing AD prevalence should act as a strong additional incentive to reduce the seven risk factors in Germany.

  18. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt


    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one ...

  20. Structuring Cooperative Nuclear RIsk Reduction Initiatives with China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Larry [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Reinhardt, Jason Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hecker, Siegfried [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation engaged several Chinese nuclear organizations in cooperative research that focused on responses to radiological and nuclear terrorism. The objective was to identify joint research initiatives to reduce the global dangers of such threats and to pursue initial technical collaborations in several high priority areas. Initiatives were identified in three primary research areas: 1) detection and interdiction of smuggled nuclear materials; 2) nuclear forensics; and 3) radiological (“dirty bomb”) threats and countermeasures. Initial work emphasized the application of systems and risk analysis tools, which proved effective in structuring the collaborations. The extensive engagements between national security nuclear experts in China and the U.S. during the research strengthened professional relationships between these important communities.

  1. Flooding risk reduction for the ASCO NPP PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos Llorens, V.; Faig Sureda, J.


    Developed within the framework of the UTE (INITEC-INYPSA-Empresarios Agrupados), the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the Asco Nuclear Power Plant has served both as a basic tool in reducing the risk of potential internal flooding at the plant, and as a guideline for studying the optimization and feasibility of necessary plant design modifications and changes to procedures. During execution of the work, and in view of the results, a series of improvements were proposed which gave rise to design modification studies. The paper seeks to describe the effect of these modifications on reducing core damage frequency, it also includes a general description of the methodology used. Finally, it compares the results obtained in the context of similar studies performed in other PSAs. (author)

  2. Consideration on risk reduction of future breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.


    An overall concept of risk minimization of future sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors is presented in this report. Since shutdown reliability is of vital importance for the breeder safety, a so-called third shutdown level is proposed in addition to the two independent fast shutdown systems. It is basically a group of passive and active measures, which are capable to bring the reactor to safe conditions in all conceivable accident-initiating events and in case of total failure of the two actual shutdown systems. Core disruptions as a result of shutdown failure are therefore beyond the scope of technical imagination. Measures are also foreseen to combat other conceivable causes of core disruption, in particular to achieve residual heat removal with essentially passive systems by making use of the good natural circulation capacity of sodium. On top of that, since absolute safety can never be claimed, damage-limiting containment measures are discussed

  3. A business perspective on environmental risk and cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, U.V.


    The ways in which the petrochemical industry can enjoy successful business partnerships with environmental service companies was discussed. The petrochemical industry has traditionally viewed environmental service companies as an inherent cost in the context of risk management, and not in the context of business opportunity. Today, as environmental issues are integrated into business operations, there is a new potential for creating business opportunities in a number of operational areas, among them : (1) energy efficiency, (2) process efficiency, (3) waste minimization, (4) waste recycling, and (5) operational pooling. As environmental service companies became more competitive, they have become more attractive business partners. They are providing more diversified services and are better aligned with core competencies required to exploit business opportunities that are too small for major players in the oil,natural gas and petro-chemical industry. They also offer public recognition and financial upside for industry. Some examples of successful business partnerships along these lines are briefly described

  4. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi


    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? (United States)


    ... execution of risk reduction projects? Yes, Federal agencies must manage the execution of risk reduction projects in buildings they operate. Federal agencies must identify and take appropriate action to eliminate... responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public...

  6. Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention: what difference does a risk scale make? A comparison between Norway and Ireland. (United States)

    Johansen, E; Moore, Z; van Etten, M; Strapp, H


    To explore similarities and differences in nurses' views on risk assessment practices and preventive care activities in a context where patients' risk of developing pressure ulcers is assessed using clinical judgment (Norway) and a context where patients' risk of developing pressure ulcers is assessed using a formal structured risk assessment combined with clinical judgement (Ireland). A descriptive, qualitative design was employed across two different care settings with a total of 14 health care workers, nine from Norway and five from Ireland. Regardless of whether risk assessment was undertaken using clinical judgment or formal structured risk assessment, identified risk factors, at risk patients and appropriate preventive initiatives discussed by participant were similar across care settings. Furthermore, risk assessment did not necessarily result in the planning and implementation of appropriate pressure ulcer prevention initiatives. Thus, in this instance, use of a formal risk assessment tool does not seem to make any difference to the planning, initiation and evaluation of pressure ulcer prevention strategies. Regardless of the method of risk assessment, patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers are detected, suggesting that the practice of risk assessment should be re-evaluated. Moreover, appropriate preventive interventions were described. However, the missing link between risk assessment and documented care planning is of concern and barriers to appropriate pressure ulcer documentation should be explored further. This work is partly funded by a research grant from the Norwegian Nurses Organisation (NNO) (Norsk Sykepleierforbund NSF) in 2012. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

  7. Reduction of livelihood risk for river bank erosion affected villagers (United States)

    Majumder, S. Sen; Fox, D. M.; Chakrabari, S.; Bhandari, G.


    Bank erosion process of the Ganga River created a serious livelihood risk for the villagers situated on left bank of the river in Malda district of the State of West Bengal, India since last four decades. Due to the erosion of agriculture land by the river, most of the villagers having agriculture as their only means of livelihood became jobless suddenly. Presently they are living in a miserable condition. One of the main objectives of this paper is to find out an alternative means of livelihood for the victims to improve their miserable socio-economic condition. It has been found from field survey that some erosion affected villagers have started to live and practice agriculture temporarily on the riverine islands (large and stable since thirteen years) as these islands have very fertile soil. If the re-emerged land plots can again be demarcated on the newly formed islands and distributed among the landless people to practice agriculture over there, then it will be a useful alternative livelihood strategy for the victims. The demarcation of re-emerged plots can be achieved by georeferencing the cadastral maps and then overlaying the plots on the present river course. In the present study area geo-referencing process of the cadastral maps became a serious issue as the study area has been very dynamic in terms of land cover and land use. Most of the villages were lost into the river course. Thus the common permanent features, required for geo-referencing, shown in the cadastral maps (surveyed during 1954-1962) were not found in the present satellite images. The second important objective of the present study is to develop a proper methodology for geo-referencing the cadastral maps of this area. The Spatial Adjustment Transformation and Automatic Digitization tools of Arc GIS were used to prepare geo-referenced plot maps. In Projective Transformation method the geometrically corrected block maps having village boundaries were used as source file. Then the

  8. Beyond the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: Vulnerability Reduction as a Challenge Involving Historical and Traditional Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pica


    Full Text Available In observance of the international procedures on disaster risk management, and in particular the Sendai Framework (2015, this research focuses on how more specific procedures related to it can be made effective in the treatment of historic areas worldwide. Disaster risk management is now viewed as being important in the context of historic buildings, as they are strongly related to cultural identity as well as to resilient communities, and can have a large impact on local economies. The study points out that cultural heritage might be the core field of action for capacity building in less vulnerable places, and that its protection is one of the main tasks to attend to in order to achieve the goal of vulnerability reduction. The paper also aims to answer questions such as: which actions could allow better protection of cultural heritage? Is it correct to involve local communities in reconstruction plans by capacity building and self-managed projects? How have reconstruction plans been managed recently worldwide? By further developing the applicability of the priority areas of action of the Sendai Framework, the research illustrates critical points and best practices that will hopefully support disaster risk reduction based on strategic management and remote monitoring, involving technologies and social participation.

  9. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Meneghini


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  10. Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models (United States)


    risk factors across individual, family, workplace , and community were significantly related to men’s perpetration of physical abuse against their...Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models PRINCIPAL...CONTRACT NUMBER Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models 5b

  11. Deconstructing anti-harm-reduction metaphors; mortality risk from falls and other traumatic injuries compared to smokeless tobacco use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergen Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Anti-harm-reduction advocates sometimes resort to pseudo-analogies to ridicule harm reduction. Those opposed to the use of smokeless tobacco as an alternative to smoking sometimes suggest that the substitution would be like jumping from a 3 story building rather than 10 story, or like shooting yourself in the foot rather than the head. These metaphors are grossly inappropriate for several reasons, notably including the fact that they are misleading about the actual risk levels. Based on the available literature on mortality from falls, we estimate that smoking presents a mortality risk similar to a fall of about 4 stories, while mortality risk from smokeless tobacco is no worse than that from an almost certainly non-fatal fall from less than 2 stories. Other metaphors are similarly misleading. These metaphors, like other false and misleading anti-harm-reduction statements are inherently unethical attempts to prevent people from learning accurate health information. Moreover, they implicitly provide bad advice about health behavior priorities and are intended to persuade people to stick with a behavior that is more dangerous than an available alternative. Finally, the metaphors exhibit a flippant tone that seems inappropriate for a serious discussion of health science.

  12. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.


    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-ofthe-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  13. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling


    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  14. Social media in disaster risk reduction and crisis management. (United States)

    Alexander, David E


    This paper reviews the actual and potential use of social media in emergency, disaster and crisis situations. This is a field that has generated intense interest. It is characterised by a burgeoning but small and very recent literature. In the emergencies field, social media (blogs, messaging, sites such as Facebook, wikis and so on) are used in seven different ways: listening to public debate, monitoring situations, extending emergency response and management, crowd-sourcing and collaborative development, creating social cohesion, furthering causes (including charitable donation) and enhancing research. Appreciation of the positive side of social media is balanced by their potential for negative developments, such as disseminating rumours, undermining authority and promoting terrorist acts. This leads to an examination of the ethics of social media usage in crisis situations. Despite some clearly identifiable risks, for example regarding the violation of privacy, it appears that public consensus on ethics will tend to override unscrupulous attempts to subvert the media. Moreover, social media are a robust means of exposing corruption and malpractice. In synthesis, the widespread adoption and use of social media by members of the public throughout the world heralds a new age in which it is imperative that emergency managers adapt their working practices to the challenge and potential of this development. At the same time, they must heed the ethical warnings and ensure that social media are not abused or misused when crises and emergencies occur.

  15. Evaluation of an HIV-risk reduction programme for first-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that HIV-related knowledge; condom knowledge and risk perception were enhanced by the HIV- related risk reduction programme. However, there is a need for improvement, especially with regard to attitudes towards condoms since some students still had negative attitudes even after the intervention ...

  16. Estimating mortality risk reduction and economic benefits from controlling ozone air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure


    ... in life expectancy, and to assess methods for estimating the monetary value of the reduced risk of premature death and increased life expectancy in the context of health-benefits analysis. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution details the committee's findings and posits several recommendations to address these issues.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.


    Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction is now widely accepted as a rational analytical framework to consistently address the resource allocation problem underlying any risk management process. This paper presents how this technique can be usefully applied to complex systems such as the management of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants into the environment. (orig.) [de

  18. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang


    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  19. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not? (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne


    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  1. Physical exercises and risk of fall reduction in elderly: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Homann


    Full Text Available Falls are associated with morbidity and mortality in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, describe and analyze the effects of physical exercise programs on the reduction of the risk of falls in adults above the age of 60. For this purpose, the Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases available at the site of the Latin American Center of Information in Health Sciences (BIREME were searched for articles comprising the period between 1999 and 2009 using the following keywords: accidental falls, elderly, exercise. A total of 385 publications were identified and 10 articles that met the criteria established in this study were selected. Strength and balance activities were the most frequent components of the exercise programs, in addition to coordination, flexibility and aerobic exercise. However, there was no clear information regarding the frequency, duration and intensity of the sessions. It was concluded that programs combining strength and balance components with other interventions, performed at least twice a week, and monitoring the participants for 3 to 6 months after intervention were the most effective in reducing and preventing falls in older adults. However, a more detailed presentation of some methodological aspects is necessary to permit the reproduction of these studies and the comparison of their results.

  2. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR: Linking Theory with Practice in Ghana’s Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla T. Apronti


    Full Text Available Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the need for disaster education to address the causes and effects, prevention and response, and management and recovery from disaster events. The educational process must include diverse and practical techniques that reinforce disaster knowledge and builds a culture of safety and resilience amongst students. Drawing on syllabus content analysis and field research in two rural communities in semi-arid Northern Ghana, this study explored the presence and nature of DRR within the syllabi of the basic school system. By comparing the result of the content analysis with results from interviews and questionnaires completed by teachers and students, significant gaps were identified between the disaster pedagogy outlined in the syllabi (theory and that which occurs in the classroom (practice. It was realized that while the theory outlines active and innovative techniques for teaching, learning, and evaluating DRR lessons, various challenges hinder the practical application of these techniques in the classroom. The study concludes that a lack of teacher training and professional development, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, generally account for these results. A new and consolidated effort is required from all stakeholders to train teachers and to provide the appropriate learning materials to improve on the current DRR education.

  3. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.


    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss


    Incomplete or sparse information on geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. Expert systems have been developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, with favorable results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. This project will develop an Artificial Intelligence system that will draw upon a wide variety of information to provide realistic estimates of risk. ''Fuzzy logic,'' a system of integrating large amounts of inexact, incomplete information with modern computational methods to derive usable conclusions, has been demonstrated as a cost-effective computational technology in many industrial applications. During project year 1, 90% of geologic, geophysical, production and price data were assimilated for installation into the database. Logs provided geologic data consisting of formation tops of the Brushy Canyon, Lower Brushy Canyon, and Bone Springs zones of 700 wells used to construct regional cross sections. Regional structure and isopach maps were constructed using kriging to interpolate between the measured points. One of the structure derivative maps (azimuth of curvature) visually correlates with Brushy Canyon fields on the maximum change contours. Derivatives of the regional geophysical data also visually correlate with the location of the fields. The azimuth of maximum dip approximately locates fields on the maximum change contours. In a similar manner the second derivative in the x-direction of the gravity map visually correlates with the alignment of the known fields. The visual correlations strongly suggest that neural network architectures will be

  5. Health risk reduction programs in employer-sponsored health plans: Part II-law and ethics. (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L


    We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests.

  6. Health Risk Reduction Programs in Employer-Sponsored Health Plans: Part II—Law and Ethics (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A.; Harrell, Heather L.


    Objective We sought to examine the legal and ethical implications of workplace health risk reduction programs (HRRPs) using health risk assessments, individually focused risk reduction, and financial incentives to promote compliance. Methods We conducted a literature review, analyzed relevant statutes and regulations, and considered the effects of these programs on employee health privacy. Results A variety of laws regulate HRRPs, and there is little evidence that employer-sponsored HRRPs violate these provisions; infringement on individual health privacy is more difficult to assess. Conclusion Although current laws permit a wide range of employer health promotion activities, HRRPs also may entail largely unquantifiable costs to employee privacy and related interests. PMID:19625971

  7. The role of family in a dietary risk reduction intervention for cardiovascular disease (United States)

    Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of o...

  8. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction (United States)

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara


    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  9. Braden Scale risk assessments and pressure ulcer prevention planning: what's the connection? (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, Joann


    To investigate the relationship between risk assessment scores on Braden subscales and nurses' selection of 10 commonly used best-practice pressure ulcer (PU) preventive interventions. Exploratory secondary data analysis, using a descriptive correlational design. A total of 377 Braden Scale PU risk assessments were made on 102 patients at different levels of risk. Assessments were made by RNs working at 3 different acute care hospitals. RNs making risk assessments also used an intervention checklist to select from 10 commonly used preventive interventions that should be implemented based on patient level of risk on each Braden subscale. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was used to guide risk assessments. The Registered Nurses Intervention Checklist was used to identify PU preventive interventions that should be implemented. Braden subscale ratings influenced nurses' endorsement of preventive interventions in 2 distinct ways. First, endorsement of most (9 out of 10) preventive interventions was influenced by risk information embedded in unique combinations of Braden subscale assessments. Second, there appears to be a predictable pattern of increase in the likelihood of endorsing an intervention as Braden subscale scores decreased and the level of risk increased. Variability in Braden subscale ratings differentially predicts nurses' endorsements of selected PU-prevention interventions. Also, there is a predictable pattern of increase in the likelihood of endorsing a preventive intervention as PU risk levels increase, a pattern that may be related to the timing of risk assessment and PU-prevention planning activities.

  10. Corneal allograft rejection: Risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Harminder


    Full Text Available Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. Several host factors have been identified as conferring a "high risk" status to the host. These include: more than two quadrant vascularisation, with associated lymphatics, which augment the afferent and efferent arc of the immune response; herpes simplex keratitis; uveitis; silicone oil keratopathy; previous failed (rejected grafts; "hot eyes"; young recipient age; and multiple surgical procedures at the time of grafting. Large grafts, by virtue of being closer to the host limbus, with its complement of vessels and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells, also are more susceptible to rejection. The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. Just as rejection is mediated by active immune mediated events, the lack of rejection (tolerance is also sustained by active immune regulatory mechanisms. The anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID and probably, conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue (CALT induced mucosal tolerance, besides others, play an important role. Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. Topical steroids are the mainstay of graft rejection management. In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506 are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection.

  11. Reality or illusion? The efficacy of nonmarket strategy in institutional risk reduction \\ud


    Liedong, T. A.; Rajwani, T.; Mellahi, Kamel


    Non-market strategy researchers have postulated that political and social strategies reduce the exposure of firms to risk, but those arguments have received little empirical attention. In this paper, we integrate social capital and institutional theories to examine the efficacy of managerial political ties (MPTs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in institutional risk reduction. Using survey data from 179 firms in Ghana we find that, whereas CSR reduces institutional risk exposure, MP...

  12. The association of hospital prevention processes and patient risk factors with the risk of Clostridium difficile infection: a population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Daneman, N; Guttmann, A; Wang, X; Ma, X; Gibson, D; Stukel, T A


    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-acquired infection; the real-world impacts of some proposed C. difficile prevention processes are unknown. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to acute care hospitals between April 2011 and March 2012 in Ontario, Canada. Hospital prevention practices were determined by survey of infection control programmes; responses were linked to patient-level risk factors and C. difficile outcomes in Ontario administrative databases. Multivariable generalised estimating equation (GEE) regression models were used to assess the impact of selected understudied hospital prevention processes on the patient-level risk of C. difficile infection, accounting for patient risk factors, baseline C. difficile rates and structural hospital characteristics. C. difficile infections complicated 2341 of 653 896 admissions (3.6 per 1000 admissions). Implementation of the selected C. difficile prevention practices was variable across the 159 hospitals with isolation of all patients at onset of diarrhoea reported by 43 (27%), auditing of antibiotic stewardship compliance by 26 (16%), auditing of cleaning practices by 115 (72%), on-site diagnostic testing by 74 (47%), vancomycin as first-line treatment by 24 (15%) and reporting rates to senior leadership by 52 (33%). None of these processes were associated with a significantly reduced risk of C. difficile after adjustment for baseline C. difficile rates, structural hospital characteristics and patient-level factors. Patient-level factors were strongly associated with C. difficile risk, including age, comorbidities, non-elective and medical admissions. In the largest study to date, selected hospital prevention strategies were not associated with a statistically significant reduction in patients' risk of C. difficile infection. These prevention strategies have either limited effectiveness or were ineffectively implemented during the study

  13. Comparison of fall risk education methods for primary prevention with community-dwelling older adults in a senior center setting. (United States)

    Hakim, Renée M; Roginski, Aileen; Walker, Jason


    The purpose of this study was to determine which of 2 primary prevention education programs was more effective in increasing knowledge and prompting behavior change to reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults who attended Senior Centers. A convenience sample (N=69) was recruited at 4 local senior centers to compare 2 fall risk education methods. Subjects were divided randomly by location into a class and pamphlet (CP) group (n = 35) that received a one-hour class plus written information and a pamphlet only (PO) group (n = 34) that received only written information. Pretesting for level of knowledge was conducted at baseline and at 2 weeks following the intervention and data were also collected on risk factor reduction behaviors. There was no significant difference (p=0.34) between groups for knowledge posttests. The CP group reported 121 changes to reduce fall risk while the PO group reported 120 changes. Subjects who had been injured by past falls (n=22) were significantly (p=0.04) more likely to report changes than those who had not fallen or were not injured by a fall. Both methods prompted fall risk reduction behaviors. This study provides an example of community-based, primary prevention programs designed to reduce fall risk factors among older adults.

  14. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming


    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  15. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention (United States)

    Tasanarong, Adis


    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  16. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Andreucci


    Full Text Available Radiocontrast media (RCM are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN. We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given.

  17. Sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness: a systematic review. (United States)

    Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth


    Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Thirteen electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) were searched to August 2014, and supplemented by hand-searching relevant articles and contacting experts. All controlled trials (randomized or non-randomized) comparing the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions with usual care for individuals living in the community with severe mental illness were included. Outcomes included a range of biological, behavioral and proxy endpoints. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. Thirteen controlled trials (all from the USA) were included. Although there was no clear and consistent evidence that interventions reduce the total number of sex partners or improved behavioral intentions in sexual risk behavior, positive effects were generally observed in condom use, condom protected intercourse and on measures of HIV knowledge, attitudes to condom use and sexual behaviors and practices. However, the robustness of these findings is low due to the large between study variability, small sample sizes and low-to-moderate quality of included studies. There is insufficient evidence at present to fully support or reject the identified sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Given the

  18. Disaster Risk Reduction through Innovative Uses of Crowd Sourcing (Invited) (United States)

    Berger, J.; Greene, M.


    Crowd sourcing can be described as a method of distributed problem-solving. It takes advantage of the power of the crowd, which can in some cases be a community of experts and in other cases the collective insight of a broader range of contributors with varying degrees of domain knowledge. The term crowd sourcing was first used by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article “The Rise of Crowdsourcing,” and is a combination of the terms “crowd” and “outsourcing.” Some commonly known examples of crowd sourcing, in its broadest sense, include Wikepedia, distributed participatory design projects, and consumer websites such as Yelp and Angie’s List. The popularity and success of early large-scale crowd sourcing activities is made possible through leveraging Web 2.0 technologies that allow for mass participation from distributed individuals. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) in Oakland, California recently participated in two crowd sourcing projects. One was initiated and coordinated by EERI, while in the second case EERI was invited to contribute once the crowd sourcing activity was underway. In both projects there was: 1) the determination of a problem or set of tasks that could benefit immediately from the engagement of an informed volunteer group of professionals; 2) a segmenting of the problem into discrete pieces that could be completed in a short period of time (from ten minutes to four hours); 3) a call to action, where an interested community was made aware of the project; and 4) the collection, aggregation, vetting and ultimately distribution of the results in a relatively short period of time. The first EERI crowd sourcing example was the use of practicing engineers and engineering students in California to help estimate the number of pre-1980 concrete buildings in the high seismic risk counties in the state. This building type is known to perform poorly in earthquakes, and state officials were interested in understanding

  19. Vitamin A supplementation for the reduction of the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Apondi, Edith; Vreeman, Rachel C


    Although advances in HIV prevention and treatment suggest the possibility of creating an AIDS-free generation, many areas of the world still suffer from high rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Interventions proven to significantly decrease rates of MTCT of HIV are often unavailable in resource-limited settings due to lack of reliable clean water, low numbers of hospital deliveries and inconsistent availability of antiretroviral medications. Vitamin A, with its multiple roles in epithelial, reproductive and immune function, has been evaluated as a possible intervention for preventing MTCT. Early observational studies suggested an association between vitamin A deficiency and increased rates of MTCT of HIV; however, the controlled studies that followed did not find a benefit for vitamin A in decreasing MTCT rates. Although vitamin A has some benefits for infants postpartum, it is not recommended for the reduction of the risk of MTCT of HIV.

  20. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men. (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P


    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa. (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H


    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  2. Risk Reduction in Terrorism Cases: Sentencing and the Post-Conviction Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Berkell


    Full Text Available This article explores existing underpinnings in the United States criminal justice system for post-conviction risk reduction measures in terrorism cases. The purpose of these measures is to reduce the risk of future criminality by those already convicted of violent extremist offenses, thereby protecting public safety while also benefiting individuals and communities. Specifically, integrating specialized risk and needs assessments into terrorism cases at sentencing and during the corrections process constitutes one possible risk reduction measure. When administered to individuals convicted of providing material support or other terrorism-related offenses, rigorous evaluations can supply courts with information significant for sentencing and, when appropriate, structuring individualized rehabilitation approaches. In addition to assessment tools, rehabilitation and reintegration programs constitute potential risk reduction measures. Risk reduction programs would supplement and enhance, not replace, existing correctional methods including incarceration and supervised release. The District of Minnesota federal court is pioneering a program of disengagement and deradicalization for terrorism defendants, and other courts likely will develop similar approaches. However, appropriate judicial bodies have yet to adopt proactive roles in developing national policy guidance in this area. This article aims to further the discussion of reducing recidivism risk in terrorism cases by clarifying the legal and technical issues that would require resolution as prerequisites for the consideration and potential development of post-conviction programming.

  3. Prevention of thyroid associated-ophthalmopathy in children and adults: current views and management of preventable risk factors. (United States)

    Krassas, Gerasimos E; Perros, Petros


    Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention are defined according to the timing of the preventive intervention in the natural history of a disease. Secondary prevention in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is challenging in the absence of reliable specific serum markers for subclinical GO that would allow an early diagnosis. Some risk factors for occurrence or progression of GO have been identified. Cigarette smoking, thyroid dysfunction and radioactive iodine (RAI) are known preventable risk factors. The list is probably much longer, and future research should be aimed at identifying more. Smoking cessation, restoration of euthyroidism by antithyroid drugs or L-thyroxine, glucocorticoid coverage after RAI or deferring RAI until the eye disease is inactive, may prevent progression of GO. Passive smoking seems to exacerbate autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in general, and may have a deleterious effect on childhood GO in particular, therefore avoidance of passive smoking is likely to be beneficial.

  4. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis: A risk-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone


    is the use of a risk-based approach to identify strategies that will have the greatest impact on reducing foodborne listeriosis. A continuum of risk for listeriosis is observed in the human population, ranging from exquisitely sensitive groups, who are highly immunocompromised and at very high risk......) preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in foods; and (3) science-based education messages targeted to susceptible populations and their caregivers. Of these strategies, the Expert Panel concluded that preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers would have the greatest impact......, and hazard analysis critical control point programs to minimize environmental L. monocytogenes contamination and to prevent cross-contamination in processing plants and at retail; (2) an intensive environmental sampling program in plants processing high-risk foods and an effective corrective action plan...

  5. How can food risks be prevented after a nuclear accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillon, A.


    In exercises, risk prevention measures relating to contaminated foods generally involve areas where the consumption and sale of foods are prohibited if exceed the European Council food intervention levels (CFILs) defined following the Chernobyl accident. However, CFILs do not offer systematic protection for population living in the immediate vicinity of an accident, because this standards only consider those living farther and are only likely to be contaminated by eating contaminated foods, which may arrive in limited quantities from the contaminated area byway of international trade. The CODIRPA 'Life in contaminated rural areas' working group has therefore put forward some proposed guidelines to delimit two separate areas: i) a 'food prohibition area', where a comprehensive and systematic ban would be temporarily placed on the consumption and marketing of locally produced foods; ii) a larger 'monitoring area', where, following a temporary ban, foodstuffs would be marketed in accordance with European or international standards. Consumption of locally produced foods would be authorised there, subject to 'good food hygiene' recommendations. Decision criteria and areas delimitation are here submitted for the new zoning system. (author)

  6. A comparative analysis of occupational health and safety risk prevention practices in Sweden and Spain. (United States)

    Morillas, Rosa María; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Fuertes, Alba


    Scandinavian countries such as Sweden implemented the occupational health and safety (OHS) measures in the European Directive 89/391/EEC earlier than other European counties, including Spain. In fact, statistics on workplace accident rates reveal that between 2004 and 2009, there were considerably fewer accidents in Sweden than in Spain. The objective of the research described in this paper was to reduce workplace accidents and to improve OHS management in Spain by exploring the OHS practices in Sweden. For this purpose, an exploratory comparative study was conducted, which focused on the effectiveness of the EU directive in both countries. The study included a cross-sectional analysis of workplace accident rates and other contextual indicators in both national contexts. A case study of 14 Swedish and Spanish companies identified 14 differences in the preventive practices implemented. These differences were then assessed with a Delphi study to evaluate their contribution to the reduction of workplace accidents and their potential for improving health and safety management in Spain. The results showed that there was agreement concerning 12 of the 14 practices. Finally, we discuss opportunities of improvement in Spanish companies so that they can make their risk management practices more effective. The findings of this comparative study on the implementation of the European Directive 89/391/EEC in both Sweden and Spain have revealed health and safety managerial practices which, if properly implemented, could contribute to improved work conditions and accident statistics of Spanish companies. In particular, the results suggest that Spanish employers, safety managers, external prevention services, safety deputies and Labour Inspectorates should consider implementing streamlined internal preventive management, promoting the integration of prevention responsibilities to the chain of command, and preventing health and safety management from becoming a mere exchange of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  8. Parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker


    Full Text Available During the last decade, the interest of the international community in the concepts of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been growing immensely. Even though an increasing number of scholars seem to view these concepts as two sides of the same coin (at least when not considering the potentially positive effects of climate change, in practice the two concepts have developed in parallel rather than in an integrated manner when it comes to policy, rhetoric and funding opportunities amongst international organisations and donors. This study investigates the extent of the creation of parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The chosen methodology for the study is a comparative case study and the data are collected through focus groups and content analysis of documentary sources, as well as interviews with key informants. The results indicate that parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation have been established in all but one of the studied countries. The qualitative interviews performed in some of the countries indicate that stakeholders in disaster risk reduction view this duplication of structures as unfortunate, inefficient and a fertile setup for conflict over resources for the implementation of similar activities. Additional research is called for in order to study the concrete effects of having these parallel structures as a foundation for advocacy for more efficient future disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.

  9. Self-perceived HIV risk and the use of risk reduction strategies among men who engage in transactional sex with other men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Closson, Elizabeth F; Perry, Nicholas; Perkovich, Brandon; Nguyen, Thi; Trang, Nguyen N N; Lan, Hang X; Thien, Dinh Duc; Mayer, Kenneth H; Colby, Donn


    An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants' mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention

  10. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.


    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.


    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  12. Shifting the paradigm: an assessment of the quality of fall risk reduction in Nebraska hospitals. (United States)

    Jones, Katherine J; Venema, Dawn M; Nailon, Regina; Skinner, Anne M; High, Robin; Kennel, Victoria


    To assess the prevalence of evidence-based fall risk reduction structures and processes in Nebraska hospitals; whether fall rates are associated with specific structures and processes; and whether fall risk reduction structures, processes, and outcomes vary by hospital type--Critical Access Hospital (CAH) versus non-CAH. A cross-sectional survey of Nebraska's 83 general community hospitals, 78% of which are CAHs. We used a negative binomial rate model to estimate fall rates while adjusting for hospital volume (patient days) and the exact Pearson chi-square test to determine associations between hospital type and the structure and process of fall risk reduction. Approximately two-thirds or more of 70 hospitals used 6 of 9 evidence-based universal fall risk reduction interventions; 50% or more used 14 of 16 evidence-based targeted interventions. After adjusting for hospital volume, hospitals in which teams integrated evidence from multiple disciplines and reflected upon data and modified polices/procedures based upon data had significantly lower total and injurious fall rates per 1,000 patient days than hospitals that did not. Non-CAHs were significantly more likely than CAHs to perform 5 organizational-level fall risk reduction processes. CAHs reported significantly greater total (5.9 vs 4.0) and injurious (1.7 vs 0.9) fall rates per 1,000 patient days than did non-CAHs. Hospital type was a significant predictor of fall rates. However, shifting the paradigm for fall risk reduction from a nursing-centric approach to one in which teams implement evidence-based practices and learn from data may decrease fall risk regardless of hospital type. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  13. Reflections from the interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction (United States)

    Sargeant, S.


    Scientific understanding of earthquakes and their attendant hazards is vital for the development of effective earthquake risk reduction strategies. Within the global disaster reduction policy framework (the Hyogo Framework for Action, overseen by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction), the anticipated role of science and scientists is clear, with respect to risk assessment, loss estimation, space-based observation, early warning and forecasting. The importance of information sharing and cooperation, cross-disciplinary networks and developing technical and institutional capacity for effective disaster management is also highlighted. In practice, the degree to which seismological information is successfully delivered to and applied by individuals, groups or organisations working to manage or reduce the risk from earthquakes is variable. The challenge for scientists is to provide fit-for-purpose information that can be integrated simply into decision-making and risk reduction activities at all levels of governance and at different geographic scales, often by a non-technical audience (i.e. people without any seismological/earthquake engineering training). The interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction (defined here in terms of both the relationship between the science and its application, and the scientist and other risk stakeholders) is complex. This complexity is a function of a range issues that arise relating to communication, multidisciplinary working, politics, organisational practices, inter-organisational collaboration, working practices, sectoral cultures, individual and organisational values, worldviews and expectations. These factors can present significant obstacles to scientific information being incorporated into the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to present some personal reflections on the nature of the interface between the worlds of seismological research and risk reduction, and the

  14. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth. (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga


    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  15. Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions on Biological Outcomes for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction among Latinos: a Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Viramontes, Omar; Swendeman, Dallas; Moreno, Gerardo


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Latinos. Designing and delivering culturally appropriate interventions are critical for modifying behavioral and nutritional behavior among Latinos and preventing CVD. This literature review provides information on evidence-based behavioral intervention strategies developed for and tested with at-risk Latinos, which reported impacts on biological outcomes. A literature search was performed in PubMed that identified 110 randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions for CVD risk reduction with at-risk Latinos (≥1 CVD risk factor, samples >30 % Latino), four of which met the inclusion criteria of reporting biological outcomes (BP, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and body mass index (BMI)). All the studies used promotoras (Hispanic/Latino community member with training that provides basic health education in the community without being a professional healthcare worker) to deliver culturally appropriate interventions that combined nutritional and physical activity classes, walking routes, and/or support groups. One study reported statistically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure and an increase in physical activity. One study reported reductions in cholesterol levels compared to the control group. Two studies did not have significant intervention effects. Most studies demonstrated no significant changes in LDL, HDL, or BMI. Methodological limitations include issues related to sample sizes, study durations, and analytic methods. Few studies met the inclusion criteria, but this review provides some evidence that culturally appropriate interventions such as using promotoras, bilingual materials/classes, and appropriate cultural diet and exercise modifications provide potentially efficacious strategies for cardiovascular risk improvement among Latinos.

  16. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.


    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  17. Age effects in eating disorder baseline risk factors and prevention intervention effects. (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M; Ohls, Olivia C


    Examine the impact of age on baseline eating disorder symptoms/risk factors and on the effects of completing three variants of an eating disorder prevention program. Six hundred and eighty women (60% White) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups, peer-led Body Project groups, an Internet-based version of the Body Project (eBodyProject), or educational video control condition. Participants, who were on average 22.2 years old (SD = 7.1, range 17-64, median = 19), were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Two of the seven baseline variables were significantly associated with age, indicating that older age was associated with lower reported dieting (r = -.12) and better psychosocial functioning (r = -.13). Interactions indicated that age moderated the intervention effects, such that group-based programs were superior to the Internet-delivered version in terms of eating disorder symptom reductions for women up to age 20, whereas the Internet-delivered program was superior to group-based interventions, particularly in terms of BMI reduction, for women over approximately age 25. None of the four tests examining whether age moderated the effects of delivering Body Project groups by mental health clinicians versus undergraduate peer educators were significant. Results suggest that group-based versions of the Body Project should be implemented with young women up to the age of 20, as they produce larger eating disorder symptom reductions, whereas the Internet version of the Body Project should be implemented with women aged 25 or older, as it produces superior weight loss/gain prevention effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Age Effects in Eating Disorder Baseline Risk Factors and Prevention Intervention Effects (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.; Ohls, Olivia C.


    Objective Examine the impact of age on baseline eating disorder symptoms/risk factors and on the effects of completing three variants of an eating disorder prevention program. Method 680 women (60% White) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups, peer-led Body Project groups, an Internet-based version of the Body Project (eBodyProject), or educational video control condition. Participants, who were on average 22.2 years old (SD = 7.1, range 17-64, median = 19), were assessed at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up. Results Two of the seven baseline variables were significantly associated with age, indicating that older age was associated with lower reported dieting (r = −.12) and better psychosocial functioning (r = −.13). Interactions indicated that age moderated the intervention effects, such that group-based programs were superior to the Internet-delivered version in terms of eating disorder symptom reductions for women up to age 20, whereas the Internet-delivered program were superior to group-based interventions, particularly in terms of BMI reduction, for women over approximately age 25. None of the four tests examining whether age moderated the effects of delivering Body Project groups by mental health clinicians versus undergraduate peer educators were significant. Conclusions Results suggest that group-based versions of the Body Project should be implemented with young women up to the age of 20, as they produce larger eating disorder symptom reductions, whereas the Internet version of the Body Project should be implemented with women aged 25 or older, as it produces superior weight loss/gain prevention effects. PMID:28861902

  19. First Evaluation of a Contingency Management Intervention Addressing Adolescent Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents. (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Mauro, Pia M


    There is a need for interventions that comprehensively address youth substance use disorders (SUD) and sexual risk behaviors. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) adapts a validated family-focused intervention for youth SUD to include sexual risk reduction components in a single intervention. In this first evaluation of RRTA, drug court involved youth were randomly assigned to RRTA (N=45) or usual services (US; N=60) and followed through 12-months post-baseline. RRTA included weekly cognitive behavior therapy and behavior management training and contingency-contracting with a point earning system managed by caregivers targeting drug use and sexual risk antecedents. Longitudinal models estimated within-group change and between-group differences through 6- and 12-month follow-up on outcomes for substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and protective HIV behaviors. Robust effects of the intervention were not detected under conditions of the study that included potent background interventions by the juvenile drug court. Considerations about future development and testing of sexual risk reduction therapy for youth are discussed, including the potential role of contingency management in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a Stroke Primary Prevention Program on Risk Factors for At-Home Elderly


    Jeon, Mi Yang; Jeong, HyeonCheol


    Background To prevent stroke from occurring, stroke risk factors in at-risk subjects should be controlled and the diseases causing stroke should be managed. This study evaluated a nursing intervention to prevent stroke in at-risk elderly living at home. The program consisted of stroke and nutrition education as well as exercise guidance. Material/Methods This study targeted 93 elderly people living at home residing in E province with 1 or more stroke risk factors, including high blood pressur...

  1. Risk measures in practical use: risk reduction has its price, but is it known?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Rune


    Different risk measures are discussed in order to decide which to use to best express the risk workers are exposed to. A new risk measure is introduced and advantages and disadvantages are presented. The need for a new risk measure (Expected Number of Fatalities Rate ENFR), is discussed and explained with the help of an example. The example also contains a comparison with the well-known FAR-value. Also some problems and benefits of introducing a measure of the kind: ΔRISK/Δ$ are discussed and conclusions made. The question of what amount of money should be used on risk reducing activities is also addressed

  2. Decision-making in an era of cancer prevention via aspirin: New Zealand needs updated guidelines and risk calculators. (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Selak, Vanessa; Blakely, Tony; Leung, William; Clarke, Philip; Jackson, Rod; Knight, Josh; Nghiem, Nhung


    Based on new systematic reviews of the evidence, the US Preventive Services Task Force has drafted updated guidelines on the use of low-dose aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The Task Force generally recommends consideration of aspirin in adults aged 50-69 years with 10-year CVD risk of at least 10%, in who absolute health gain (reduction of CVD and cancer) is estimated to exceed absolute health loss (increase in bleeds). With the ongoing decline in CVD, current risk calculators for New Zealand are probably outdated, so it is difficult to be precise about what proportion of the population is in this risk category (roughly equivalent to 5-year CVD risk ≥5%). Nevertheless, we suspect that most smokers aged 50-69 years, and some non-smokers, would probably meet the new threshold for taking low-dose aspirin. The country therefore needs updated guidelines and risk calculators that are ideally informed by estimates of absolute net health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per person) and cost-effectiveness. Other improvements to risk calculators include: epidemiological rigour (eg, by addressing competing mortality); providing enhanced graphical display of risk to enhance risk communication; and possibly capturing the issues of medication disutility and comparison with lifestyle changes.

  3. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction. (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P


    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions.

  4. Risk factors for L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery. (United States)

    Inoue, Gen; Takaso, Masashi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Imura, Takayuki; Ueno, Masaki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji


    This is a retrospective study. To investigate the risk factors for radiographic L5-S1 disk height reduction after lumbar posterolateral floating fusion surgery. We investigated data from 86 patients (45 men) who underwent posterolateral floating fusion surgery from 2007 to 2010. The follow-up was from 2 to 6 years. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 years. L5-S1 disk height was calculated and >2 mm reduction was defined as significant. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, number of fused levels, grade of disk degeneration, disk height and diameter, sacrolumbar alignment, alignment of fused level, achievement of union, and proximal adjacent segment disorder at final follow-up were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. L5-S1 disk height reduction occurred in 14 patients (30.2%). The number of fused levels was significantly greater (1.8±0.8 vs. 1.4±0.6) in patients without disk height reduction. Radiology showed a significant change of L1-S1 sacrolumbar alignment after surgery in patients without disk height reduction (0.3±6.6 vs. -4.5±7.6 degrees). The height of the disk posterior to the L5-S1 intervertebral disk before surgery was significantly greater (7.3±2.1 vs. 6.1±2.1 mm) in patients without disk height reduction. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, fusion of >3 levels was a significant risk factor for L5-S1 disk height reduction. In posterolateral floating fusion surgery, there was a higher risk of L5-S1 disk height reduction and consequent foraminal stenosis in patients with multiple-level fusion. Surgical methods and fusion levels should be chosen after considering their association with L5-S1 disk height reduction.

  5. Injecting drug use, sexual risk, HIV knowledge and harm reduction uptake in a large prison in Bali, Indonesia. (United States)

    Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Hartawan, Anak Agung Gede; Craine, Noel; Sari, Ayu Kartika; Septarini, Ni Wayan; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman


    The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix. Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8 percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV. The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics. The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting. This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program.

  6. Evaluation of a cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program at a workplace medical clinic. (United States)

    Andres, Kara L; Renn, Tracy A; Gray, David A; Englund, Joanne M; Olsen, Geary W; Letourneau, Barbara K


    The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program (CVRRP) was implemented in the 3M Medical Clinic in December 2009. The goal of the CVRRP was to evaluate 3M employees at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and address any related modifiable risk factors with appropriate intervention strategies through clinic visits with a 3M nurse practitioner or physician and, if needed, a registered dietitian and/or exercise professional. Data for the first 100 participants were analyzed to initially assess the effectiveness of the program. Based on this evaluation, the 3M CVRRP and active collaboration between participants and providers in the workplace successfully reduced modifiable CVD risk factors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk. (United States)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke


    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction of cancer risk by optimization of Computed Tomography head protocols: far eastern Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller Clemente, R.; Adame Brooks, D.; Lores Guevara, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Arias Garlobo, M. L.; Ortega Rodriguez, O.; Nepite Haber, R.; Grinnan Hernandez, O.; Guillama Llosas, A.


    The cancer risk estimation constitutes one way for the evaluation of the public health, regarding computed tomography (CT) exposures. Starting from the hypothesis that the optimization of CT protocols would reduce significantly the added cancer risk, the purpose of this research was the application of optimization strategies regarding head CT protocols, in order to reduce the factors affecting the risk of induced cancer. The applied systemic approach included technological and human components, represented by quantitative physical factors. the volumetric kerma indexes, compared with respect to standard, optimized and reference values, were evaluated with multiple means comparison method. The added cancer risk resulted from the application of the methodology for biological effects evaluation, at low doses with low Linear Energy Transfer. Human observers in all scenarios evaluated the image quality. the reduced dose was significantly lower than for standard head protocols and reference levels, where: (1) for pediatric patients, by using an Automatic Exposure Control system, a reduction of 31% compared with standard protocol and ages range of 10-14, and (2) adults, using a Bilateral Filter for images obtained at low doses of 62% from those of standard head protocol. The risk reduction was higher than 25%. The systemic approach used allows the effective identification of factors involved on cancer risk related with exposures to CT. The combination of dose modulation and image restoration with Bilateral Filter, provide a significantly reduction of cancer risk, with acceptable diagnostic image quality. (Author)

  9. Familia adelante: a multi-risk prevention intervention for Latino families. (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard; Goldbach, Jeremy; Santos, Susana M


    A comprehensive approach for providing behavioral health services to youth is becoming increasingly emphasized. Latino youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, mental health concerns, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, and these outcomes have been empirically connected to individual, family and community-based stress. Despite this knowledge, there is a lack of evidence-based approaches that target these negative outcomes by reducing stress in Latino families in a culturally relevant manner. The current study examined the use of research-based strategies for reducing multiple risk behaviors in a predominantly Mexican-American sample of families. Through a modular approach, participants engaged in a psycho-educational curriculum to enhance communication and psychosocial coping, increase substance abuse and HIV knowledge and perception of harm, and improve school behavior. Over 12 sessions, the curriculum aimed to achieve these outcomes through an overall decrease in family and community-based stress by focusing on acculturative stress. Findings indicate that communication and perception of substance use harm were significantly enhanced, while social norms regarding sexual behavior, HIV anxiety and past use of marijuana and other illegal drugs were significantly reduced. While many of measures were reliable (α > .80), further changes are necessary to improve the accuracy of future studies. Despite these limitations, Familia Adelante improves many areas of participant's family life, and points toward the feasibility of multi-risk reduction behavioral health prevention approaches.

  10. HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention service experiences among African American and other offenders. (United States)

    Belenko, Steven R; Shedlin, Michele; Chaple, Michael


    African Americans are at the intersection of the AIDS epidemic and burgeoning prison and offender populations, yet little is known about offenders' HIV knowledge and risk behaviors or ability to access effective services. We present findings from an exploratory study based on 300 interviews with New York City offenders conducted in 2001-2002. The data indicate relatively high rates of HIV infection and HIV risk behaviors among African American and other offenders. There were no clear patterns of risk behaviors by race/ethnicity. Although overall HIV knowledge level is high, important gaps in HIV knowledge remain and there is widespread skepticism among offenders about government information about HIV/AIDS. In the corrections setting, there is inconsistent access to HIV prevention and education services, and an emphasis on more passive learning materials. To reduce HIV infection rates, there is a need to expand peer-led and culturally- and gender-specific interventions, and to improve access to correctional facilities for community-based HIV service providers. HIV interventions must also be expanded for offenders on probation and parole. Mandatory HIV education and harm reduction approaches should be considered.

  11. Nutritional risk and the metabolic syndrome in women: opportunities for preventive intervention from the Framingham Nutrition Study. (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Pencina, Michael J; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Zhu, Lei; Meigs, James B; Ordovas, Jose M; D'Agostino, Ralph B


    Diet is recognized as a key factor in the cause and management of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, policies to guide preventive clinical nutrition interventions of the condition are limited. We examined the relation between dietary quality and incident MetS in adult women and identified foci for preventive nutrition interventions. This was a prospective study of 300 healthy women (aged 30-69 y) in the Framingham Offspring-Spouse study who were free of MetS risk factors at baseline. The development of individual MetS traits and overall MetS status during 12 y of follow-up were compared in women by tertile of nutritional risk, based on intake of 19 nutrients. Multivariate logistic regression models considered age, smoking, physical activity, and menopausal status. Baseline age-adjusted mean nutrient intake and ischemic heart disease risk profiles differed by tertile of nutritional risk. Women with higher nutritional risk profiles consumed more dietary lipids (total, saturated, and monounsaturated fats) and alcohol and less fiber and micronutrients; they had higher cigarette use and waist circumferences. Compared with women with the lowest nutritional risk, those in the highest tertile had a 2- to 3-fold risk of the development of abdominal obesity and overall MetS during 12 y of follow-up [odds ratio: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.3) and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.2, 7.6), respectively]. Higher composite nutritional risk predicts the development of abdominal obesity and MetS during long-term follow-up in healthy women, independent of lifestyle and ischemic heart disease risk factors. Preventive nutrition interventions for obesity and MetS risk reduction should focus on the overall nutritional quality of women's dietary profiles.

  12. Assessing perceived risk and STI prevention behavior: a national population-based study with special reference to HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Leval

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.

  13. International Symposium on Seismic Risk Reduction. The JICA Technical Cooperation Project in Romania. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroto; Vacareanu, Radu


    In the 5th year of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Technical Cooperation Project 'Seismic Risk Reduction for Buildings and Structures in Romania', the implementing agency - National Center for Seismic Risk Reduction (NCSRR) and JICA jointly organized the International Symposium on Seismic Risk Reduction (ISSRR-2007) held in Bucharest at the Romanian Academy Library in the period April 26-27, 2007. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Seismic Risk Reduction, ISSRR-2007. The Proceedings are organized in three parts: (I) keynote lectures, (II) papers on the results of JICA Project in Romania and (III) contributions from authors. Eight keynote lectures by specialists from Japan, USA, France and Greece, and fourteen papers on the results of JICA Project are included. The contributions from authors are divided in five sections: (i) Seismicity, Seismic Hazard and Site Effects, (ii) Seismic Vulnerability and Seismic Risk, (iii) Seismic Rehabilitation, (iv) Seismic analysis and Design and (v) Urban disaster mitigation and earthquake damage. The Proceedings contain 64 papers (from 19 countries) submitted for publication

  14. Knowledge of cancer risk reduction practices in rural towns of New South Wales. (United States)

    Hancock, L; Sanson-Fisher, R; Redman, S; Reid, A; Tripodi, T


    The Australian Cancer Society has published guidelines for recommended risk reduction strategies for breast, cervical, smoking-related and skin cancer. While knowledge may not be sufficient for change, it is argued to be necessary for change to occur. A measure of the level of health knowledge in the community can be useful for health promotion practitioners, identifying where health messages are not reaching their proposed targets. Our aims were to examine the level of knowledge about risk reduction practices for breast, cervical, smoking-related and skin cancers, for a rural New South Wales sample, and to examine sex and age effects on knowledge levels. A survey of 2846 women and 1732 men from rural New South Wales, which used an unprompted recall strategy, revealed some notable deficits in recall of cancer risk reduction practices: only 26 per cent of women identified mammograms as a risk reduction strategy for breast cancer; only 5 per cent of women knew at which ages mammograms should start and stop; only 6 per cent of women could identify when Pap tests should be discontinued; less than half of the sample could identify common solar protection strategies; and less than one-third of people identified passive smoking as a lung cancer risk.

  15. Effect of Hip-Focused Injury Prevention Training for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Reduction in Female Basketball Players: A 12-Year Prospective Intervention Study. (United States)

    Omi, Yorikatsu; Sugimoto, Dai; Kuriyama, Setsurou; Kurihara, Tomohisa; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yun, Songjo; Kawashima, Tatsuhiro; Hirose, Norikazu


    Programs to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female basketball players are scarce. Also, ACL injury prevention training that focuses on hip joint function has not been reported. To determine the effectiveness of a hip-focused ACL injury prevention program in female basketball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective intervention study was conducted for 12 years. Incidence rates of ACL injuries were collected in the first 4 years (observation period) from college female basketball players. After the observation period, a hip-focused ACL injury prevention program was implemented for 8 years (intervention period). A total of 309 players (mean ± SD age, 19.6 ± 1.2 years; height, 163.7 ± 5.6 cm; weight, 59.1 ± 5.1 kg; body mass index, 22.0 ± 1.4) were tracked in the observation period and compared with 448 players (age, 19.6 ± 1.1 years; height, 162.6 ± 5.8 cm; weight, 58.0 ± 5.7 kg; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.5) who participated in the intervention period. Athlete-exposures (AEs), ACL numbers and mechanisms of injury (MOIs), relative risk (RR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), numbers needed to treat (NNT), and compliance were analyzed. There were 16 ACL injuries (13 noncontact MOIs) in the 4-year observation period, whereas 9 ACL injuries (8 noncontact MOIs) were recorded in the 8-year intervention period. The overall ACL injury incidence was 0.25/1000 AEs in the 4-year observation period compared with 0.10/1000 AEs in the 8-year intervention period, respectively. Compared with the 4-year observation period, significant RR reduction was observed (0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.87; P = .017) with ARR and NNT of 0.032 (95% CI, 0.027-0.037) and 31.6 (95% CI, 27.1-37.7), respectively, in the 8-year intervention period. The noncontact ACL injury incidence was 0.21 per 1000 AEs during the 4-year observation period compared with 0.08/1000 AEs in the 8-year intervention period, which also showed significant RR reduction (0.37; 95% CI, 0

  16. Interventions to prevent and manage psychosocial risks and work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.


    Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and

  17. Preventive care delivered within Public Dental Service after caries risk assessment of young adults. (United States)

    Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S


    To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics. The baseline caries risk assessment was carried out by the patient's regular team in four classes according to a predetermined model, and the team was responsible for all treatment decisions. Based on the variables 'oral health information', 'additional fluoride' and 'professional tooth cleaning', a cumulative score was constructed and dichotomized to 'basic prevention' and 'additional prevention'. More additional preventive care was provided to the patients in the 'low-risk' and 'some risk' categories than to those classified as 'high' or 'very high' risk (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-3.0; P risk' and 'some risk' categories, respectively. Around 15% of the patients in the high-risk categories did not receive additional preventive measures over the 3-year period. There was an insignificant tendency that patients with additional prevention developed less caries than those that received basic prevention in all risk categories except for the 'very high-risk' group. The caries risk assessment process was not accompanied by a corresponding targeted individual preventive care in a cohort of young adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction: Useful Guidance for Sustainable Mountain Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmermann


    Full Text Available In recent decades, a number of global frameworks have been developed for disaster risk reduction (DRR. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and its successor document, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted in Japan in March 2015, provide general guidance for reducing risks from natural hazards. This is particularly important for mountainous areas, but DRR for mountain areas and sustainable mountain development received little attention in the recent policy debate. The question remains whether the Hyogo and Sendai frameworks can provide guidance for sustainable mountain development. This article evaluates the 2 frameworks in light of the special challenges of DRR in mountain areas and argues that, while the frameworks offer valuable guidance, they need to be further adapted for local contexts—particularly for mountain areas, which require special attention because of changing risk patterns like the effects of climate change and high land-use pressure.

  19. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors. (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G


    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Reduction of atherogenic risk in patients with type 2 diabetes by curcuminoid extract: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Chuengsamarn, Somlak; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon


    Curcumin is a phytocompound found in the root of turmeric, a common herbal ingredient in many Asian cuisines. The compound contains anti-inflammatory activity, which is mediated through an up-regulation of adiponectin and reduction of leptin. Consumption of curcumin was shown to prevent some deteriorative conditions caused by inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and esophagitis, and so on. Inflammation-associated cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis are common in diabetes patients. The anti-inflammation effect of curcumin might be beneficial to prevent such condition in these patients. We aim to evaluate an antiatherosclerosis effect of curcumin in diabetes patients. Effects of curcumin on risk factors for atherosclerosis were investigated in a 6-month randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled clinical trial that included subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. An atherosclerosis parameter, the pulse wave velocity, and other metabolic parameters in patients treated with placebo and curcumin were compared. Our results showed that curcumin intervention significantly reduced pulse wave velocity, increased level of serum adiponectin and decreased level of leptin. These results are associated with reduced levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, uric acid, visceral fat and total body fat. In summary, a 6-month curcumin intervention in type 2 diabetic population lowered the atherogenic risks. In addition, the extract helped to improve relevant metabolic profiles in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of strength training on cardiac risk prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has widely been shown that exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has extensive cardioprotective benefits and is an important tool in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). The present investigation aimed to determine the multivariate impact of strength training, designed to prevent the development of CHD, on ...

  2. Effects of cigarette reduction on cardiovascular risk factors and subjective measures. (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Kotlyar, Michael; Allen, Sharon; Jensen, Joni; Li, Shelby; Le, Chap; Murphy, Sharon


    To assess the effect of continued smoking and smoking reduction on cardiovascular biomarkers (eg, WBC count, cholesterol concentrations, BP, heart rate). This study, conducted at the University of Minnesota, randomized smokers interested in significantly reducing cigarette use but not quitting to either start 12 weeks of smoking reduction immediately (n = 102), assisted by nicotine replacement therapy, or to a 6-week wait list (n = 49). Those starting smoking reduction were required to reduce smoking by 25% for 2 weeks, 50% for 2 weeks, and 75% during the final 2 weeks. After 6 weeks, the subjects were asked to maintain a 50% reduction or quit. Nicotine gum and, if necessary, nicotine patch were used to achieve reduction goals. The wait list group (n = 49) smoked ad libitum for 6 weeks and then reduced smoking as previously described. Cardiovascular biomarkers (eg, WBC count, cholesterol concentrations, BP, heart rate) were assessed at several time points after enrollment. During ad libitum smoking, cardiovascular biomarkers remained relatively stable with correlation coefficients across the various time measurements, ranging from 0.44 to 1.00 (p hematocrit, RBC and WBC counts, lipids, BP, heart rate, respiratory symptoms, all p < 0.0167). These results show the availability of reliable and dose-sensitive biomarkers and that reduction in smoking can lead to significant but only modest changes in cardiovascular risk factors in healthy smokers. It is not known whether the reductions in cardiovascular risk factors observed after smoking reduction are also associated with reduced disease risk. Additional research is necessary to address this issue.

  3. Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment for selection of microbial reduction targets for hard surface disinfectants. (United States)

    Ryan, Michael O; Haas, Charles N; Gurian, Patrick L; Gerba, Charles P; Panzl, Brian M; Rose, Joan B


    This quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) included problem formulation for fomites and hazard identification for 7 microorganisms, including pathogenic Escherichia coli and E coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, Pseudomonas spp, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. The goal was to address a risk-based process for choosing the log10 reduction recommendations, in contrast to the current US Environmental Protection Agency requirements. For each microbe evaluated, the QMRA model included specific dose-response models, occurrence determination of aerobic bacteria and specific organisms on fomites, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and risk reduction. Risk estimates were determined for a simple scenario using a single touch of a contaminated surface and self-inoculation. A comparative analysis of log10 reductions, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the risks based on this QMRA approach was also undertaken. The literature review and meta-analysis showed that aerobic bacteria were the most commonly studied on fomites, averaging 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm(2). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found at a level of 3.3 × 10(-1) CFU/cm(2); methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), at 6.4 × 10(-1) CFU/cm(2). Risk estimates per contact event ranged from a high of 10(-3) for norovirus to a low of 10(-9) for S aureus. This QMRA analysis suggests that a reduction in bacterial numbers on a fomite by 99% (2 logs) most often will reduce the risk of infection from a single contact to less than 1 in 1 million. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of the event tree to assess the risk reduction obtained from rockfall protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peila


    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses a procedure for the evaluation of the collective risk that can affect a road subjected to rockfalls, with and without protection measures, by means of the event tree analysis. This tool is useful to show designers whether the rockfall protection structures are located in the correct positions, whether they are the correct technological choice and what level of reduction of risk can be obtained. Different design options can therefore be compared on the same bases.

  5. Introduction to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction measures in energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The aim of this report is to introduce readers to methods of cost-effectiveness analysis and their application in risk reduction, especially in connection with the energy-producing industries. The background to the assessment of risk and the problems in estimating it quantitatively are outlined. The methodology of cost-effectiveness analysis is then described, particular attention being given to the way in which results are derived and the overall use that can be made of them. This is followed by a discussion of quantitative applications and an outline of the methods that may be used to derive estimates both of risk and the cost of reducing it. The use of cost-effectiveness analysis is illustrated in an appendix, which gives as a worked example a case study on the reduction of public risk associated with radioactive releases during normal operation of a PWR. After drawing some general conclusions the report recommends that such analyses should normally be used as an aid to risk management whenever several alternative risk reduction measures are under consideration

  6. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.


    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  7. Historic Landslide Data Combined with Sentinel Satellite Data to Improve Modelling for Disaster Risk Reduction (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; Kontoes, C.; Catarino, N.; De Lathouwer, B.; Concalves, P.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Mueller, A.; Kraft, C.; Grosso, N.; Goor, E.; Voidrot, M. F.; Trypitsidis, A.


    Landslides are geohazards potentially resulting in disasters. Landslides both vary enormously in their distribution in space and time. The surface deformation varies considerably from one type of instability to another. Individual ground instabilities may have a common trigger (extreme rainfall, earthquake), and therefore occur alongside many equivalent occurrences over a large area. This means that they can have a significant regional impact demanding national and international disaster risk reduction strategies. Regional impacts require collaboration across boarders as reflected in The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The data demands related to the SDGs are unprecedented, another factor that will require coordinated efforts at the global, regional and national levels. Data of good quality are vital for governments, international organizations, civil society, the private sector and the general public in order to make informed decisions, included for disaster risk reduction. The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of a user driven GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on 3 main pillars; engaging communities of practice, delivering technological advancements, and advocating the use of GEOSS. These 3 pillars support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will explain how one of the 10 NextGEOSS pilots, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), plan to provide an enhanced multi-hazard risk assessment framework based on statistical analysis of long time series of data. Landslide events monitoring and landslides susceptibility estimation will be emphazised. Workflows will be based on models developed in the context of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. Data envisaged to be used are: Radar SAR data; Yearly ground deformation/velocities; Historic landslide inventory; data related to topographic, geological, hydrological

  8. What imaging techniques should be used in primary versus secondary prevention for further risk stratification? (United States)

    Schiele, François; Navarese, Eliano Pio; Visoná, Adriana; Ray, Kausik


    An accurate assessment of the cardiovascular (CV) risk of an individual is key for guiding the appropriate treatment strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although conventional risk factors for CVD are well established, there can be substantial variation in the extent of atherosclerosis between patients. The use of a variety of imaging modalities can be beneficial in the primary prevention stage and in the classification of an individual's CV risk. Therefore, appropriate implementation of these imaging techniques for risk assessment purposes, in line with clinical guidelines, can influence the outcomes of CVD prevention. The expert working group collaborated to review current invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques available to healthcare practitioners and how they can be used in the measurement of preclinical vascular damage and CV risk assessment. After evaluation of the current guideline recommendations and clinical data available, the expert working group collaborated to produce recommendations regarding the use of imaging in the risk stratification in primary prevention, CV risk in peri-acute coronary syndrome and CV risk assessment in secondary prevention. Overall, a variety of both invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities were highlighted by the expert working group as having the potential to assist in the risk assessments of patients at risk of CVD. These imaging techniques can be utilised in both primary and secondary prevention strategies and have the potential to be important risk modifiers, improving the outcome of CV risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk reduction in craniofacial surgery using computer-based modeling and intraoperative immersion. (United States)

    Salb, Tobias; Burgert, Oliver; Gockel, Tilo; Brief, Jakob; Hassfeld, Stefan; Muehling, Joachim; Dillmann, Ruediger


    We present a two-stage concept for risk reduction in craniofacial surgery, consisting of preoperative risk modeling and intraoperative risk reduction. Preoperatively it is important to find and to visualize risk sources in order to minimize them. Our risk model is composed by superimposition of an isotropic risk potential and an anisotropic tissue field constituent. It is being applied to preoperative planning and simulation of craniofacial surgeries, for example to determine an access path with least overall risk value. In the operation room risks arise mainly from the absence of preoperative planning and simulation data in the operation field. We use a see-through head-mounted display to optimize this situation in order to allow the surgeon to maintain accuracy in the whole process of computer aided surgery. Main steps of the intraoperative immersion are optical tracking of the surgeon wearing the head-mounted display and of the patient, registration of preoperatively calculated planning data with the patient and visualization of the data within the glasses.

  10. Benefits and Risks of Antiretroviral Therapy for Perinatal HIV Prevention. (United States)

    Fowler, Mary G; Qin, Min; Fiscus, Susan A; Currier, Judith S; Flynn, Patricia M; Chipato, Tsungai; McIntyre, James; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Siberry, George K; Coletti, Anne S; Taha, Taha E; Klingman, Karin L; Martinson, Francis E; Owor, Maxensia; Violari, Avy; Moodley, Dhayendre; Theron, Gerhard B; Bhosale, Ramesh; Bobat, Raziya; Chi, Benjamin H; Strehlau, Renate; Mlay, Pendo; Loftis, Amy J; Browning, Renee; Fenton, Terence; Purdue, Lynette; Basar, Michael; Shapiro, David E; Mofenson, Lynne M


    Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART). The primary outcomes were HIV transmission at 1 week of age in the infant and maternal and infant safety. The median CD4 count was 530 cells per cubic millimeter among 3490 primarily black African HIV-infected women enrolled at a median of 26 weeks of gestation (interquartile range, 21 to 30). The rate of transmission was significantly lower with ART than with zidovudine alone (0.5% in the combined ART groups vs. 1.8%; difference, -1.3 percentage points; repeated confidence interval, -2.1 to -0.4). However, the rate of maternal grade 2 to 4 adverse events was significantly higher with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (21.1% vs. 17.3%, P=0.008), and the rate of grade 2 to 4 abnormal blood chemical values was higher with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (2.9% vs. 0.8%, P=0.03). Adverse events did not differ significantly between the ART groups (P>0.99). A birth weight of less than 2500 g was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (23.0% vs. 12.0%, P<0.001) and was more frequent with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (16.9% vs. 8.9%, P=0.004); preterm delivery before 37 weeks was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (20.5% vs. 13.1%, P<0.001). Tenofovir-based ART was associated with higher rates than

  11. Effects of Participation in a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program on Psychological Distress following Revictimization (United States)

    Mouilso, Emily R.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.


    The current study followed women who participated in a sexual assault risk reduction program and a wait-list control group for 4 months. Those women in both groups who reported being revictimized (N = 147) were assessed to determine the effect of program participation on psychological distress. Intervention group participants reported a…

  12. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information. (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  13. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation bij passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag e.a., M. (Menso)


    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protectionswas investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  14. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paltrinieri, N.; Landucci, G.; Molag, M.; Bonvicini, S.; Spadoni, G.; Cozzani, V.


    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements

  15. Education for disaster risk reduction : linking theory with practice in Ghana´s basic schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apronti, Priscilla; Saito, Osamu; Otsuki, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306279258; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana


    Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR) concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the

  16. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction. (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela


    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  17. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation. (United States)

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex


    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  18. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA (United States)


    ...] Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... four grant applications propose vegetation management work in 60 project areas located on land owned by... similar vegetation management work that would not be funded by the grant applications under consideration...

  19. 75 FR 32960 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA (United States)


    ...] Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... program. The Strawberry Canyon Vegetation Management Project involves the removal of eucalyptus and other... tree sprouts from the area. The Claremont Canyon Vegetation Management Project involves the removal of...

  20. Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions for Environmental Policy: A White Paper (1999) (United States)

    This white paper addresses current and recent U.S. EPA practices regarding the valuation of mortality risk reductions, focusing especially on empirical estimates of the “value of a statistical life” (VSL) from stated preference and hedonic wage studies.

  1. Community-Managed Disaster Risk Reduction : Investing in Resilience. A report prepared for Cordaid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.N.


    Cordaid has been supporting community-managed disaster risk reduction (CMDRR) and drought cycle management (DCM) in the Horn of Africa for eight years. Many evaluations have pointed to successful outcomes but quantitative data are scarce. The aim of this study was to verify the extent to which

  2. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A


    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study....... During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection...

  3. HIV risk inside U.S. prisons: a systematic review of risk reduction interventions conducted in U.S. prisons. (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Chang, Yvonne; Lian, Zi


    HIV prevalence in correctional populations is approximately five times that of the general adult population. This systematic review examines the broad question of HIV prevention and interventions to reduce inmate HIV-related risk behaviors in U.S. federal and state prisons. We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases and Google Scholar to identify behavioral, biomedical, social, and policy studies related to HIV among U.S. prison populations from 1980-2014. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on HIV, prison inmates, if they were conducted outside of the U.S., if they involved juvenile offenders, or if they included post-release outcomes. Twenty-seven articles met the study criteria. Evidence suggests that research related to the HIV care continuum, risk behaviors, gender, prevention (e.g., peer education), and policy are key topics to enhance HIV prevention interventions in the criminal justice system. This review provides a prison-specific overview of HIV in U.S. correctional populations and highlight effective interventions, including inmate peer education. There is an urgent need to continue to implement HIV prevention interventions across all prisons and improve the quality of life among those at heightened risk of HIV infection.

  4. Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel


    We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.

  5. Reducing hazard vulnerability: towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. (United States)

    Thomalla, Frank; Downing, Tom; Spanger-Siegfried, Erika; Han, Guoyi; Rockström, Johan


    Over the past few decades, four distinct and largely independent research and policy communities--disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, environmental management and poverty reduction--have been actively engaged in reducing socio-economic vulnerability to natural hazards. However, despite the significant efforts of these communities, the vulnerability of many individuals and communities to natural hazards continues to increase considerably. In particular, it is hydro-meteorological hazards that affect an increasing number of people and cause increasingly large economic losses. Arising from the realisation that these four communities have been largely working in isolation and enjoyed only limited success in reducing vulnerability, there is an emerging perceived need to strengthen significantly collaboration and to facilitate learning and information exchange between them. This article examines key communalities and differences between the climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction communities, and proposes three exercises that would help to structure a multi-community dialogue and learning process.

  6. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats. (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota


    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  7. Skid Prevention for EVs Based on the Emulation of Torque Reduction Characteristics of Separately-excited DC Motor (United States)

    Kodama, Shinya; Hori, Yoichi

    It is well-known that the separately-excited DC motor has effective torque (current) reduction characteristics in response to rapid increase in the rotational speed of the motor. These characteristics have been utilized in adhesion control of electric railway trains with separately-excited DC motor. Up to now, we have proposed a new skid prevention method for EVs, utilizing these characteristics and have made experiments with the hardware skid simulator “Motor-Generator setup”. In this paper, we applied this skid prevention control to our new vehicle “UOT CADWELL EV" equipped with BLDC motors and showed its effectiveness.

  8. Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing Risk Factors. (United States)


    The Volpe Center has investigated law enforcement methods that have successfully prevented trespassing along the railroad right of way. The types of law enforcement strategies currently being used and procedures followed in the field are documented, ...

  9. Investigating obesity risk-reduction behaviours and psychosocial factors in Chinese Americans. (United States)

    Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen; Bai, Yeon


    The purpose of this research was to examine the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to obesity risk reduction in Chinese Americans. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 300 US-born and foreign-born Chinese Americans residing in the New York metropolitan area, ranging from 18 to 40 years of age. Obesity risk reduction behaviours and psychosocial variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model were measured. Acculturation was assessed using a modified Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Frequency distributions were delineated and stepwise regression analyses were analysed for different acculturation groups. 65% of the respondents were female and the mean age of the sample was 26 years. Respondents indicated the most commonly practised behaviour to be eating home-cooked meals instead of restaurant-prepared foods. Perceived barriers to adopting obesity risk-reduction behaviours included convenience of consuming fast foods, cost, lack of time to prepare home-cooked meals, and the physical environment of unhealthy foods. In predicting intention to perform obesity risk-reduction behaviours, attitude was significant for 'western-identified' individuals. In 'Asian-identified' individuals, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy and perceived benefits were salient. Nutrition educators working with Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy in preparing plant-based, home-cooked meals and making healthy choices at fast-food restaurants with portion control. Concrete and perceived barriers such as lack of time and convenience need to be addressed in nutrition education interventions. Educators need to identify new channels and media outlets to disseminate practical, easy-to-implement behaviours for obesity risk reduction that are socially acceptable. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  10. Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekaterina Y. Kontar


    Full Text Available Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia, this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River and Edeytsy (Lena River, which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015 and Galena (March 2016 revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis

  11. Outreach-based drug treatment for sex trading women: the Cal-Pep risk-reduction demonstration project. (United States)

    Bowser, Benjamin P; Ryan, Lisa; Smith, Carla Dillard; Lockett, Gloria


    California Prevention Education Program (Cal-Pep) provides street outreach services to injection drugs users and sex traders in Oakland and San Francisco, CA, to reduce their chances of contracting HIV/AIDS. Drug treatment is an effective barrier to HIV infections, but only clients who are ready for total abstinence from drug use can be referred to traditional treatment. Drug treatment readiness is currently defined by funding policies in the U.S. as a client's willingness to totally abstain from alcohol and illegal drug use. This policy and practice eliminates a major harm reduction opportunity to reach drug users who are just contemplating recovery with treatment. With a CSAT grant to demonstrate an effective innovation in treatment, Cal-Pep started a harm reduction outpatient program for women who were active drug users. Over the course of 1 year, actively drug-using clients came to the program house during the day for meals, for risk-reduction education sessions, group discussions, and one-on-one psychological counselling. From April 2001 to March 2006, 37 clients per year were interviewed at program entry and after 6 and 12 months to see if the intervention activities had an impact on their drug use and readiness for abstinence drug treatment. By the 6th and 12th month of clients' progression through the risk-reduction program, they reported a statistically significant reduction in their poly-drug use (cocaine, cannabis, heroin, PCP) in the 30 days prior to their interviews (p<.000). There were also significant reductions in poly-drug use with alcohol (p<.000) and use of crack cocaine alone (p<.003). There was also an added benefit: clients significantly improved their living circumstances from the streets and shelters to rooms and apartments while in the program (p<.034). There was no significant improvement in employment. This intervention shows that a harm reduction intermediate treatment program for actively using drug users can significantly reduce their

  12. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Vestbo, J; Osler, M


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of changes in smoking habits on the subsequent risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking cessation and reduction and admission to hospital for COPD in a general...... by at least 50% between the two initial examinations without quitting and smokers who stopped smoking during this time were compared with continuous heavy smokers using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During the follow up period 1,260 subjects (741 men and 519 women) were admitted to hospital...... for COPD. After multivariate adjustment, quitting smoking was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospital admission. The relative hazard (HR) was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.99). Those who reduced smoking did not show a significantly lower risk of hospitalisation than...

  13. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications. (United States)

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo


    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.

  14. Grasping the hydra: the need for a holistic and systematic approach to disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker


    Full Text Available This article stresses the significance of recognising interdependencies between factors determining disaster risk in any attempts to integrate disaster risk reduction in international development cooperation. It bases its arguments on the case studies of four past projects in Sri Lanka and Tajikistan, which are scrutinised using a theoretical framework based on systems approaches. It appears that the results of ignoring interdependencies may (1cause sub-optimisation problems where the desired outcome is not reached as the factor focused on and/or the desired outcome are dependent on other factors, and (2 make it difficult or impossible to monitor and evaluate the actual effects of international development cooperation projects in disaster risk reduction.

  15. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation (United States)

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura


    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.

  16. Is psychosocial risk prevention possible? Deconstructing common presumptions


    Leka, Stavroula; Van Wassenhove, Wim; Jain, Aditya Kailash


    This paper tackles a much debated and often misunderstood issue in the modern world of work, psychosocial risks. Although the prevalence and impact of psychosocial risks is now widely acknowledged as a priority in health and safety in Europe, there remains resistance by key stakeholders in prioritizing psychosocial risk management both in business and policy making. This paper explores why this is still the case by discussing three presumptions in relation to the current state of the art in t...

  17. Risk assessment a key to periodontal health promotion and disease prevention. (United States)

    Lyle, Deborah M


    Prevention of periodontal infection is a complex and integrated process that includes risk assessment, detailed medical and dental histories, evaluation of personal habits, and patient values and expectations. The assessment and data findings provide the basis for an individualized and comprehensive plan to reduce risk for periodontal disease and promote oral health. Periodontal treatment outcomes or expectations are based on these findings, as well as changes in modifiable risk factors and adherence to a prevention regimen. This article will discuss the relevance of risk assessment, the impact of risks such as type 2 diabetes and smoking on periodontal health, and systematic reviews on self-care regimens.

  18. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Draft for comment, February 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, C.N.; Benjamin, A.S.; Kunsman, D.M.; Williams, D.C.; Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Smith, L.N.


    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a boiling water reactor with a Mark III containment (Grand Gulf, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally low relative to previous studies; for example, most of the uncertainty range is lower than the point estimate of risk for the Peach Bottom plant in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues cause the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. These issues include the diesel generator failure rate, iodine and cesium revolatilization after vessel breach and the possibility of reactor vessel pedestal failure caused by core debris attack. Some of the postulated safety options appear to be potentially cost effective for the Grand Gulf power plant, particularly when onsite accidents costs are included in the evaluation of benefits. Principally these include procedural modifications and relatively inexpensive hardware additions to insure core cooling in the event of a station blackout. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150. (author)

  19. A comprehensive analysis of breast cancer news coverage in leading media outlets focusing on environmental risks and prevention. (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K; Smith, Sandi W; McFeters, Courtnay; Ferguson, Vanessa


    Breast cancer has a high profile in the news media, which are a major source of information for cancer patients and the general public. To determine the nature of breast cancer news coverage available to audiences, particularly on the topics of environmental risks and prevention, this content analysis measured a broad array of dimensions in 231 stories appearing in nine leading newspapers, newsmagazines, and television networks in 2003 and 2004. One fourth of all stories reported on various risks such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. Very few items specifically addressed risks related to controllable lifestyle practices such as prepubertal obesity or chemical contaminants in the environment. About one third of the stories included prevention content, primarily focusing narrowly on use of pharmaceutical products. Little information described risk reduction via other individual preventive behaviors (e.g., diet, exercise, and smoking), parental protective measures, or collective actions to combat contamination sites. The more traditional categories of prevalence, detection, and treatment were featured in one third, one quarter, and two fifths of the news items, respectively. There were twice as many stories featuring personal narratives as statistical figures, and two thirds of all the news items cited expert medical professionals, researchers, or organizations. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are addressed.

  20. Evidence-based disease management: its role in cardiovascular risk reduction. (United States)

    Fanning, Etta L


    Cardiovascular disease remains the most pressing healthcare problem in the United States. Traditional risk factors--hypertension, obesity, and diabetes-are still unresolved issues; and new risk factors--pre-diabetes, insulin resistance, and pediatric and adolescent diabetes-have emerged. There is an urgent need to identify the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and address risk reduction with disease management and treatment for each factor, based on qualitative and quantitative approaches for developing the evidence base for public health action. The objectives of this paper are to review (i) the burden of cardiovascular illness-morbidity, mortality, and cost; (ii) risk factors and the emerging epidemic of adolescent obesity; (iii) the challenges of attaining target endpoints; and (iv) the attributes of a successful programmatic healthcare initiative for potential impact on cardiovascular care and, eventually, public health.

  1. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Suzanne A.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.; Richard, Edo


    Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia. To systematically perform a review

  2. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.


    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early adolescents…

  3. Modeling the prevention of colorectal cancer from the combined impact of host and behavioral risk factors. (United States)

    Frampton, Matthew; Houlston, Richard S


    This study investigated the utility of modeling modifiable lifestyle risk factors in addition to genetic variation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening/prevention. We derived a polygenic risk score for CRC susceptibility variants in combination with the established nongenetic risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adiposity, alcohol, red meat, fruit, vegetables, smoking, physical activity, and aspirin. We used the 37 known risk variants and 50 and 100% of all risk variants as calculated from a heritability estimate. We derived absolute risk from UK population age structure, incidence, and mortality rate data. Taking into account all risk factors (known variants), 42.2% of 55- to 59-year-old men with CRC have a risk at least as high as that of an average 60-year-old, the minimum eligible age for the UK NHS National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. If the male population is stratified by known variants and IBD status, then risk-difference estimates imply that for 10,000 50-year-old men in the 99th percentile, 760 cases could be prevented over a 25-year period through the modifiable risk factors, but in the lowest percentile, only 90 could be prevented. CRC screening and prevention centered on modifiable risk factors could be optimized if targeted at individuals at higher polygenic risk.Genet Med 19 3, 314-321.

  4. Vascular risk factors and dementia - towards prevention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; Ligthart, S. A.; Moll van Charante, E. P.; van Gool, W. A.


    Several cohort studies have shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity and lack of physical exercise in midlife and to a lesser extent in late life, are associated with an increased risk of dementia. The results from randomised

  5. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.


    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  6. Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia (United States)

    Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.


    Risk and vulnerability assessment is an important component of an effective End-to-End Tsunami Early Warning System and therefore contributes significantly to disaster risk reduction. Risk assessment is a key strategy to implement and design adequate disaster prevention and mitigation measures. The knowledge about expected tsunami hazard impacts, exposed elements, their susceptibility, coping and adaptation mechanisms is a precondition for the development of people-centred warning structures, local specific response and recovery policy planning. The developed risk assessment and its components reflect the disaster management cycle (disaster time line) and cover the early warning as well as the emergency response phase. Consequently the components hazard assessment, exposure (e.g. how many people/ critical facilities are affected?), susceptibility (e.g. are the people able to receive a tsunami warning?), coping capacity (are the people able to evacuate in time?) and recovery (are the people able to restore their livelihoods?) are addressed and quantified. Thereby the risk assessment encompasses three steps: (i) identifying the nature, location, intensity and probability of potential tsunami threats (hazard assessment); (ii) determining the existence and degree of exposure and susceptibility to those threats; and (iii) identifying the coping capacities and resources available to address or manage these threats. The paper presents results of the research work, which is conducted in the framework of the GITEWS project and the Joint Indonesian-German Working Group on Risk Modelling and Vulnerability Assessment. The assessment methodology applied follows a people-centred approach to deliver relevant risk and vulnerability information for the purposes of early warning and disaster management. The analyses are considering the entire coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and Bali facing the Sunda trench. Selected results and products like risk maps, guidelines, decision support

  7. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention. (United States)

    Schreiner, Pamela J


    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals. Physical activity increases have more consistently been linked with dog ownership, although whether this reflects antecedent motivation or direct benefit from the dog is unclear. Allergies and asthma also are variably linked to pet ownership and are confounded by family history of atopy and timing of exposure to pet dander. The benefits of companion animals are most likely to be through reduction in depression, anxiety, and social isolation, but these studies have been largely cross-sectional and may depend on degree of bonding of the owner with the animal. Positive relationships show measurably higher oxytocin with lower cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Finally, pet ownership is also a marker of better socioeconomic status and family stability, and if companion animals are to provide cardiovascular risk benefit, the route should perhaps be through improved education and opportunity for ownership.

  8. Asthma in Children: Risk Factors, Clinical Features and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Balci


    Full Text Available Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. It is known that asthma prevalence has increased significantly especially in children in last 20 years. To stop this increase in asthma, causes and prevention measures should be known better. For the management of the illness, control of environmental and trigger factors causing asthma attack are extremely important. Asthmatic children and family should be informed by health staff about changes in their life and measures to prevent the attacks. Through this information asthmatic children and their families can be supported for a better quality of life. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 79-86

  9. Fall risk and incidence reduction in high risk individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized control trial. (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Moon, Yaejin; Wajda, Douglas A; Finlayson, Marcia L; McAuley, Edward; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W


    To determine the feasibility of three fall prevention programs delivered over 12 weeks among individuals with multiple sclerosis: (A) a home-based exercise program targeting physiological risk factors; (B) an educational program targeting behavioral risk factors; and (C) a combined exercise-and-education program targeting both factors. Randomized controlled trial. Home-based training with assessments at research laboratory. A total of 103 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 37 individuals with multiple sclerosis who had fallen in the last year and ranged in age from 45-75 years volunteered for the investigation. A total of 34 participants completed postassessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned into one of four conditions: (1) wait-list control (n = 9); (2) home-based exercise (n = 11); (3) education (n = 9); or (4) a combined exercise and education (n = 8) group. Before and after the 12-week interventions, participants underwent a fall risk assessment as determined by the physiological profile assessment and provided information on their fall prevention behaviors as indexed by the Falls Prevention Strategy Survey. Participants completed falls diaries during the three-months postintervention. A total of 34 participants completed postintervention testing. Procedures and processes were found to be feasible. Overall, fall risk scores were lower in the exercise groups (1.15 SD 1.31) compared with the non-exercise groups (2.04 SD 1.04) following the intervention (p fall prevention behaviors (p > 0.05). Further examination of home-based exercise/education programs for reducing falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted. A total of 108 participants would be needed in a larger randomized controlled #NCT01956227. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  11. Risk score modeling of multiple gene to gene interactions using aggregated-multifactor dimensionality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Hongying


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR has been widely applied to detect gene-gene (GxG interactions associated with complex diseases. Existing MDR methods summarize disease risk by a dichotomous predisposing model (high-risk/low-risk from one optimal GxG interaction, which does not take the accumulated effects from multiple GxG interactions into account. Results We propose an Aggregated-Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (A-MDR method that exhaustively searches for and detects significant GxG interactions to generate an epistasis enriched gene network. An aggregated epistasis enriched risk score, which takes into account multiple GxG interactions simultaneously, replaces the dichotomous predisposing risk variable and provides higher resolution in the quantification of disease susceptibility. We evaluate this new A-MDR approach in a broad range of simulations. Also, we present the results of an application of the A-MDR method to a data set derived from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis patients treated with methotrexate (MTX that revealed several GxG interactions in the folate pathway that were associated with treatment response. The epistasis enriched risk score that pooled information from 82 significant GxG interactions distinguished MTX responders from non-responders with 82% accuracy. Conclusions The proposed A-MDR is innovative in the MDR framework to investigate aggregated effects among GxG interactions. New measures (pOR, pRR and pChi are proposed to detect multiple GxG interactions.

  12. Risk score modeling of multiple gene to gene interactions using aggregated-multifactor dimensionality reduction (United States)


    Background Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) has been widely applied to detect gene-gene (GxG) interactions associated with complex diseases. Existing MDR methods summarize disease risk by a dichotomous predisposing model (high-risk/low-risk) from one optimal GxG interaction, which does not take the accumulated effects from multiple GxG interactions into account. Results We propose an Aggregated-Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (A-MDR) method that exhaustively searches for and detects significant GxG interactions to generate an epistasis enriched gene network. An aggregated epistasis enriched risk score, which takes into account multiple GxG interactions simultaneously, replaces the dichotomous predisposing risk variable and provides higher resolution in the quantification of disease susceptibility. We evaluate this new A-MDR approach in a broad range of simulations. Also, we present the results of an application of the A-MDR method to a data set derived from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) that revealed several GxG interactions in the folate pathway that were associated with treatment response. The epistasis enriched risk score that pooled information from 82 significant GxG interactions distinguished MTX responders from non-responders with 82% accuracy. Conclusions The proposed A-MDR is innovative in the MDR framework to investigate aggregated effects among GxG interactions. New measures (pOR, pRR and pChi) are proposed to detect multiple GxG interactions. PMID:23294634

  13. Risk score modeling of multiple gene to gene interactions using aggregated-multifactor dimensionality reduction. (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Charnigo, Richard J; Becker, Mara L; Leeder, J Steven; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A


    Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) has been widely applied to detect gene-gene (GxG) interactions associated with complex diseases. Existing MDR methods summarize disease risk by a dichotomous predisposing model (high-risk/low-risk) from one optimal GxG interaction, which does not take the accumulated effects from multiple GxG interactions into account. We propose an Aggregated-Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (A-MDR) method that exhaustively searches for and detects significant GxG interactions to generate an epistasis enriched gene network. An aggregated epistasis enriched risk score, which takes into account multiple GxG interactions simultaneously, replaces the dichotomous predisposing risk variable and provides higher resolution in the quantification of disease susceptibility. We evaluate this new A-MDR approach in a broad range of simulations. Also, we present the results of an application of the A-MDR method to a data set derived from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) that revealed several GxG interactions in the folate pathway that were associated with treatment response. The epistasis enriched risk score that pooled information from 82 significant GxG interactions distinguished MTX responders from non-responders with 82% accuracy. The proposed A-MDR is innovative in the MDR framework to investigate aggregated effects among GxG interactions. New measures (pOR, pRR and pChi) are proposed to detect multiple GxG interactions.

  14. Scientific data as argument: The case of sexual partners reduction in HIV prevention in Brasil


    Dolores Galindo


    This article dicusses the use of scientific facts as argument for a 1999 Brazilian debate about the legitimacy of an official aids prevention policy. It seeks to defamiliarized a common aids argumentative practice which uses a classification of a scientific public health measure as a main legitimacy judgement. It is argued that it is peoples? negotiations and objects? mobilization that gives legitimacy to the implementation of a prevention estrategy ? acccording to a Social Psicology of scien...

  15. Anxiety sensitivity risk reduction in smokers: A randomized control trial examining effects on panic. (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Raines, Amanda M; Allan, Nicholas P; Zvolensky, Michael J


    Empirical evidence has identified several risk factors for panic psychopathology, including smoking and anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related sensations). Smokers with elevated AS are therefore a particularly vulnerable population for panic. Yet, there is little knowledge about how to reduce risk of panic among high AS smokers. The present study prospectively evaluated panic outcomes within the context of a controlled randomized risk reduction program for smokers. Participants (N = 526) included current smokers who all received a state-of-the-art smoking cessation intervention with approximately half randomized to the AS reduction intervention termed Panic-smoking Program (PSP). The primary hypotheses focus on examining the effects of a PSP on panic symptoms in the context of this vulnerable population. Consistent with prediction, there was a significant effect of treatment condition on AS, such that individuals in the PSP condition, compared to those in the control condition, demonstrated greater decreases in AS throughout treatment and the follow-up period. In addition, PSP treatment resulted in lower rates of panic-related symptomatology. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that reductions in AS resulted in lower panic symptoms. The present study provides the first empirical evidence that brief, targeted psychoeducational interventions can mitigate panic risk among smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers. (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Semple, Shirley J; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L


    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.

  17. Reducing the Risk: Building Skills To Prevent Pregnancy. (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.

    This teacher's guide focuses on ways to prevent teenage pregnancy by teaching and practicing the interpersonal skills necessary to help teenagers abstain or utilize effective contraception methods. The practice in this carefully-tested, 15-lesson curriculum comes in the form of role plays, class discussions, and homework assignments that focus on…

  18. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  19. Primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease in the community (PREVENTS): Methodology of a health wellness coaching intervention to reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Mahon, Susan; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Vandal, Alain; Witt, Emma; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parmar, Priya; Theadom, Alice; Barber, Alan; Arroll, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Elder, Hinemoa; Dyer, Jesse; Feigin, Valery


    Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice of primary stroke prevention are inadequate. Behavioral interventions are emerging as highly promising strategies to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. Health Wellness Coaching is an innovative, patient-focused and cost-effective, multidimensional psychological intervention designed to motivate participants to adhere to recommended medication and lifestyle changes and has been shown to improve health and enhance well-being. Aims and/or hypothesis To determine the effectiveness of Health Wellness Coaching for primary stroke prevention in an ethnically diverse sample including Māori, Pacific Island, New Zealand European and Asian participants. Design A parallel, prospective, randomized, open-treatment, single-blinded end-point trial. Participants include 320 adults with absolute five-year cardiovascular disease risk ≥ 10%, calculated using the PREDICT web-based clinical tool. Randomization will be to Health Wellness Coaching or usual care groups. Participants randomized to Health Wellness Coaching will receive 15 coaching sessions over nine months. Study outcomes A substantial relative risk reduction of five-year cardiovascular disease risk at nine months post-randomization, which is defined as 10% relative risk reduction among those at moderate five-year cardiovascular disease risk (10-15%) and 25% among those at high risk (>15%). Discussion This clinical trial will determine whether Health Wellness Coaching is an effective intervention for reducing modifiable risk factors, and hence decrease the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

  20. Schizophrenia--A High-Risk Factor for Suicides: Clues to Risk Reduction. (United States)

    Caldwell, Constance B.; Gottesman, Irving I.


    Notes that suicide is chief cause of premature death among schizophrenic persons, with lifetime incidence of suicide for patients with schizophrenia at 10-13% compared to general population estimate of 1%. Discusses salient risk factors for suicide in schizophrenics and types of especially vulnerable patients identified by research. Notes that…

  1. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, O.P.; Alfonso, H.; Pirkis, J; Kerse, N.; Sim, M.; Flicker, L.; Snowdon, J.; Draper, B.; Byrne, G.; Goldney, R.; Lautenschlager, N.T.; Stocks, N.; Scazufca, M.; Huisman, M.; Araya, R.; Pfaff, J.


    Background: Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors

  2. Behavioral Risk Factor Data: Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other...

  3. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu


    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  4. [The allergic risk of transgenic foods strategy for prevention]. (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D-A


    A significant number of allergens arise from foods. The allergic risk of transgenic foods must be evaluated in accordance with the recommendations of the Joint Expert Committee FAO/WHO. Potential issues are the risk of cross reactivity with existing allergens, the modification of allergenicity of the transgenic protein induced by a modified metabolism in the host, the modified allergenicity of the proteins of the transgenic plant, a potential neo-allergenicity of the transgenic protein, and the risk of dissemination through pollens, inducing a respiratory sensitization then a cross food allergy. The algorithm includes three steps for evaluation: first the search for significant homology of the protein with allergens listed in allergen databanks, or the identity of a sequence of six aminoacids with known epitopes, then a cross reactivity explored through the binding to IgEs from patients allergic to the source of the gene, or allergic to organisms of the same group or botanical family, and finally the extent of the pepsine resistance. The risk of immunogenicity has to be studied with appropriate animal models. A post-marketing surveillance is recommended for monitoring of adverse effects. The structure of an Allergo-Vigilance Network, the tools for efficiency and the groups at higher risk will be discussed. The potential risk of transgenic foods to be allergenic cannot be overlooked, not ignoring the fact that current technologies modify allergenicity of foods.

  5. Polygenic Risk Score Identifies Subgroup With Higher Burden of Atherosclerosis and Greater Relative Benefit From Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention Setting. (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Young, Robin; Stitziel, Nathan O; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha; Fuster, Valentin; Reilly, Dermot F; Butterworth, Adam; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Kathiresan, Sekar


    Relative risk reduction with statin therapy has been consistent across nearly all subgroups studied to date. However, in analyses of 2 randomized controlled primary prevention trials (ASCOT [Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm] and JUPITER [Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin]), statin therapy led to a greater relative risk reduction among a subgroup at high genetic risk. Here, we aimed to confirm this observation in a third primary prevention randomized controlled trial. In addition, we assessed whether those at high genetic risk had a greater burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We studied participants from a randomized controlled trial of primary prevention with statin therapy (WOSCOPS [West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study]; n=4910) and 2 observational cohort studies (CARDIA [Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults] and BioImage; n=1154 and 4392, respectively). For each participant, we calculated a polygenic risk score derived from up to 57 common DNA sequence variants previously associated with coronary heart disease. We compared the relative efficacy of statin therapy in those at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic risk score) versus all others (WOSCOPS), as well as the association between the polygenic risk score and coronary artery calcification (CARDIA) and carotid artery plaque burden (BioImage). Among WOSCOPS trial participants at high genetic risk, statin therapy was associated with a relative risk reduction of 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-60; P statin therapy was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.1) among those in the high genetic risk group and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6-1.9) in all others. Each 1-SD increase in the polygenic risk score was associated with 1.32-fold (95% CI, 1.04-1.68) greater likelihood of having coronary artery calcification and 9.7% higher (95% CI, 2.2-17.8) burden of carotid plaque. Those at high genetic risk have a greater

  6. Ketamine for Treatment of Suicidal Ideation and Reduction of Risk for Suicidal Behavior. (United States)

    Mallick, Faryal; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B


    Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist with efficacy as a rapid anti-depressant, has early evidence for action to reduce suicidal ideation. This review will explore several important questions that arise from these studies. First, how do we measure reductions in suicidal ideation that occur over minutes to hours? Second, are the reductions in suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment solely a result of its rapid anti-depressant effect? Third, is ketamine only effective in reducing suicidal ideation in patients with mood disorders? Fourth, could ketamine's action lead us to a greater understanding of the neurobiology of suicidal processes? Last, do the reductions in depression and suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment translate into decreased risk for suicidal behavior? Our review concludes that ketamine treatment can be seen as a double-edged sword, clinically to help provide treatment for acutely suicidal patients and experimentally to explore the neurobiological nature of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

  7. Communication products for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario: Chapter K in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario (United States)

    Perry, Suzanne C.


    Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR), like its predecessor the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, has a mission to increase the use of science by decision-makers of all kinds. Thus, an important part of any SAFRR scenario is development of products that enhance usability of the science. In this tsunami scenario, the focus has been on development of three kinds of products: products that augment typical outputs of scientific studies, such as reports, to make the results of the scenario more relevant and usable to nonscientists; products that distill local impacts and allow users in specific locales to identify which aspects of the broad regional study apply to their local area; and

  8. Thermospheric Density Fluctuations Derived from the Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment Risk Reduction Mission (United States)

    Nicholas, A. C.; Budzien, S. A.; Healy, L.; Davis, M.


    The Atmospheric Neutral Density Experiment (ANDE) Risk Reduction flight was launched on Dec 9, 2006 and deployed into orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 21, 2006. The primary mission objective is to test the deployment mechanism from the Shuttle for the ANDE flight in mid 2009. Scientific objectives of the ANDE risk reduction flight include: monitor total neutral density along the orbit for improved orbit determination of resident space objects, monitor the spin rate and orientation of the spacecraft, and provide a test object for polarimetry studies. The two ANDERR spacecraft decayed on December 25, 2007 and May 21, 2008, atmospheric densities derived from observations of the ANDERR spacecraft will be presented and compared to atmospheric models and drivers.

  9. Semaglutide, reduction in HbA1c and the risk of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Bain, Stephen C; Leiter, Lawrence A


    were conducted. These included subgroup analyses to identify at-risk patients and a mediation analysis with initial change in HbA1c (percentage-points at Week 16) as a covariate, to examine the role of the magnitude of reduction in HbA1c as an intermediate factor on risk of DRC. RESULTS......: There was no imbalance in DR adverse events across the SUSTAIN 1-5 and Japanese trials. The majority of the effect with semaglutide versus placebo in SUSTAIN 6 may be attributed to the magnitude and rapidity of HbA1c reduction during the first 16 weeks of treatment in patients with pre-existing DR, poor glycaemic...

  10. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  11. Risk assessment in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N. Ofori


    Conclusions: In low-resource settings, the consistent use of simple tools like the WHO charts is recommended, as the benefit of a standard approach to screening outweighs the risk of missing an opportunity to prevent CVD.

  12. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E


    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  13. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji


    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  14. Scientific data as argument: The case of sexual partners reduction in HIV prevention in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo


    Full Text Available This article dicusses the use of scientific facts as argument for a 1999 Brazilian debate about the legitimacy of an official aids prevention policy. It seeks to defamiliarized a common aids argumentative practice which uses a classification of a scientific public health measure as a main legitimacy judgement. It is argued that it is peoples? negotiations and objects? mobilization that gives legitimacy to the implementation of a prevention estrategy ? acccording to a Social Psicology of science with a construcionist point of view.

  15. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns


    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and



    Amir S. GOHARDANI; Folke BJÖRK


    The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of...

  17. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development (United States)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya


    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  18. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program (United States)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian


    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  19. Public risk-reduction measures: cost-effectiveness from a global point-of-view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Motta Barros, E.B. da; Fleming, P.V.; Rosa, L.P.


    A review of systemic or global approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures is presented, and its advantages and limitations are discussed. The method is applied for problem of the cost-effectiveness of increasing the Angra 3 reactor containment wall thickness from 60cm to 180cm thick, in case of a direct commercial aircraft crash on it. (Author) [pt

  20. Prediction of fall risk reduction as measured by dynamic gait index in individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction. (United States)

    Hall, Courtney D; Schubert, Michael C; Herdman, Susan J


    To determine the effect of vestibular rehabilitation on reduction of fall risk in individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction and to identify those factors that predict fall risk reduction. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary referral center. Forty-seven patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction, aged 28 to 86 years, who were at risk for falls on initial assessment. All patients underwent vestibular rehabilitation including adaptation exercises, designed to improve gaze stability, and gait and balance exercises. Fall risk (Dynamic Gait Index), visual acuity during head movements (Dynamic Visual Acuity), and subjective complaints were measured initially, at 2-week intervals, and at completion of physical therapy. As a group, the patients had significantly reduced risk for falls (p older (> or = 65 yr) and younger (adults showed significant reductions in fall risk with vestibular rehabilitation (p older adults remained at risk for falls at discharge compared with young adults (45% versus 11%). Initial Dynamic Gait Index and Dynamic Visual Acuity scores predicted fall risk reduction in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction. A model was developed using initial Dynamic Gait Index and Dynamic Visual Acuity scores to predict fall risk reduction. Vestibular rehabilitation is effective in significantly reducing fall risk in individuals with unilateral vestibular deficit. The model predicts fall risk reduction